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    Proteolytic cleavage and loss of function of biologic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor in the mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Biancheri Paolo,Brezski Randall J,Di Sabatino Antonio,Greenplate Allison R,Soring Keri L,Corazza Gino R,Kok Klaartje B,Rovedatti Laura,Vossenkämper Anna,Ahmad Nadja,Snoek Susanne A,Vermeire Severine,Rutgeerts Paul,Jordan Robert E,MacDonald Thomas T Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Many patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fail to respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents such as infliximab and adalimumab, and etanercept is not effective for treatment of Crohn's disease. Activated matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and MMP12, which are increased in inflamed mucosa of patients with IBD, have a wide range of substrates, including IgG1. TNF-neutralizing agents act in inflamed tissues; we investigated the effects of MMP3, MMP12, and mucosal proteins from IBD patients on these drugs. METHODS:Biopsy specimens from inflamed colon of 8 patients with Crohn's disease and 8 patients with ulcerative colitis, and from normal colon of 8 healthy individuals (controls), were analyzed histologically, or homogenized and proteins were extracted. We also analyzed sera from 29 patients with active Crohn's disease and 33 patients with active ulcerative colitis who were candidates to receive infliximab treatment. Infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept were incubated with mucosal homogenates from patients with IBD or activated recombinant human MMP3 or MMP12 and analyzed on immunoblots or in luciferase reporter assays designed to measure TNF activity. IgG cleaved by MMP3 or MMP12 and antihinge autoantibodies against neo-epitopes on cleaved IgG were measured in sera from IBD patients who subsequently responded (clinical remission and complete mucosal healing) or did not respond to infliximab. RESULTS:MMP3 and MMP12 cleaved infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, releasing a 32-kilodalton Fc monomer. After MMP degradation, infliximab and adalimumab functioned as F(ab')2 fragments, whereas cleaved etanercept lost its ability to neutralize TNF. Proteins from the mucosa of patients with IBD reduced the integrity and function of infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept. TNF-neutralizing function was restored after incubation of the drugs with MMP inhibitors. Serum levels of endogenous IgG cleaved by MMP3 and MMP12, and antihinge autoantibodies against neo-epitopes of cleaved IgG, were higher in patients who did not respond to treatment vs responders. CONCLUSIONS:Proteolytic degradation may contribute to the nonresponsiveness of patients with IBD to anti-TNF agents. 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.07.002
    The association of tissue anti-TNF drug levels with serological and endoscopic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: the ATLAS study. Yarur Andres J,Jain Anjali,Sussman Daniel A,Barkin Jamie S,Quintero Maria A,Princen Fred,Kirkland Richard,Deshpande Amar R,Singh Sharat,Abreu Maria T Gut OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between serum and intestinal anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) levels, and their relationship to endoscopic disease activity and levels of TNF. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study of 30 patients receiving treatment with infliximab or adalimumab for Crohn's disease or UC. For each patient, a sample of serum was matched to tissue biopsies. Endoscopic and histological disease activity was recorded for each tissue sample. RESULTS:There was a significant positive correlation between anti-TNF in serum and tissue (r=0.3920, p=0.002), especially in uninflamed tissue (r=0.50, p<0.001), but not with those samples that had inflammation (r=0.19, p=0.54). Anti-TNF concentration in tissue correlated with degree of endoscopic inflammation, except for tissue with severe inflammation in which anti-TNF levels were again lower (mean normalised anti-TNF in tissue: uninflamed=0.93, mild=2.17, moderate=13.71, severe=2.2 inflammation (p=0.0042)). The ratio of anti-TNF-to-TNF in tissue was highest in uninflamed areas and lowest in severely inflamed areas. Patients with active mucosal disease had a higher rate of serum to tissue drug level mismatch when compared to those in remission (73.3% vs 33.3%, respectively; p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that local tissue inflammation characterised by high levels of TNF serves as a sink for anti-TNF. We further postulate that some patients with high serum anti-TNF levels have active disease because tissue levels of anti-TNF are insufficient to neutralise local TNF production. 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-308099
    Predictors of anti-TNF treatment failure in anti-TNF-naive patients with active luminal Crohn's disease: a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. Kennedy Nicholas A,Heap Graham A,Green Harry D,Hamilton Benjamin,Bewshea Claire,Walker Gareth J,Thomas Amanda,Nice Rachel,Perry Mandy H,Bouri Sonia,Chanchlani Neil,Heerasing Neel M,Hendy Peter,Lin Simeng,Gaya Daniel R,Cummings J R Fraser,Selinger Christian P,Lees Charlie W,Hart Ailsa L,Parkes Miles,Sebastian Shaji,Mansfield John C,Irving Peter M,Lindsay James,Russell Richard K,McDonald Timothy J,McGovern Dermot,Goodhand James R,Ahmad Tariq, The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology BACKGROUND:Anti-TNF drugs are effective treatments for the management of Crohn's disease but treatment failure is common. We aimed to identify clinical and pharmacokinetic factors that predict primary non-response at week 14 after starting treatment, non-remission at week 54, and adverse events leading to drug withdrawal. METHODS:The personalised anti-TNF therapy in Crohn's disease study (PANTS) is a prospective observational UK-wide study. We enrolled anti-TNF-naive patients (aged ≥6 years) with active luminal Crohn's disease at the time of first exposure to infliximab or adalimumab between March 7, 2013, and July 15, 2016. Patients were evaluated for 12 months or until drug withdrawal. Demographic data, smoking status, age at diagnosis, disease duration, location, and behaviour, previous medical and drug history, and previous Crohn's disease-related surgeries were recorded at baseline. At every visit, disease activity score, weight, therapy, and adverse events were recorded; drug and total anti-drug antibody concentrations were also measured. Treatment failure endpoints were primary non-response at week 14, non-remission at week 54, and adverse events leading to drug withdrawal. We used regression analyses to identify which factors were associated with treatment failure. FINDINGS:We enrolled 955 patients treated with infliximab (753 with originator; 202 with biosimilar) and 655 treated with adalimumab. Primary non-response occurred in 295 (23·8%, 95% CI 21·4-26·2) of 1241 patients who were assessable at week 14. Non-remission at week 54 occurred in 764 (63·1%, 60·3-65·8) of 1211 patients who were assessable, and adverse events curtailed treatment in 126 (7·8%, 6·6-9·2) of 1610 patients. In multivariable analysis, the only factor independently associated with primary non-response was low drug concentration at week 14 (infliximab: odds ratio 0·35 [95% CI 0·20-0·62], p=0·00038; adalimumab: 0·13 [0·06-0·28], p<0·0001); the optimal week 14 drug concentrations associated with remission at both week 14 and week 54 were 7 mg/L for infliximab and 12 mg/L for adalimumab. Continuing standard dosing regimens after primary non-response was rarely helpful; only 14 (12·4% [95% CI 6·9-19·9]) of 113 patients entered remission by week 54. Similarly, week 14 drug concentration was also independently associated with non-remission at week 54 (0·29 [0·16-0·52] for infliximab; 0·03 [0·01-0·12] for adalimumab; p<0·0001 for both). The proportion of patients who developed anti-drug antibodies (immunogenicity) was 62·8% (95% CI 59·0-66·3) for infliximab and 28·5% (24·0-32·7) for adalimumab. For both drugs, suboptimal week 14 drug concentrations predicted immunogenicity, and the development of anti-drug antibodies predicted subsequent low drug concentrations. Combination immunomodulator (thiopurine or methotrexate) therapy mitigated the risk of developing anti-drug antibodies (hazard ratio 0·39 [95% CI 0·32-0·46] for infliximab; 0·44 [0·31-0·64] for adalimumab; p<0·0001 for both). For infliximab, multivariable analysis of immunododulator use, and week 14 drug and anti-drug antibody concentrations showed an independent effect of immunomodulator use on week 54 non-remission (odds ratio 0·56 [95% CI 0·38-0·83], p=0·004). INTERPRETATION:Anti-TNF treatment failure is common and is predicted by low drug concentrations, mediated in part by immunogenicity. Clinical trials are required to investigate whether personalised induction regimens and treatment-to-target dose intensification improve outcomes. FUNDING:Guts UK, Crohn's and Colitis UK, Cure Crohn's Colitis, AbbVie, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Napp Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, and Celltrion. 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30012-3