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    Molecular therapy for acute myeloid leukaemia. Coombs Catherine C,Tallman Martin S,Levine Ross L Nature reviews. Clinical oncology Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease that is, in general, associated with a very poor prognosis. Multiple cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities that characterize different forms of AML have been used to better prognosticate patients and inform treatment decisions. Indeed, risk status in patients with this disease has classically been based on cytogenetic findings; however, additional molecular characteristics have been shown to inform risk assessment, including FLT3, NPM1, KIT, and CEBPA mutation status. Advances in sequencing technology have led to the discovery of novel somatic mutations in tissue samples from patients with AML, providing deeper insight into the mutational landscape of the disease. The majority of patients with AML (>97%) are found to have a clonal somatic abnormality on mutational profiling. Nevertheless, our understanding of the utility of mutation profiling in clinical practice remains incomplete and is continually evolving, and evidence-based approaches to application of these data are needed. In this Review, we discuss the evidence-base for integrating mutational data into treatment decisions for patients with AML, and propose novel therapeutic algorithms in the era of molecular medicine. 10.1038/nrclinonc.2015.210
    Association of Measurable Residual Disease With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Short Nicholas J,Zhou Shouhao,Fu Chenqi,Berry Donald A,Walter Roland B,Freeman Sylvie D,Hourigan Christopher S,Huang Xuelin,Nogueras Gonzalez Graciela,Hwang Hyunsoo,Qi Xinyue,Kantarjian Hagop,Ravandi Farhad JAMA oncology Importance:Measurable residual disease (MRD) refers to neoplastic cells that cannot be detected by standard cytomorphologic analysis. In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), determining the association of MRD with survival may improve prognostication and inform selection of efficient clinical trial end points. Objective:To examine the association between MRD status and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with AML using scientific literature. Data Sources:Clinical studies on AML published between January 1, 2000, and October 1, 2018, were identified via searches of PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE. Study Selection:Literature search and study screening were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Studies that assessed DFS or OS by MRD status in patients with AML were included. Reviews, non-English-language articles, and studies reporting only outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation or those with insufficient description of MRD information were excluded. Data Extraction and Synthesis:Study sample size, median patient age, median follow-up time, MRD detection method, MRD assessment time points, AML subtype, specimen source, and survival outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were performed separately for DFS and OS using bayesian hierarchical modeling. Main Outcomes and Measures:Meta-analyses of survival probabilities and hazard ratios (HRs) were conducted for OS and DFS according to MRD status. Results:Eighty-one publications reporting on 11 151 patients were included. The average HR for achieving MRD negativity was 0.36 (95% bayesian credible interval [CrI], 0.33-0.39) for OS and 0.37 (95% CrI, 0.34-0.40) for DFS. The estimated 5-year DFS was 64% for patients without MRD and 25% for those with MRD, and the estimated OS was 68% for patients without MRD and 34% for those with MRD. The association of MRD negativity with DFS and OS was significant for all subgroups, with the exception of MRD assessed by cytogenetics or fluorescent in situ hybridization. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that achievement of MRD negativity is associated with superior DFS and OS in patients with AML. The value of MRD negativity appears to be consistent across age groups, AML subtypes, time of MRD assessment, specimen source, and MRD detection methods. These results support MRD status as an end point that may allow for accelerated evaluation of novel therapies in AML. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4600
    GIMEMA AML1310 trial of risk-adapted, MRD-directed therapy for young adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Venditti Adriano,Piciocchi Alfonso,Candoni Anna,Melillo Lorella,Calafiore Valeria,Cairoli Roberto,de Fabritiis Paolo,Storti Gabriella,Salutari Prassede,Lanza Francesco,Martinelli Giovanni,Luppi Mario,Mazza Patrizio,Martelli Maria Paola,Cuneo Antonio,Albano Francesco,Fabbiano Francesco,Tafuri Agostino,Chierichini Anna,Tieghi Alessia,Fracchiolla Nicola Stefano,Capelli Debora,Foà Robin,Alati Caterina,La Sala Edoardo,Fazi Paola,Vignetti Marco,Maurillo Luca,Buccisano Francesco,Del Principe Maria Ilaria,Irno-Consalvo Maria,Ottone Tiziana,Lavorgna Serena,Voso Maria Teresa,Lo-Coco Francesco,Arcese William,Amadori Sergio Blood We designed a trial in which postremission therapy of young patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was decided combining cytogenetics/genetics and postconsolidation levels of minimal residual disease (MRD). After induction and consolidation, favorable-risk patients (FR) were to receive autologous stem cell transplant (AuSCT) and poor-risk patients (PR) allogeneic stem cell transplant (AlloSCT). Intermediate-risk patients (IR) were to receive AuSCT or AlloSCT depending on the postconsolidation levels of MRD. Three hundred sixty-one of 500 patients (72%) achieved a complete remission, 342/361 completed the consolidation phase and were treatment allocated: 165 (48%) to AlloSCT (122 PR, 43 IR MRD-positive) plus 23 rescued after salvage therapy, for a total of 188 candidates; 150 (44%) to AuSCT (115 FR, 35 IR MRD-negative) plus 27 IR patients (8%) with no leukemia-associated phenotype, for a total of 177 candidates. Overall, 110/177 (62%) and 130/188 (71%) AuSCT or AlloSCT candidates received it, respectively. Two-year overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of the whole series was 56% and 54%, respectively. Two-year OS and DFS were 74% and 61% in the FR category, 42% and 45% in the PR category, 79% and 61% in the IR MRD-negative category, and 70% and 67% in the IR MRD-positive category. In conclusion, AuSCT may still have a role in FR and IR MRD-negative categories. In the IR MRD-positive category, AlloSCT prolongs OS and DFS to equal those of the FR category. Using all the available sources of stem cells, AlloSCT was delivered to 71% of the candidates.This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01452646 and EudraCT as #2010-023809-36. 10.1182/blood.2018886960
    Immune-Based Therapies in Acute Leukemia. Witkowski Matthew T,Lasry Audrey,Carroll William L,Aifantis Iannis Trends in cancer Treatment resistance remains a leading cause of acute leukemia-related deaths. Thus, there is an unmet need to develop novel approaches to improve outcome. New immune-based therapies with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs), and immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) have emerged as effective treatment options for chemoresistant B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, many patients show resistance to these immune-based approaches. This review describes crucial lessons learned from immune-based approaches targeting high-risk B-ALL and AML, such as the leukemia-intrinsic (e.g., target antigen loss, tumor heterogeneity) and -extrinsic (e.g., immunosuppressive microenvironment) mechanisms that drive treatment resistance, and discusses alternative approaches to enhance the effectiveness of these immune-based treatment regimens. 10.1016/j.trecan.2019.07.009
    Ivosidenib induces deep durable remissions in patients with newly diagnosed IDH1-mutant acute myeloid leukemia. Roboz Gail J,DiNardo Courtney D,Stein Eytan M,de Botton Stéphane,Mims Alice S,Prince Gabrielle T,Altman Jessica K,Arellano Martha L,Donnellan Will,Erba Harry P,Mannis Gabriel N,Pollyea Daniel A,Stein Anthony S,Uy Geoffrey L,Watts Justin M,Fathi Amir T,Kantarjian Hagop M,Tallman Martin S,Choe Sung,Dai David,Fan Bin,Wang Hongfang,Zhang Vickie,Yen Katharine E,Kapsalis Stephanie M,Hickman Denice,Liu Hua,Agresta Samuel V,Wu Bin,Attar Eyal C,Stone Richard M Blood Ivosidenib (AG-120) is an oral, targeted agent that suppresses production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate via inhibition of the mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1; mIDH1) enzyme. From a phase 1 study of 258 patients with IDH1-mutant hematologic malignancies, we report results for 34 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ineligible for standard therapy who received 500 mg ivosidenib daily. Median age was 76.5 years, 26 patients (76%) had secondary AML, and 16 (47%) had received ≥1 hypomethylating agent for an antecedent hematologic disorder. The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhea (n = 18; 53%), fatigue (n = 16; 47%), nausea (n = 13; 38%), and decreased appetite (n = 12; 35%). Differentiation syndrome was reported in 6 patients (18%) (grade ≥3 in 3 [9%]) and did not require treatment discontinuation. Complete remission (CR) plus CR with partial hematologic recovery (CRh) rate was 42.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.5% to 60.8%); CR 30.3% (95% CI, 15.6% to 48.7%). Median durations of CR+CRh and CR were not reached, with 95% CI lower bounds of 4.6 and 4.2 months, respectively; 61.5% and 77.8% of patients remained in remission at 1 year. With median follow-up of 23.5 months (range, 0.6-40.9 months), median overall survival was 12.6 months (95% CI, 4.5-25.7). Of 21 transfusion-dependent patients (63.6%) at baseline, 9 (42.9%) became transfusion independent. IDH1 mutation clearance was seen in 9/14 patients achieving CR+CRh (5/10 CR; 4/4 CRh). Ivosidenib monotherapy was well-tolerated and induced durable remissions and transfusion independence in patients with newly diagnosed AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02074839. 10.1182/blood.2019002140
    Genetic biomarkers of drug resistance: A compass of prognosis and targeted therapy in acute myeloid leukemia. Long Luyao,Assaraf Yehuda G,Lei Zi-Ning,Peng Hongwei,Yang Lin,Chen Zhe-Sheng,Ren Simei Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly aggressive hematological malignancy with complex heterogenous genetic and biological nature. Thus, prognostic prediction and targeted therapies might contribute to better chemotherapeutic response. However, the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) markedly impedes chemotherapeutic efficacy and dictates poor prognosis. Therefore, prior evaluation of chemoresistance is of great importance in therapeutic decision making and prognosis. In recent years, preclinical studies on chemoresistance have unveiled a compendium of underlying molecular basis, which facilitated the development of targetable small molecules. Furthermore, routing genomic sequencing has identified various genomic aberrations driving cellular response during the course of therapeutic treatment through adaptive mechanisms of drug resistance, some of which serve as prognostic biomarkers in risk stratification. However, the underlying mechanisms of MDR have challenged the certainty of the prognostic significance of some mutations. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of MDR in therapeutic decision making and prognostic prediction in AML. We present an updated genetic landscape of the predominant mechanisms of drug resistance with novel targeted therapies and potential prognostic biomarkers from preclinical and clinical chemoresistance studies in AML. We particularly highlight the unfolded protein response (UPR) that has emerged as a critical regulatory pathway in chemoresistance of AML with promising therapeutic horizon. Futhermore, we outline the most prevalent mutations associated with mechanisms of chemoresistance and delineate the future directions to improve the current prognostic tools. The molecular analysis of chemoresistance integrated with genetic profiling will facilitate decision making towards personalized prognostic prediction and enhanced therapeutic efficacy. 10.1016/j.drup.2020.100703
    Advances in the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia: New Drugs and New Challenges. Short Nicholas J,Konopleva Marina,Kadia Tapan M,Borthakur Gautam,Ravandi Farhad,DiNardo Courtney D,Daver Naval Cancer discovery The therapeutic armamentarium of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has rapidly expanded in the past few years, driven largely by translational research into its genomic landscape and an improved understanding of mechanisms of resistance to conventional therapies. However, primary and secondary drug resistance remains a substantial problem for most patients. Research into the mechanisms of resistance to these new agents is informing the development of the next class of AML drugs and the design of combination regimens aimed at optimally exploiting therapeutic vulnerabilities, with the ultimate goal of eradicating all subclones of the disease and increasing cure rates in AML. SIGNIFICANCE: AML is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by a broad spectrum of molecular alterations that influence clinical outcomes and also provide potential targets for drug development. This review discusses the current and emerging therapeutic landscape of AML, highlighting novel classes of drugs and how our expanding knowledge of mechanisms of resistance are informing future therapies and providing new opportunities for effective combination strategies. 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1011
    Does time from diagnosis to treatment affect the prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia? Röllig Christoph,Kramer Michael,Schliemann Christoph,Mikesch Jan-Henrik,Steffen Björn,Krämer Alwin,Noppeney Richard,Schäfer-Eckart Kerstin,Krause Stefan W,Hänel Mathias,Herbst Regina,Kunzmann Volker,Einsele Hermann,Jost Edgar,Brümmendorf Tim H,Scholl Sebastian,Hochhaus Andreas,Neubauer Andreas,Sohlbach Kristina,Fransecky Lars,Kaufmann Martin,Niemann Dirk,Schaich Markus,Frickhofen Norbert,Kiani Alexander,Heits Frank,Krümpelmann Ulrich,Kaiser Ulrich,Kullmer Johannes,Wass Maxi,Stölzel Friedrich,von Bonin Malte,Middeke Jan Moritz,Thiede Christian,Schetelig Johannes,Berdel Wolfgang E,Ehninger Gerhard,Baldus Claudia D,Müller-Tidow Carsten,Platzbecker Uwe,Serve Hubert,Bornhäuser Martin Blood In fit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), immediate treatment start is recommended due to the poor prognosis of untreated acute leukemia. We explored the relationship between time from diagnosis to treatment start (TDT) and prognosis in a large real-world data set from the German Study Alliance Leukemia-Acute Myeloid Leukemia (SAL-AML) registry. All registered non-acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with intensive induction treatment and a minimum 12 months of follow-up were selected (n = 2263). We analyzed influence of TDT on remission, early death, and overall survival (OS) in univariable analyses for each day of treatment delay, in groups of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and >15 days of TDT, adjusted for influence of established prognostic variables on outcomes. Median TDT was 3 days (interquartile range, 2-7). Unadjusted 2-year OS rates, stratified by TDT of 0 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 15, and >15 days, were 51%, 48%, 44%, and 50% (P = .211). In multivariable Cox regression analysis accounting for established prognostic variables, the TDT hazard ratio as a continuous variable was 1.00 (P = .617). In OS analyses, separately stratified for age ≤60 and >60 years and for high vs lower initial white blood cell count, no significant differences between TDT groups were observed. Our study suggests that TDT is not related to survival. As stratification in intensive first-line AML treatment evolves, TDT data suggest that it may be a feasible approach to wait for genetic and other laboratory test results so that clinically stable patients are assigned the best available treatment option. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03188874. 10.1182/blood.2019004583
    Clonal hematopoiesis and measurable residual disease assessment in acute myeloid leukemia. Hasserjian Robert P,Steensma David P,Graubert Timothy A,Ebert Benjamin L Blood Current objectives regarding treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include achieving complete remission (CR) by clinicopathological criteria followed by interrogation for the presence of minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) by molecular genetic and/or flow cytometric techniques. Although advances in molecular genetic technologies have enabled highly sensitive detection of AML-associated mutations and translocations, determination of MRD is complicated by the fact that many treated patients have persistent clonal hematopoiesis (CH) that may not reflect residual AML. CH detected in AML patients in CR includes true residual or early recurrent AML, myelodysplastic syndrome or CH that is ancestral to the AML, and independent or newly emerging clones of uncertain leukemogenic potential. Although the presence of AML-related mutations has been shown to be a harbinger of relapse in multiple studies, the significance of other types of CH is less well understood. In patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), post-HCT clones can be donor-derived and in some cases engender a new myeloid neoplasm that is clonally unrelated to the recipient's original AML. In this article, we discuss the spectrum of CH that can be detected in treated AML patients, propose terminology to standardize nomenclature in this setting, and review clinical data and areas of uncertainty among the various types of posttreatment hematopoietic clones. 10.1182/blood.2019004770
    MicroRNAs: pivotal regulators in acute myeloid leukemia. Li Mingyu,Cui Xianglun,Guan Hongzai Annals of hematology MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that are 19-22 nucleotides in length and regulate a variety of biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. MicroRNA dysregulation disrupts normal biological processes, resulting in tumorigenesis. Acute myeloid leukemia is an invasive hematological malignancy characterized by the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of immature myeloid cells. Due to the low 5-year survival rate, there is an urgent need to discover novel diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. In recent years, microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in hematological malignancies by acting as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. MicroRNAs have the potential to be a breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. In this review, we summarize the biology of microRNAs and discuss the relationships between microRNA dysregulation and acute myeloid leukemia in the following aspects: signaling pathways, the abnormal biological behavior of acute myeloid leukemia cells, the clinical application of microRNAs and competing endogenous RNA regulatory networks. 10.1007/s00277-019-03887-5