Transcriptional regulation of fibroblast growth factor 21 expression.
Bae Kwi-Hyun,Kim Jung-Guk,Park Keun-Gyu
Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obesity and reduce FGF21 resistance. Despite many studies on the metabolic effects of FGF21, the transcriptional regulation of FGF21 gene expression remains controversial and is not fully understood. As the FGF21 transcription factor pathway is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, further investigation of FGF21 transcriptional regulation is required.
Biology of FGFRL1, the fifth fibroblast growth factor receptor.
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the most recently discovered member of the FGFR family. It contains three extracellular Ig-like domains similar to the classical FGFRs, but it lacks the protein tyrosine kinase domain and instead contains a short intracellular tail with a peculiar histidine-rich motif. The gene for FGFRL1 is found in all metazoans from sea anemone to mammals. FGFRL1 binds to FGF ligands and heparin with high affinity. It exerts a negative effect on cell proliferation, but a positive effect on cell differentiation. Mice with a targeted deletion of the Fgfrl1 gene die perinatally due to alterations in their diaphragm. These mice also show bilateral kidney agenesis, suggesting an essential role for Fgfrl1 in kidney development. A human patient with a frameshift mutation exhibits craniosynostosis, arguing for an additional role of FGFRL1 during bone formation. FGFRL1 contributes to the complexity of the FGF signaling system.
The use of fibroblast growth factor 23 testing in patients with kidney disease.
Smith Edward R
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
The emergence of fibroblast growth factor 23 as a potentially modifiable risk factor in CKD has led to growing interest in its measurement as a tool to assess patient risk and target therapy. This review discusses the analytical and clinical challenges faced in translating fibroblast growth factor 23 testing into routine practice. As for other bone mineral markers, agreement between commercial fibroblast growth factor 23 assays is poor, mainly because of differences in calibration, but also, these differences reflect the variable detection of hormone fragments. Direct comparison of readout from different assays is consequently limited and likely hampers setting uniform fibroblast growth factor 23-directed targets. Efforts are needed to standardize assay output to enhance clinical use. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is robustly associated with cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with CKD and adds value to risk assessments based on conventional risk factors. Compared with most other mineral markers, fibroblast growth factor 23 shows better intraindividual temporal stability, with minimal diurnal and week-to-week variability, but substantial interindividual variation, maximizing discriminative power for risk stratification. Conventional therapeutic interventions for the CKD-mineral bone disorder, such as dietary phosphate restriction and use of oral phosphate binders or calcimimetics, are associated with variable efficacy at modulating circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations, like they are for other mineral metabolites. Dual therapy with dietary phosphate restriction and noncalcium-based binder use achieves the most consistent fibroblast growth factor 23-lowering effect and seems best monitored using an intact assay. Additional studies are needed to evaluate whether strategies aimed at reducing levels or antagonizing its action have beneficial effects on clinical outcomes in CKD patients. Moreover, a better understanding of the mechanisms driving fibroblast growth factor 23 elevations in CKD is needed to inform the use of therapeutic interventions targeting fibroblast growth factor 23 excess. This evidence must be forthcoming to support the use of fibroblast growth factor 23 measurement and fibroblast growth factor 23-directed therapy in the clinic.
Anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 antibody therapy.
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The review is intended to provide an update on the expanding knowledge regarding diseases caused by the excess actions of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and also on the new therapeutic measures for these diseases, with an emphasis on the anti-FGF23 antibody. RECENT FINDINGS:FGF23 decreases serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. After the cloning of FGF23, several hypophosphatemic diseases, including tumor-induced osteomalacia and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR), were shown to be caused by excess actions of FGF23. In addition, recent studies indicated that mutations in the family with sequence similarity 20, member C (FAM20C), HRAS and NRAS genes, also caused FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. The inhibition of FGF23 production or activity is, theoretically, an ideal treatment for these hypophosphatemic diseases. The C-terminal fragment of FGF23, inhibitors of FGF receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and anti-FGF23 antibody were shown to inhibit FGF23 actions both in vitro and in vivo. A phase I clinical trial of anti-FGF23 antibody has shown that this antibody increases serum phosphate in patients with XLHR. SUMMARY:These recent findings confirm that FGF23 has a pivotal role in phosphate metabolism. The inhibition of FGF23 production or activity is promising as a new therapy for FGF23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. Further studies are clearly necessary to establish the clinical utility and long-term safety of these measures.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 in acute kidney injury.
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To review the emerging literature on changes in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI). RECENT FINDINGS:Studies suggest that FGF23 levels are elevated in patients with AKI and correlate with increased risk of death or need for dialysis in adults, or prolonged ventilation time and higher fluid gain in children. Animal studies have shown that the cause behind this FGF23 increase is multifactorial and includes increased production in bone and decreased clearance, but not vitamin D or parathyroid hormone (PTH) activated pathways. Interestingly, FGF23 levels are found to be mildly elevated even in hospitalized patients without kidney injury, although this observation may be limited to only c-terminal FGF23 fragments. The prognostic implications of an elevated FGF23 value in patients with AKI need to be confirmed in larger cohorts and evaluated for long-term outcomes such as the development of new chronic kidney disease (CKD) or CKD progression, as well as cardiovascular disease, similar to the studies of FGF23 in the prevalent CKD population. SUMMARY:FGF23 levels are elevated in patients with AKI and are associated with morbidity and mortality in small human studies. Mechanistic work in animals suggests that the elevation is independent of PTH or vitamin D signaling pathways. Much work remains to understand the physiology behind FGF23 elevation and the long-term effects of FGF23 in AKI.
Coupling fibroblast growth factor 23 production and cleavage: iron deficiency, rickets, and kidney disease.
Wolf Myles,White Kenneth E
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) cause the rare disorders of hypophosphatemic rickets and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite major advances in understanding FGF23 biology, fundamental aspects of FGF23 regulation in health and in CKD remain mostly unknown. RECENT FINDINGS:Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage, but affected individuals experience a waxing and waning course of phosphate wasting. This led to the discovery that iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. Unlike osteocytes in ADHR, normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with commensurately increased FGF23 cleavage to ensure that normal phosphate homeostasis is maintained in the event of iron deficiency. Simultaneous measurement of FGF23 by intact and C-terminal assays supported these breakthroughs by providing minimally invasive insight into FGF23 production and cleavage in bone. These findings also suggest a novel mechanism of FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient and demonstrate increased FGF23 production and decreased FGF23 cleavage, consistent with an acquired state that mimics the molecular pathophysiology of ADHR. SUMMARY:Iron deficiency stimulates FGF23 production, but normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with increased cleavage to maintain normal circulating levels of biologically active hormone. These findings uncover a second level of FGF23 regulation within osteocytes, failure of which culminates in elevated levels of biologically active FGF23 in ADHR and perhaps CKD.
The ins and outs of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling.
Coleman Stacey J,Bruce Charo,Chioni Athina-Myrto,Kocher Hemant M,Grose Richard P
Clinical science (London, England : 1979)
FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) signalling plays critical roles in embryogensis, adult physiology, tissue repair and many pathologies. Of particular interest over recent years, it has been implicated in a wide range of cancers, and concerted efforts are underway to target different aspects of FGFR signalling networks. A major focus has been identifying the canonical downstream signalling pathways in cancer cells, and these are now relatively well understood. In the present review, we focus on two distinct but emerging hot topics in FGF biology: its role in stromal cross-talk during cancer progression and the potential roles of FGFR signalling in the nucleus. These neglected areas are proving to be of great interest clinically and are intimately linked, at least in pancreatic cancer. The importance of the stroma in cancer is well accepted, both as a conduit/barrier for treatment and as a target in its own right. Nuclear receptors are less acknowledged as targets, largely due to historical scepticism as to their existence or importance. However, increasing evidence from across the receptor tyrosine kinase field is now strong enough to make the study of nuclear growth factor receptors a major area of interest.
Recent research on the growth plate: Advances in fibroblast growth factor signaling in growth plate development and disorders.
Xie Yangli,Zhou Siru,Chen Hangang,Du Xiaolan,Chen Lin
Journal of molecular endocrinology
Skeletons are formed through two distinct developmental actions, intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. During embryonic development, most bone is formed by endochondral ossification. The growth plate is the developmental center for endochondral ossification. Multiple signaling pathways participate in the regulation of endochondral ossification. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling has been found to play a vital role in the development and maintenance of growth plates. Missense mutations in FGFs and FGFRs can cause multiple genetic skeletal diseases with disordered endochondral ossification. Clarifying the molecular mechanisms of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in skeletal development and genetic skeletal diseases will have implications for the development of therapies for FGF-signaling-related skeletal dysplasias and growth plate injuries. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in elucidating the role of FGFs/FGFRs signaling in growth plate development, genetic skeletal disorders, and the promising therapies for those genetic skeletal diseases resulting from FGFs/FGFRs dysfunction. Finally, we also examine the potential important research in this field in the future.
Clinical practice. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23: a new hormone.
Alon Uri S
European journal of pediatrics
Until a decade ago, two main hormones were recognized as directly affecting phosphate homeostasis and, with that, bone metabolism: parathyroid hormone and 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D (calcitriol). It was only a decade ago that the third major player hormone was found, linking gut, bone, and kidney. The physiologic role of fibrinogen growth factor (FGF)23 is to maintain serum phosphate concentration within a narrow range. Secreted from osteocytes, it modulates kidney handling of phosphate reabsorption and calcitriol production. Genetic and acquired abnormalities in FGF23 structure and metabolism cause conditions of either hyper-FGF23-manifested by hypophosphatemia, low serum calcitriol, and rickets/osteomalacia-or hypo-FGF23, expressed by hyperphosphatemia, high serum calcitriol, and extra-skeletal calcifications. In patients with chronic renal failure, FGF23 levels increase as kidney functions deteriorate and are under investigation to learn if the hormone actually participates in the pathophysiology of the deranged bone and mineral metabolism typical for these patients and, if so, whether it might serve as a therapeutic target. This review addresses the physiology and pathophysiology of FGF23 and its clinical applications.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the pathogenesis of liver disease: a novel predictor and therapeutic target.
Liu Wen-Yue,Huang Sha,Shi Ke-Qing,Zhao Chen-Chen,Chen Li-Li,Braddock Martin,Chen Yong-Ping,Feng Wen-Ke,Zheng Ming-Hua
Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
INTRODUCTION:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is one of the FGF family members that is produced mainly by tissues with high metabolic activity such as liver, pancreas, muscle and adipose tissue. The major function of FGF21 is to improve insulin sensitivity, ameliorate hepatic steatosis and enhance energy expenditure. Recently, several studies have reported a correlation between FGF21 and liver disease with numerous cross-sectional studies demonstrating significant correlation. This review will focus on the role of FGF21 in the pathogenesis of liver disease and its potential role as a biomarker and a new target for therapeutic intervention. AREAS COVERED:This review discusses cross-sectional studies and underlying mechanisms of FGF21 as an endocrine hormone in several liver diseases. Two major theories of 'endoplasmic reticulum stress' and 'FGF21 resistance' in particular are explained. Moreover, early functional detection and pharmacological effect of FGF21 for liver disease are also described. EXPERT OPINION:FGF21 can be a promising treatment in liver disease. However, still several problems are needed to be answered. The most important are whether different liver disease share common underlying mechanisms and the pharmacological effect in human with limited studies. Further studies are needed to explain the underlying mechanisms and develop potential therapeutic effect for human liver disease.
Bone mineralization is regulated by signaling cross talk between molecular factors of local and systemic origin: the role of fibroblast growth factor 23.
Sapir-Koren Rony,Livshits Gregory
BioFactors (Oxford, England)
Body phosphate homeostasis is regulated by a hormonal counter-balanced intestine-bone-kidney axis. The major systemic hormones involved in this axis are parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23). FGF23, produced almost exclusively by the osteocytes, is a phosphaturic hormone that plays a major role in regulation of the bone remodeling process. Remodeling composite components, bone mineralization and resorption cycles create a continuous influx-efflux loop of the inorganic phosphate (Pi) through the skeleton. This "bone Pi loop," which is formed, is controlled by local and systemic factors according to phosphate homeostasis demands. Although FGF23 systemic actions in the kidney, and for the production of PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D are well established, its direct involvement in bone metabolism is currently poorly understood. This review presents the latest available evidence suggesting two aspects of FGF23 bone local activity: (a) Regulation of FGF23 production by both local and systemic factors. The suggested local factors include extracellular levels of Pi and pyrophosphate (PPi), (the Pi/PPi ratio), and another osteocyte-derived protein, sclerostin. In addition, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, synthesized locally by bone cells, may contribute to regulation of FGF23 production. The systemic control is achieved via PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D endocrine functions. (b) FGF23 acts as a local agent, directly affecting bone mineralization. We support the assumption that under balanced physiological conditions, sclerostin, by para- autocrine signaling, upregulates FGF23 production by the osteocyte. FGF23, in turn, acts as a mineralization inhibitor, by stimulating the generation of the major mineralization antagonist-PPi.
Therapeutic targeting of fibroblast growth factor receptors in gastric cancer.
Inokuchi Mikito,Fujimori Yoshitaka,Otsuki Sho,Sato Yuya,Nakagawa Masatoshi,Kojima Kazuyuki
Gastroenterology research and practice
Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have become standard therapy for HER2-positive GC. An inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 or MET has also produced promising results in patients with GC. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) play key roles in tumor growth via activated signaling pathways in GC. Genomic amplification of FGFR2 leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical relevance of FGFR in GC and examines FGFR as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models suggest that multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including FGFR inhibitor, suppress tumor cell proliferation and delay tumor progression. Several TKIs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatment for metastatic or unresectable GC harboring FGFR2 amplification.
Multiple roles of fibroblast growth factor 21 in metabolism.
Li L I,Tang Liling
Current pharmaceutical design
It is necessary to use more effective and safer therapies to treat the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. The evidence from several studies indicates that FGF21 which acts as an endocrine hormone can induce beneficial influence to metabolism without apparent adverse effects. Thus, the pharmacologic and physiologic actions of FGF21 play a key role in controlling substrate utilization and energy balance. Recently, the developments in the understanding of FGF21 have contributed to make FGF21 a viable and promising therapeutic agent. This review discusses the functions of FGF21 in the high-fat-diet response, the relationship between exercise and the expression of FGF21, the interaction between FGF21 and some important hormone, the potential of FGF21 pharmacology in human and the methods to prolong the half-life of FGF21. These perspectives about FGF21's therapeutic potential highlight the importance of this molecule which could be a novel and attractive drug for metabolism disorder.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 as a target for the therapy of renal cell carcinoma.
Tsimafeyeu Ilya,Bratslavsky Gennady
Dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in renal cell carcinoma is now well understood, and it is becoming increasingly likely that certain tumors become dependent on an activation of this pathway for their growth and survival. Dissecting the FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) pathway offers the hope of developing new therapeutic approaches that selectively target the FGF/FGFR axis in patients whose tumors are known to harbor FGF/FGFR dysregulation. In this review, we summarize the existing data on the role of FGFR1 in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma and discuss methodological issues for drug investigation in this setting.
The potential of fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling as a therapeutic target in tumor angiogenesis.
Ronca Roberto,Giacomini Arianna,Rusnati Marco,Presta Marco
Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
INTRODUCTION:Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are endowed with a potent pro-angiogenic activity. Activation of the FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) system occurs in a variety of human tumors. This may lead to neovascularization, supporting tumor progression and metastatic dissemination. Thus, a compelling biologic rationale exists for the development of anti-FGF/FGFR agents for the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in cancer therapy. AREAS COVERED:A comprehensive search on PubMed was performed to identify studies on the role of the FGF/FGFR system in angiogenesis. Endothelial FGFR signaling, the pro-angiogenic function of canonical FGFs, and their role in human tumors are described. In addition, experimental approaches aimed at the identification and characterization of nonselective and selective FGF/FGFR inhibitors and their evaluation in clinical trials are summarized. EXPERT OPINION:Different approaches can be envisaged to inhibit the FGF/FGFR system, a target for the development of 'two-compartment' anti-angiogenic/anti-tumor agents, including FGFR selective and nonselective small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, anti-FGFR antibodies, and FGF ligand traps. Further studies are required to define the correlation between tumor vascularization and activation of the FGF/FGFR system and for the identification of cancer patients more likely to benefit from anti-FGF/FGFR treatments. In addition, advantages and disadvantages about the use of selective versus non-selective FGF inhibitors remain to be elucidated.
Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) in the Regulation of Statural Growth.
Grunwald Tal,De Luca Francesco
Current pediatric reviews
In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the causative role of increased FGF21 expression in reduced GH action and impaired longitudinal bone growth. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 21 (FGF21) is a member of a subfamily of FGFs which lack the FGF heparin-binding domain. Thus, these FGFs can function as endocrine as well as paracrine factors. During fasting, increased expression of FGF21 induces gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis: as a result, FGF21 is considered a key regulator of the metabolic adaptation to fasting. In addition, recent evidence indicates that FGF21 may regulate longitudinal bone growth. It has been shown that transgenic mice overexpressing FGF21 exhibit reduced bone growth and hepatic Growth Hormone (GH) insensitivity. FGF21 knock-out mice exposed to chronic food restriction experience greater body and tibial growth than their food-restricted wild-type littermates, suggesting that the increased FGF21 expression in wild-type mice during undernutrition leads to reduced skeletal growth. The FGF21-mediated attenuation of bone growth appears to be secondary to reduced GH sensitivity, both systemically and locally in the long bones' growth plate. The effects of FGF21 on GH action are direct, and may result from the reduced translocation of GH receptors from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. Lastly, we discuss recent studies which have shown that FGF21 in infancy is inversely correlated with linear growth rate. In conclusion, all the evidence discussed in this review indicates that FGF21 may be an important negative regulator of mammalian growth.
Fibroblast Growth Factor-Inducible 14: Multiple Roles in Tumor Metastasis.
Wang X,Zeng Y,Ho D N,Yin J,Liu G,Chen X
Current molecular medicine
Metastasis, the main cause of mortality in cancer patients, is a complex process consisting of several sequential, interlinked, and highly-selective steps. Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) is one member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which is influential in controlling cell division, life, and death. The role of Fn14 in tumor metastasis regulation is slowly being unraveled, including roles in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton modulation, extracellular matrix degradation and inflammation. This review will focus on recent studies that demonstrate the involvement of Fn14 in tumor progression and will briefly describe various pathways of Fn14-regulated metastasis. Finally, future prospects will be discussed for the potential role of Fn14 as a predictive marker and therapeutic agent for tumor metastasis suppression.
Rationale for targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer.
André Fabrice,Cortés Javier
Breast cancer research and treatment
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is involved in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Given its role in the activation of critical signaling pathways, aberrant FGFR signaling has been implicated in multiple cancer types. A comprehensive search of PubMed and congress abstracts was conducted to identify reports on FGFR pathway components in breast cancer. In breast cancers, FGFR1 and FGFR4 gene amplification and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGFR2 and FGFR4 have been detected. Commonly, these FGFR aberrations and gene amplifications lead to increased FGFR signaling and have been linked with poor prognosis and resistance to breast cancer treatments. Here, we review the role of FGFR signaling and the impact of FGFR genetic amplifications/aberrations on breast tumors. In addition, we summarize the most recent preclinical and clinical data on FGFR-targeted therapies in breast cancer. Finally, we highlight the ongoing clinical trials of the FGFR-targeted agents dovitinib, AZD4547, lucitanib, BGJ398, and JNJ-42756493, which are selected for patients with FGFR pathway-amplified breast cancer. Aberrant FGFR pathway amplification may drive some breast cancers. Inhibition of FGFR signaling is being explored in the clinic, and data from these trials may refine our ability to select patients who would best respond to these treatments.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone mineralisation.
Guo Yu-Chen,Yuan Quan
International journal of oral science
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is mainly secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts in bone. The critical role of FGF23 in mineral ion homeostasis was first identified in human genetic and acquired rachitic diseases and has been further characterised in animal models. Recent studies have revealed that the levels of FGF23 increase significantly at the very early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may play a critical role in mineral ion disorders and bone metabolism in these patients. Our recent publications have also shown that FGF23 and its cofactor, Klotho, may play an independent role in directly regulating bone mineralisation instead of producing a systematic effect. In this review, we will discuss the new role of FGF23 in bone mineralisation and the pathophysiology of CKD-related bone disorders.
Sixteen years and counting: the current understanding of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) signaling in skeletal dysplasias.
Foldynova-Trantirkova Silvie,Wilcox William R,Krejci Pavel
In 1994, the field of bone biology was significantly advanced by the discovery that activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) account for the common genetic form of dwarfism in humans, achondroplasia (ACH). Other conditions soon followed, with the list of human disorders caused by FGFR3 mutations now reaching at least 10. An array of vastly different diagnoses is caused by similar mutations in FGFR3, including syndromes affecting skeletal development (hypochondroplasia [HCH], ACH, thanatophoric dysplasia [TD]), skin (epidermal nevi, seborrhaeic keratosis, acanthosis nigricans), and cancer (multiple myeloma [MM], prostate and bladder carcinoma, seminoma). Despite many years of research, several aspects of FGFR3 function in disease remain obscure or controversial. As FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasias are caused by growth attenuation of the cartilage, chondrocytes appear to be unique in their response to FGFR3 activation. However, the reasons why FGFR3 inhibits chondrocyte growth while causing excessive cellular proliferation in cancer are not clear. Likewise, the full spectrum of molecular events by which FGFR3 mediates its signaling is just beginning to emerge. This article describes the challenging journey to unravel the mechanisms of FGFR3 function in skeletal dysplasias, the extraordinary cellular manifestations of FGFR3 signaling in chondrocytes, and finally, the progress toward therapy for ACH and cancer.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 and the bone-vascular axis: lessons learned from animal studies.
Zoppellaro Giacomo,Faggin Elisabetta,Puato Massimo,Pauletto Paolo,Rattazzi Marcello
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Calcification of arteries and cardiac valves is observed commonly in dialysis patients and represents a major determinant of the heightened cardiovascular risk observed during chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Recent advances from clinical and basic science studies suggest that vascular calcification should be considered a systemic disease in which pathologic processes occurring in the bone and kidney contribute to calcium deposition in the vasculature. Among the factors potentially involved in the vascular-bone axis dysregulation associated with CKD, there now is increasing interest in the role of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). Increased FGF-23 plasma levels are observed with a decrease in kidney function and predict the risk of future cardiovascular mortality. However, clinical data are still unclear about whether a direct pathogenetic effect of FGF-23 on vascular/kidney/bone health exists. In the last few years, a series of basic science studies, performed using engineered mice, have contributed important pathophysiologic information about FGF-23 activities. This review summarizes findings from these studies and discusses the potential role of FGF-23 during the pathologic interplay between kidney, vessels, and bone in CKD.
Fibroblast growth factor 19-targeted therapies for the treatment of metabolic disease.
Rysz Jacek,Gluba-Brzózka Anna,Mikhailidis Dimitri P,Banach Maciej
Expert opinion on investigational drugs
INTRODUCTION:Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) belong to the FGF superfamily with diverse biological functions, including proliferation, cellular differentiation, wound repair, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. The ability to reduce liver fat content and concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol and plasma glucose, and to improve sensitivity and limit pro-lipogenic properties of insulin, makes FGF19 a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. FGF19 regulates bile acid biosynthesis in the bile duct, glucose metabolism and vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis, raises the metabolic rate, reduces body weight, and ameliorates diabetes in mice. The therapeutic potential of FGF19 to treat metabolic disorders has been widely studied in animal models, but currently there are no reports concerning its use in humans. AREAS COVERED:The following article highlights the metabolic effects and mechanism of action of FGF19. It also discusses the potential therapies that target FGF19. EXPERT OPINION:FGF19 is emerging as a new target for the therapy of metabolic disorders, including diabetes. The results obtained from animal models are promising. However, there is still much to be done before the translation of these effects into practice will be possible.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 fusions as a target for treating cholangiocarcinoma.
Borad Mitesh J,Gores Gregory J,Roberts Lewis R
Current opinion in gastroenterology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review will cover the role of the fibroblast growth factor pathway in the pathogenesis, targeted therapy potential and prognostic value in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies that have identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusions, prognostic implications of FGFR2 fusions, treatment strategies that target FGFR2 in CCA and future directions for understanding and targeting the FGFR2 pathway in this disease, will be discussed. SUMMARY:Understanding the role of the FGFR2 pathway as a disease pathogenetic mechanism and the ability to develop targeted therapies and diagnostics surrounding this concept are critical elements toward developing novel targeted approaches in CCA.
A nuclear odyssey: fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) as a regulator of nuclear homeostasis in the nervous system.
Förthmann Benjamin,Grothe Claudia,Claus Peter
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Nuclear localization of classical growth factors is a well-known phenomenon but still remains a molecular and cellular conundrum. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an excellent example of a protein which functions as an extracellular molecule involved in canonical receptor tyrosine kinase signaling as well as displaying intracellular functions. Paracrine and nuclear functions are two important sides of the same protein. FGF-2 is expressed in isoforms with different molecular weights from one mRNA species. In rodents, all of these isoforms become imported to the nucleus. In this review, we discuss structural and functional aspects of FGF-2 isoforms in the nervous system. The nuclear odyssey of FGF-2 is reflected by nuclear dynamics, localization to nuclear bodies such as nucleoli, binding to chromatin and engagement in various protein interactions. Recently discovered molecular partnerships of the isoforms shed light on their nuclear functions, thereby greatly extending our knowledge of the multifaceted functions of FGF-2.
The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway.
Ornitz David M,Itoh Nobuyuki
Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Developmental biology
The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Epidemiologic insights on the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 in cardiovascular disease.
Scialla Julia J
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis and rises as kidney function declines. Animal studies have demonstrated direct and indirect effects of FGF23 that may promote heart disease. Herein, we review the recent epidemiologic literature evaluating the relationship between FGF23 and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS:In observational prospective studies, higher FGF23 associates with a greater risk of incident cardiovascular disease including ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. These studies establish a temporal sequence of events over long-term follow-up that suggest a possible role of FGF23 in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. In most studies, risk is generally graded; however, in the largest study to date, higher FGF23 within the low-normal range was not associated with higher risk. In several recent studies higher FGF23 associated more strongly with the risk of congestive heart failure compared with atherosclerotic events, a finding consistent with surrogate endpoints and animal experiments. Currently, the utility of FGF23 as a predictive biomarker of cardiovascular risk is not established, and interventions to reduce FGF23 need to be studied to confirm its possible pathophysiologic role. SUMMARY:Higher FGF23 is associated with the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease, and perhaps most notably heart failure, in a growing number of studies. These findings bolster ongoing efforts to lower FGF23 using strategies to reduce phosphate intake and absorption.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in diabetes and its complications: A review from clinical perspective.
Liu Jian-Jun,Foo Joo Pin,Liu Sylvia,Lim Su Chi
Diabetes research and clinical practice
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been well-recognized as a metabolic hormone and a promising target for treatment of metabolic diseases. The level of endogenous FGF21 is elevated in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and progressively increased from patients with overt type 2 diabetes to those with micro- and macro-vascular complications, presumably as a compensation or response to the deterioration of metabolic imbalance. A few exploratory in vivo studies, including a recent clinical trial, showed that exogenous FGF21 mimetics targeting FGF21 signaling can attain beneficial metabolic effects not with-standing the already elevated ambient FGF21 levels. In addition, some clinically available pharmacologic agents such as fenofibrates and metformin may modulate energy and macronutrients metabolism by acting through FGF21. This review mainly focuses on the role of FGF21 in development, progression and treatment of type 2 diabetes from a clinical perspective.
Fibroblast growth factor signaling in the vasculature.
Yang Xuehui,Liaw Lucy,Prudovsky Igor,Brooks Peter C,Vary Calvin,Oxburgh Leif,Friesel Robert
Current atherosclerosis reports
Despite their discovery as angiogenic factors and mitogens for endothelial cells more than 30 years ago, much remains to be determined about the role of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors in vascular development, homeostasis, and disease. In vitro studies show that members of the FGF family stimulate growth, migration, and sprouting of endothelial cells, and growth, migration, and phenotypic plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells. Recent studies have revealed important roles for FGFs and their receptors in the regulation of endothelial cell sprouting and vascular homeostasis in vivo. Furthermore, recent work has revealed roles for FGFs in atherosclerosis, vascular calcification, and vascular dysfunction. The large number of FGFs and their receptors expressed in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells complicates these studies. In this review, we summarize recent studies in which new and unanticipated roles for FGFs and their receptors in the vasculature have been revealed.
Fibroblast growth factor signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Semrad Thomas J,Mack Philip C
Clinical lung cancer
Despite recent progress in the treatment on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), outcomes remain suboptimal. Treatment advances that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways highlight the need to understand the multiple convergent growth factor signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. Signaling through fibroblast growth factors (FGF), long recognized for its pro-angiogenic activity, has recently emerged as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis and progression of NSCLC through an autocrine signaling loop. In addition, this pathway may function as a mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR and anti-VEGF treatment. Clinical experience with FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibitors is mounting, and more specific inhibitors of this signaling pathway are in development. This review describes the structure of the FGF signaling pathway, delineates its dual roles in angiogenesis and proliferation in NSCLC, evaluates FGF ligand and receptor expression as prognostic biomarkers in NSCLC, and discusses the development of FGF pathway inhibitors for the treatment of lung malignancies.
Role of the fibroblast growth factor receptor axis in cholangiocarcinoma.
Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Advanced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly lethal disease with limited therapeutic options beyond cytotoxic chemotherapy. Molecular profiling of CCA has provided insights into the pathogenesis of this disease and identified potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) axis is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis. Aberrations in FGFR activity have been implicated in the development and progression of CCA and other malignancies, which has generated significant interest in exploring FGFR's therapeutic potential. FGFR2 fusion events are present in up to 17% of intrahepatic CCAs and appear to predict sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors even after progression on chemotherapy. These observations have led to a clinical trial evaluating FGFR inhibition in patients with CCA enriched for FGFR alterations. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the FGFR pathway in cholangiocarcinogenesis and ongoing work in developing FGFR-directed therapies as an antineoplastic strategy for CCA.
Fibroblast growth factor signaling in skeletal development and disease.
Ornitz David M,Marie Pierre J
Genes & development
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways are essential regulators of vertebrate skeletal development. FGF signaling regulates development of the limb bud and formation of the mesenchymal condensation and has key roles in regulating chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and bone and mineral homeostasis. This review updates our review on FGFs in skeletal development published in Genes & Development in 2002, examines progress made on understanding the functions of the FGF signaling pathway during critical stages of skeletogenesis, and explores the mechanisms by which mutations in FGF signaling molecules cause skeletal malformations in humans. Links between FGF signaling pathways and other interacting pathways that are critical for skeletal development and could be exploited to treat genetic diseases and repair bone are also explored.
Functions of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in cancer defined by novel translocations and mutations.
Gallo Leandro H,Nelson Katelyn N,Meyer April N,Donoghue Daniel J
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
The four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) within the family of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs) are critical for normal development but also play an enormous role in oncogenesis. Mutations and/or abnormal expression often lead to constitutive dimerization and kinase activation of FGFRs, and represent the primary mechanism for aberrant signaling. Sequencing of human tumors has revealed a plethora of somatic mutations in FGFRs that are frequently identical to germline mutations in developmental syndromes, and has also identified novel FGFR fusion proteins arising from chromosomal rearrangements that contribute to malignancy. This review details approximately 200 specific point mutations in FGFRs and 40 different fusion proteins created by translocations involving FGFRs that have been identified in human cancer. This review discusses the effects of these genetic alterations on downstream signaling cascades, and the challenge of drug resistance in cancer treatment with antagonists of FGFRs.
Role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in gestational diabetes mellitus: A mini-review.
Yuan Daniel,Wu Ben J,Henry Amanda,Rye Kerry-Anne,Ong Kwok Leung
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first diagnosis during pregnancy, but not to the level of being diagnostic for diabetes in a nonpregnant adult. In GDM, whole-body insulin-dependent glucose disposal decreases by 40%-60% which necessitates a 200%-250% increase in insulin secretion to maintain normoglycaemia. GDM develops when a pregnant woman does not produce sufficient insulin to compensate for the reduced glucose disposal. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is expressed predominantly in the liver, but also in other metabolically active tissues such as pancreas, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. In animals, FGF21 lowers blood glucose levels and inhibits glucagon secretion. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant morbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An elevated FGF21 level is also an independent predictor of T2DM. GDM and T2DM are proposed to have similar underlying pathophysiologies, raising the question of whether a similar relationship exists between FGF21 and GDM as it does with T2DM. There are a limited number of studies investigating FGF21 levels in patients with GDM. Moreover, recent clinical trials investigating the therapeutic potential of FGF21 have highlighted a major gap in our understanding of the biology of FGF21. This review evaluates what is currently known about FGF21 and GDM and highlights important gaps that warrant further research.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Klotho in AKI.
Christov Marta,Neyra Javier A,Gupta Sanjeev,Leaf David E
Seminars in nephrology
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with many of the same mineral metabolite abnormalities that are observed in chronic kidney disease. These include increased circulating levels of the osteocyte-derived, vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and decreased renal expression of klotho, the co-receptor for FGF23. Recent data have indicated that increased FGF23 and decreased klotho levels in the blood and urine could serve as novel predictive biomarkers of incident AKI, or as novel prognostic biomarkers of adverse outcomes in patients with established AKI. In addition, because FGF23 and klotho exert numerous classic as well as off-target effects on a variety of organ systems, targeting their dysregulation in AKI may represent a unique opportunity for therapeutic intervention. We review the pathophysiology, kinetics, and regulation of FGF23 and klotho in animal and human studies of AKI, and we discuss the challenges and opportunities involved in targeting FGF23 and klotho therapeutically.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 and Vertebrate Limb Development.
Jin Libo,Wu Jin,Bellusci Saverio,Zhang Jin-San
Frontiers in genetics
Early limb development requires fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-mediated coordination between growth and patterning to ensure the proper formation of a functional organ. The apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is a domain of thickened epithelium located at the distal edge of the limb bud that coordinates outgrowth along the proximodistal axis. Considerable amount of work has been done to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying induction, maintenance and regression of the AER. Fgf10, a paracrine Fgf that elicits its biological responses by activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (Fgfr2b), is crucial for governing proximal distal outgrowth as well as patterning and acts upstream of the known AER marker Fgf8. A transgenic mouse line allowing doxycycline-based inducible and ubiquitous expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b has been extensively used to identify the role of Fgfr2b ligands at different time points during development. Overexpression of soluble Fgfr2b (sFgfr2b) post-AER induction leads to irreversible loss of cellular β-catenin organization and decreased Fgf8 expression in the AER. A similar approach has been carried out pre-AER induction. The observed limb phenotype is similar to the severe proximal truncations observed in human babies exposed to thalidomide, which has been proposed to block the Fgf10-AER-Fgf8 feedback loop. Novel insights on the role of Fgf10 signaling in limb formation pre- and post-AER induction are summarized in this review and will be integrated with possible future investigations on the role of Fgf10 throughout limb development.
The Enterokine Fibroblast Growth Factor 15/19 in Bile Acid Metabolism.
Cariello Marica,Piglionica Marilidia,Gadaleta Raffaella Maria,Moschetta Antonio
Handbook of experimental pharmacology
The endocrine fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, play a key role in whole-body homeostasis. In particular, FGF19 is a postprandial hormone regulating glucose homeostasis, glycogen and protein synthesis, and primary bile acid (BA) metabolism. In the ileum, BA-dependent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation induces the production of FGF19, which reaches the liver through the portal system where it represses the expression of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme of hepatic de novo BAs synthesis. Dysregulation of BA levels associated with alteration in FGF19 level has been depicted in different pathological conditions of the gut-liver axis. Furthermore, FGF19 exploits strong anti-cholestatic and anti-fibrotic activities in the liver. However, native FGF19 seems to retain peculiar hepatic pro-tumorigenic actions. Recently engineered FGF19 analogues have been recently synthetized, with fully retained BA regulatory activity but without intrinsic pro-tumoral action, thus opening bona fide novel pharmacological strategy for the treatment of gut-liver axis diseases.
Impaired function of fibroblast growth factor 23 / Klotho protein axis in prediabetes and diabetes mellitus: Promising predictor of cardiovascular risk.
Berezin Alexander E,Berezin Alexander A
Diabetes & metabolic syndrome
The discovery of clear molecular mechanisms of early cardiac and vascular complications in patients with prediabetes and known diabetes mellitus are core element of stratification at risk with predictive model creation further. Previous clinical studies have shown a pivotal role of impaired signaling axis of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), FGF23 receptor isoforms and its co-factor Klotho protein in cardiovascular (CV) complications in prediabetes and diabetes. Although there were data received in clinical studies, which confirmed a causative role of altered function of FGF-23/Klotho protein axis in manifestation of CV disease in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the target therapy of these diseases directing on improvement of metabolic profiles, systemic and adipokine-relating inflammation by beneficial restoring of dysregulation in FGF-23/Klotho protein axis remain to be not fully clear. The aim of the review was to summarize findings regarding the role of impaired FGF-23/Klotho protein axis in developing CV complications in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has been elucidated that elevated levels of FGF-23 and deficiency of Klotho protein in peripheral blood are predictors of CV disease and CV outcomes in patients with (pre) diabetes, while predictive values of dynamic changes of the concentrations of these biomarkers require to be elucidated in detail in the future.
Fibroblast growth factor-2 enhancement of extinction recall depends on the success of within-session extinction training in rats: a re-analysis.
Graham Bronwyn M,Richardson Rick
RATIONALE:One approach to improving exposure therapy for anxiety disorders has focused on developing pharmacological adjuncts to enhance extinction, but these efforts have produced modest success in clinical trials. Understanding the factors that predict the efficacy of adjuncts will help to develop personalized treatments for anxiety. OBJECTIVES:We assessed whether individual differences in within-session extinction (fear reduction during extinction training) predict the extent to which the neurotrophin fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) enhances extinction recall in rats. METHODS:We re-analyzed data from five experiments that involved administering FGF2 immediately after extinction training; extinction recall was assessed the following day. RESULTS:Regression analyses revealed that fear responses at the end, but not the start, of extinction training predicted extinction recall in FGF2- but not vehicle-treated rats. Comparisons between FGF2- and vehicle-treated rats that exhibited better or worse extinction recall (determined by a median split in freezing during extinction recall) confirmed that FGF2-treated rats exhibiting better extinction recall had significantly lower freezing at the end of extinction training relative to FGF2-treated rats exhibiting poorer extinction recall. In contrast, vehicle-treated rats did not differ in within-session extinction based on their performance at extinction recall. Finally, even when classified as having poorer extinction recall, FGF2-treated rats had stronger extinction recall than vehicle-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that FGF2 may be most effective amongst rats that exhibit the lowest fear responses at the end of extinction training. Furthermore, FGF2 does not appear to exacerbate fear in rats that exhibit minimal fear reduction during extinction training.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 and α-Klotho co-dependent and independent functions.
Quarles L Darryl
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The current review examines what is known about the FGF-23/α-Klotho co-dependent and independent pathophysiological effects, and whether FGF-23 and/or α-Klotho are potential therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS:FGF-23 is a hormone derived mainly from bone, and α-Klotho is a transmembrane protein. Together they form a trimeric signaling complex with FGFRs in target tissues to mediate the physiological functions of FGF-23. Local and systemic factors control FGF-23 release from osteoblast/osteocytes in bone, and circulating FGF-23 activates FGFR/α-Klotho complexes in kidney proximal and distal renal tubules to regulate renal phosphate excretion, 1,25 (OH)2D metabolism, sodium and calcium reabsorption, and ACE2 and α-Klotho expression. The resulting bone-renal-cardiac-immune networks provide a new understanding of bone and mineral homeostasis, as well as identify other biological effects FGF-23. Direct FGF-23 activation of FGFRs in the absence of α-Klotho is proposed to mediate cardiotoxic and adverse innate immune effects of excess FGF-23, particularly in chronic kidney disease, but this FGF-23, α-Klotho-independent signaling is controversial. In addition, circulating soluble Klotho (sKl) released from the distal tubule by ectodomain shedding is proposed to have beneficial health effects independent of FGF-23. SUMMARY:Separation of FGF-23 and α-Klotho independent functions has been difficult in mammalian systems and understanding FGF-23/α-Klotho co-dependent and independent effects are incomplete. Antagonism of FGF-23 is important in treatment of hypophosphatemic disorders caused by excess FGF-23, but its role in chronic kidney disease is uncertain. Administration of recombinant sKl is an unproven therapeutic strategy that theoretically could improve the healt span and lifespan of patients with α-Klotho deficiency.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Targeting in Cancer: New Insights into Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies.
Lang Liwei,Teng Yong
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), a tyrosine kinase receptor for FGFs, is involved in diverse cellular processes, including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism, and bile acid biosynthesis. High activation of FGFR4 is strongly associated with the amplification of its specific ligand FGF19 in many types of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies, where it acts as an oncogene driving the cancer development and progression. Currently, the development and therapeutic evaluation of FGFR4-specific inhibitors, such as BLU9931 and H3B-6527, in animal models and cancer patients, are paving the way to suppress hyperactive FGFR4 signaling in cancer. This comprehensive review not only covers the recent discoveries in understanding FGFR4 regulation and function in cancer, but also reveals the therapeutic implications and applications regarding emerging anti-FGFR4 agents. Our aim is to pinpoint the potential of FGFR4 as a therapeutic target and identify new avenues for advancing future research in the field.
Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Associated with Subsequent Growth in a Cohort of Underweight Children in Bangladesh.
Arndt Michael B,Richardson Barbra A,Mahfuz Mustafa,Ahmed Tahmeed,Haque Rashidul,Gazi Md Amran,John-Stewart Grace C,Denno Donna M,Scarlett Jarrad M,Walson Judd L,
Current developments in nutrition
Background:Current nutritional intervention strategies have not proven effective in improving childhood ponderal and linear growth in underweight and stunted children. Novel markers are needed to classify children who are likely to respond to available interventions and to identify those requiring additional interventions. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that regulates metabolism and growth during periods of reduced protein intake, may be useful in this context. Objectives:We aimed to determine the associations between plasma FGF21 concentrations and subsequent growth, and the association between change in FGF21 concentrations and concurrent growth, in children receiving nutritional supplementation. Methods:A total of 120 children between ages 6 and 13 mo with weight-for-age score (WAZ) between -3 and -2 were enrolled from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children received 376-kcal feeding supplements daily for 5 mo and were followed for 5 additional mo. FGF21 was measured in plasma collected at enrollment and month 5. FGF21 values that fell above the 90th percentile of baseline concentrations (1056.5 pg/mL) were considered high. Linear regression was used to examine the association between baseline FGF21 status and 5-mo change in WAZ and length-for-age score (LAZ), and the association between 5-mo change in FGF21 and concurrent WAZ and LAZ change. Results:The median baseline FGF21 concentration was 241.4 pg/mL (IQR: 111.7, 451.3 pg/mL). On average, children with high baseline FGF21 gained 0.58 WAZ (95% CI: 0.28, 0.88) and 0.54 LAZ (95% CI: 0.23, 0.84) more during supplementation than those with low values. Change in FGF21 concentration during supplementation was negatively associated with change in WAZ (-0.48; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.29) and LAZ (-0.31; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.11). Conclusions:FGF21 may be a useful marker of growth faltering and may allow identification of children who are more or less likely to respond to nutritional supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02441426.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 (FGFR4) Selective Inhibitors as Hepatocellular Carcinoma Therapy: Advances and Prospects.
Lu Xiaoyun,Chen Hao,Patterson Adam V,Smaill Jeff B,Ding Ke
Journal of medicinal chemistry
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease with limited therapeutic options and a particularly poor prognosis. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been identified as an oncogenic driver for a subset of patients with HCC. FGFR4 is therefore a promising target for the treatment of HCC harboring aberrant FGF19-FGFR4 signaling, and several FGFR4 inhibitors have advanced to clinical trial. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in FGFR4 inhibitors, including the known pharmacophores, their binding mode, selectivity, and clinical implications, as well as the optimization strategy of introducing an acrylamide into a known pan-FGFR inhibitor targeting Cys552 of FGFR4 to provide selective covalent FGFR4 inhibitors.
Is fibroblast growth factor 23 a harbinger of mortality in CKD?
Stubbs Jason R,Egwuonwu Steve
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a novel hormone produced by bone with known functions to regulate urinary phosphate excretion, as well as vitamin D and PTH production. The discovery of this hormone roughly a decade ago has revolutionized the traditional theories regarding the mechanisms responsible for the mineral metabolism abnormalities that are commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease. Circulating FGF23 levels begin to rise in the early stages of kidney injury and become markedly elevated as kidney disease progresses. Recent reports have emerged which link these elevations in circulating FGF23 to multiple adverse outcomes. Most notably, a strong association between increments in FGF23 and cardiovascular pathology has been suggested in patients with both normal and abnormal renal function. Despite a growing body of evidence to suggest FGF23 as a contributor to morbidity and mortality in CKD, a cause-effect relationship for this association has not been established. This review highlights our current understanding of the regulation and function of FGF23 and examines the existing literature linking FGF23 with adverse outcomes.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in hereditary and neoplastic disease: biologic and clinical implications.
Helsten Teresa,Schwaederle Maria,Kurzrock Razelle
Cancer metastasis reviews
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) are transmembrane growth factor receptors with wide tissue distribution. FGF/FGFR signaling is involved in neoplastic behavior and also development, differentiation, growth, and survival. FGFR germline mutations (activating) can cause skeletal disorders, primarily dwarfism (generally mutations in FGFR3), and craniofacial malformation syndromes (usually mutations in FGFR1 and FGFR2); intriguingly, some of these activating FGFR mutations are also seen in human cancers. FGF/FGFR aberrations reported in cancers are mainly thought to be gain-of-function changes, and several cancers have high frequencies of FGFR alterations, including breast, bladder, or squamous cell carcinomas (lung and head and neck). FGF ligand aberrations (predominantly gene amplifications) are also frequently seen in cancers, in contrast to hereditary syndromes. There are several pharmacologic agents that have been or are being developed for inhibition of FGFR/FGF signaling. These include both highly selective inhibitors as well as multi-kinase inhibitors. Of note, only four agents (ponatinib, pazopanib, regorafenib, and recently lenvatinib) are FDA-approved for use in cancer, although the approval was not based on their activity against FGFR. Perturbations in the FGFR/FGF signaling are present in both inherited and malignant diseases. The development of potent inhibitors targeting FGF/FGFR may provide new tools against disorders caused by FGF/FGFR alterations.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: A New Dimension to Diseases of Calcium-Phosphorus Metabolism.
Hardcastle M R,Dittmer K E
Traditionally, control of phosphorus in the body has been considered secondary to the tighter control of calcium by parathyroid hormone and vitamin D. However, over the past decade, substantial advances have been made in understanding the control of phosphorus by the so-called phosphatonin system, the lynchpin of which is fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 binds to the klotho/FGFR1c receptor complex in renal tubular epithelial cells, leading to upregulation of Na/Pi cotransporters and subsequent excretion of phosphorus from the body. In addition, FGF23 inhibits parathyroid hormone and the renal 1α-hydroxylase enzyme, while it stimulates 24-hydroxylase, leading to decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FGF23 is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, particularly the hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets group and chronic kidney disease, and is a target for the development of new treatments in human medicine. Little work has been done on FGF23 or the other phosphatonins in veterinary medicine, but increases in FGF23 are seen with chronic kidney disease in cats, and increased FGF23 expression has been found in soft tissue sarcomas in dogs.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors as treatment targets in clinical oncology.
Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
FGFRs are receptor tyrosine kinases with a role in several biological processes, such as the regulation of development and tissue repair. However, alterations in FGFRs 1-4, such as amplifications, fusions and mutations, as well as aberrant epigenetic or transcriptional regulation and changes in tumour-stromal interactions in the tumour microenvironment, can lead to the development and/or progression of cancer. Similar to other kinase alterations, such alterations are targetable using small molecules or antibodies, and the benefits of FGFR inhibitors have been demonstrated in clinical trials involving subsets of patients with solid tumours harbouring FGFR alterations. However, the response rates in patients with FGFR alterations were relatively low, and responses in patients without detectable FGFR alterations were also observed. In this Review, the author describes the clinical experience with FGFR inhibitors to date, and highlights key aspects that might lead to improved response rates and/or the avoidance of acquired resistance, including the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment, and the use of FGFR inhibitors in combination regimens with other agents.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 in chronic kidney disease.
Anuwatmatee Sahapab,Tang Shudi,Wu Ben J,Rye Kerry-Anne,Ong Kwok Leung
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
The association between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and kidney function has been extensively studied in recent years in both animal and human studies. However, the exact functional role of FGF21 in the kidney remains unclear. Previous animal studies have shown that administration of FGF21 ameliorates kidney function, morphological glomerular abnormalities, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and obesity. In human studies, FGF21 levels negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. FGF21 levels were elevated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The elevation of FGF21 levels in presence of kidney disease has also raised questions as to whether FGF21 is a potential biomarker for detecting a decline in renal function. In recent clinical trials, an FGF21 analogue reduced insulin levels and body weight, and ameliorated dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity, all of which are well-known risk factors for kidney disease. Thus, FGF21 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of kidney disease, although adverse side effects should also be considered when administering FGF21 since FGF21 may affect bone development and reproduction. This review will assess current knowledge on the relationship between FGF21 and kidney function.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and Browning of White Adipose Tissue.
Cuevas-Ramos Daniel,Mehta R,Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A
Frontiers in physiology
Interest has been focused on differentiating anatomical, molecular, and physiological characteristics of the types of mammalian adipose tissues. White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. WAT functions as an endocrine organ and serves as a reservoir of energy in the form of triglycerides. The hormones released by WAT are called adipokines. BAT consists of a group of specialized cells with abundant uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the inner mitochondrial membrane and also fulfills endocrine functions. Following the identification of functional (BAT) in human adults, there has been a great deal of interest in finding out how it is induced, its localization, and the mechanisms by which it regulates thermogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of the differentiation to brown adipocytes. The main mechanisms occur through enhancing UCP1 expression. In addition, following exposure to cold or exercise, FGF21 induces upregulation of local peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1-alfa and thus promotes thermogenesis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. FGF21 integrates several pathways allowing the regulation of human energy balance, glucose levels, and lipid metabolism. Such mechanisms and their clinical relevance are summarized in this review.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Family in the Progression of Prostate Cancer.
Teishima Jun,Hayashi Tetsutaro,Nagamatsu Hirotaka,Shoji Koichi,Shikuma Hiroyuki,Yamanaka Ryoken,Sekino Yohei,Goto Keisuke,Inoue Shogo,Matsubara Akio
Journal of clinical medicine
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) play an important role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and the development and differentiation of prostate tissue through epithelial-stromal interactions. Aberrations of this signaling are linked to the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The FGF family includes two subfamilies, paracrine FGFs and endocrine FGFs. Paracrine FGFs directly bind the extracellular domain of FGFRs and act as a growth factor through the activation of tyrosine kinase signaling. Endocrine FGFs have a low affinity of heparin/heparan sulfate and are easy to circulate in serum. Their biological function is exerted as both a growth factor binding FGFRs with co-receptors and as an endocrine molecule. Many studies have demonstrated the significance of these FGFs and FGFRs in the development and progression of PCa. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge regarding the role of FGFs and FGFRs-including paracrine FGFs, endocrine FGFs, and FGFRs-in the development and progression of PCa, focusing on the representative molecules in each subfamily.
Renal and extrarenal effects of fibroblast growth factor 23.
Nature reviews. Nephrology
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone with a central role in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. This regulation is accomplished by the coordinated modulation of renal phosphate handling, vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone secretion. Patients with kidney disease have increased circulating levels of FGF23 and in other patient populations and in healthy individuals, FGF23 levels also rise following an increase in dietary phosphate intake. Maladaptive increases in FGF23 have a detrimental effect on several organs and tissues and, importantly, these pathological changes most likely contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. For example, in the context of heart disease, FGF23 is involved in the development of pathological hypertrophy that can lead to congestive heart failure. Increased FGF23 concentrations can also lead to microcirculatory changes, in particular reduced vasodilatory capacity, and collectively these cardiovascular changes can compromise tissue perfusion. In addition, FGF23 is associated with inflammation and an increased risk of infection; other potentially detrimental effects of FGF23 are likely to emerge in the future. Most importantly, recent insights demonstrate that FGF23 can be therapeutically targeted, which holds promise for the treatment of many patients in a variety of clinical settings.
Rationale and Approaches to Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Reduction in CKD.
Isakova Tamara,Ix Joachim H,Sprague Stuart M,Raphael Kalani L,Fried Linda,Gassman Jennifer J,Raj Dominic,Cheung Alfred K,Kusek John W,Flessner Michael F,Wolf Myles,Block Geoffrey A
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
Patients with CKD often progress to ESRD and develop cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet available therapies only modestly improve clinical outcomes. Observational studies report independent associations between elevated serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels and risks of ESRD, CVD, and death. Phosphate excess induces arterial calcification, and although elevated FGF23 helps maintain serum phosphate levels in the normal range in CKD, it may contribute mechanistically to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Consistent epidemiologic and experimental findings suggest the need to test therapeutic approaches that lower phosphate and FGF23 in CKD. Dietary phosphate absorption is one modifiable determinant of serum phosphate and FGF23 levels. Limited data from pilot studies in patients with CKD stages 3-4 suggest that phosphate binders, low phosphate diets, or vitamin B3 derivatives, such as niacin or nicotinamide, may reduce dietary phosphate absorption and serum phosphate and FGF23 levels. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the deleterious systemic effects of phosphate and FGF23 excess, identifies questions that must be addressed before advancing to a full-scale clinical outcomes trial, and presents a novel therapeutic approach to lower serum phosphate and FGF23 levels that will be tested in the COMBINE Study: The CKD Optimal Management With BInders and NicotinamidE study.
Divergent fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways in lung fibroblast subsets: where do we go from here?
Ruiz-Camp Jordi,Morty Rory E
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology
Lung fibroblasts play a key role in postnatal lung development, namely, the formation of the alveolar gas exchange units, through the process of secondary septation. Although evidence initially highlighted roles for fibroblasts in the production and remodeling of the lung extracellular matrix, more recent studies have described the presence of different fibroblast subsets in the developing lung. These subsets include myofibroblasts and lipofibroblasts and their precursors. These cells are believed to play different roles in alveologenesis and are localized to different regions of the developing septa. The precise roles played by these different fibroblast subsets remain unclear. Understanding the signaling pathways that control the discrete functions of these fibroblast subsets would help to clarify the roles and the regulation of lung fibroblasts during lung development. Here, we critically evaluate a recent report that described divergent fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways in two different subsets of lung fibroblasts that express different levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α promoter. The GFP expression was used as a surrogate for lipofibroblasts (GFP(low)) and myofibroblasts (GFP(high)). It was suggested that Fgf10/Fgf1 and Fgf18/Fgfr3 autocrine pathways may be operative in GFP(low) and GFP(high) cells, respectively, and that these pathways might regulate the proliferation and migration of different fibroblast subsets during alveologenesis. These observations lay important groundwork for the further exploration of FGF function during normal lung development, as well as in aberrant lung development associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Analogs for Treating Metabolic Disorders.
Zhang Jun,Li Yang
Frontiers in endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a member of the endocrine FGF subfamily. FGF21 expression is induced under different disease conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, and it has a broad spectrum of functions in regulating various metabolic parameters. Many different approaches have been pursued targeting FGF21 and its receptors to develop therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes and other aspects of metabolic conditions. In this article, we summarize some of these key approaches and highlight the potential challenges in the development of these agents.
Exploitation of phage display for the development of anti-cancer agents targeting fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways: New strategies to tackle an old challenge.
Jafari Behzad,Hamzeh-Mivehroud Maryam,Morris Michael B,Dastmalchi Siavoush
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
A tumor is defined as a group of cancer cells and 'surrounding' stromal bio-entities. Alongside the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), the stromal cells play key roles in cancer affliction and progression. Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the area of the tumor, whether activated or not, dictate the future of tumor cells. The CAFs and corresponding secreted growth factors (GFs), which mediate the crosstalk within the TME, can be targeted in therapies directed at the stroma. The impact of the fibroblast growth factor-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-FGFR) signaling pathway in different kinds of tumors has been explored. Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and ligand traps targeting the formation of FGF-FGFR complex are in preclinical or early development phases. Moreover, there are numerous studies in the literature reporting the application of phage display technology for the development of peptides and proteins capable of functioning as FGF mimetics or traps, which are able to modulate FGF-related signaling pathways. In this review, prominent research in relation to phage display-assisted ligand identification for the FGF/FGFR system is discussed.
Effects of fibroblast growth factor 21 on the heart.
Tanajak Pongpan,Chattipakorn Siriporn C,Chattipakorn Nipon
The Journal of endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel polypeptide ligand that has been shown to be involved in several physiological and pathological processes including regulation of glucose and lipids as well as reduction of arteriosclerotic plaque formation in the great vessels. It has also been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, FGF21 protects the myocardium and great arteries by attenuating remodeling, inflammation, oxidative stress and also promoting the energy supply to the heart through fatty acid β-oxidation. This growing evidence emphasizes the important roles of FGF21 in cardioprotection. This review comprehensively summarizes and discusses the consistent and inconsistent findings regarding the beneficial effects of FGF21 on the heart available from both basic research and clinical reports. The details of the signaling, biological and pharmacological effects of FGF21 with regard to its protection of the heart are also presented and discussed in this review.
Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor pathway in breast cancer.
Criscitiello Carmen,Esposito Angela,De Placido Sabino,Curigliano Giuseppe
Current opinion in oncology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this manuscript is to critically review the literature published last year focusing on the rationale and potential role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors in breast cancer. RECENT FINDINGS:Substantial evidence indicates that aberrant FGFR signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. FGFR targeting has progressed in the last years due to the development of novel agents inhibiting FGF or FGFR. One of the most investigated FGFR inhibitors is lucitanib, which has shown clinical activity in breast cancer, especially in presence of FGF aberrations. Moving forward, the design and development of FGFR4 inhibitors and covalent FGFR inhibitors may overcome resistance to first-generation FGFR inhibitors. SUMMARY:Inhibition of FGFR signaling is under investigation in the treatment of breast cancer with increasing interest. Next steps will include the optimal selection of patients to be treated with this class of drugs and the development of new-generation FGFR inhibitors to face with the resistance issue.
The Startling Properties of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: How to Exit Mammalian Cells without a Signal Peptide at Hand.
La Venuta Giuseppe,Zeitler Marcel,Steringer Julia P,Müller Hans-Michael,Nickel Walter
The Journal of biological chemistry
For a long time, protein transport into the extracellular space was believed to strictly depend on signal peptide-mediated translocation into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. More recently, this view has been challenged, and the molecular mechanisms of unconventional secretory processes are beginning to emerge. Here, we focus on unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), a secretory mechanism that is based upon direct protein translocation across plasma membranes. Through a combination of genome-wide RNAi screening approaches and biochemical reconstitution experiments, the basic machinery of FGF2 secretion was identified and validated. This includes the integral membrane protein ATP1A1, the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), and Tec kinase, as well as membrane-proximal heparan sulfate proteoglycans on cell surfaces. Hallmarks of unconventional secretion of FGF2 are: (i) sequential molecular interactions with the inner leaflet along with Tec kinase-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of FGF2, (ii) PI(4,5)P2-dependent oligomerization and membrane pore formation, and (iii) extracellular trapping of FGF2 mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans on cell surfaces. Here, we discuss new developments regarding this process including the mechanism of FGF2 oligomerization during membrane pore formation, the functional role of ATP1A1 in FGF2 secretion, and the possibility that other proteins secreted by unconventional means make use of a similar mechanism to reach the extracellular space. Furthermore, given the prominent role of extracellular FGF2 in tumor-induced angiogenesis, we will discuss possibilities to develop highly specific inhibitors of FGF2 secretion, a novel approach that may yield lead compounds with a high potential to develop into anti-cancer drugs.
Cross-Talk between Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and Other Cell Surface Proteins.
Latko Marta,Czyrek Aleksandra,Porębska Natalia,Kucińska Marika,Otlewski Jacek,Zakrzewska Małgorzata,Opaliński Łukasz
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) constitute signaling circuits that transmit signals across the plasma membrane, regulating pivotal cellular processes like differentiation, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. The malfunction of FGFs/FGFRs signaling axis is observed in numerous developmental and metabolic disorders, and in various tumors. The large diversity of FGFs/FGFRs functions is attributed to a great complexity in the regulation of FGFs/FGFRs-dependent signaling cascades. The function of FGFRs is modulated at several levels, including gene expression, alternative splicing, posttranslational modifications, and protein trafficking. One of the emerging ways to adjust FGFRs activity is through formation of complexes with other integral proteins of the cell membrane. These proteins may act as coreceptors, modulating binding of FGFs to FGFRs and defining specificity of elicited cellular response. FGFRs may interact with other cell surface receptors, like G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The cross-talk between various receptors modulates the strength and specificity of intracellular signaling and cell fate. At the cell surface FGFRs can assemble into large complexes involving various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The interplay between FGFRs and CAMs affects cell-cell interaction and motility and is especially important for development of the central nervous system. This review summarizes current stage of knowledge about the regulation of FGFRs by the plasma membrane-embedded partner proteins and highlights the importance of FGFRs-containing membrane complexes in pathological conditions, including cancer.
Mechanisms of enterohepatic fibroblast growth factor 15/19 signaling in health and disease.
Jahn Daniel,Rau Monika,Hermanns Heike M,Geier Andreas
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
The gut-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19) is an emerging versatile regulator of various metabolic pathways. As such, FGF15/19 has been implicated in homeostatic control of bile acid, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in multiple target organs including the liver, adipose tissue and brain. In line with this, growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of FGF15/19 contributes to a number of metabolic and bile acid-associated disorders such as fatty liver disease, Type 2 diabetes and different gastrointestinal dysfunctions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the organ-specific functions of FGF15/19 and address their underlying molecular mechanisms. Moreover, recent advances in the characterization of factors that control the release of the hormone in the gut will be discussed and linked to the current view of how alterations of FGF15/19 signaling may contribute to disease development. Finally, the suitability of FGF15/19 as a potential therapeutic target will be critically reviewed.
The role of mutations and overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in bladder cancer.
Wang Q Y,Zhao Y,Zhang R
Bladder cancer (BC) is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Throughout the last decade, several studies demonstrated that the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is altered in a significant proportion of patients with BC. FGF receptor (FGFR) 3 may thus serve as a promising biomarker for BC. Mutations of this gene are prevalent in BC (e.g., found in 74% of non-invasive papillary tumours), suggesting that FGFR3 status is an important event in BC. The aim of this review was to overview the outcomes of different mutations in FGFR3 receptor in the context of BC. We first described FGFR3 receptor and continue with mutations of FGFR3 gene, including activating mutations and overexpression of this gene. Finally, we addressed the clinical relevance of mutated FGFR3 gene.
Fibroblast growth factor-21, energy balance and obesity.
Giralt Marta,Gavaldà-Navarro Aleix,Villarroya Francesc
Molecular and cellular endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is an endocrine member of the FGF family with healthy effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 reduces glycemia and lipidemia in rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition to its effects improving insulin sensitivity, FGF21 causes weight loss by increasing energy expenditure. Activation of the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue and promotion of the appearance of the so-called beige/brite type of brown adipocytes in white fat are considered the main mechanisms underlying the leaning effects of FGF21. Paradoxically, however, obesity in rodents and humans is characterized by high levels of FGF21 in the blood. Some degree of resistance to the actions of FGF21 has been proposed as part of the endocrine alterations in obesity. The resistance in adipose tissue from obese rodents and patients is likely attributable to abnormally low levels of the FGF co-receptor β-Klotho, required for FGF21 cellular action. However, native FGF21 and FGF21 derivatives retain their healthy metabolic and weight-loss effects when used as pharmacological agents to treat obese rodents and humans. FGF21 derivatives or molecules mimicking FGF21 action appear to be interesting candidates for the development of novel anti-obesity drugs designed to increase energy expenditure.
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptor/FGF Inhibitors: Novel Targets and Strategies for Optimization of Response of Solid Tumors.
Hierro Cinta,Rodon Jordi,Tabernero Josep
Seminars in oncology
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway plays a major role in several biological processes, from organogenesis to metabolism homeostasis and angiogenesis. Several aberrations, including gene amplifications, point mutations, and chromosomal translocations have been described across solid tumors. Most of these molecular alterations promote multiple steps of carcinogenesis in FGFR oncogene-addicted cells, increasing cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Data suggest that upregulation of FGFR signaling is a common event in many cancer types. The FGFR pathway thus arises as a potential promising target for cancer treatment. Several FGFR inhibitors are currently under development. Initial preclinical results have translated into limited successful clinical responses when first-generation, nonspecific FGFR inhibitors were evaluated in patients. The future development of selective and unselective FGFR inhibitors will rely on a better understanding of the tissue-specific role of FGFR signaling and identification of biomarkers to select those patients who will benefit the most from these drugs. Further studies are warranted to establish the predictive significance of the different FGFR-aberrations and to incorporate them into clinical algorithms, now that second-generation, selective FGFR inhibitors exist.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Skin Cancers.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling regulates various cellular processes during the embryonic development and in the adult organism. In the skin, fibroblasts and keratinocytes control proliferation and survival of melanocytes in a paracrine manner via several signaling molecules, including FGFs. FGF/FGFR signaling contributes to the skin surface expansion in childhood or during wound healing, and skin protection from UV light damage. Aberrant FGF/FGFR signaling has been implicated in many disorders, including cancer. In melanoma cells, the FGFR expression is low, probably because of the strong endogenous mutation-driven constitutive activation of the downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK-ERK) signaling pathway. FGFR1 is exceptional as it is expressed in the majority of melanomas at a high level. Melanoma cells that acquired the capacity to synthesize FGFs can influence the neighboring cells in the tumor niche, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, or other melanoma cells. In this way, FGF/FGFR signaling contributes to intratumoral angiogenesis, melanoma cell survival, and development of resistance to therapeutics. Therefore, inhibitors of aberrant FGF/FGFR signaling are considered as drugs in combination treatment. The ongoing LOGIC-2 phase II clinical trial aims to find out whether targeting the FGF/FGFR signaling pathway with BGJ398 may be a good therapeutic strategy in melanoma patients who develop resistance to v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF)/MEK inhibitors.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs): Structures and Small Molecule Inhibitors.
Dai Shuyan,Zhou Zhan,Chen Zhuchu,Xu Guangyu,Chen Yongheng
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases expressed on the cell membrane that play crucial roles in both developmental and adult cells. Dysregulation of FGFRs has been implicated in a wide variety of cancers, such as urothelial carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, ovarian cancer and lung adenocarcinoma. Due to their functional importance, FGFRs have been considered as promising drug targets for the therapy of various cancers. Multiple small molecule inhibitors targeting this family of kinases have been developed, and some of them are in clinical trials. Furthermore, the pan-FGFR inhibitor erdafitinib (JNJ-42756493) has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable urothelial carcinoma (mUC). This review summarizes the structure of FGFR, especially its kinase domain, and the development of small molecule FGFR inhibitors.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 in chronic kidney disease.
Suassuna Paulo Giovanni de Albuquerque,de Paula Rogério Baumgratz,Sanders-Pinheiro Hélady,Moe Orson W,Hu Ming-Chang
Journal of nephrology
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a member of the endocrine FGF family that acts as a metabolic regulator of both glucose and lipid metabolism. Similar to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), serum FGF21 levels rise progressively with the loss of renal function, reaching 20 times normal values in end-stage renal disease. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), higher serum FGF21 levels correlate with poorer metabolic profile, higher inflammatory markers, more comorbidities, and higher mortality. The high serum FGF21 levels are above and beyond what can be explained by the loss of FGF21 renal clearance, suggesting increased production and/or impaired non-renal clearance. In diabetic nephropathy, serum FGF21 levels correlate with the severity of albuminuria and faster loss of glomerular filtrate rate and can potentially be a biomarker of poor prognostic. The observational and associative human data contrast sharply with in vitro and in vivo preclinical experimental data, which is more in line with a protective role of FGF21 in chronic nephropathies. We here review the physiology of FGF21, and the literature regarding its behavior in CKD with particular focus on diabetic nephropathy. Finally, we speculate on the role of FGF21 in CKD.
Nuclear Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Development and Disease.
Tuzon Creighton T,Rigueur Diana,Merrill Amy E
Current osteoporosis reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation during development and homeostasis. While membrane-bound FGFRs play a central role in these processes, the function of nuclear FGFRs is also critical. Here, we highlight mechanisms for nuclear FGFR translocation and the effects of nuclear FGFRs on skeletal development and disease. RECENT FINDINGS:Full-length FGFRs, internalized by endocytosis, enter the nucleus through β-importin-dependent mechanisms that recognize the nuclear localization signal within FGFs. Alternatively, soluble FGFR intracellular fragments undergo nuclear translocation following their proteolytic release from the membrane. FGFRs enter the nucleus during the cellular transition between proliferation and differentiation. Once nuclear, FGFRs interact with chromatin remodelers to alter the epigenetic state and transcription of their target genes. Dysregulation of nuclear FGFR is linked to the etiology of congenital skeletal disorders and neoplastic transformation. Revealing the activities of nuclear FGFR will advance our understanding of 20 congenital skeletal disorders caused by FGFR mutations, as well as FGFR-related cancers.
Metabolic Messengers: fibroblast growth factor 15/19.
Gadaleta Raffaella Maria,Moschetta Antonio
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 in mice and its human orthologue FGF19 (together denoted FGF15/19) are gut hormones that control homeostasis of bile acids and glucose during the transition from the fed to the fasted state. Apart from its central role in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis, FGF15/19 is now recognized as a transversal metabolic coordinator at the crossroads of the gut, liver, brain and white adipose tissue. Dysregulation of FGF15/19 signalling may contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases affecting the gut-liver axis and to metabolic diseases. Here, we provide an overview of current knowledge of the physiological roles of the enterokine FGF15/19 and highlight commonalities and differences between the two orthologues. We also discuss the putative therapeutic potential in areas of unmet medical need-such has cholestatic liver diseases and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, for which FGF19 is being tested in ongoing clinical trials-as well as the possibility of using FGF19 for the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors: From the Oncogenic Pathway to Targeted Therapy.
Saichaemchan S,Ariyawutyakorn W,Varella-Garcia M
Current molecular medicine
The family of fibroblast growth factor (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) regulates vital roles in many biological processes affecting cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and survival. Deregulation of the FGF/FGFR signaling pathway in cancers has been better understood and the main molecular mechanisms responsible for the activation of this pathway are gene mutations, gene fusions and gene amplification. DNA and RNA-based technologies have been used to detect these abnormalities, especially in FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 and tests have been developed for their detection, but no assay has been proved ideal for molecular diagnosis. Interestingly, the increase in the molecular biology knowledge has supported and assisted the development of therapeutic drugs targeting the most important components of this pathway. Multi- and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as well as monoclonal antibodies anti-FGFR are under investigation in preclinical and clinical trials. In this article, we reviewed those aspects with special emphasis on the pathway genomic alterations related to solid tumors, and the molecular diagnostic assays potentially able to stratify patients for the treatment with FGFR TKIs.
Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.
Hu Mingming,Hu Ying,He Jiabei,Li Baolan
BACKGROUND:Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known to stimulate angiogenesis and thus to influence the proliferation, migration and survival of tumor cells. Many studies examined the relationship between human bFGF overexpression and survival in lung cancer patients, but the results have been mixed. To systematically summarize the clinical prognostic function of bFGF in lung cancer, we performed this systematic review with meta-analysis. METHOD:Studies were identified by an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases, including publications prior to August 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed by meta-analysis. RESULTS:Twenty-two studies (n = 2154) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Combined HR suggested that bFGF overexpression had an adverse impact on survival of patients with lung cancer(HR = 1.202,95%CI, 1.022-1.382). Our subgroup analysis revealed that the combined HR evaluating bFGF expression on OS in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was 1.553 (95%CI, 1.120-1.986); the combined HR in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was 1.667 (95%CI, 1.035-2.299). There was no significant impact of bFGF expression on survival in advanced NSCLC. CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis showed that bFGF overexpression is a potential indicator of worse prognosis for patients with operable NSCLC and SCLC, but is not associated with outcome in advanced NSCLC. The data suggests that high bFGF expression is highly related to poor prognosis. Nevertheless,more high-quality studies should be performed in order to provide additional evidence for the prognostic value of bFGF in lung cancer.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR): A New Target for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Therapy.
Biello Federica,Burrafato Giovanni,Rijavec Erika,Genova Carlo,Barletta Giulia,Truini Anna,Coco Simona,Bello Maria Giovanna Dal,Alama Angela,Boccardo Francesco,Grossi Francesco
Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry
Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) is a tirosine-kinase receptor that is seen to be amplified or mutated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and it plays a crucial role in tumour development and maintenance. The authors analyzed the state of the art of FGFR by reviewing the current literature. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-FGFR pathway and their aberrations are described, with the evaluation of their possible prognostic role in NSCLC and in particular in squamous cell carcinomas, in which FGFR is more often amplified. New therapeutic agents targeting FGFR signaling have been developed and are now in clinical evaluation. Dysregulation of FGF signaling in tumour cells is related to FGFR gene amplification or mutation, although it is still uncertain which of these aberrations represents a real predictor of response to specific inhibitors. However, recent evidence has questioned whether FGFR is a real target in squamous cell histology. The effectiveness of FGFR inhibitors is also still unclear since there are no clinical data on selected patients. Moreover, the management of specific side effects related to inhibition of the physiological role of FGF should be more thorough.
Fibroblast growth factor 21: an endocrine inhibitor of sugar and alcohol appetite.
von Holstein-Rathlou Stephanie,Gillum Matthew P
The Journal of physiology
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a liver-derived hormone with pleiotropic metabolic effects. Its production is induced by various dietary imbalances in mice (including low-protein and ketogenic diets, fructose feeding and ethanol), hinting that it might influence food preference given the role of the liver in maintaining homeostatic levels of circulating nutrients. In 2016, it was shown that FGF21 selectively inhibits consumption of sugars and the primary product of their fermentation, ethanol, but not intake of fat, protein or complex carbohydrates. Since then, studies have sought to unravel this selectivity, its physiological purpose and translational relevance, as well as delineate the neural mechanisms involved. Initially found to impact ingestive behaviours in mice and non-human primates, FGF21 is also induced in humans by sugars and, far more dramatically, by acute alcohol intake. Genetic studies have revealed that patterns of weekly candy and alcohol consumption are associated with genetic variants in FGF21 and its co-receptor β-klotho (KLB), suggesting that liking for sugar, and fermented sugar, may be influenced by natural variation in FGF21 signal strength in humans. Herein, we discuss our nascent understanding of FGF21 as a selective negative regulator of sugar and alcohol appetite as well as reasons why such a peculiar system may have evolved in mammals. Uncovering the regulatory network governing sugar, and fermented sugar, intake could provide new opportunities to improve dietary choices in a population suffering from Western diet-induced diseases fuelled in part by a runaway sweet - and alcohol - tooth.
Crosstalk between fibroblast growth factor 23, iron, erythropoietin, and inflammation in kidney disease.
Babitt Jodie L,Sitara Despina
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Recent research has revealed that regulation of the bone-secreted hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is not limited to classical mineral factors. Specifically, bidirectional relationships have been described between FGF23 production and anemia, iron status, and inflammation. Here, we will review the latest published articles on the crosstalk between FGF23 and the aforementioned nonclassical factors. RECENT FINDINGS:It has been recently reported that erythropoietin, iron deficiency, and inflammation increase FGF23 production and metabolism. Moreover, FGF23 promotes anemia and regulates inflammatory responses. These findings are particularly important in the setting of chronic kidney disease which is characterized by elevated FGF23 levels and several associated comorbidities. SUMMARY:Regulation of FGF23 is complex and involves many bone and renal factors. More recently, erythropoietin, iron deficiency, and inflammation have been also shown to affect FGF23 transcription and cleavage. Importantly, FGF23 has emerged as a regulator of erythropoiesis, iron metabolism, and inflammation. These findings provide novel and important insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of chronic kidney disease and may present new opportunities for therapeutic clinical interventions.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Functions in Glioblastoma.
Jimenez-Pascual Ana,Siebzehnrubl Florian A
Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain cancer in adults, with no known cure. This cancer is characterized by a pronounced genetic heterogeneity, but aberrant activation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is among the most frequent molecular alterations in glioblastoma. Somatic mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptors () are rare in these cancers, but many studies have documented that signaling through FGFRs impacts glioblastoma progression and patient survival. Small-molecule inhibitors of FGFR tyrosine kinases are currently being trialed, underlining the therapeutic potential of blocking this signaling pathway. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of the literature on FGFRs in glioblastoma is lacking. Here, we review the evidence for the biological functions of FGFRs in glioblastoma, as well as pharmacological approaches to targeting these receptors.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Protects against Atherosclerosis via Fine-Tuning the Multiorgan Crosstalk.
Jin Leigang,Lin Zhuofeng,Xu Aimin
Diabetes & metabolism journal
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic hormone with pleiotropic effects on energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Besides its antiobese and antidiabetic activity, FGF21 also possesses the protective effects against atherosclerosis. Circulating levels of FGF21 are elevated in patients with atherosclerosis, macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes, possibly due to a compensatory upregulation. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, formation of atherosclerotic plaques is exacerbated by genetic depletion of FGF21, but is attenuated upon replenishment with recombinant FGF21. However, the blood vessel is not the direct target of FGF21, and the antiatherosclerotic activity of FGF21 is attributed to its actions in adipose tissues and liver. In adipocytes, FGF21 promotes secretion of adiponectin, which in turn acts directly on blood vessels to reduce endothelial dysfunction, inhibit proliferation of smooth muscle cells and block conversion of macrophages to foam cells. Furthermore, FGF21 suppresses cholesterol biosynthesis and attenuates hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 in hepatocytes. The effects of FGF21 on elevation of adiponectin and reduction of hypercholesterolemia are also observed in a phase-1b clinical trial in patients with obesity and diabetes. Therefore, FGF21 exerts its protection against atherosclerosis by fine-tuning the interorgan crosstalk between liver, brain, adipose tissue, and blood vessels.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Family Members as Prognostic Biomarkers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.
Ipenburg Norbertus A,Koole Koos,Liem K Seng,van Kempen Pauline M W,Koole Ron,van Diest Paul J,van Es Robert J J,Willems Stefan M
BACKGROUND:Since head and neck cancer is characterized by poor survival rates, there is a demand for novel therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers. An upcoming therapeutic target is the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. However, their prognostic role in head and neck cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:To systematically review current evidence on the prognostic value of FGFR family members in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS:A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed for publications up to 14 May 2014. Two reviewers screened all articles and included prognostic studies on the molecular biomarkers FGFR1-5 in any type of HNSCC. Relevant studies were assessed on risk of bias using the Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool. Data on FGFR aberrations and survival outcome were extracted from relevant studies. The prognostic value of FGFR aberrations was compared among studies. RESULTS:The initial search yielded 1568 publications of which 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported FGFR1 gene amplification (9.3-17.4 %) and FGFR1 protein overexpression (11.8 %) in HNSCC. FGFR1 protein expression by cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated with poor survival outcome in one study (p < 0.01). Eight studies reported high rates of FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphisms (32.5-54.2 %) and FGFR4 protein overexpression (16-35 %), with varying correlations with survival. So far, no studies assessed the prognostic role of FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR5 in HNSCC. LIMITATIONS:Significant risk of bias has been identified among included studies. Therefore, cautious interpretation of the results is recommended. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, evidence was found for prognostic value of FGFR1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts in HNSCC. Prognostic evidence on the other FGFR family members in HNSCC is limited and conflicting. This emphasizes the need for future well-conducted prognostic studies.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling as therapeutic targets in gastric cancer.
Yashiro Masakazu,Matsuoka Tasuku
World journal of gastroenterology
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, from embryogenesis to adult tissue homeostasis. FGFR signaling also plays significant roles in the proliferation, invasion, and survival of several types of tumor cells. FGFR-induced alterations, including gene amplification, chromosomal translocation, and mutations, have been shown to be associated with the tumor initiation and progression of gastric cancer, especially in diffuse-type cancers. Therefore, the FGFR signaling pathway might be one of the therapeutic targets in gastric cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of FGFR signaling in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, proliferation, and chemoresistance. We also discuss the accumulating evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of using clinical therapeutic agents to inhibit FGFR signaling for the treatment of gastric cancer.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 2 in drug addiction.
Even-Chen Oren,Barak Segev
The European journal of neuroscience
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a member of the FGF-family, which consists of 22 members, with four known FGF receptors (five in humans). Over the last 30 years, FGF2 has been extensively studied for its role in cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, survival and angiogenesis during development, as well as for its role in adult neurogenesis and regenerative plasticity. Over the past decade, FGF2 has been implicated in learning and memory, as well as in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, stress, depression and drug addiction. In this review, we present accumulating evidence indicating the involvement of FGF2 in neuroadaptations caused by drugs of abuse, namely, amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol. Moreover, evidence suggests that FGF2 is a positive regulator of alcohol and drug-related behaviors. Thus, although additional studies are yet required, we suggest that reducing FGF2 activity may provide a novel therapeutic approach for substance use disorders.
Regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in health and disease.
Bär Ludmilla,Stournaras Christos,Lang Florian,Föller Michael
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is mainly produced in the bone and, upon secretion, forms a complex with a FGF receptor and coreceptor αKlotho. FGF23 can exert several endocrine functions, such as inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production. Moreover, it has paracrine activities on several cell types, including neutrophils and hepatocytes. Klotho and Fgf23 deficiencies result in pathologies otherwise encountered in age-associated diseases, mainly as a result of hyperphosphataemia-dependent calcification. FGF23 levels are also perturbed in the plasma of patients with several disorders, including kidney or cardiovascular diseases. Here, we review mechanisms controlling FGF23 production and discuss how FGF23 regulation is perturbed in disease.
The Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Inflammation and Anemia.
Czaya Brian,Faul Christian
International journal of molecular sciences
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), adverse outcomes such as systemic inflammation and anemia are contributing pathologies which increase the risks for cardiovascular mortality. Amongst these complications, abnormalities in mineral metabolism and the metabolic milieu are associated with chronic inflammation and iron dysregulation, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a risk factor in this context. FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that is essential for regulating vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis. In the early stages of CKD, serum FGF23 levels rise 1000-fold above normal values in an attempt to maintain normal phosphate levels. Despite this compensatory action, clinical CKD studies have demonstrated powerful and dose-dependent associations between FGF23 levels and higher risks for mortality. A prospective pathomechanism coupling elevated serum FGF23 levels with CKD-associated anemia and cardiovascular injury is its strong association with chronic inflammation. In this review, we will examine the current experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of FGF23 in renal physiology as well as in the pathophysiology of CKD with an emphasis on chronic inflammation and anemia.
Regulation of fibroblast growth factor 15/19 and 21 on metabolism: in the fed or fasted state.
Guan Dandan,Zhao Lidan,Chen Daiwen,Yu Bing,Yu Jie
Journal of translational medicine
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15/19 and FGF21 are two atypical members of FGF19 subfamily that function as hormones. Exogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 have pharmacological effects, and endogenous FGF15/19 and FGF21 play vital roles in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Recent reports have expanded the effects of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. However, the regulations of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on metabolism are different. FGF15/19 is mainly secreted from the small intestine in response to feeding, and FGF21 is secreted from the liver in response to extended fasting and from the liver and adipose tissue in response to feeding. In this work, we reviewed the regulatory effects of FGF15/19 and FGF21 on metabolism in the fast and fed states. This information may provide some insight into the metabolic regulation of FGF15/19 and FGF21 in different physiological condition.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 and the Adaptive Response to Nutritional Challenges.
Martínez-Garza Úrsula,Torres-Oteros Daniel,Yarritu-Gallego Alex,Marrero Pedro F,Haro Diego,Relat Joana
International journal of molecular sciences
The Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is considered an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related disorders due to its beneficial effects in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF21 response is essential under stressful conditions and its metabolic effects depend on the inducer factor or stress condition. FGF21 seems to be the key signal which communicates and coordinates the metabolic response to reverse different nutritional stresses and restores the metabolic homeostasis. This review is focused on describing individually the FGF21-dependent metabolic response activated by some of the most common nutritional challenges, the signal pathways triggering this response, and the impact of this response on global homeostasis. We consider that this is essential knowledge to identify the potential role of FGF21 in the onset and progression of some of the most prevalent metabolic pathologies and to understand the potential of FGF21 as a target for these diseases. After this review, we conclude that more research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the role of FGF21 in macronutrient preference and food intake behavior, but also in β-klotho regulation and the activity of the fibroblast activation protein (FAP) to uncover its therapeutic potential as a way to increase the FGF21 signaling.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 and phosphate homeostasis.
Balani Shanthi,Perwad Farzana
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The current review highlights recent advances in the area of renal tubular phosphate transport and its regulation by fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a potent regulator of phosphate homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies demonstrate that FGF23 binds to both membrane and soluble form of α-klotho to activate FGF receptor signaling pathways. Parathyroid hormone and FGF23 equivalently decrease sodium-dependent phosphate cotransport but the effect is not additive, suggesting a shared but not synergistic mechanism of action. Crosstalk occurs downstream of parathyroid hormone-receptor and FGF23-receptor signaling and converge at the level of the scaffolding protein, sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1. A novel mechanism for phosphate efflux through the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubular epithelia via an atypical G-protein coupled receptor, Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), was recently identified. Conditional deletion of Xpr1 gene in renal proximal tubules in mice leads to hypophosphatemic rickets and Fanconi syndrome establishing an important role for XPR1 in phosphate homeostasis. A novel anti-FGF23 antibody, burosumab, was recently approved to treat X-linked hypophosphatemia, a human disorder of FGF23 excess. SUMMARY:Significant advances in understanding the cellular and molecular aspects of renal tubular phosphate transport and its regulation by FGF23 has led to the discovery of novel therapeutics to treat human disorders of phosphate homeostasis.
Iron Infusion and Induced Hypophosphatemia: The Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23.
Coppolino Giuseppe,Nicotera Ramona,Cernaro Valeria,Calimeri Sebastiano,Leonardi Giuseppe,Cosentino Sonia,Comi Alessandro,Donato Cinzia,Lucia Citraro Maria,Provenzano Michele,Michael Ashour,Andreucci Michele
Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
The mechanism of action of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is becoming increasingly clearer as a result of studies that have defined its structure and pleiotropic effects. Furthermore, data are emerging on the effects exerted on this hormone by iron administration. Ten main iron formulations are recognized (with clear differences in composition and possible reactions of intolerance and anaphylaxis), which are indicated for iron deficiency anemia, including nephropathic subjects, as suggested by medical guidelines. With some types of iron formulation (especially iron carboxymaltose) a particular side effect has been observed: hypophosphatemia, mediated by FGF23. This review aims to draw attention to this correlation and the contradiction represented by the presence of both positive and negative modulation by FGF23, with the effects induced by its increase even after long-term treatment with iron formulation. However, more evidence is needed to understand the reasons for this differential stimulation.
Potential roles of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the brain.
Sa-Nguanmoo Piangkwan,Chattipakorn Nipon,Chattipakorn Siriporn C
Metabolic brain disease
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone, playing an important role in the regulation of metabolism. FGF21 is primarily expressed by several tissues, including liver, pancreas, thymus, heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and brain. In addition to the effects of FGF21 in lowering glucose and lipid levels, increasing insulin sensitivity and regulating energy homeostasis in rodents and non-human primate models of diabetes and obesity, previous reports have demonstrated that FGF21 also plays an important role in the brain involving it in potential effects in metabolic regulation, neuroprotection and cognition. In this review, the current available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo investigations regarding the roles of FGF21 and its function in the brain are comprehensively summarized. In addition, the mechanistic insights regarding the roles of FGF21 in the brain and its potential neuroprotective benefits are also presented and discussed.
Association between fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 gene polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in Chinese populations: A HuGE review and meta-analysis.
Yang Yong-Bin,Zhao Zhan-Xue,Huang Wei,Liu Hui,Tan Yan-Li,Wang Wei-Ming
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
AIM OF STUDY:To evaluate the effect of fibroblast growth factor receptor.2. (FGFR2) on genetic susceptibility for breast cancer. (BC) in Chinese populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A computerized literature search was carried out in PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Database. (CBM), and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. (CNKI) to collect relevant articles. Pooled odds ratio. (OR) and 95% confidence interval. (CI) were used to assess the strength of the associations. RESULTS:A total of 21 articles involving a total of 15 polymorphisms of the FGFR2 gene were included in the meta-analysis. Due to the limited studies for rs17102287, rs2981578, rs3135718, rs3803662, rs3750817, rsl0510097, rsl7542768, rs13387042, and rs1982073; we only pooled the six polymorphisms. (rs11200014, rs1219648, rs2420946, rs2912778, rs2981579, and rs2981582) into this meta. ANALYSIS:Overall, significantly increased BC risk was associated with five polymorphisms. (rs2981579, rs2981582, rs1219648, rs2420946, and rs2912778) when all studies were pooled into the meta. ANALYSIS:When stratified by ethnicity and source of controls, similar results were also detected. However, for rs2981579 no significant association was found among Chinese Han in all genetic models. CONCLUSION:Our meta-analysis suggests that FGFR2 is likely an important genetic marker contributing to susceptibility of BC. We recommend that these single nucleotide polymorphisms to be included in future association studies and functional assays.
The role of the fibroblast growth factor family in bone-related diseases.
Wang Jicheng,Liu Shizhang,Li Jingyuan,Yi Zhi
Chemical biology & drug design
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members are important regulators of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and regeneration. The abnormal expression of certain FGF family members can cause skeletal diseases, including achondroplasia, craniosynostosis syndrome, osteoarthritis, and Kashin-Beck disease. Accumulating evidence shows that FGFs play a crucial role in the growth and proliferation of bone and in the pathogenesis of certain bone-related diseases. Here, we review the involvement of FGFs in bone-related processes and diseases; FGF1 in the differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fracture repair; FGF2, FGF9, and FGF18 in osteoarthritis; FGF6 in bone and muscle injury; FGF8 in osteoarthritis and Kashin-Beck disease; and FGF21 and FGF23 on bone regulation. These findings indicate that FGFs are targets for novel therapeutic interventions for bone-related diseases.
Investigational fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 antagonists in early phase clinical trials to treat solid tumors.
Wang Dan,Yang Li,Yu Weina,Zhang Yi
Expert opinion on investigational drugs
: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a highly conserved transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. FGFR2 dysregulation occurs in numerous human solid tumors and overexpression is closely associated with tumor progression. FGFR2 has recently been reported as a therapeutic target for cancer. Several targeted therapies are being investigated to disrupt FGFR2 activity; these include multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), pan-FGFR targeted TKIs and FGFR2 monoclonal antibodies. : This review examines FGFR2 regulation and function in cancer and its potential as a target for cancer treatment. : Highly specific FGFR2 blockers have not yet been developed and moreover, resistance to FGFR2-targeted therapies is a challenge. More sophisticated patient selection strategies would help improve FGFR2-targeted therapies and combination therapy is considered the most promising approach for cancer patients with FGFR2 alterations.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 in lipid metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Su Xin,Kong Yi,Peng Daoquan
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in several developed countries, ranging from simple non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Currently, NAFLD has been confirmed to be associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and pre-diabetes, which are always grouped together as metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) plays an important role in liver pathophysiology with multiple metabolic functions. Accumulating evidence has shown that FGF21 could directly modulate lipid metabolism and reduce lipid accumulation in hepatocytes through an insulin-independent pathway, thus suppressing the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Furthermore, treatment with FGF21 could obviously reverse NAFLD and synergistically alleviate obesity and counteract insulin resistance. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of FGF21 and the evidence of FGF21 as an important regulator in hepatic lipid metabolism. The mechanisms by which FGF21 affects the pathogenesis of NAFLD would also be proposed for the further understanding of FGF21.
Targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor family in cancer.
Hallinan Niamh,Finn Stephen,Cuffe Sinead,Rafee Shereen,O'Byrne Kenneth,Gately Kathy
Cancer treatment reviews
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate a plethora of biological functions, in both the embryonic and adult stages of development, binding their cognate receptors and thus activating a variety of downstream signalling pathways. Deregulation of the FGF/FGFR signalling axis, observed in multifarious tumor types including squamous non-small cell lung cancer, occurs through genomic FGFR alterations that drive ligand-independent receptor signalling or alterations that support ligand-dependent activation. Mutations are not restricted to the tyrosine kinase domain and aberrations appear to be tumor type dependent. As well as its complementarity and synergy with VEGF of particular interest is the interplay between FGFR and EGFR and the ability of these pathways to offer a compensatory signalling escape mechanism when either is inhibited. Hence there exists a rationale for a combinatorial approach to inhibition of these dysregulated pathways to reverse drug resistance. To date, several multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitors as well as FGFR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), monoclonal antibodies and FGF ligand traps have been developed. Promising preclinical data has resulted in several drugs entering clinical trials. This review explores aberrant FGFR and its potential as a therapeutic target in solid tumors.
A review of fibroblast growth factor 21 in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Zhang Xiang,Yang Luo,Xu Xiongfeng,Tang Fengjuan,Yi Peng,Qiu Bo,Hao Yarong
Heart failure reviews
FGF21 (fibroblast growth factor 21) is a regulator of metabolism and performs an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism and the maintenance of energy balance. FGF21 is principally expressed in the liver, but it can also be found in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. It is known that levels of serum FGF21 are significantly elevated in obese, insulin-resistant patients, and those with metabolic syndrome. Elevated levels of FGF21 in serum during the early stages of various metabolic diseases are considered a compensatory response by the organism. Therefore, FGF21 is considered a hormone in response to stress and an early diagnostic marker of disease. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a special type of cardiac complication, characterized as a chronic myocardial disorder caused by diabetes. The pathological process includes increased oxidative stress, energy metabolism in myocardial cells, an inflammatory response, and myocardial cell apoptosis. A growing body of evidence suggests that FGF21 has the potential to be an effective drug for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Here, we review recent progress on the characteristics of FGF21 in its protective role, especially in pathological processes such as suppressing apoptosis in the myocardium, reducing inflammation in cardiomyocytes, reducing oxidative stress, and promoting fatty acid oxidation. In addition, we explore the possibility that diabetic cardiomyopathy can be delayed through the application of FGF21, providing possible therapeutic targets of the disease.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 - a key player in cardiovascular disorders?
Lenart-Lipińska Monika,Duma Dariusz,Hałabiś Magdalena,Dziedzic Marcin,Solski Janusz
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a newly discovered adipokine, synthesized by several organs, mostly by the liver, which was introduced as a potent metabolic regulator and insulin-sensitizing factor. Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that FGF21 improves glucose and lipids metabolism and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, data obtained from human studies have shown contradictory results, in which circulating FGF21 levels were often elevated in obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (DM2) and other conditions connected with insulin resistance. This increase in basal FGF21 concentrations observed in patients with obesity and other conditions related to insulin resistance was being explained as a compensatory response to the underlying metabolic disturbances or tissue resistance to FGF21 action. Furthermore, the results of clinical trials have shown that increased FGF21 concentrations were associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and had a prognostic value in CV outcomes. In recent years, it has been reported that FGF21 may exert cardioprotective effects. This mini-review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge about the role of FGF21 in CV disorders, and discuss the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-atherogenic properties of this compound.
[Fibroblast growth factor 23 in chronic kidney disease in children].
Okarska-Napierała Magdalena,Skrzypczyk Piotr,Pańczyk-Tomaszewska Małgorzata
Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Cardiovascular risk in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is many times higher compared to their healthy peers, and discovered in year 2000 fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) may be one of the factors responsible. FGF23 together with its cofactor, α-Klotho protein, plays a pivotal role in calcium-phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD by decreasing secretion of active metabolite of vitamin D and antagonizing phosphate resorption in renal tubules. Studies conducted in recent years revealed that FGF23 directly binds to its receptor on cardiomyocytes and promotes left ventricular hypertrophy. Clinical trials in children with CKD, similarly to adult studies, suggest a key role of this protein in development of calciumphosphorus disturbances. Single studies in small patient groups suggest also a significance of FGF23 in pathogenesis of cardiovascular alterations in this population. Further clinical trials investigating role of FGF23 in development of cardiovascular damage in larger groups of children are necessary, which may open new therapeutic options for these patients in future.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors: patent review (2015-2019).
Marseglia Giuseppe,Lodola Alessio,Mor Marco,Castelli Riccardo
Expert opinion on therapeutic patents
: fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are a family of tyrosine-kinase receptors whose signaling cascade regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Deregulation of the FGFR pathway is recognized as a driving factor in tumor development. On this basis, FGFR is an attractive target for anti-cancer small-molecule therapeutic agents.: This review summarizes patent and literature publications spanning from 2015 to 2019 pertaining to small-molecule FGFR kinase inhibitors.: The first generation of non-covalent FGFR inhibitors is characterized by a broad spectrum of activity and a relatively high toxicity profile. The second generation of FGFR inhibitors shows higher selectivity and a more favorable toxicity profile, but the clinical use appears restricted only to small subsets of cancers strongly dependent on FGFR signaling. Nevertheless, erdafitinib has been approved for the treatment of metastatic urothelial carcinoma, becoming the first marketed selective FGFR inhibitor. The insurgence of mutant kinases, resistant to available therapies, has led to the development of irreversible FGFR inhibitors. The adoption of safer and more selective covalent inhibitors might supersede reversible inhibitors in specific therapeutic areas. Alternative strategies, such as FGF trapping by protein or small-molecule therapeutics, deserve attention and further investigations to unravel their potential.
Modulation of energy balance by fibroblast growth factor 21.
Cuevas-Ramos Daniel,Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a superfamily of 22 proteins related to cell proliferation and tissue repair after injury. A subgroup of three proteins, FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, are major endocrine mediators. These three FGFs have low affinity to heparin sulfate during receptor binding; in contrast they have a strong interaction with the cofactor Klotho/β-Klotho. FGF21 has received particular attention because of its key role in carbohydrate, lipids, and energy balance regulation. FGF21 improves glucose and lipids metabolism as well as increasing energy expenditure in animal models and humans. Conditions that induce human physical stress such as exercise, lactation, obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes influence FGF21 circulating levels. FGF21 also has an anti-oxidant function in human metabolic diseases which contribute to understanding the FGF21 compensatory increment in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, energy expenditure and weight loss is induced by FGF21. The mechanism involved is through "browning" of white adipose tissue, increasing brown adipose tissue activity and heat production. Therefore, clinical evaluation of therapeutic action of exogenous FGF21 administration is warranted, particularly to treat diabetes and obesity.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Tucker Bradley,Li Huating,Long Xiaoxue,Rye Kerry-Anne,Ong Kwok Leung
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of pathologies ranging from uncomplicated hepatic fat accumulation to a state of lobular inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning, known as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers or effective therapeutic options established for NAFLD. Nevertheless, there are several molecular targets in the pipeline, of which fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is one. FGF21 is secreted primarily from liver and has a plethora of metabolic functions. Pre-clinical and epidemiological studies indicate a relationship between circulating FGF21 levels and hepatic fat content in both mice and humans. Moreover, animal studies have clearly shown that aberrant FGF21 signalling is a key pathological step in the development and progression of NAFLD. A recent Phase II clinical trial demonstrated that administration of an FGF21 analogue significantly reduced hepatic fat in subjects with NASH. As such, FGF21 provides a novel target for future biomarker and therapeutic studies. This review appraises preclinical data to outline the current understanding of FGF21 function in both normal hepatic function and NAFLD. Epidemiological evidence is explored to delineate the relationship between circulating FGF21 levels and NAFLD in humans. Finally, we review the therapeutic effects of FGF21 in the treatment of NAFLD.
The possible role of basic fibroblast growth factor in dental pulp.
Vaseenon Savitri,Chattipakorn Nipon,Chattipakorn Siriporn C
Archives of oral biology
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are growth factors that play an important role in tooth development, repair, and regeneration. Of the FGF families, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been the most frequently investigated in dentistry. Numerous studies have reported advantages of bFGF, while others did not find any additional benefit. This review gives a comprehensive summary of the potential role of bFGF in dental pulp wound healing and regeneration in connection with cell proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis, and neural differentiation from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, the possible underlying mechanisms associated with bFGF in promoting dental pulp wound healing are discussed in this review.
The role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of cancers including those of the urinary bladder.
The human fibroblast growth factor family consists of 22 factors and five transmembrane receptors. Of the 22 factors, eighteen are secreted while four of them function exclusively within the cell. Four of the fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) possess intracellular protein-tyrosine kinase activity while the fifth (FGFRL1) has a short 105-residue intracellular non-enzymatic component. The FGFR protein kinase domain consists of a bi-lobed structure that is similar to that of all other protein kinases. FGFR gene alterations occur in a wide variety of cancers including those of the urinary bladder, breast, ovary, prostate, endometrium, lung, and stomach. The majority (66 %) of FGFR gene alterations involve gene amplifications, followed by mutations (26 %), and rearrangements that produce fusion proteins (8 %). Erdafitinib was the first orally effective FGFR antagonist approved by the FDA (2019) for the treatment of advanced cancer, that of the urinary bladder. FGF23 suppresses phosphate reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney; FGF23 blockade allows phosphate reabsorption to occur and leads to elevated serum phosphate levels. Erdafitinib and several other, but not all, FGFR antagonists produce hyperphosphatemia. Erdafitinib binds to an inactive DGF-D conformation of FGFR1 and is classified as a type I½ inhibitor. Similarly, dovitinib, AZD4547, CH5183284, infigratinib, lenvatinib, LY2874455, and lucitanib are type I½ inhibitors. The inactive conformations contain an autoinhibitory brake that is made up of three main residues: an asparagine (N) within the αC-β4 back loop, a glutamate (E) corresponding to the second hinge residue, and a lysine (K) in the β8-strand (the NEK triad). PDGFRα/β, Kit, CSF1R, VEGFR1/2/3, Flt3, Tek, and Tie protein kinases are also regulated by a similar autoinhibitory brake mechanism. Ponatinib binds to FGFR4 in a DFG-D conformation and is classified as a type II inhibitor. Futibatinib, roblitinib, H3B-6527, fisogatinib, and PRN1371 bind covalently to their FGFR target and are classified as type VI inhibitors. Nintedanib, pazopanib, pemigatinib, rogaratinib, fisogatinib, and PRN1371 are FGFR inhibitors lacking drug-enzyme crystal structures. All of the aforementioned FGFR antagonists are orally effective. The development of FGFR inhibitors has lagged behind those of other receptor protein-tyrosine kinases. However, the FDA approval of erdafitinib for the treatment of urinary bladder cancers may stimulate additional work targeting the many other FGFR-driven neoplasms.
Fibroblast growth factor 21; review on its participation in vascular calcification pathology.
Olapoju Samuel O,Adejobi Oluwaniyi Isaiah,Le Thi Xoan
Vascular calcification (VC) is an independent cardiovascular event and also a complication commonly found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic patients. The mechanisms underpinning pathophysiology of VC is yet to be fully understood. Nevertheless, certain processes are generally believed to participate in its onset and progression. VC pathology is characterized by disequilibrium in the amount of natural inhibitors and active inducers of VC process. The imbalance may favor ectopic deposition of calcium-phosphate in form of hydroxyapatite in media or intima tunica compartments of blood vessels. This eventually could trigger phenotypic switch of smooth muscle cells to osteoblasts related cells. Thus, VSMC phenotypic trans-differentiation is currently considered as one of the hallmarks of VC. At the moment, there is no approved treatment. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a protein family that participates in varieties of biological processes. More recently, FGF21 seems to be gaining more attention with recent findings showing its anti-calcifying efficacy. In this review, the aim is to point out specific processes involved in VC and also to highlight the participation of FGF21 in the pathology of vascular calcification.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 As an Emerging Therapeutic Target for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
So Wing Yan,Leung Po Sing
Medicinal research reviews
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is a distinctive member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine factor. It is expressed predominantly in the liver, but is also found in adipose tissue and the pancreas. Pharmacological studies have shown that FGF21 normalizes glucose and lipid homeostasis, thereby preventing the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. Despite growing evidence for the therapeutic potential of FGF21, paradoxical increases of FGF21 in different disease conditions point to the existence of FGF21 resistance. In this review, we give a critical appraisal of recent advances in the understanding of the regulation of FGF21 production under various physiological conditions, its antidiabetic actions, and the clinical implications. We also discuss recent preclinical and clinical trials using engineered FGF21 analogs in the management of diabetes, as well as the potential side effects of FGF21 therapy.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 23 and Klotho in uremic cardiomyopathy.
Grabner Alexander,Faul Christian
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), multiple factors contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy by directly targeting the heart or indirectly by inducing systemic changes such as hypertension, anemia, and inflammation. Furthermore, disturbances in phosphate metabolism have been identified as nonclassical risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in these patients. With declining kidney function, the physiologic regulators of phosphate homeostasis undergo changes in their activity as well as their circulating levels, thus potentially contributing to cardiac hypertrophy once they are out of balance. Recently, two of these phosphate regulators, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho, have been shown to affect cardiac remodeling, thereby unveiling a novel pathomechanism of cardiac hypertrophy in CKD. Here we discuss the potential direct versus indirect effects of FGF23 and the soluble form of Klotho on the heart, and their crosstalk in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. RECENT FINDINGS:In models of CKD, FGF23 can directly target cardiac myocytes via FGF receptor 4 and induce cardiac hypertrophy in a blood pressure-independent manner. Soluble Klotho may directly target the heart via an unknown receptor thereby protecting the myocardium from pathologic stress stimuli that are associated with CKD, such as uremic toxins or FGF23. SUMMARY:Elevated serum levels of FGF23 and reduced serum levels of soluble Klotho contribute to uremic cardiomyopathy in a synergistic manner.
Molecular and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 /bFGF) in malignancies of solid and hematological cancers for personalized therapies.
Akl Mohamed R,Nagpal Poonam,Ayoub Nehad M,Tai Betty,Prabhu Sathyen A,Capac Catherine M,Gliksman Matthew,Goy Andre,Suh K Stephen
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for normal and cancer biology. Mammalian FGF family members participate in multiple signaling pathways by binding to heparan sulfate and FGF receptors (FGFR) with varying affinities. FGF2 is the prototype member of the FGF family and interacts with its receptor to mediate receptor dimerization, phosphorylation, and activation of signaling pathways, such as Ras-MAPK and PI3K pathways. Excessive mitogenic signaling through the FGF/FGFR axis may induce carcinogenic effects by promoting cancer progression and increasing the angiogenic potential, which can lead to metastatic tumor phenotypes. Dysregulated FGF/FGFR signaling is associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes, enhanced chemotherapy resistance and poor clinical outcomes. In vitro experimental settings have indicated that extracellular FGF2 affects proliferation, drug sensitivity, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Therapeutically targeting FGF2 and FGFR has been extensively assessed in multiple preclinical studies and numerous drugs and treatment options have been tested in clinical trials. Diagnostic assays are used to quantify FGF2, FGFRs, and downstream signaling molecules to better select a target patient population for higher efficacy of cancer therapies. This review focuses on the prognostic significance of FGF2 in cancer with emphasis on therapeutic intervention strategies for solid and hematological malignancies.
Inflammation regulates fibroblast growth factor 23 production.
Francis Connor,David Valentin
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone secreted by osteocytes and osteoblasts that regulates phosphorus and vitamin D homeostasis. FGF23 levels increase progressively in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and FGF23 excess might be a causal factor of left ventricular hypertrophy, CKD progression and death. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms that control FGF23 production is critical to design therapies to lower FGF23 levels. The present review focuses on the role of inflammatory stimuli on FGF23 regulation and summarizes recent studies that support a novel framework linking inflammation to FGF23 regulation. RECENT FINDINGS:Inflammation and iron deficiency, which are common occurrences in CKD, have emerged as novel FGF23 regulators. Recent findings show that inflammation increases FGF23 production in bone through direct and iron-related indirect mechanisms. In these settings, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α orchestrates FGF23 transcription in response to inflammation and is primarily responsible for coordinating FGF23 production and cleavage. SUMMARY:We demonstrate that inflammation increases FGF23 production and may contribute to elevated FGF23 levels in CKD. Osseous HIF-1α may represent a therapeutic target to lower FGF23 levels in CKD patients and minimize the negative consequences associated with FGF23 excess.
Multiple faces of fibroblast growth factor-23.
Han Xiaobin,Quarles L Darryl
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review examines the role of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) in mineral metabolism, innate immunity and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS:FGF-23, produced by osteocytes in bone, activates FGFR/α-Klotho (α-Kl) complexes in the kidney. The resulting bone-kidney axis coordinates renal phosphate reabsorption with bone mineralization, and creates a counter-regulatory feedback loop to prevent vitamin D toxicity. FGF-23 acts to counter-regulate the effects of vitamin D on innate immunity and cardiovascular responses. FGF-23 is ectopically expressed along with α-Kl in activated macrophages, creating a proinflammatory paracrine signaling pathway that counters the antiinflammatory actions of vitamin D. FGF-23 also inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression and increases sodium reabsorption in the kidney, leading to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Finally, FGF-23 is purported to cause adverse cardiac and impair neutrophil responses through activation of FGFRs in the absence of α-Kl. Although secreted forms of α-Kl have FGF-23 independent effects, the possibility of α-Kl independent effects of FGF-23 is controversial and requires additional experimental validation. SUMMARY:FGF-23 participates in a bone-kidney axis regulating mineral homeostasis, proinflammatory paracrine macrophage signaling pathways, and in a bone-cardio-renal axis regulating hemodynamics that counteract the effects of vitamin D.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in urothelial tumorigenesis.
Iyer Gopa,Milowsky Matthew I
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in the tumorigenesis of multiple malignancies, including bladder and other urothelial cancers, multiple myeloma, and cervical cancer. In urothelial carcinoma (UC), constitutive receptor activation occurs most commonly through substitution of a wild-type residue with cysteine in the extracellular domain of FGFR3, thereby resulting in dimerization (through disulfide bridge formation) and subsequent stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity. Activating mutations of FGFR3 have been observed in up to 70% of non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors, while overexpression of a wild-type receptor, found in approximately 40% of tumors, has been correlated with more invasive disease. The identification of FGFR3 mutations in UC has sparked substantial interest in the therapeutic exploitation of these aberrations, and in vitro studies have provided evidence that such alterations may represent driver oncogenic lesions. In this review, we discuss the biologic and prognostic impact of FGFR3 mutations in UC as well as FGFR3 as a potential target for novel therapeutics.
Nutritional regulation of fibroblast growth factor 21: from macronutrients to bioactive dietary compounds.
Pérez-Martí Albert,Sandoval Viviana,Marrero Pedro F,Haro Diego,Relat Joana
Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation
Obesity is a worldwide health problem mainly due to its associated comorbidities. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a peptide hormone involved in metabolic homeostasis in healthy individuals and considered a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity. FGF21 is predominantly produced by the liver but also by other tissues, such as white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), skeletal muscle, and pancreas in response to different stimuli such as cold and different nutritional challenges that include fasting, high-fat diets (HFDs), ketogenic diets, some amino acid-deficient diets, low protein diets, high carbohydrate diets or specific dietary bioactive compounds. Its target tissues are essentially WAT, BAT, skeletal muscle, heart and brain. The effects of FGF21 in extra hepatic tissues occur through the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-1c together with the co-receptor β-klotho (KLB). Mechanistically, FGF21 interacts directly with the extracellular domain of the membrane bound cofactor KLB in the FGF21- KLB-FGFR complex to activate FGFR substrate 2α and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mice lacking KLB are resistant to both acute and chronic effects of FGF21. Moreover, the acute insulin sensitizing effects of FGF21 are also absent in mice with specific deletion of adipose KLB or FGFR1. Most of the data show that pharmacological administration of FGF21 has metabolic beneficial effects. The objective of this review is to compile existing information about the mechanisms that could allow the control of endogenous FGF21 levels in order to obtain the beneficial metabolic effects of FGF21 by inducing its production instead of doing it by pharmacological administration.
The Regulation and Function of Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 and Its Function during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Development.
Chung Wilson C J,Linscott Megan L,Rodriguez Karla M,Stewart Courtney E
Frontiers in endocrinology
Over the last few years, numerous studies solidified the hypothesis that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates neuroendocrine progenitor cell proliferation, fate specification, and cell survival and, therefore, is critical for the regulation and maintenance of homeostasis of the body. One important example that underscores the involvement of FGF signaling during neuroendocrine cell development is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuron ontogenesis. Indeed, transgenic mice with reduced olfactory placode (OP) Fgf8 expression do not have GnRH neurons. This observation indicates the requirement of FGF8 signaling for the emergence of the GnRH neuronal system in the embryonic OP, the putative birth place of GnRH neurons. Mammalian reproductive success depends on the presence of GnRH neurons to stimulate gonadotropin secretion from the anterior pituitary, which activates gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. Together, these observations are critical for understanding the function of GnRH neurons and their control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to maintain fertility. Taken together, these studies illustrate that GnRH neuron emergence and hence HPG function is vulnerable to genomic and molecular signals that abnormally modify Fgf8 expression in the developing mouse OP. In this short review, we focus on research that is aimed at unraveling how androgen, all-trans retinoic acid, and how epigenetic factors modify control mouse OP Fgf8 transcription in the context of GnRH neuronal development and mammalian reproductive success.
N-Cadherin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors crosstalk in the control of developmental and cancer cell migrations.
Nguyen Thao,Mège René Marc
European journal of cell biology
Cell migrations are diverse. They constitutemajor morphogenetic driving forces during embryogenesis, but they contribute also to the loss of tissue homeostasis and cancer growth. Capabilities of cells to migrate as single cells or as collectives are controlled by internal and external signalling, leading to the reorganisation of their cytoskeleton as well as by the rebalancing of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. Among the genes altered in numerous cancers, cadherins and growth factor receptors are of particular interest for cell migration regulation. In particular, cadherins such as N-cadherin and a class of growth factor receptors, namely FGFRs cooperate to regulate embryonic and cancer cell behaviours. In this review, we discuss on reciprocal crosstalk between N-cadherin and FGFRs during cell migration. Finally, we aim at clarifying the synergy between N-cadherin and FGFR signalling that ensure cellular reorganization during cell movements, mainly during cancer cell migration and metastasis but also during developmental processes.
Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors and immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of advanced bladder cancer: New direction and New Hope.
Morales-Barrera Rafael,Suárez Cristina,de Castro Ana Martínez,Racca Fabricio,Valverde Claudia,Maldonado Xavier,Bastaros Juan Maria,Morote Juan,Carles Joan
Cancer treatment reviews
Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the United States. About 25% of patients with bladder cancer have advanced disease (muscle-invasive or metastatic disease) at presentation and are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. In the setting of metastatic disease, use of cisplatin-based regimens improves survival. However, despite initial high response rates, the responses are typically not durable leading to recurrence and death in the vast majority of these patients with median overall survival of 15months and a 5-year survival rate of ⩽10%. Furthermore, unfit patients for cisplatin have no standard of care for first line therapy in advance disease Most second-line chemotherapeutic agents tested have been disappointing. Newer targeted drugs and immunotherapies are being studied in the metastatic setting, their usefulness in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings is also an intriguing area of ongoing research. Thus, new treatment strategies are clearly needed. The comprehensive evaluation of multiple molecular pathways characterized by The Cancer Genome Atlas project has shed light on potential therapeutic targets for bladder urothelial carcinomas. We have focused especially on emerging therapies in locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma with an emphasis on immune checkpoints inhibitors and FGFR targeted therapies, which have shown great promise in early clinical studies.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Hypophosphatemia: A Case of Hypophosphatemia along the Rickets-Osteomalacia Spectrum.
Georges George T,Nájera O,Sowers Kurt,Sowers James R
Phosphorus is a key component of bone, and a deficiency results in poor mineralization along with other systemic symptoms of hypophosphatemia. Various causes of hypophosphatemia with renal wasting of phosphorus have been identified. These include the Fanconi syndrome, various genetic mutations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) handling and the sodium/phosphate cotransporter, and those due to FGF23 secretion by mesenchymal tumors. Depending on the cause, vitamin D metabolism may also be impaired, which may amplify the deficiency in phosphorus and render treatment more challenging. Here, we report a case of hypophosphatemia and multiple stress fractures in a 20-year-old male college student living with chronic bone pain and anxiety about suffering further fractures. We further review the literature regarding this spectrum.
Oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 in tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer.
Pandith Arshad A,Shah Zafar A,Siddiqi Mushtaq A
Bladder cancer is the second most common genitourinary tumor and constitutes a very heterogeneous disease. Molecular and pathologic studies suggest that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive (pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published.
Alveologenesis: key cellular players and fibroblast growth factor 10 signaling.
Chao Cho-Ming,Moiseenko Alena,Zimmer Klaus-Peter,Bellusci Saverio
Molecular and cellular pediatrics
BACKGROUND:Alveologenesis is the last stage in lung development and is essential for building the gas-exchanging units called alveoli. Despite intensive lung research, the intricate crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cell lineages during alveologenesis is poorly understood. This crosstalk contributes to the formation of the secondary septae, which are key structures of healthy alveoli. CONCLUSIONS:A better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the formation of the secondary septae is critical for the development of new therapies to protect or regenerate the alveoli. This review summarizes briefly the alveologenesis process in mouse and human. Further, it discusses the current knowledge on the epithelial and mesenchymal progenitor cells during early lung development giving rise to the key cellular players (e.g., alveolar epithelial cell type I, alveolar epithelial cell type II, alveolar myofibroblast, lipofibroblast) involved in alveologenesis. This review focusses mainly on the role of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), one of the most important signaling molecules during lung development, in epithelial and mesenchymal cell lineage formation.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Gene Amplification in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.
Miao Jian-Long,Liu Rui-Juan,Zhou Jin-Hua,Meng Shu-Hua
Chinese medical journal
OBJECTIVE:To review the prevalence and prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification and to establish an association between FGFR1 amplification and the clinical characteristics of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). DATA SOURCES:We searched PubMed for English-language studies published between January 2010 and May 2016. STUDY SELECTION:We included all relevant articles, with no limitation of study design. RESULTS:FGFR1 amplification was reported in 8.7-20.0% of NSCLC cases and was significantly more frequent in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) (9.7-28.3%) than in adenocarcinomas (ADCs) (0-15.0%). The rates of FGFR1 amplification were as follows: males, 13.9-22.1%; females, 0-20.1%; Stage I NSCLC, 9.3-24.1%; Stage II NSCLC, 12.9-25.0%; Stage III NSCLC, 8.2-19.5%; Stage IV NSCLC, 0-12.5%; current smokers, 13.3-29.0%; former smokers, 2.5-23.0%; and nonsmokers, 0-22.2%. Overall survival was 43.9-70.8 months in patients with FGFR1 amplification and 42.4-115.0 months in patients with no FGFR1 amplification; disease-free survival was 22.5-58.5 months and 52.4-94.6 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:FGFR1 amplification is more frequent in SCCs than in ADCs. The association between FGFR1 amplification and clinical characteristics (gender, smoking status, and disease stage) and the prognostic significance of FGFR1 amplification in NSCLC remain controversial.
The emerging role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in diabetic nephropathy.
Mao Song,Ren Xianguo,Zhang Jianhua
Journal of receptor and signal transduction research
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), an important cause of end-stage renal diseases, brings about great social and economic burden. Due to the variable pathological changes and clinical course, the prognosis of DN is very difficult to predict. DN is also usually associated with enhanced genomic damage and cellular injury. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a nutritionally regulated hormone secreted mainly by the liver, plays a critical role in metabolism. Administration of FGF21 decreases blood glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, and improves insulin sensitivity, which is closely associated with the development and progression of glomerular diseases. In addition, FGF21 level was associated with renal function. However, the precise role of FGF21 in DN remains unclear. This review will give a comprehensive understanding of the underlying role of FGF21 and its possible interaction with other molecules in DN.
[THE ROLE OF FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 21 (FGF21) IN THE REGULATION AND CORRECTION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND LIPID METABOLISM].
Marakova E N,Bazhan N M
Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni I.M. Sechenova
Identification of the natural metabolic factors that are able to normalize insulin sensitivity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is necessary for the development of pharmacological approaches for the correction of obesity and Type II diabetes. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family that functions as an endocrine hormone which regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is involved in maintaining of energy homeostasis and adaptation to starvation and low temperature. In rodents, FGF21 administration increases energy expenditure, reduces body weight, fat mass, blood glucose and insulin levels, and improves insulin sensitivity. Pharmacologically, FGF21 is a promising new clinical candidate for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding ofmechanisms of FGF21's physiologic and pharmacologic anti-diabetic actions.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 potentially inhibits microRNA-33 expression to affect macrophage actions.
Guo Yuan,Luo Fei,Yi Yuhong,Xu Danyan
Lipids in health and disease
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with complex pathological processes. MicroRNA-33 (miR-33), a novel non-coding RNA that coexpresses with sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), affects macrophage actions to prevent atherosclerosis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of lipid metabolism, especially for macrophage-related cholesterol export, but the mechanism is not fully studied. Interestingly, FGF21 has been evidenced to prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting SREBP-2 expression. Therefore, we speculate that FGF21 may be a potential regulator for miR-33 with an aim of insight into novel anti-atherosclerotic mechanisms and research fields.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Postrenal Transplant: An Often Forgotten Hormone.
Amiri Fateme Shamekhi,Khatami Mohammad Reza
Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation
Fibroblast growth factor 23 is likely to be the most important regulator of phosphate homeostasis, which mediates its functions through fibroblast growth factor receptors and the coreceptor Klotho. In addition to reducing expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporters NPT2a and NPT2c in the proximal tubules, fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits renal 1α-hydroxylase and stimulates 24-hydroxylase and appears to reduce parathyroid hormone secretion in short-term studies. Fibroblast growth factor 23 synthesis and secretion by osteocytes and osteoblasts are upregulated through 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and through an increased dietary phosphate intake. Recent studies have indicated that a low-protein diet and calcium deficiency reduce circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, but magnesium deficiency increases fibroblast growth factor levels. Drugs such as phosphate binders, bisphosphonate, and estrogens have various effects on circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. The high cardiovascular disease event rates and mortality associated with elevated levels of this hormone may be due to various effects on the cardiovascular system, including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, endothelial dysfunction, and increased levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, elevated levels of this hormone may contribute to mineral bone metabolism disorders and to patient and allograft survival after renal transplant. Here, we discuss the effects of fibroblast growth factor 23 on adverse renal, bone, and cardiovascular outcomes after kidney transplant.
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23-A Potential Uremic Toxin.
Kuczera Piotr,Adamczak Marcin,Wiecek Andrzej
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a circulating member of the FGF family produced mainly by the osteocytes and osteoblasts that can act as a hormone. The main action of FGF23 is to lower phosphatemia via the reduction of urinary phosphate reabsorption and the decrease of 1,25(OH)₂-D generation in the kidney. In the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), plasma FGF23 concentration rises early, most probably to compensate the inability of the deteriorating kidneys to excrete an adequate amount of phosphate. However, this comes at the cost of FGF23-related target organ toxicity. Results of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma FGF23 concentration is independently associated with the increased risk of CKD progression, occurrence of cardio-vascular complications, and mortality in different stages of CKD. FGF23 also contributes to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction. The impact of FGF23 on heart muscle is not dependent on Klotho, but rather on the PLCγ-calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) pathway. Among the factors increasing plasma FGF23 concentration, active vitamin D analogues play a significant role. Additionally, inflammation and iron deficiency can contribute to the increase of plasma FGF23. Among the factors decreasing plasma FGF23, dietary phosphate restriction, some intestinal phosphate binders, cinacalcet (and other calcimimetics), and nicotinamide can be enumerated. Anti-FGF23 antibodies have also recently been developed to inhibit the action of FGF23 in target organs. Still, the best way to normalize plasma FGF23 in maintenance hemodialysis patients is restoring kidney function by successful kidney transplantation.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: Mineral Metabolism and Beyond.
Grabner Alexander,Mazzaferro Sandro,Cianciolo Giuseppe,Krick Stefanie,Capelli Irene,Rotondi Silverio,Ronco Claudio,La Manna Gaetano,Faul Christian
Contributions to nephrology
Patients affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular mortality that is poorly explained by traditional risk factors. There is a growing awareness about the role of derangement of mineral metabolism that is currently accepted as a trigger and sustainer of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CKD patients. The synthetic definition of CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) split the concept that the indexes of mineral metabolism extend their effects beyond the bone until the vascular wall and metabolic milieu of CKD patients through complex pathways. A better understanding of the biomarkers and mechanisms of left ventricular hypertrophy, CVD, inflammation, and chronic renal damage may help with the diagnosis and treatment of the systemic impairment that occurs secondary to CKD-MBD, thus slowing the progression of renal and CVD and improving patient survival. Recent insights into fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 have led to marked advancement in interpreting data on CVD and CKD progression ascribing to FGF23 a pivotal role in these pathologies independent of its co-receptor klotho and well beyond mineral metabolism. This review article will discuss the current experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of FGF23 in physiology and pathophysiology of CKD and its associated complications with an emphasis on CVD.
Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Mediates Fibroblast Growth Factor-Inducible 14 Signaling.
Wang Xuening,Xiao Shengxiang,Xia Yumin
Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) engages its sole receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), which participates in various inflammatory and immunologic processes. TWEAK/Fn14 interaction induces different cell fates depending on the local microenvironment, which correlates with certain expression profiles of TNF receptors (TNFR). The predominant expression of TNFR1 or TNFR2 facilitates cell death or proliferation, respectively, on TWEAK/Fn14 activation. TNFR-associated factors (TRAF) interact with Fn14, cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)-1, and TNFR, consequently transducing signals from TWEAK to downstream cytokines and cell cycle mediators. An Fn14-TRAF2-TNFR axis has been suggested in the function of TWEAK/Fn14 signaling, which may serve as a target in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for many diseases that have Fn14-overexpressing cells in affected tissues. The aims of this review are: 1) to present the main results on TWEAK/Fn14 regulation of cell fates, 2) to analyze the mechanism of the Fn14-TRAF2-TNFR axis, and 3) to summarize the potential strategies in the pharmacologic targeting of this axis.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 15/19 in Hepatocarcinogenesis.
Alvarez-Sola Gloria,Uriarte Iker,Latasa M Ujue,Urtasun Raquel,Bárcena-Varela Marina,Elizalde Maria,Jiménez Maddalen,Rodriguez-Ortigosa Carlos M,Corrales Fernando J,Fernández-Barrena Maite G,Berasain Carmen,Avila Matías A
Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland)
BACKGROUND:Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a neoplastic disease with a very bad prognosis and increasing worldwide incidence. HCCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only agent that has shown some clinical efficacy. It is therefore important to identify key molecular mechanisms driving hepatocarcinogenesis for the development of more efficacious therapies. However, HCCs are heterogeneous tumors and different molecular subclasses have been characterized. This heterogeneity may underlie the poor performance of most of the targeted therapies so far tested in HCC patients. The fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) and beta-Klotho (KLB) correceptor signaling system, a key regulator of bile acids (BA) synthesis and intermediary metabolism, is emerging as an important player in hepatocarcinogenesis. Key Messages: Aberrant signaling through the FGF15/19-FGFR4 pathway participates in the neoplastic behavior of HCC cells, promotes HCC development in mice and its overexpression has been characterized in a subset of HCC tumors from patients with poorer prognosis. Pharmacological interference with FGF15/19-FGFR4 signaling inhibits experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, and specific FGFR4 inhibitors are currently being tested in selected HCC patients with tumoral FGF19-FGFR4/KLB expression. CONCLUSIONS:Interference with FGF19-FGFR4 signaling represents a novel strategy in HCC therapy. Selection of candidate patients based on tumoral FGF19-FGFR4/KLB levels as biomarkers may result in increased efficacy of FGFR4-targeted drugs. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the potential on target toxic effects of FGFR4 inhibitors due to the key role of this signaling system in BA metabolism.
Inhibition of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway: the current landscape and barriers to clinical application.
Chae Young Kwang,Ranganath Keerthi,Hammerman Peter S,Vaklavas Christos,Mohindra Nisha,Kalyan Aparna,Matsangou Maria,Costa Ricardo,Carneiro Benedito,Villaflor Victoria M,Cristofanilli Massimo,Giles Francis J
The fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) is a tyrosine kinase signaling pathway that has a fundamental role in many biologic processes including embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that this pathway plays a critical role in oncogenesis via gene amplification, activating mutations, or translocation in tumors of various histologies. With multiplex sequencing technology, the detection of FGFR aberrations has become more common and is tied to cancer cell proliferation, resistance to anticancer therapies, and neoangiogenesis. Inhibition of FGFR signaling appears promising in preclinical studies, suggesting a pathway of clinical interest in the development of targeted therapy. Phase I trials have demonstrated a manageable toxicity profile. Currently, there are multiple FGFR inhibitors under study with many non-selective (multi-kinase) inhibitors demonstrating limited clinical responses. As we progress from the first generation of non-selective drugs to the second generation of selective FGFR inhibitors, it is clear that FGFR aberrations do not behave uniformly across cancer types; thus, a deeper understanding of biomarker strategies is undoubtedly warranted. This review aims to consolidate data from recent clinical trials with a focus on selective FGFR inhibitors. As Phase II clinical trials emerge, concentration on patient selection as it pertains to predicting response to therapy, feasible methods for overcoming toxicity, and the likelihood of combination therapies should be utilized. We will also discuss qualities that may be desirable in future generations of FGFR inhibitors, with the hope that overcoming these current barriers will expedite the availability of this novel class of medications.
Roles of tumour necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis/fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 pathway in lupus nephritis.
Chen Jingyun,Wei Linlin,Xia Yumin
Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.)
As one of the manifestations of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus nephritis (LN) has high morbidity and mortality. Although the explicit mechanism of LN remains to be fully elucidated, there is increasing evidence to support the notion that tumour necrosis factor-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), acting via its sole receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), plays a pivotal role in such pathologic process. TWEAK/Fn14 interactions occur prominently in kidneys of LN, inducing inflammatory responses, angiogenesis, mesangial proliferation, filtration barrier injuries, renal fibrosis, etc. This review will specify the important roles of TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in the pathogenesis of LN with experimental data from cellular and animal models. Additionally, the raised levels of urinary and serum soluble TWEAK correlate with renal disease activity in patients with LN. The neutralizing antibodies targeting TWEAK or other approaches inhibiting TWEAK/Fn14 signals can attenuate renal damage in the murine lupus models. Therefore, to focus on TWEAK/Fn14 signalling may be promising in both clinical evaluation and the treatment of patients with LN.
Ectoderm-mesoderm crosstalk in the embryonic limb: The role of fibroblast growth factor signaling.
Mariani Francesca V,Fernandez-Teran Marian,Ros Maria A
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
In this commentary we focus on the function of FGFs during limb development and morphogenesis. Our goal is to understand, interpret and, when possible, reconcile the interesting findings and conflicting results that remain unexplained. For example, the cell death pattern observed after surgical removal of the AER versus genetic removal of the AER-Fgfs is strikingly different and the field is at an impasse with regard to an explanation. We also discuss the idea that AER function may involve signaling components in addition to the AER-FGFs and that signaling from the non-AER ectoderm may also have a significant contribution. We hope that a re-evaluation of current studies and a discussion of outstanding questions will motivate new experiments, especially considering the availability of new technologies, that will fuel further progress toward understanding the intricate ectoderm-to-mesoderm crosstalk during limb development. Developmental Dynamics 246:208-216, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Intracellular Fibroblast Growth Factor 14: Emerging Risk Factor for Brain Disorders.
Di Re Jessica,Wadsworth Paul A,Laezza Fernanda
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
The finely tuned regulation of neuronal firing relies on the integrity of ion channel macromolecular complexes. Minimal disturbances of these tightly regulated networks can lead to persistent maladaptive plasticity of brain circuitry. The intracellular fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) belongs to the nexus of proteins interacting with voltage-gated Na+ (Na) channels at the axonal initial segment. Through isoform-specific interactions with the intracellular C-terminal tail of neuronal Na channels (Na1.1, Na1.2, Na1.6), FGF14 controls channel gating, axonal targeting and phosphorylation in neurons effecting excitability. FGF14 has been also involved in synaptic transmission, plasticity and neurogenesis in the cortico-mesolimbic circuit with cognitive and affective behavioral outcomes. In translational studies, interest in FGF14 continues to rise with a growing list of associative links to diseases of the cognitive and affective domains such as neurodegeneration, depression, anxiety, addictive behaviors and recently schizophrenia, suggesting its role as a converging node in the etiology of complex brain disorders. Yet, a full understanding of FGF14 function in neurons is far from being complete and likely to involve other functions unrelated to the direct regulation of Na channels. The goal of this Mini Review article is to provide a summary of studies on the emerging role of FGF14 in complex brain disorders.
The Potential Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in Lipid Metabolism and Hypertension.
Huang Zhe,Xu Aimin,Cheung Bernard M Y
Current hypertension reports
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to the FGF superfamily that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, neural development, angiogenesis, and metabolism. FGF21 requires β-Klotho as a co-receptor. Tissues involved in metabolism such as the liver, adipose tissues, skeletal muscle, and pancreas express FGF21. Starvation increases hepatic expression of FGF21, which then acts centrally to increase hepatic gluconeogenesis. FGF21 also increases fatty acid oxidation. This may be relevant in cold exposure, when expression of FGF21 is induced. Chronic treatment with recombinant FGF21 reduces serum and hepatic triglyceride levels and ameliorates fatty liver in obese mice, through the suppression of the lipogenic gene, Srebp-1. FGF21 reduces hepatic cholesterol production by inhibiting Srebp-2, a transactivator of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). LY2045319, an FGF21 analog, reduces LDL-C and triglycerides and increases HDL-C in obese human subjects with type 2 diabetes. FGF21 does not seem to lower blood pressure acutely. In rats fed with high-fructose water to induce mild hypertension, 4-week treatment with recombinant FGF21 led to normalization of systolic blood pressure and improved serum lipid profile. FGF receptors and β-Klotho are expressed on the nucleus tractus solitarii and nodose ganglion in the baroreflex afferent pathway. Moreover, FGF21 acts on the hypothalamus to release corticosterone and induces in adipocytes the production of adiponectin, an adipokine with antihypertensive activities. Therefore, FGF21 may decrease blood pressure indirectly, through its actions in the liver, brain, and adipose tissues.
Investigational drugs targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Rijavec Erika,Genova Carlo,Barletta Giulia,Biello Federica,Rossi Giovanni,Tagliamento Marco,Dal Bello Maria Giovanna,Coco Simona,Vanni Irene,Boccardo Simona,Alama Angela,Grossi Francesco
Expert opinion on investigational drugs
INTRODUCTION:Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) due to its central role in regulating cell survival, is a promising target for cancer therapeutics. Dysregulation of the FGFR pathway has been observed in several malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) particularly in patients with squamous histology. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the most relevant findings of clinical trials investigating drugs targeting FGFR pathway: such as FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), FGFR monoclonal antibodies and FGF ligand traps in NSCLC patients. Expert opinion: At present, clinical activity of drugs targeting FGFR in NSCLC is disappointing. Further studies are needed in order to better identify patients who might benefit from these drugs and to clarify the mechanisms of resistance to these compounds.
Is Fibroblast growth factor 23 the leading cause of increased mortality among chronic kidney disease patients? A narrative review.
Sharaf El Din Usama A,Salem Mona M,Abdulazim Dina O
Journal of advanced research
The death rate among chronic kidney disease patients is the highest compared to other chronic diseases. 60% of these fatalities are cardiovascular. Cardiovascular calcifications and chronic inflammation affect almost all chronic kidney disease patients and are associated with cardiovascular mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with vascular calcification. Systemic inflammation in chronic kidney disease patients is multifactorial. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification was recently reappraised. Fibroblast growth factor 23 was accused as a direct stimulus of left ventricular hypertrophy, uremic inflammation, and impaired neutrophil function. This review will discuss the underlying mechanisms that underlie the link between Fibroblast growth factor 23 and increased mortality encountered among chronic kidney disease patients.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.
Wang Shuwei,Ding Zhongyang
Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.
Fibroblast growth factor 23: associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease.
Negri Armando Luis
International urology and nephrology
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has emerged as an important hormone involved in phosphorus and vitamin D homeostasis. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the most common clinical condition in which FGF-23 levels are persistently and markedly elevated. Abnormal phosphate homeostasis and high circulating levels of FGF-23 are early complications of CKD. Although increases in FGF-23 levels may help maintain serum phosphate levels in the normal range in CKD, the long-term effects of its sustained elevated levels are unclear. Patients with CKD have high risks of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD), cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Recent prospective studies in populations with predialysis CKD, ESRD on hemodialysis, and kidney transplant recipients demonstrate that elevated FGF-23 levels are independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. It was originally thought that FGF-23 was only a biomarker of disturbed phosphate balance; however, recent studies have shown that FGF-23 can have a direct effect on the heart, inducing left ventricular hypertrophy. This suggests that elevated FGF-23 levels may be a novel mechanism that explains the poor cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients. Interventional studies are required in order to clarify the relation of causality between FGF-23 and cardiovascular mortality in this population.
Fibroblast growth factor signaling in mammalian tooth development.
Li Chun-Ying,Prochazka Jan,Goodwin Alice F,Klein Ophir D
In this review, we discuss the central role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in mammalian tooth development. The FGF family consists of 22 members, most of which bind to four different receptor tyrosine kinases, which in turn signal through a cascade of intracellular proteins. This signaling regulates a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and cell mobility. FGF signaling first becomes important in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation stage of tooth development, and subsequently, it controls the invagination of the dental epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Later, FGFs are critical in tooth shape formation and differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts, as well as in the development and homeostasis of the stem cell niche that fuels the continuously growing mouse incisor. In addition, FGF signaling is critical in human teeth, as mutations in genes encoding FGF ligands or receptors result in several congenital syndromes characterized by alterations in tooth number, morphology or enamel structure. The parallel roles of FGF signaling in mouse and human tooth development demonstrate the conserved importance of FGF signaling in mammalian odontogenesis.
The Roles of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23, α-Klotho and Furin Protease in Calcium and Phosphate Homeostasis : A Mini-Review.
Mattoo Roshan L
Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB
The roles of calcitonin, parathormone and calcitriol in the regulation of plasma calcium and phosphate are well-established. However, in autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickety patients, studies have revealed normal plasma levels of calcium, associated with normal thyroid and parathyroid functions, but decreased levels of phosphate and calcitriol despite adequate reserves of vitamin D. Also, in tumoral calcinosis, persistent hyperphosphatemia with increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 have been observed. These studies indicate the involvement of factors other than the ones already known. The first decade of this century/millennium has led to the discovery of the involvement of fibroblast growth factor-23, furin protease and α-klotho in the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate, which is the subject of this mini-review.
Targeting the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in gastric cancer: promise or pitfall?
Hierro C,Alsina M,Sánchez M,Serra V,Rodon J,Tabernero J
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapeutic option for this poor prognosis cancer. Trastuzumab, the epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2 or HER2)-antibody, is the only biological agent approved for the molecularly selected population of HER2-positive gastric cancer patients. Over the last decade, several groups have been working for deepening into the molecular characterization of gastric cancer, shedding some light into the heterogeneity of this tumour. The published data have broadened the landscape towards a future molecular classification into several subtypes of gastric cancer, enabling a better selection of the optimal therapeutic strategy. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway plays a key role in gastric cancer pathogenesis, with 1.2%-9% of gastric cancer patients harbouring FGFR2 amplifications. Several selective FGFR inhibitors have been developed in the last years, with promising efficacy signals. However, there is still scarce evidence of the most reliant molecular determinants of response to these targeted agents. Homogeneous high-level clonal FGFR2-amplification, high FGFR2 mRNA or protein levels, specific FGFR2 C3 isoform expression, FGF ligand co-overexpression or detection of FGFR2 copy number in plasma circulating tumour DNA, are considered some of the potential predictive biomarkers to the FGFR inhibition. The successful development of highly specific FGFR inhibitors will rely on our capacity of establishing new personalized strategies, based on a deeper knowledge of the key alterations that drive oncogenesis in gastric cancer. Further efforts seem mandatory in order to implement accurate predictive biomarkers in the next stages of the FGFR inhibitors development.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 as a predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in prospective studies.
Qin Zhexue,Liu Xi,Song Mingbao,Zhou Quan,Yu Jie,Zhou Baoshang,Wu Yazhou,He Yongming,Huang Lan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The prognostic value of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) for mortality remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies to examine the controversial relationship between FGF23 and mortality. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library databases and reference bibliographies were searched through September 2016 to identify prospective cohort studies with relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FGF23 and mortality. A random effects model was used to pool the risk estimates. A dose-response analysis of the risk for all-cause mortality associated with FGF23 was conducted using the generalized least squares trend estimation method. RESULTS:Nineteen prospective cohort studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, of which 16 reported all-cause mortality and 9 reported cardiovascular mortality. During the follow-up periods ranging from 1 to 18.6 years, 5606 deaths occurred among 22,805 participants and 2458 cardiovascular deaths occurred among 28,845 participants. Elevated FGF23 was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.68; 95% CI 1.48-1.92) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.68; 95% CI 1.38-2.04) with moderate heterogeneity. These associations were not markedly modified by the geographic location, follow-up length, patient predisposition, FGF23 measurement or study quality. A sensitivity analysis yielded a similar effect on the pooled risk estimate. Evidence of a nonlinear relationship between FGF23 and all-cause mortality was observed in the dose-response analysis, with the risk gradually increasing as FGF23 increased. CONCLUSIONS:This meta-analysis showed that individuals with increased plasma FGF23 levels might suffer a higher risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality.
Genetics of Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas: An Overview on the Recently Implicated Genes MERTK, MET, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1, and H3F3A.
Toledo Rodrigo Almeida
Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
Genomic studies conducted by different centers have uncovered various new genes mutated in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) at germline, mosaic, and/or somatic levels, greatly expanding our knowledge of the genetic events occurring in these tumors. The current review focuses on very new findings and discusses the previously not recognized role of MERTK, MET, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, and H3F3A genes in syndromic and nonsyndromic PPGLs. These 4 new genes were selected because although their association with PPGLs is very recent, mounting evidence was generated that rapidly consolidated the prominence of these genes in the molecular pathogenesis of PPGLs.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mimetics for Treating Atherosclerosis.
Kwok Kelvin H M,Lam Karen S L
Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an atypical member of the FGF family. Acting in an endocrine fashion, it increases glucose uptake, modulates lipid metabolism, and sensitizes insulin response in metabolically active organs, including the liver and adipose tissue. Emerging evidence shows a strong correlation between circulating FGF21 levels and the incidence and severity of atherosclerosis. Animal studies have demonstrated a beneficial role of FGF21 in protecting against aberrant lipid profile, while recent development in FGF21 mimetics has provided further insight into the lipid-lowering effects of FGF21 signaling. The present review summarizes the physiological roles of FGF21, and discusses major breakthroughs and limitations of FGF21 mimetic-based therapeutic strategies for treating atherosclerosis.
Prognostic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in human solid tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Liu Gang,Xiong Disheng,Xiao Rui,Huang Zhengjie
Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
In the past decades, the oncogenic role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 has been demonstrated in a number of cancer types. However, studies have reported contradictory findings concerning the correlation between fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression and prognosis in solid tumors. To address this discrepancy, we performed a meta-analysis with 18 published studies (2975 patients) retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of science. Data were extracted and computed into odds ratios. The results showed that fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression was significantly associated with decreased 3-year overall survival (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval: 1.30-2.85, p = 0.001) and 5-year overall survival (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.44, p = 0.02) in patients with solid tumors. Subgroup analysis revealed that high fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 expression was also associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and esophageal cancer, but not correlated with pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression is correlated with decreased survival in most solid tumors, suggesting that the expression status of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is a valuable prognostic biomarker and a novel therapeutic target in human solid tumors.
Fibroblast growth factor-mediated crosstalk in cancer etiology and treatment.
Clayton N S,Wilson A S,Laurent E P,Grose R P,Carter E P
Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists
It is becoming increasingly evident that multiple cell types within the tumor work together to drive tumour progression and impact on both the response to therapy and the dissemination of tumour cells throughout the body. Fibroblast growth factor signalling (FGF) is perturbed in a number of tumors, serving to drive tumor cell proliferation and migration, but also has a central role in orchestrating the plethora of cells that comprise the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on how this family of signalling molecules can influence the interactions between tumor cells and their surrounding environment. Unraveling the complexities of FGF signalling between the distinct cell types of a tumor may identify additional opportunities for FGF-targeted compounds in therapy and could help combat drug resistance. Developmental Dynamics 246:493-501, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling in neurogenesis and neurodegeneration.
Woodbury Maya E,Ikezu Tsuneya
Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), also known as basic FGF, is a multi-functional growth factor. One of the 22-member FGF family, it signals through receptor tyrosine kinases encoding FGFR1-4. FGF2 activates FGFRs in cooperation with heparin or heparin sulfate proteoglycan to induce its pleiotropic effects in different tissues and organs, which include potent angiogenic effects and important roles in the differentiation and function of the central nervous system (CNS). FGF2 is crucial to development of the CNS, which explains its importance in adult neurogenesis. During development, high levels of FGF2 are detected from neurulation onwards. Moreover, developmental expression of FGF2 and its receptors is temporally and spatially regulated, concurring with development of specific brain regions including the hippocampus and substantia nigra pars compacta. In adult neurogenesis, FGF2 has been implicated based on its expression and regulation of neural stem and progenitor cells in the neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. FGFR1 signaling also modulates inflammatory signaling through the surface glycoprotein CD200, which regulates microglial activation. Because of its importance in adult neurogenesis and neuroinflammation, manipulation of FGF2/FGFR1 signaling has been a focus of therapeutic development for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and traumatic brain injury. Novel strategies include intranasal administration of FGF2, administration of an NCAM-derived FGFR1 agonist, and chitosan-based nanoparticles for the delivery of FGF2 in pre-clinical animal models. In this review, we highlight current research towards therapeutic interventions targeting FGF2/FGFR1 in neurodegenerative disorders.
Fibroblast growth factor 23.
Smith Edward R,McMahon Lawrence P,Holt Stephen G
Annals of clinical biochemistry
There is growing interest in the role of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) in various diseases of disordered mineral metabolism. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), where biochemical evidence of mineral disturbances is especially common, FGF23 measurement has been advocated as an early and sensitive marker for CKD-related bone disease. In this setting, FGF23 analysis may also improve the discrimination of risk of adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes and aid targeting of those patients that are likely to benefit from interventions. Nonetheless, while the physiological relevance of FGF23 in the control of mineral metabolism is now firmly established, relatively little attention has been paid to important preanalytical and analytical aspects of FGF23 measurement that may impact on its clinical utility. Here we review these issues and discuss the suitability of FGF23 testing strategies for routine clinical practice. The current 'state-of-the-art' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods for FGF23 measurement show poor agreement due to differences in FGF23 fragment detection, antibody specificity and calibration. Such analytical variability does not permit direct comparison of FGF23 measurements made with different assays and is likely to at least in part account for some of the inconsistencies noted between observational studies. From a clinical perspective, the lack of concordance has implications for the development of standardized reference intervals and clinical decision limits. Finally, the inherent assay-dependent biological variability of plasma FGF23 concentration can further complicate the interpretation of results and the design of FGF23-based testing protocols. Currently, it would be premature to consider incorporating FGF23 measurements into standard testing repertoires.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 actions in inflammation: a key factor in CKD outcomes.
Rossaint Jan,Unruh Mark,Zarbock Alexander
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
During chronic kidney disease (CKD), bone mineral metabolism is disturbed owing in part to the endogenous hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Elevated FGF23 levels are seen in CKD patients. Current research has demonstrated that FGF23 directly modulates the immune response and host defense to bacterial infections. FGF23 also impairs the activation and recruitment of neutrophils, which are the main immune effector cells required for host defense against bacterial infections. In addition, while FGF23 levels reduce leukocyte recruitment and functions, inflammatory conditions may also-in a reverse fashion-contribute to elevated FGF23 levels in the circulation. In this context, altered hypoxia inducible factor 1α signaling and iron metabolism may contribute to intact FGF23 (iFGF23) production. This review examines evidence on the role of FGF23 in inflammation, immune cell function and recruitment as well as the regulation of FGF23 during inflammation and the clinical implications of this process for the immune system in individuals with CKD. Clinical observations and laboratory investigations indicate an important role of FGF23 in directly modulating leukocyte activation and recruitment behavior with consequences on host defense against bacterial infections. This novel observation may in part explain the increased infectious risk among patients with CKD. However, studies of FGF23 neutralization also revealed increased mortality after sustained administration over several weeks in rats. Thus, therapeutic interventions targeting FGF23 must be carefully evaluated.
The role of basic fibroblast growth factor in glioblastoma multiforme and glioblastoma stem cells and in their in vitro culture.
Haley Elizabeth M,Kim Yonghyun
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant form of central nervous system tumor, and current therapies are largely ineffective at treating the cancer. Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanisms controlling the tumor is important in order to explore new possible treatment options. It is speculated that the presence of glioblastoma stem or stem-like cells (GSCs), a rare type of pluripotent cancer cell that possesses the ability to self-renew and generate tumors, could be an important factor contributing to the resistance to treatment and deadliness of the cancer. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the expression and properties of GSCs is currently lacking, and one promising area for further exploration is in the influence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) on GSCs. Recent studies reveal that FGF-2 plays a significant part in regulating GBM, and the growth factor is commonly included as a supplement in media used to culture GSCs in vitro. However, the particular role that FGF-2 plays in GSCs has not been as extensively explored. Therefore, understanding how FGF-2 is involved in GSCs and in GBMs could be an important step towards a more complete comprehension of the managing the disease. In this review, we look at the structure, signaling pathways, and specific role of FGF-2 in GBM and GSCs. In addition, we explore the use of FGF-2 in cell culture and using its synthetic analogs as a potential alternative to the growth factor in culture medium.
Fibroblast growth factor 21: a regulator of metabolic disease and health span.
Xie Ting,Leung Po Sing
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a potent endocrine regulator with physiological effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and thus garners much attention for its translational potential for the management of obesity and related metabolic syndromes. FGF21 is mainly expressed in several metabolically active tissue organs, such as the liver, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, with profound effects and therapeutic relevance. Emerging experimental and clinical data point to the demonstrated metabolic benefits of FGF21, which include, but are not limited to, weight loss, glucose and lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. In addition, FGF21 also acts directly through its coreceptor β-klotho in the brain to alter light-dark cycle activity. In this review, we critically appraise current advances in understanding the physiological actions of FGF21 and its role as a biomarker of various metabolic diseases, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus. We also discuss the potentially exciting role of FGF21 in improving our health and prolonging our life span. This information will provide a fuller understanding for further research into FGF21, as well as providing a scientific basis for potentially establishing health care guidelines for this promising molecule.
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23: A Novel Biomarker for Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.
Prilozi (Makedonska akademija na naukite i umetnostite. Oddelenie za medicinski nauki)
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF)-23 increase is considered one of the earliest biochemical abnormalities in chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Furthermore, accumulating data have provided evidence of a link between increased FGF-23 levels and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients as well as in several other populations including cardiology patients and general population. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the deleterious effect of FGF-23 on the cardiovascular system are not yet completely defined and are the focus of intense research. However, animal and human studies have demonstrated important actions of FGF-23 in the heart and vessels through which could promote the development of cardiovascular complications in uremia. Moreover, significant interactions have been reported between FGF-23 and other well recognized cardiovascular risk factors such as renin-angiotensin system and inflammation which could account, at least in part, for the observed associations between FGF-23 and adverse clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the pleiotropic actions of FGF-23 and moreover to identify whether it is a modifiable risk factor and a potential target of therapeutic interventions which could probably help to reduce the unacceptably high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Signaling in Breast Cancer.
Lei Haipeng,Deng Chu-Xia
International journal of biological sciences
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling for FGFs. Recent studies detected various point mutations of FGFR2 in multiple types of cancers, including breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, uterine cancer and ovarian cancer, yet the casual relationship between these mutations and tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we will discuss possible interactions between FGFR2 signaling and several major pathways through which the aberrantly activated FGFR2 signaling may result in breast cancer development. We will also discuss some recent developments in the discovery and application of therapies and strategies for breast cancers by inhibiting FGFR2 activities.
Dietary and pharmacological modification of fibroblast growth factor-23 in chronic kidney disease.
Adema Aaltje Y,de Borst Martin H,Ter Wee Piet M,Vervloet Marc G,
Journal of renal nutrition : the official journal of the Council on Renal Nutrition of the National Kidney Foundation
Increased levels of phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are strong predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. From a physiological perspective and supported by some data, phosphorus is the main driver for FGF-23 secretion. Therefore, it is conceivable that interventions aiming at restriction of phosphorus uptake from the gastrointestinal tract may lower serum FGF-23 levels and improve cardiovascular risk and subsequently survival. It is not currently known to what extend phosphorus and FGF-23 are independent risk factors, and therefore both need to be targeted. However, their respective metabolisms are tightly connected. Control of phosphorus levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is attempted mainly by restriction of dietary intake and the use of phosphorus binders. In this review, it is outlined that not just the amount of dietary phosphorus intake is important but also its type (organic vs. inorganic), its source (animal vs. plant derived), and the protein-to-phosphorus ratio in the bioavailability of phosphorus from food. This qualitative aspect of diet is likely a neglected aspect of dietary counseling in CKD. However, in more advanced stages of CKD, dietary restriction of phosphorus alone is usually not sufficient to control hyperphosphatemia, and phosphorus binders are indicated. The inexpensive, calcium-containing dietary phosphorus binders are used commonly worldwide. However, they are not suitable for every patient because of the association with elevated serum calcium, increase in vascular and valvular calcification scores, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. The calcium content itself in these binders has recently been implicated to upregulate FGF-23. For that reason, the noncalcium, aluminum-free agents such as sevelamer and lanthanum are being advocated. However, these drugs do not have a clearly defined effect on circulating levels of FGF-23. Although it is conceivable that targeting FGF-23 may lead to improved clinical outcomes, this remains speculative. Therefore, more studies are needed to answer the question if this can be achieved with any of the phosphorus binders, or by another (additional) pharmacological intervention.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21-Metabolic Role in Mice and Men.
Staiger Harald,Keuper Michaela,Berti Lucia,Hrabe de Angelis Martin,Häring Hans-Ulrich
Since its identification in 2000, the interest of scientists in the hepatokine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 has tremendously grown, and still remains high, due to a wealth of very robust data documenting this factor's favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. For more than ten years now, intense in vivo and ex vivo experimentation addressed the physiological functions of FGF21 in humans as well as its pathophysiological role and pharmacological effects in human metabolic disease. This work produced a comprehensive collection of data revealing overlaps in FGF21 expression and function but also significant differences between mice and humans that have to be considered before translation from bench to bedside can be successful. This review summarizes what is known about FGF21 in mice and humans with a special focus on this factor's role in glucose and lipid metabolism and in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We highlight the discrepancies between mice and humans and try to decipher their underlying reasons.
Fibroblast growth factor 21, the endocrine FGF pathway and novel treatments for metabolic syndrome.
Zhang Jun,Li Yang
Drug discovery today
Diabetes and associated metabolic conditions have reached pandemic proportions worldwide, and there is a clear unmet medical need for effective and safe therapies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 is an atypical member of the FGF family. The ability of FGF21 to normalize glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis has attracted considerable interest as a potential therapeutic for treating diabetes and obesity. Many different engineering approaches have successfully improved the plasma half life, protein stability and solubility, as well as 'manufacturability' of FGF21. Novel approaches such as agonist antibodies to FGF21 receptor complexes have opened new opportunities previously unavailable. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the functions, target tissues and receptors for FGF21. Furthermore, it provides an up-to-date appraisal of the approaches on therapeutic development targeting this pathway.
Definitive surgical treatment of osteomalacia induced by skull base tumor and determination of the half-life of serum fibroblast growth factor 23.
Hana Taijun,Tanaka Shota,Nakatomi Hirofumi,Shojima Masaaki,Fukumoto Seiji,Ikemura Masako,Saito Nobuhito
Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome often associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-producing tumors such as phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) affecting the bone and soft tissue. We experienced a patient with progressive bone and muscle pain due to FGF23-related TIO. Venous sampling had strongly suggested the anterior skull base as a source of FGF23, which led to the discovery of a small tumor in the ethmoid sinus extending intracranially. Radical surgical resection confirmed the histological diagnosis of PMTMCT with FGF23 immunopositivity and achieved durable tumor control with complete resolution of symptoms. We serially measured serum FGF23 level before, during and after surgery and analyzed the data to determine the half-life of FGF23. Serum FGF23 level sharply declined as early as 20 minutes after en bloc tumor resection and completely normalized after surgery. The half-life of FGF23 was calculated to be approximately 18.5 minutes using single phase exponential decay model as well as semilog transformation formula. Serial measurements of serum FGF23 level can potentially declare "complete" resection of a FGF23-producing tumor and total cure of TIO; in this regard, development of its intraoperative measurement would be helpful in the management of this endocrine tumor.
Imaging of Skeletal Disorders Caused by Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations.
Sargar Kiran M,Singh Achint K,Kao Simon C
Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play important roles in human axial and craniofacial skeletal development. FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 are crucial for both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Mutations in the genes encoding FGFRs, types 1-3, are responsible for various skeletal dysplasias and craniosynostosis syndromes. Many of these disorders are relatively common in the pediatric population, and diagnosis is often challenging. These skeletal disorders can be classified based on which FGFR is affected. Skeletal disorders caused by type 1 mutations include Pfeiffer syndrome (PS) and osteoglophonic dysplasia, and disorders caused by type 2 mutations include Crouzon syndrome (CS), Apert syndrome (AS), and PS. Disorders caused by type 3 mutations include achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans, Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome, and Muenke syndrome. Most of these mutations are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and are gain-of-function-type mutations. Imaging plays a key role in the evaluation of these skeletal disorders. Knowledge of the characteristic imaging and clinical findings can help confirm the correct diagnosis and guide the appropriate molecular genetic tests. Some characteristics and clinical findings include premature fusion of cranial sutures and deviated broad thumbs and toes in PS; premature fusion of cranial sutures and syndactyly of the hands and feet in AS; craniosynostosis, ocular proptosis, and absence of hand and foot abnormalities in CS; rhizomelic limb shortening, caudal narrowing of the lumbar interpediculate distance, small and square iliac wings, and trident hands in achondroplasia; and micromelia, bowing of the femora, and platyspondyly in TD. RSNA, 2017.
The molecular mechanism underlying unconventional secretion of Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 from tumour cells.
Steringer Julia P,Nickel Walter
Biology of the cell
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent cell survival factor involved in tumour-induced angiogenesis. FGF2 is secreted from cells through an unconventional secretory mechanism based upon direct translocation across the plasma membrane. The molecular mechanism underlying this process depends on a surprisingly small set of trans-acting factors that are physically associated with the plasma membrane. FGF2 membrane translocation is mediated by the ability of FGF2 to oligomerise and to insert into the plasma membrane in a PI(4,5)P -dependent manner. Membrane-inserted FGF2 oligomers are dynamic translocation intermediates that are disassembled at the extracellular leaflet mediated by membrane proximal heparan sulphate proteoglycans. This process results in the exposure of FGF2 on cell surfaces as part of its unconventional mechanism of secretion. Although the trans-acting factors and cis-elements in FGF2 required for unconventional secretion have been known for a while, the core mechanism of this mysterious process has now been reconstituted with purified components establishing the molecular basis of FGF2 secretion from tumour cells.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 () Mutation Related Syndromic Craniosynostosis.
Azoury Saïd C,Reddy Sashank,Shukla Vivek,Deng Chu-Xia
International journal of biological sciences
Craniosynostosis results from the premature fusion of cranial sutures, with an incidence of 1 in 2,100-2,500 live births. The majority of cases are non-syndromic and involve single suture fusion, whereas syndromic cases often involve complex multiple suture fusion. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 () gene is perhaps the most extensively studied gene that is mutated in various craniosynostotic syndromes including Crouzon, Apert, Pfeiffer, Antley-Bixler, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata, Jackson-Weiss, Bent Bone Dysplasia, and Seathre-Chotzen-like syndromes. The majority of these mutations are missense mutations that result in constitutive activation of the receptor and downstream molecular pathways. Treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach with ultimate surgical fixation of the cranial deformity to prevent further sequelae. Understanding the molecular mechanisms has allowed for the investigation of different therapeutic agents that can potentially be used to prevent the disorders. Further research efforts are need to better understand screening and effective methods of early intervention and prevention. Herein, the authors provide a comprehensive update on related syndromic craniosynostosis.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 as an Antifibrotic: Antagonism of Myofibroblast Differentiation and Suppression of Pro-Fibrotic Gene Expression.
Dolivo David M,Larson Sara A,Dominko Tanja
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
Fibrosis is a pathological condition that is characterized by the replacement of dead or damaged tissue with a nonfunctional, mechanically aberrant scar, and fibrotic pathologies account for nearly half of all deaths worldwide. The causes of fibrosis differ somewhat from tissue to tissue and pathology to pathology, but in general some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain constant regardless of the specific pathology in question. One of the common mechanisms underlying fibroses is the paradigm of the activated fibroblast, termed the "myofibroblast," a differentiated mesenchymal cell with demonstrated contractile activity and a high rate of collagen deposition. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), one of the members of the mammalian fibroblast growth factor family, is a cytokine with demonstrated antifibrotic activity in non-human animal, human, and in vitro models. FGF2 is highly pleiotropic and its receptors are present on many different cell types throughout the body, lending a great deal of variety to the potential mechanisms of FGF2 effects on fibrosis. However, recent reports demonstrate that a substantial contribution to the antifibrotic effects of FGF2 comes from the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on connective tissue fibroblasts, activated myofibroblasts, and myofibroblast progenitors. FGF2 demonstrates effects antagonistic towards fibroblast activation and towards mesenchymal transition of potential myofibroblast-forming cells, as well as promotes a gene expression paradigm more reminiscent of regenerative healing, such as that which occurs in the fetal wound healing response, than fibrotic resolution. With a better understanding of the mechanisms by which FGF2 alters the wound healing cascade and results in a shift away from scar formation and towards functional tissue regeneration, we may be able to further address the critical need of therapy for varied fibrotic pathologies across myriad tissue types.
Pathophysiological implications of fibroblast growth factor-23 and Klotho and their potential role as clinical biomarkers.
Donate-Correa Javier,Muros de Fuentes Mercedes,Mora-Fernández Carmen,Navarro-González Juan F
BACKGROUND:Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and Klotho constitute the main regulatory system of phosphorus homeostasis. Beyond this physiological role, there is growing evidence suggesting that this system has relevant pathophysiological implications in different clinical processes. CONTENT:In this review we discuss the pathophysiological implications of the FGF-23/Klotho system and the potential utility that measurements of its components may have as clinical biomarkers in different clinical settings, such as progression of chronic kidney disease, acute renal failure, and secondary hyperparathyroidism, as well as vascular dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We outline and discuss the current commercially available assays for determination of FGF-23 and Klotho and the assay limitations that must be overcome to translate these biomarkers into reliable indicators in clinical practice. SUMMARY:In addition to its physiological role, the FGF-23/Klotho system appears to provide important information regarding the pathophysiology of several clinical conditions. Although there has been increasing study of the components of this new biological system and their potential use as clinical biomarkers, the ultimate value of this system in clinical practice will not be known until remaining assay limitations can be overcome and adequately designed studies have been conducted to demonstrate its clinical utility.
Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 splicing in normal and cancer cells.
Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition)
Types 1-4 of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are all expressed in various cancers. Because of its prominent role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, FGFR-2, is being considered as a novel target in cancer treatment. Owing to the alternative splicing of its extracellular domain, FGFR-2 exists in two variants: IIIb and IIIc. FGFR-2 IIIb is mainly expressed in normal epithelial cells, as well as in oral mucosal, esophageal, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, pulmonary, breast, endometrial, cervical, and prostate cancers. The IIIc variant of FGFR is expressed in mesenchymal cells, and during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is expressed in colorectal, pancreatic, bladder, cervical, and prostate cancers. The FGFR IIIb and IIIc variants bind different forms of FGFs and exert autocrine and/or paracrine effects in cancers. Recent reports indicate that switching from IIIb to IIIc variants correlates with the aggressiveness of the cancers via EMT. Here, we discuss the expression, role, and regulatory mechanisms of IIIb and IIIc variants of FGFR in cancers.
The fibroblast growth factor 8 family in the female reproductive tract.
Estienne Anthony,Price Christopher A
Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
Several growth factor families have been shown to be involved in the function of the female reproductive tract. One subfamily of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, namely the FGF8 subfamily (including FGF17 and FGF18), has become important as Fgf8 has been described as an oocyte-derived factor essential for glycolysis in mouse cumulus cells and aberrant expression of has been described in ovarian and endometrial cancers. In this review, we describe the pattern of expression of these factors in normal ovaries and uteri in rodents, ruminants and humans, as well as the expression of their receptors and intracellular negative feedback regulators. Expression of these molecules in gynaecological cancers is also reviewed. The role of FGF8 and FGF18 in ovarian and uterine function is described, and potential differences between rodents and ruminants have been highlighted especially with respect to FGF18 signalling within the ovarian follicle. Finally, we identify major questions about the reproductive biology of FGFs that remain to be answered, including (1) the physiological concentrations within the ovary and uterus, (2) which cell types within the endometrial stroma and theca layer express FGFs and (3) which receptors are activated by FGF8 subfamily members in reproductive tissues.
Targeting Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Signaling with Antibodies and Inhibitors, Is There a Rationale?
Frontiers in endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphotropic hormone mainly produced by bone. FGF23 reduces serum phosphate by suppressing intestinal phosphate absorption through reducing 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption. Excessive actions of FG23 result in several kinds of hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and tumor-induced osteomalacia. While neutral phosphate and active vitamin D are standard therapies for child patients with XLH, these medications have several limitations both in their effects and adverse events. Several approaches that inhibit FGF23 actions including anti-FGF23 antibodies and inhibitors of FGF signaling have been shown to improve phenotypes of model mice for FG23-related hypophosphatemic diseases. In addition, clinical trials indicated that a humanized anti-FGF23 antibody increased serum phosphate and improved quality of life in patients with XLH. Furthermore, circulatory FGF23 is high in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Many epidemiological studies indicated the association between high FGF23 levels and various adverse events especially in patients with CKD. However, it is not known whether the inhibition of FGF23 activities in patients with CKD is beneficial for these patients. In this review, recent findings concerning the modulation of FGF23 activities are discussed.
Biology of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23: From Physiology to Pathology.
Courbebaisse Marie,Lanske Beate
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a phosphaturic hormone produced by osteocytes and osteoblasts that binds to FGF receptors in the presence of the transmembrane protein αKlotho. FGF23 mainly targets the renal proximal tubule to inhibit calcitriol production and the expression of the sodium/phosphate cotransporters NaPi2a and NaPi2c, thus inhibiting renal phosphate reabsorption. FGF23 also acts on the parathyroid glands to inhibit parathyroid hormone synthesis and secretion. FGF23 regulation involves many systemic and local factors, among them calcitriol, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. Increased FGF23 is primarily observed in rare acquired or genetic disorders, but chronic kidney disease is associated with a reactional increase in FGF23 to combat hyperphosphatemia. However, high FGF23 levels induce left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and are associated with an increased risk of mortality. In this review, we describe FGF23 physiology and the pathological consequences of high or low FGF23 levels.
Physiological Actions of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23.
Erben Reinhold G
Frontiers in endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone suppressing phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D hormone synthesis in the kidney. At physiological concentrations of the hormone, the endocrine actions of FGF23 in the kidney are αKlotho-dependent, because high-affinity binding of FGF23 to FGF receptors requires the presence of the co-receptor αKlotho on target cells. It is well established that excessive concentrations of intact FGF23 in the blood lead to phosphate wasting in patients with normal kidney function. Based on the importance of diseases associated with gain of FGF23 function such as phosphate-wasting diseases and chronic kidney disease, a large body of literature has focused on the pathophysiological consequences of FGF23 excess. Less emphasis has been put on the role of FGF23 in normal physiology. Nevertheless, during recent years, lessons we have learned from loss-of-function models have shown that besides the paramount physiological roles of FGF23 in the control of 1α-hydroxylase expression and of apical membrane expression of sodium-phosphate co-transporters in proximal renal tubules, FGF23 also is an important stimulator of calcium and sodium reabsorption in distal renal tubules. In addition, there is an emerging role of FGF23 as an auto-/paracrine regulator of alkaline phosphatase expression and mineralization in bone. In contrast to the renal actions of FGF23, the FGF23-mediated suppression of alkaline phosphatase in bone is αKlotho-independent. Moreover, FGF23 may be a physiological suppressor of differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into the erythroid lineage in the bone microenvironment. At present, there is little evidence for a physiological role of FGF23 in organs other than kidney and bone. The purpose of this mini-review is to highlight the current knowledge about the complex physiological functions of FGF23.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 and Its Receptors in Bone Biology and Disease.
Coffin J Douglas,Homer-Bouthiette Collin,Hurley Marja Marie
Journal of the Endocrine Society
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) regulatory axis is phylogenetically ancient, evolving into a large mammalian/human gene family of 22 ligands that bind to four receptor tyrosine kinases for a complex physiologic system controlling cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. The tissue targets for the primary FGF function are mainly in cartilage and in bone for morphogenesis, mineralization, and metabolism. A multitude of complexities in the FGF ligand-receptor signaling pathways have made translation into therapies for FGF-related bone disorders such as osteomalacia, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis difficult but not impossible.
Role of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Innate Immune Responses.
Fitzpatrick Elizabeth A,Han Xiaobin,Xiao Zhousheng,Quarles L Darryl
Frontiers in endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is a bone-derived hormone that activates FGFR/α-Klotho binary complexes in the kidney renal tubules to regulate phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism. The objective of this review is to discuss the emerging data that show that FGF-23 has functions beyond regulation of mineral metabolism, including roles in innate immune and hemodynamic responses. Excess FGF-23 is associated with inflammation and adverse infectious outcomes, as well as increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease. Enhancer elements in the FGF-23 promoter have been identified that mediate the effects of inflammatory cytokines to stimulate FGF-23 gene transcription in bone. In addition, inflammation induces ectopic expression of FGF-23 and α-Klotho in macrophages that do not normally express FGF-23 or its binary receptor complexes. These observations suggest that FGF-23 may play an important role in regulating innate immunity through multiple potential mechanisms. Circulating FGF-23 acts as a counter-regulatory hormone to suppress 1,25D production in the proximal tubule of the kidney. Since vitamin D deficiency may predispose infectious and cardiovascular diseases, FGF-23 effects on innate immune responses may be due to suppression of 1,25D production. Alternatively, systemic and locally produced FGF-23 may modulate immune functions through direct interactions with myeloid cells, including macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes to impair immune cell functions. Short-acting small molecules that reversibly inhibit FGF-23 offer the potential to block pro-inflammatory and cardiotoxic effects of FGF-23 with less side effects compared with FGF-23 blocking antibodies that have the potential to cause hyperphosphatemia and soft tissue calcifications in animal models. In conclusion, there are several mechanisms by which FGF-23 impacts the innate immune system and further investigation is critical for the development of therapies to treat diseases associated with elevated FGF-23.
Fibroblast growth factor receptors: multifactorial-contributors to tumor initiation and progression.
Feng Shachuan,Zhou Li,Nice Edouard Collins,Huang Canhua
Histology and histopathology
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), encoded by four genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) are tightly associated with many biological processes such as organ development, cell proliferation and migration. Studies over the past decades have validated the pivotal roles FGFRs play in tumorigenesis due to the regulation of diverse tumorigenesis-related processes, including cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, FGFR mutations in somatic cells leading to tumorigenesis and those in germ cells leading to developmental disorders are identical, suggesting that FGFR mutations result in different diseases due to their spatio-temporal expression. Thus, discoveries in developmental biology may also be applicable to cancer. FGFRs regulate the expression and/or the activity of a myriad of molecules (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Snail) that are tightly linked to tumorigenesis by four main signaling pathways (RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ-PIP2, and STAT), as well as other minor branches. Epigenetic and genetic alteration of FGFR genes, including DNA methylation, histone remodeling, microRNA regulation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene missense mutations, amplification, and fusion of FGFRs with other genes, which result in gain or loss of FGFR function, have been identified in many types of cancer. In this review, we focus in particular on recent advances in the relationship between FGFR disorders and tumorigenesis.
Regeneration of the tympanic membrane using fibroblast growth factor-2.
Lou Z-C,Lou Z-H,Xiao J
The Journal of laryngology and otology
OBJECTIVE:A systematic review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of fibroblast growth factor-2 on the regeneration of tympanic membrane perforation. METHODS:The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies. Experimental studies, human randomised controlled trials, prospective single-arm studies and retrospective studies reporting acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforations in relation to two healing outcomes (success rate and closure time), were selected. RESULTS:All 11 clinical studies investigating the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 on traumatic tympanic membrane perforations in humans reported a success rate of 89.3-100 per cent, with a closure time of around 2 weeks. Three studies of fibroblast growth factor-2 combined with Gelfoam showed that the success rate of chronic tympanic membrane perforation was 83-98.1 per cent in the fibroblast growth factor-2 group, but 10 per cent in the gelatine sponge groups. CONCLUSION:Fibroblast growth factor-2 with or without biological material patching promotes regeneration in cases of acute and chronic tympanic membrane perforation, and is safe and efficient. However, the best dosage, application time and administration pathway of fibroblast growth factor-2 are still to be elucidated.
α-Klotho's effects on mineral homeostasis are fibroblast growth factor-23 dependent.
Erben Reinhold G
Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:α-Klotho (Klotho) occurs in three isoforms, a membrane-bound form acting as a coreceptor for fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) signalling, a shed soluble form consisting of Klotho's large ectodomain thought to act as an enzyme or a hormone, and a secreted truncated form generated by alternative splicing of the Klotho mRNA with unknown function. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in our understanding of Klotho's function in mineral homeostasis. RECENT FINDINGS:A number of seminal discoveries have recently been made in this area, shifting existing paradigms. The crystal structure of the ternary FGF receptor (FGFR)-1c/Klotho/FGF23 complex has been uncovered, revealing how the ligand FGF23 interacts with FGFR1c and the coreceptor Klotho at atomic resolution. Furthermore, it was shown that soluble Klotho lacks any glycosidase activity and serves as a bona fide coreceptor for FGF23 signalling. Experiments with a combination of Klotho and Fgf23-deficient mouse models demonstrated that all isoforms of Klotho lack any physiologically relevant, FGF23-independent functions in mineral homeostasis or ageing. Finally, it was demonstrated that the alternatively spliced Klotho mRNA is degraded and is not translated into a secreted Klotho protein isoform in humans. SUMMARY:Taken together, there is now overwhelming evidence that the main physiological function of transmembrane and soluble Klotho for mineral homeostasis is their role as coreceptors mediating FGF23 actions. In light of these findings, the main pathophysiological consequence of the downregulation of Klotho observed in acute and chronic renal failure may be the induction of renal FGF23 resistance.
Current Status of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-Targeted Therapies in Breast Cancer.
Sobhani Navid,Ianza Anna,D'Angelo Alberto,Roviello Giandomenico,Giudici Fabiola,Bortul Marina,Zanconati Fabrizio,Bottin Cristina,Generali Daniele
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy and second only to lung cancer in terms of mortality in women. Despite the incredible progress made in this field, metastatic breast cancer has a poor prognosis. In an era of personalized medicine, there is an urgent need for better knowledge of the biology leading to the disease, which can lead to the design of increasingly accurate drugs against patients' specific molecular aberrations. Among one of the actionable targets is the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway, triggered by specific ligands. The Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors/Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFRs/FGFs) axis offers interesting molecular targets to be pursued in clinical development. This mini-review will focus on the current knowledge of FGFR mutations, which lead to tumor formation and summarizes the state-of-the-art therapeutic strategies for targeted treatments against the FGFRs/FGFs axis in the context of BC.
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 and Risks of Cardiovascular and Noncardiovascular Diseases: A Meta-Analysis.
Marthi Amarnath,Donovan Killian,Haynes Richard,Wheeler David C,Baigent Colin,Rooney Christopher M,Landray Martin J,Moe Sharon M,Yang Jun,Holland Lisa,di Giuseppe Romina,Bouma-de Krijger Annet,Mihaylova Borislava,Herrington William G
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) has been hypothesized to play a role in the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD. We identified prospective studies reporting associations between FGF-23 concentration and risk of cardiovascular events. Maximally adjusted risk ratios (RRs) were extracted for each outcome and scaled to a comparison of the top versus bottom third of the baseline FGF-23 concentration, and the results aggregated. Depending on the assay used, median FGF-23 concentrations were 43-74 RU/ml and 38-47 pg/ml in 17 general population cohorts; 102-392 RU/ml in nine cohorts of patients with CKD not requiring dialysis; and 79-4212 RU/ml and 2526-5555 pg/ml in eight cohorts of patients on dialysis. Overall, comparing participants in the top and bottom FGF-23 concentration thirds, the summary RRs (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) were 1.33 (1.12 to 1.58) for myocardial infarction, 1.26 (1.13 to 1.41) for stroke, 1.48 (1.29 to 1.69) for heart failure, 1.42 (1.27 to 1.60) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.70 (1.52 to 1.91) for all-cause mortality. The summary RR for noncardiovascular mortality, calculated indirectly, was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.28 to 1.79). When studies were ordered by average differences in FGF-23 concentration between the top and bottom thirds, there was no trend in RRs across the studies. The similarly-sized associations between increased FGF-23 concentration and cardiovascular (atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic) and noncardiovascular outcomes, together with the absence of any exposure-response relationship, suggest that the relationship between FGF-23 and cardiovascular disease risk may be noncausal.
Structural Alterations in Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Carcinogenesis.
Mikhaylenko D S,Alekseev B Y,Zaletaev D V,Goncharova R I,Nemtsova M V
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays an important role in human embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Carcinogenesis is accompanied by aberrant constitutive activation of FGF receptors (FGFRs) resulting from missense mutation in the FGFR1-4 genes, generation of chimeric oncogenes, FGFR1-4 gene amplification, alternative splicing shift toward formation of mesenchymal FGFR isoforms, and FGFR overexpression. Altogether, these alterations contribute to auto- and paracrine stimulation of cancer cells and neoangiogenesis. Certain missense mutations are found at a high rate in urinary bladder cancer and can be used for non-invasive cancer recurrence diagnostics by analyzing urine cell pellet DNA. Chimeric FGFR1/3 and amplified FGFR1/2 genes can predict cell response to the targeted therapy in various oncological diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing has been used to analyze exomes of virtually all human tumors, which allowed to construct phylogenetic trees of clonal cancer evolution with special emphasis on driver mutations in FGFR1-4 genes. At present, FGFR blockers, such as multi-kinase inhibitors, specific FGFR inhibitors, and FGF ligand traps are being tested in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss current data on the functioning of the FGFR family proteins in both normal and cancer cells, mutations in the FGFR1-4 genes, and mechanisms underlying their oncogenic potential, which might be interesting to a broad range of scientists searching for specific tumor markers and targeted anti-cancer drugs.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 21: A Versatile Regulator of Metabolic Homeostasis.
BonDurant Lucas D,Potthoff Matthew J
Annual review of nutrition
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine hormone derived from the liver that exerts pleiotropic effects on the body to maintain overall metabolic homeostasis. During the past decade, there has been an enormous effort made to understand the physiological roles of FGF21 in regulating metabolism and to identify the mechanism for its potent pharmacological effects to reverse diabetes and obesity. Through both human and rodent studies, it is now evident that FGF21 levels are dynamically regulated by nutrient sensing, and consequently FGF21 functions as a critical regulator of nutrient homeostasis. In addition, recent studies using new genetic and molecular tools have provided critical insight into the actions of this endocrine factor. This review examines the numerous functions of FGF21 and highlights the therapeutic potential of FGF21-targeted pathways for treating metabolic disease.
Unconventional secretion of fibroblast growth factor 2--a novel type of protein translocation across membranes?
Steringer Julia P,Müller Hans-Michael,Nickel Walter
Journal of molecular biology
N-terminal signal peptides are a hallmark of the vast majority of soluble secretory proteins that are transported along the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent pathway. They are recognized by signal recognition particle, a process that initiates membrane translocation into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum followed by vesicular transport to the cell surface and release into the extracellular space. Beyond this well-established mechanism of protein secretion from eukaryotic cells, a number of extracellular proteins with critical physiological functions in immune surveillance and tissue organization are known to be secreted in a manner independent of signal recognition particle. Such processes have collectively been termed "unconventional protein secretion" and, while known for more than two decades, their underlying mechanisms are only beginning to emerge. Different types of unconventional secretory mechanisms have been described with the best-characterized example being based on direct translocation of cytoplasmic proteins across plasma membranes. The aim of this review is to critically assess our current knowledge of this type of unconventional secretion focusing on fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) as the most established example.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and implications for therapy.
Liu Jia,Xu Yuan,Hu Yanjin,Wang Guang
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a cluster of liver disorders ranging from simple fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Due to its liver and vascular complications, NAFLD has become a public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is considered a "multi-hit hypothesis" that involves lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, a chronic inflammatory state and mitochondrial dysfunction. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family with multiple metabolic functions. FGF21 directly regulates lipid metabolism and reduces hepatic lipid accumulation in an insulin-independent manner. Several studies have shown that FGF21 can ameliorate the "multi-hits" in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The administration of FGF21 reverses hepatic steatosis, counteracts obesity and alleviates insulin resistance in rodents and nonhuman primates. Using several strategies, we show that the reversal of simple fatty liver and NASH is mediated by activation of the FGF21 signaling pathway. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and/or progression of NAFLD, and review the current literature to highlight the therapeutic procedures associated with the FGF21 signaling pathway for simple fatty liver and NASH, which are the two most important types of NAFLD.
Clinical outcomes of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement.
Umino Kento,Fujiwara Shin-Ichiro,Ikeda Takashi,Toda Yumiko,Ito Shoko,Mashima Kiyomi,Minakata Daisuke,Nakano Hirofumi,Yamasaki Ryoko,Kawasaki Yasufumi,Sugimoto Miyuki,Yamamoto Chihiro,Ashizawa Masahiro,Hatano Kaoru,Sato Kazuya,Oh Iekuni,Ohmine Ken,Muroi Kazuo,Kanda Yoshinobu
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVE:Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, but no established standard therapy. METHODS:We experienced a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) associated with FGFR1 rearrangement who underwent cord blood transplantation, but died of pulmonary complication. We collected the clinical data of patients with FGFR1 rearrangement from the medical literature and analyzed 45 patients, including our patient. RESULTS:The primary diagnoses were myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in 14 and acute leukemia or LBL in 31. In MPN and MDS patients, the cumulative incidence of transformation to blast phase (BP) at 12 months was 46.2%. The 1-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis in all cases was 43.1%. With regard to the impact of treatment response on survival, the achievement of complete response with a landmark at 2 months after diagnosis of BP was associated with a superior OS (40.0% vs. 26.0% P = 0.011 for 1-year OS from BP). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in 13 patients, and the 1-year OS from allogeneic HSCT was 61.5%. The hazard ratio for mortality was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.08-1.51, P = 0.15) for allogeneic HSCT treated as a time-dependent covariate, which suggests that allogeneic HSCT may confer a clinical benefit. CONCLUSION:The further accumulation of clinical data is needed to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) mutation: a report of two affected families and review of the literature.
Chakhtoura M,Ramnitz M S,Khoury N,Nemer G,Shabb N,Abchee A,Berberi A,Hourani M,Collins M,Ichikawa S,El Hajj Fuleihan G
Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC), secondary to fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) gene mutation, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent calcified masses. We describe young Lebanese cousins presenting with HFTC, based on a retrospective chart review and a prospective case study. In addition, we present a comprehensive review on the topic, based on a literature search conducted in PubMed and Google Scholar, in 2014 and updated in December 2017. While the patients had the same previously reported FGF23 gene mutation (homozygous c.G367T variant in exon 3 leading to a missense mutation), they presented with variable severity and age of disease onset (at 4 years in patient 1 and at 23 years in patient 2). A review of the literature revealed several potential patho-physiologic pathways of HFTC clinical manifestations, some of which may be independent of hyperphosphatemia. Most available treatment options aim at reducing serum phosphate level, by stimulating renal excretion or by inhibiting intestinal absorption. HFTC is a challenging disease. While the available medical treatment has a limited and inconsistent effect on disease symptomatology, surgical resection of calcified masses remains the last resort. Research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of FGF23 replacement or molecular therapy, targeting the specific genetic aberration. Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent calcified masses, in addition to other visceral, skeletal, and vascular manifestations. It remains a very challenging disease.
Alterations in vitamin D metabolite, parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23 concentrations in sclerostin-deficient mice permit the maintenance of a high bone mass.
Ryan Zachary C,Craig Theodore A,McGee-Lawrence Meghan,Westendorf Jennifer J,Kumar Rajiv
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
Humans with mutations of the sclerostin (SOST) gene, and knockout animals in which the Sost gene has been experimentally deleted, exhibit an increase in bone mass. We review the mechanisms by which Sost knockout mice are able to accrete increased amounts of calcium and phosphorus required for the maintenance of a high bone mass. Recently published information from our laboratory, shows that bone mass is increased in Sost-deficient mice through an increase in osteoblast and a decrease in osteoclast activity, which is mediated by activation of β-catenin and an increase in prostacyclin synthesis in osteocytes and osteoblasts. The increases in calcium and phosphorus retention required for enhanced bone mineral accretion are brought about by changes in the vitamin D endocrine system, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). Thus, in Sost knockout mice, concentrations of serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are increased and concentrations of FGF-23 are decreased thereby allowing a positive calcium and phosphorus balance. Additionally, in the absence of Sost expression, urinary calcium is decreased, either through a direct effect of sclerostin on renal calcium handling, or through its effect on the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. Adaptations in vitamin D, PTH and FGF-23 physiology occur in the absence of sclerostin expression and mediate increased calcium and phosphorus retention required for the increase in bone mineralization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.
Careless talk costs lives: fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling and the consequences of pathway malfunction.
Carter Edward P,Fearon Abbie E,Grose Richard P
Trends in cell biology
Since its discovery 40 years ago, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR) signalling has been found to regulate fundamental cellular behaviours in a wide range of cell types. FGFRs regulate development, homeostasis, and repair and are implicated in many disorders and diseases; and indeed, there is extensive potential for severe consequences, be they developmental, homeostatic, or oncogenic, should FGF-FGFR signalling go awry, so careful control of the pathway is critically important. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in the FGF field, highlighting how FGFR signalling works in normal cells, how it can go wrong, how frequently it is compromised, and how it is being targeted therapeutically.
Angiogenesis after administration of basic fibroblast growth factor induces proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in elastic perichondrium in an in vivo model: mini review of three sequential republication-abridged reports.
Miyanaga Toru,Ueda Yoshimichi,Miyanaga Aiko,Yagishita Mikio,Hama Naoko
Cellular & molecular biology letters
To date, studies on mesenchymal tissue stem cells (MSCs) in the perichondrium have focused on in vitro analysis, and the dynamics of cartilage regeneration from the perichondrium in vivo remain largely unknown. We have attempted to apply cell and tissue engineering methodology for ear reconstruction using cultured chondrocytes. We hypothesized that by inducing angiogenesis with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), MSCs or cartilage precursor cells would proliferate and differentiate into cartilage in vivo and that the regenerated cartilage would maintain its morphology over an extended period. As a result of a single administration of bFGF to the perichondrium, cartilage tissue formed and proliferated while maintaining its morphology for at least 3 months. By day 3 post bFGF treatment, inflammatory cells, primarily comprising mononuclear cells, migrated to the perichondrial region, and the proliferation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 positive cells peaked. During week 1, the perichondrium thickened and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells was noted, along with an increase in the number of CD44-positive and CD90-positive cartilage MSCs/progenitor cells. Neocartilage was formed after 2 weeks, and hypertrophied mature cartilage was formed and maintained after 3 months. Proliferation of the perichondrium and cartilage was bFGF concentration-dependent and was inhibited by neutralizing antibodies. Angiogenesis induction by bFGF was blocked by the administration of an angiogenesis inhibitor, preventing perichondrium proliferation and neocartilage formation. These results suggested that angiogenesis may be important for the induction and differentiation of MSCs/cartilage precursor cells in vivo, and that morphological changes, once occurring, are maintained.
Unraveling the Connection between Fibroblast Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling.
Schliermann Anna,Nickel Joachim
International journal of molecular sciences
Ontogeny of higher organisms as well the regulation of tissue homeostasis in adult individuals requires a fine-balanced interplay of regulating factors that individually trigger the fate of particular cells to either stay undifferentiated or to differentiate towards distinct tissue specific lineages. In some cases, these factors act synergistically to promote certain cellular responses, whereas in other tissues the same factors antagonize each other. However, the molecular basis of this obvious dual signaling activity is still only poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are two major signal protein families that have a lot in common: They are both highly preserved between different species, involved in essential cellular functions, and their ligands vastly outnumber their receptors, making extensive signal regulation necessary. In this review we discuss where and how BMP and FGF signaling cross paths. The compiled data reflect that both factors synchronously act in many tissues, and that antagonism and synergism both exist in a context-dependent manner. Therefore, by challenging a generalization of the connection between these two pathways a new chapter in BMP FGF signaling research will be introduced.
Long Pentraxin-3 Modulates the Angiogenic Activity of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2.
Presta Marco,Foglio Eleonora,Churruca Schuind Ander,Ronca Roberto
Frontiers in immunology
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing ones, plays a key role in various physiological and pathological conditions. Alteration of the angiogenic balance, consequent to the deranged production of angiogenic growth factors and/or natural angiogenic inhibitors, is responsible for angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including cancer. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) represents the prototypic member of the FGF family, able to induce a complex "angiogenic phenotype" in endothelial cells and a potent neovascular response as the consequence of a tight cross talk between pro-inflammatory and angiogenic signals. The soluble pattern recognition receptor long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a member of the pentraxin family produced locally in response to inflammatory stimuli. Besides binding features related to its role in innate immunity, PTX3 interacts with FGF2 and other members of the FGF family via its N-terminal extension, thus inhibiting FGF-mediated angiogenic responses and . Accordingly, PTX3 inhibits the growth and vascularization of FGF-dependent tumors and FGF2-mediated smooth muscle cell proliferation and artery restenosis. Recently, the characterization of the molecular bases of FGF2/PTX3 interaction has allowed the identification of NSC12, the first low molecular weight pan-FGF trap able to inhibit FGF-dependent tumor growth and neovascularization. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of PTX3 and PTX3-derived molecules on the angiogenic, inflammatory, and tumorigenic activity of FGF2 and their potential implications for the development of more efficacious anti-FGF therapeutic agents to be used in those clinical settings in which FGFs play a pathogenic role.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 in Pancreas Development and Pancreatic Cancer.
Ndlovu Rodrick,Deng Lian-Cheng,Wu Jin,Li Xiao-Kun,Zhang Jin-San
Frontiers in genetics
The tenacious prevalence of human pancreatic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma has prompted huge research interest in better understanding of pancreatic organogenesis. The plethora of signaling pathways involved in pancreas development is activated in a highly coordinated manner to assure unmitigated development and morphogenesis in vertebrates. Therefore, a complex mesenchymal-epithelial signaling network has been implicated to play a pivotal role in organogenesis through its interactions with other germ layers, specifically the endoderm. The Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor FGFR2-IIIb splicing isoform (FGFR2b) and its high affinity ligand Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 (FGF10) are expressed in the epithelium and mesenchyme, respectively, and therefore are well positioned to transmit mesenchymal to epithelial signaling. FGF10 is a typical paracrine FGF and chiefly mediates biological responses by activating FGFR2b with heparin/heparan sulfate (HS) as cofactor. A substantial number of studies using genetically engineered mouse models have demonstrated an essential role of FGF10 in the development of many organs and tissues including the pancreas. During mouse embryonic development, FGF10 signaling is crucial for epithelial cell proliferation, maintenance of progenitor cell fate and branching morphogenesis in the pancreas. FGF10 is also implicated in pancreatic cancer, and that overexpression of FGFR2b is associated with metastatic invasion. A thorough understanding of FGF10 signaling machinery and its crosstalk with other pathways in development and pathological states may provide novel opportunities for pancreatic cancer targeted therapy and regenerative medicine.
Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in cancer.
Tang Shuya,Hao Yilong,Yuan Yao,Liu Rui,Chen Qianming
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) play a significant role in both embryonic development and in adults. Upon binding with ligands, FGFR signaling is activated and triggers various downstream signal cascades that are implicated in diverse biological processes. Aberrant regulations of FGFR signaling are detected in numerous cancers. Although FGFR4 was discovered later than other FGFR, information on the involvement of FGFR4 in cancers has significantly increased in recent years. In this review, the recent findings in FGFR4 structure, signaling transduction, physiological function, aberrant regulations, and effects in cancers as well as its potential applications as an anticancer therapeutic target are summarized.
Fibroblast growth factor-transforming growth factor beta dialogues, endothelial cell to mesenchymal transition, and atherosclerosis.
Chen Pei-Yu,Simons Michael
Current opinion in lipidology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Despite much effort, atherosclerosis remains an important public health problem, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of the role of endothelial cell fate change in atherosclerosis process. RECENT FINDINGS:Recent studies indicate that a process known as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) may play an important role in atherosclerosis development. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) has been shown to be an important driver of the endothelial cell phenotype transition. SUMMARY:The current review deals with the current state of knowledge regarding EndMT's role in atherosclerosis and its regulation by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-TGFβ cross-talk. A better understanding of FGF-TGFβ signaling in the regulation of endothelial cell phenotypes is key to the development of novel therapeutic agents.
Targeting fibroblast growth factor 19 in liver disease: a potential biomarker and therapeutic target.
Liu Wen-Yue,Xie Dong-Mei,Zhu Gui-Qi,Huang Gui-Qian,Lin Yi-Qian,Wang Li-Ren,Shi Ke-Qing,Hu Bin,Braddock Martin,Chen Yong-Ping,Zheng Ming-Hua
Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
INTRODUCTION:Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a member of the hormone-like FGF family and has activity as an ileum-derived postprandial hormone. It shares high binding affinity with β-Klotho and together with the FGF receptor (FGFR) 4, is predominantly targeted to the liver. The main function of FGF19 in metabolism is the negative control of bile acid synthesis, promotion of glycogen synthesis, lipid metabolism and protein synthesis. AREAS COVERED:Drawing on in vitro and in vivo studies, this review discusses FGF19 and some underlying mechanisms of action of FGF19 as an endocrine hormone in several liver diseases. The molecular pathway of the FGF19-FGFR4 axis in non-alcoholic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma are discussed. Furthermore, definition of function and pharmacological effects of FGF19 for liver disease are also presented. EXPERT OPINION:A series of studies have highlighted a crucial role of FGF19 in liver disease. However, the conclusions of these studies are partly paradoxical and controversial. An understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms which may explain inconsistent findings is especially important for consideration of potential biomarker strategies and an exploration of the putative therapeutic efficacy of FGF19 for human liver disease.
Higher Serum Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Levels and the Risk of Stroke and Its Subtypes: Evidence From a Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.
Yao Xi-Yang,Li Song,Zhang Li-Guo,Liu Zeng-Hui,Bao Jian-Nan,Wu Zhi-Yuan
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association
BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic studies have indicated conflicting associations of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) with the risk of stroke. To this end, a meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to assess the association. METHODS:Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases to March 23, 2018. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined with the fixed-effects model or random-effects model according to the degree of heterogeneity. Moreover, stratified analyses and sensitivity analysis were carried out for further analysis. RESULTS:Seven prospective studies involving 1988 stroke events among 18048 participants were eligible for our meta-analysis. The combined RRs for total stroke were 1.29 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.52) for the highest versus lowest category of FGF23, with low heterogeneity among studies (P = 0.38, I = 6.1%). Stratified analyses showed that the combined RRs for ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) risk were 1.12 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.37) and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.61, 4.30), respectively. In the stratification by geographic areas, the association between higher FGF23 and stroke was similar with studies performed in the United States (RR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.49) and Europe (RR = 1.88, 95%CI: 0.77, 4.55); however, only the results in the United States were statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis indicated the combined results were robust. CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis showed that higher FGF23 levels were associated with an increased risk of stroke. The positive association consistently existed in HS rather than in IS. Further studies are required to confirm these causal associations and to investigate the mechanisms.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 15/19: From Basic Functions to Therapeutic Perspectives.
Somm Emmanuel,Jornayvaz François R
Discovered 20 years ago, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, and its mouse ortholog FGF15, were the first members of a new subfamily of FGFs able to act as hormones. During fetal life, FGF15/19 is involved in organogenesis, affecting the development of the ear, eye, heart, and brain. At adulthood, FGF15/19 is mainly produced by the ileum, acting on the liver to repress hepatic bile acid synthesis and promote postprandial nutrient partitioning. In rodents, pharmacologic doses of FGF19 induce the same antiobesity and antidiabetic actions as FGF21, with these metabolic effects being partly mediated by the brain. However, activation of hepatocyte proliferation by FGF19 has long been a challenge to its therapeutic use. Recently, genetic reengineering of the molecule has resolved this issue. Despite a global overlap in expression pattern and function, murine FGF15 and human FGF19 exhibit several differences in terms of regulation, molecular structure, signaling, and biological properties. As most of the knowledge originates from the use of FGF19 in murine models, differences between mice and humans in the biology of FGF15/19 have to be considered for a successful translation from bench to bedside. This review summarizes the basic knowledge concerning FGF15/19 in mice and humans, with a special focus on regulation of production, morphogenic properties, hepatocyte growth, bile acid homeostasis, as well as actions on glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Moreover, implications and therapeutic perspectives concerning FGF19 in human diseases (including obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, biliary disorders, and cancer) are also discussed.
Structure, activation and dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor kinases: perspectives for clinical targeting.
Farrell Brendan,Breeze Alexander L
Biochemical Society transactions
The receptor tyrosine kinase family of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play crucial roles in embryonic development, metabolism, tissue homeostasis and wound repair via stimulation of intracellular signalling cascades. As a consequence of FGFRs' influence on cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, FGFR signalling is frequently dysregulated in a host of human cancers, variously by means of overexpression, somatic point mutations and gene fusion events. Dysregulation of FGFRs is also the underlying cause of many developmental dysplasias such as hypochondroplasia and achondroplasia. Accordingly, FGFRs are attractive pharmaceutical targets, and multiple clinical trials are in progress for the treatment of various FGFR aberrations. To effectively target dysregulated receptors, a structural and mechanistic understanding of FGFR activation and regulation is required. Here, we review some of the key research findings from the last couple of decades and summarise the strategies being explored for therapeutic intervention.
Targeting Cellular Trafficking of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors as a Strategy for Selective Cancer Treatment.
Porębska Natalia,Latko Marta,Kucińska Marika,Zakrzewska Małgorzata,Otlewski Jacek,Opaliński Łukasz
Journal of clinical medicine
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in response to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) transmit signals across the cell membrane, regulating important cellular processes, like differentiation, division, motility, and death. The aberrant activity of FGFRs is often observed in various diseases, especially in cancer. The uncontrolled FGFRs' function may result from their overproduction, activating mutations, or generation of FGFRs' fusion proteins. Besides their typical subcellular localization on the cell surface, FGFRs are often found inside the cells, in the nucleus and mitochondria. The intracellular pool of FGFRs utilizes different mechanisms to facilitate cancer cell survival and expansion. In this review, we summarize the current stage of knowledge about the role of FGFRs in oncogenic processes. We focused on the mechanisms of FGFRs' cellular trafficking-internalization, nuclear translocation, and mitochondrial targeting, as well as their role in carcinogenesis. The subcellular sorting of FGFRs constitutes an attractive target for anti-cancer therapies. The blocking of FGFRs' nuclear and mitochondrial translocation can lead to the inhibition of cancer invasion. Moreover, the endocytosis of FGFRs can serve as a tool for the efficient and highly selective delivery of drugs into cancer cells overproducing these receptors. Here, we provide up to date examples how the cellular sorting of FGFRs can be hijacked for selective cancer treatment.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 and acute kidney injury.
Neyra Javier A,Moe Orson W,Hu Ming Chang
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is produced in bone, participates in the maintenance of phosphate metabolism and can serve as a biomarker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Circulating FGF23 rapidly increases after acute kidney injury (AKI), preceding other known markers such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and serum creatinine. The increase in FGF23 in AKI appears to be independent of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D signaling pathways, and dietary phosphate. The potential mechanisms include: (1) increased production of FGF23 in the bone by yet-to-be-identified factors; (2) ectopic production of FGF23 by injured renal tubules; and (3) decreased renal clearance of circulating FGF23. Circulating FGF23 determined by intact FGF23 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a more reliable biomarker of AKI than FGF23 C-terminal ELISA (a mixed readout of C-terminal fragment and intact FGF23). Given that FGF23 can be ectopically expressed in differentiated renal tubules and iron modulates FGF23 metabolism, an effect of iron on FGF23 expression in renal tubules is conceivable but remains to be confirmed. More clinical and experimental studies are required to validate the use of circulating FGF23 as a biomarker for the early identification of AKI and prediction of short- and long-term adverse outcomes post-AKI. More importantly, the biologic effect of increased FGF23 in AKI needs to be defined.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation.
Nies Vera J M,Sancar Gencer,Liu Weilin,van Zutphen Tim,Struik Dicky,Yu Ruth T,Atkins Annette R,Evans Ronald M,Jonker Johan W,Downes Michael Robert
Frontiers in endocrinology
The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions.
Mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor signaling in the ovarian follicle.
Price Christopher A
The Journal of endocrinology
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been shown to alter growth and differentiation of reproductive tissues in a variety of species. Within the female reproductive tract, the effects of FGFs have been focused on the ovary, and the most studied one is FGF2, which stimulates granulosa cell proliferation and decreases differentiation (decreased steroidogenesis). Other FGFs have also been implicated in ovarian function, and this review summarizes the effects of members of two subfamilies on ovarian function; the FGF7 subfamily that also contains FGF10, and the FGF8 subfamily that also contains FGF18. There are data to suggest that FGF8 and FGF18 have distinct actions on granulosa cells, despite their apparent similar receptor binding properties. Studies of non-reproductive developmental biology also indicate that FGF8 is distinct from FGF18, and that FGF7 is also distinct from FGF10 despite similar receptor binding properties. In this review, the potential mechanisms of differential action of FGF7/FGF10 and FGF8/FGF18 during organogenesis will be reviewed and placed in the context of follicle development. A model is proposed in which FGF8 and FGF18 differentially activate receptors depending on the properties of the extracellular matrix in the follicle.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors: New Roles in Neuronal Health and Disease.
Pablo Juan L,Pitt Geoffrey S
The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) are a noncanonical subset of intracellular fibroblast growth factors that have been implicated in a variety of neurobiological processes and in disease. They are most prominently regulators of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (NaVs). In this review, we discuss new insights into how FHFs modulate NaVs. This is followed by a summary of a growing body of evidence that FHFs operate in much broader fashion. Finally, we highlight unknown aspects of FHF function as areas of future interest.
Implications of Fibroblast growth factor/Klotho system in glucose metabolism and diabetes.
Donate-Correa Javier,Martín-Núñez Ernesto,Delgado Nayra Pérez,de Fuentes Mercedes Muros,Arduan Alberto Ortiz,Mora-Fernández Carmen,Navarro González Juan F
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes, remains the dominant metabolic disease worldwide, with an expected increase in prevalence of over 50% in the next 20 years. Our knowledge about the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes continues to be incomplete, with unmet medical need for new therapies. The characterization of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and the discovery of endocrine FGFs provided new information on the mechanisms of regulation and homeostasis of carbohydrate metabolism. More specifically, FGF19 and FGF21 signaling pathways have been linked to different glucose metabolic processes, including hepatic glucose synthesis, glycogen synthesis, glucose uptake, and insulin sensitivity, among others, and these molecules have been further related to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. In-depth comprehension of these growth factors may bring to light new potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
Dysregulated fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Turner Cortney A,Eren-Koçak Emine,Inui Edny G,Watson Stanley J,Akil Huda
Seminars in cell & developmental biology
The role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) system in brain-related disorders has received considerable attention in recent years. To understand the role of this system in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is important to identify the specific members of the FGF family that are implicated, their location and the various mechanisms they can be modulated. Each disorder appears to impact specific molecular players in unique anatomical locations, and all of these could conceivably become targets for treatment. In the last several years, the issue of how to target this system directly has become an area of increasing interest. To date, the most promising therapeutics are small molecule inhibitors and antibodies that modulate FGF receptor (FGFR) function. Beyond attempting to modify the primary players affected by a given brain disorder, it may prove useful to target molecules, such as membrane-bound or extracellular proteins that interact with FGF ligands or FGFRs to modulate signaling.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney and lower urinary tract development.
Walker Kenneth A,Sims-Lucas Sunder,Bates Carlton M
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and FGF ligands are highly expressed in the developing kidney and lower urinary tract. Several classic studies showed many effects of exogenous FGF ligands on embryonic renal tissues in vitro and in vivo. Another older landmark publication showed that mice with a dominant negative Fgfr fragment had severe renal dysplasia. Together, these studies revealed the importance of FGFR signaling in kidney and lower urinary tract development. With the advent of modern gene targeting techniques, including conditional knockout approaches, several publications have revealed critical roles for FGFR signaling in many lineages of the kidney and lower urinary tract at different stages of development. FGFR signaling has been shown to be critical for early metanephric mesenchymal patterning, Wolffian duct patterning including induction of the ureteric bud, ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, nephron progenitor survival and nephrogenesis, and bladder mesenchyme patterning. FGFRs pattern these tissues by interacting with many other growth factor signaling pathways. Moreover, the many genetic Fgfr and Fgf animal models have structural defects mimicking numerous congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract seen in humans. Finally, many studies have shown how FGFR signaling is critical for kidney and lower urinary tract patterning in humans.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Predicts All-Cause Mortality in a Dose-Response Fashion in Pre-Dialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.
Xue Cheng,Yang Bo,Zhou Chenchen,Dai Bing,Liu Yawei,Mao Zhiguo,Yu Shengqiang,Mei Changlin
American journal of nephrology
BACKGROUND:Quantitative dose-response associations between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and risks of mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and renal events in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are not known. This study aimed to summarize and quantify the predictive effects of FGF23 among the pre-dialysis CKD stages 1-5 population. METHODS:Data sources included PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Prospective cohort studies assessing the associations between FGF23 and all-cause mortality, CVD, and renal events in CKD patients were selected. Summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. The composite higher or the highest level in FGF23 categories of each study was considered the high level. The reference level was regarded as the low level in the overall analysis. The restricted cubic spline model was used to estimate dose-response associations. RESULTS:Fifteen prospective cohort studies centered around 15,355 subjects were analyzed. A high FGF23 level was associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.38-1.55, p < 0.001), CVD (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.15-1.63, p < 0.001), and renal events (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59, p = 0.008), respectively. There was a positive, nonlinear, dose-response relationship between FGF23 and all-cause mortality. The reference level in dose-response analysis was defined as 51 RU/mL of c-terminal FGF23. We then calculated RRs for increments of 20 RU/mL, which was associated with increased risks of mortality (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.038), CVD (RR 1.02, p < 0.001), and renal events (RR 1.01, p < 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:There may be positive dose-response predictive effects of FGF23 on all-cause mortality, CVD, and renal events in patients with CKD.
Targeting fibroblast growth factor pathways in endometrial cancer.
Winterhoff Boris,Konecny Gottfried E
Current problems in cancer
Novel treatments that improve outcomes for patients with recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer (EC) remain an unmet need. Aberrant signaling by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) has been implicated in several human cancers. Activating mutations in FGFR2 have been found in up to 16% of ECs, suggesting an opportunity for targeted therapy. This review summarizes the role of the FGF pathway in angiogenesis and EC, and provides an overview of FGFR-targeted therapies under clinical development for the treatment of EC.
The role of fibroblast growth factor 21 in atherosclerosis.
Kokkinos John,Tang Shudi,Rye Kerry-Anne,Ong Kwok Leung
The metabolic properties of the endocrine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been extensively studied in the past decade. Previous studies have demonstrated the lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of FGF21. FGF21 is mainly secreted in the liver and adipose tissue in response to a range of physiological and pathological stimuli. In animal and in vitro studies, FGF21 has been shown to improve lipid profiles and inhibit key processes in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It exerts its effects on the cardiovascular system via adiponectin dependent and independent mechanisms. However, the signalling pathways by which FGF21 exerts its effects on endothelial cells remains unknown and needs to be further investigated. The elevation of circulating FGF21 levels in cardiovascular disease has also raised questions as to whether FGF21 can be used as a biomarker to predict subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Recent findings from population studies must be validated in independent cohorts before FGF21 can be used as a biomarker in the clinical setting. The anti-atherosclerotic effects of FGF21 have been investigated in two recent clinical trials, where treatment with an FGF21 analog significantly improved the cardiometabolic profile in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. This review will evaluate recent advances that suggest there may be a role for FGF21 in atherosclerosis.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 night watch: advances and uncertainties in the field.
Kharitonenkov A,DiMarchi R
Journal of internal medicine
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 belongs to a hormone-like subgroup within the FGF superfamily. The members of this subfamily, FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, are characterized by their reduced binding affinity for heparin that enables them to be transported in the circulation and function in an endocrine manner. It is likely that FGF21 also acts in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, as multiple organs can produce this protein and its plasma concentration seems to be below the level necessary to induce a pharmacological effect. FGF21 signals via FGF receptors, but for efficient receptor engagement it requires a cofactor, membrane-spanning βKlotho (KLB). The regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes was the initial biological activity ascribed to FGF21, but this hormone is now recognized to stimulate many other pathways in vitro and display multiple pharmacological effects in metabolically compromised animals and humans. Understanding of the precise physiology of FGF21 and its potential medicinal role has evolved exponentially over the last decade, yet numerous aspects remain to be defined and others are a source of debate. Here we provide a historical overview of the advances in FGF21 biology focusing on the uncertainties in the mechanism of action as well as the differing viewpoints relating to this intriguing protein.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23-Mediated Bone Disease.
Gonciulea Anda R,Jan De Beur Suzanne M
Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an important regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism and its excessive or insufficient production leads to a wide variety of skeletal disorders. This article reviews the FGF23-α-Klotho signaling pathway, highlighting the latest developments in FGF23 regulation and action, and describes the disorders associated with FGF23 excess or deficiency.
Fibroblast growth factor 21 and its novel association with oxidative stress.
Gómez-Sámano Miguel Ángel,Grajales-Gómez Mariana,Zuarth-Vázquez Julia María,Navarro-Flores Ma Fernanda,Martínez-Saavedra Mayela,Juárez-León Óscar Alfredo,Morales-García Mariana G,Enríquez-Estrada Víctor Manuel,Gómez-Pérez Francisco J,Cuevas-Ramos Daniel
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an endocrine-member of the FGF family. It is synthesized mainly in the liver, but it is also expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and many other organs. It has a key role in glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as in energy balance. FGF21 concentration in plasma is increased in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Recent findings suggest that such increment protects tissue from an increased oxidative stress environment. Different types of physical stress, such as strenuous exercising, lactation, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, and critical illnesses, also increase FGF21 circulating concentration. FGF21 is now considered a stress-responsive hormone in humans. The discovery of an essential response element in the FGF21 gene, for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), involved in the regulation of oxidative stress, and its relation with genes such as NRF2, TBP-2, UCP3, SOD2, ERK, and p38, places FGF21 as a key regulator of the oxidative stress cell response. Its role in chronic diseases and its involvement in the treatment and follow-up of these diseases has been recently the target of new studies. The diminished oxidative stress through FGF21 pathways observed with anti-diabetic therapy is another clue of the new insights of this hormone.
Cardiac actions of fibroblast growth factor 23.
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) are mitogenic signal mediators that induce cell proliferation and survival. Although cardiac myocytes are post-mitotic, they have been shown to be able to respond to local and circulating FGFs. While precise molecular mechanisms are not well characterized, some FGF family members have been shown to induce cardiac remodeling under physiologic conditions by mediating hypertrophic growth in cardiac myocytes and by promoting angiogenesis, both events leading to increased cardiac function and output. This FGF-mediated physiologic scenario might transition into a pathologic situation involving cardiac cell death, fibrosis and inflammation, and eventually cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. As discussed here, cardiac actions of FGFs - with the majority of studies focusing on FGF2, FGF21 and FGF23 - and their specific FGF receptors (FGFR) and precise target cell types within the heart, are currently under experimental investigation. Especially cardiac effects of endocrine FGFs entered center stage over the past five years, as they might provide communication routes that couple metabolic mechanisms, such as bone-regulated phosphate homeostasis, or metabolic stress, such as hyperphosphatemia associated with kidney injury, with changes in cardiac structure and function. In this context, it has been shown that elevated serum FGF23 can directly tackle cardiac myocytes via FGFR4 thereby contributing to cardiac hypertrophy in models of chronic kidney disease, also called uremic cardiomyopathy. Precise characterization of FGFs and their origin and regulation of expression, and even more importantly, the identification of the FGFR isoforms that mediate their cardiac actions should help to develop novel pharmacological interventions for heart failure, such as FGFR4 inhibition to tackle uremic cardiomyopathy.
Fibroblast growth factor 9 subfamily and the heart.
Wang Shen,Li Yong,Jiang Chao,Tian Haishan
Applied microbiology and biotechnology
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 9 subfamily is a member of the FGF family, including FGF9, 16, and 20, potentially sharing similar biochemical functions due to their high degree of sequence homology. Unlike other secreted proteins which have a cleavable N-terminal secreted signal peptide, FGF9/16/20 have non-cleaved N-terminal signal peptides. As an intercellular signaling molecule, they are involved in a variety of complex responses in animal development. Cardiogenesis is controlled by many members of the transcription factor family. Evidence suggests that FGF signaling, including the FGF9 subfamily, has a pretty close association with these cardiac-specific genes. In addition, recent studies have shown that the FGF9 subfamily maintains functional adaptation and survival after myocardial infarction in adult myocardium. Since FGF9/16/20 are secreted proteins, their function characterization in cardiac regeneration can promote their potential to be developed for the treatment of cardioprotection and revascularization. Here, we conclude that the FGF9 subfamily roles in cardiac development and maintenance of postnatal cardiac homeostasis, especially cardiac function maturation and functional maintenance of the heart after injury.