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    Antinociceptive and anti-tussive activities of the ethanol extract of the flowers of Meconopsis punicea Maxim. Shang Xiaofei,Wang Dongsheng,Miao Xiaolou,Wang Yu,Zhang Jiyu,Wang Xuezhi,Zhang Yu,Pan Hu BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:As an important traditional Tibetan (veterinary) medicine, the flowers of Meconopsis punicea (family Papaveraceae) have been used to treat pain, fever, cough, inflammation, liver heat and lung heat of humans and animals by local people for thousands of years. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-tussive activities of the ethanol extract of M. punicea (EEM). METHODS:Firstly, HPLC was used to analyze the main constituents of the ethanol extract of M. punicea. In animal experiments, the acetic acid-induced writhing response test, hot plate test, barbiturate-induced sleeping time and formalin tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity. Then, ammonia-induced coughing and sulfur dioxide-induced coughing tests in mice as well as the phenol red secretion in trachea test were used to investigate the anti-tussive activity of the extract. Finally, an acute toxicity study was carried out. RESULTS:The results showed that alkaloids and flavonoids were the main compounds in the ethanol extract of M. punicea flowers. The extract at 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg had good antinociceptive and anti-tussive activities in mice with a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggested that EEM has significant bioactivities, and the active components of M. punicea should be studied further. 10.1186/s12906-015-0671-y
    Anti-inflammation action of xanthones from Swertia chirayita by regulating COX-2/NF-κB/MAPKs/Akt signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Hu Tian-Yong,Ju Jian-Ming,Mo Li-Hua,Ma Li,Hu Wen-Hui,You Rong-Rong,Chen Xue-Qing,Chen Yan-Yan,Liu Zhi-Qiang,Qiu Shu-Qi,Fan Jun-Ting,Cheng Bao-Hui Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Swertia chirayita, has been commonly used under the name "Zang-yin-chen" for the treatment of liver infections, inflammation, abdominal pain, and bacterial infection in traditional Tibetan medicine. However, the bioactive components with anti-inflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms remain poorly evaluated. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Repeated column chromatography yielded two main xanthones from petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate fractions of whole plants of S. chirayita, and their structures were determined as bellidifolin (1) and swerchirin (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data and literature analysis. The anti-inflammatory activities and mechanisms of anti-inflammation of these two isolated xanthones were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages in vitro. RESULTS:Anti-inflammation assay demonstrated that 1 and 2 inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Xanthone 1 also potently inhibited the production of prostaglandin E (PGE) by suppressing the protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Western blot showed that the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPKs were remarkably attenuated by 1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Particularly, Compound 1 suppressed the phosphorylation of the inhibitor κB kinase-β (IKK-β), Akt, and p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB). CONCLUSION:The potent suppressive effects of 1 from S. chirayita on inflammatory mediators by blocking the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylation of Akt, IKK-β, MAPK and NF-κB, activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages suggest that 1 can be a preventive therapeutic candidate for the management of inflammatory-mediated immune disorders. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.08.001
    Comparison of the antiinflammatory activities of three medicinal plants known as "meiduoluomi" in Tibetan folk medicine. Zhang Zhifeng,Luo Pei,Li Jie,Yi Tao,Wang Jiangang,An Jing,Zhang Hao Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-mazz (EB), Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth (EM), and Aster brachytrichus Franch (AB), confused under the vernacular name "meiduoluomi" by native people and traditional healers, have been used for the treatment of meningitis, polyneuritis, hepatitis, adenolymphitis, and enteronitis in traditional Tibetan medicine. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of methanol extracts of all three plants was investigated in the xylene-induced ear edema model, carrageenan-induced paw edema model, and cotton pellet-induced granuloma model. It was found that the methanolic extracts of both EB and EM had strong inhibitory effects on the acute phase of inflammation in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. On the other hand, the methanolic extract of EM showed stronger effects than those of EB in xylene-induced ear edema. In the chronic test, the methanolic extracts of EB and EM resulted in a significant reduction in granuloma weight in rats. In addition, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was strongly reduced in the EB-treated and EM-treated groups, which indicated that EB and EM can inhibit certain inflammatory modulator factors that cause neutrophil aggregation in inflamed tissue, e.g., nuclear factor-kappaB. However, the methanolic extracts of AB had no antiinflammatory effects in the tested models and MPO assay. The similar effects of EM and EB in tested models provided some scientific basis for the traditional usage of meiduoluomi in inflammatory disease. However, the results also suggest that further study is needed to investigate the antiinflammatory profile of AB and provide a scientific basis for the use of AB in inflammatory diseases.
    [Usage of ethnomedicine on COVID-19 in China]. Li Zhi-Yong,Tuya ,Li Hai-Tao,He Jiang,Quesheng ,Dong Guang-Ping,Zhang Ming-Shuo,Liu Jian-Qin,Huang Xiu-Lan,Wang Xiao-Rong,Bolat Makabel,Feng Xin,Zhang Fang-Bo,Jiang Feng Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica In December 2019, an outbreak of viral pneumonia began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, which caused the spread of infectious pneumonia to a certain extent in China and neighboring countries and regions, and triggered the epidemic crisis. The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease listed as a B infectious disease, which is managed according to standards for A infectious disease. Traditional Chinese medicine and integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine have played an active role in the prevention and control of this epidemic. China's ethnomedicine has recognized infectious diseases since ancient times, and formed a medical system including theory, therapies, formula and herbal medicines for such diseases. Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Chuxiong Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, Qiandongnan Autonomous Prefecture of Guizhou have issued the prevention and control programs for COVID-19 using Tibetan, Mongolian, Uygur, Yi and Miao medicines. These programs reflect the wisdom of ethnomedicine in preventing and treating diseases, which have successfully extracted prescriptions and preventive measures for the outbreak of the epidemic from their own medical theories and traditional experiences. In this paper, we summarized and explained the prescriptions and medicinal materials of ethnomedicine in these programs, and the origin of Tibetan medicine prescriptions and Mongolian medicine prescriptions in ancient books were studied. These become the common characteristics of medical prevention and treatment programs for ethnomedicine to formulate therapeutic programs under the guidance of traditional medicine theories, recommend prescriptions and prevention and treatment methods with characteristics of ethnomedicine, and focus on the conve-nience and standardization. However, strengthening the support of science and technology and the popularization to the public, and improving the participation of ethnomedicine in national public health services and the capacity-building to deal with sudden and critical diseases are key contents in the development of ethnomedicine in the future. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200316.408
    Srolo Bzhtang, a traditional Tibetan medicine formula, inhibits cigarette smoke induced airway inflammation and muc5ac hypersecretion via suppressing IL-13/STAT6 signaling pathway in rats. Jing Linde,Su Shanshan,Zhang Dejun,Li Zhanqiang,Lu Dianxiang,Ge Rili Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Srolo Bzhtang (SBT), a traditional Tibetan medicine formula, was composed of three herbs, Solms-Laubachia eurycarpa, Bergenia purpurascens, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and one lac, and was first documented in the ancient Tibetan medical work Four Medical Tantras (rGyud-bzhi) in the eighth century AD. It has been widely used to treat lung "phlegm-heat" syndromes such as chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential influences of aqueous extract of SBT on airway inflammation and mucus secretion and to reveal the underlying mechanism in a rat model of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced chronic bronchitis (CB). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided to six groups: control (room air exposure), model (CS exposure), DEX (CS exposure and 0.2 mg/kg/day dexamethasone), and three SBT (CS exposure and 1.67, 2.50, and 3.34 g/kg/day SBT) groups. DEX and the three doses of SBT were administered by oral gavage every day for eight weeks. Pathological changes and mucus expression in the lung tissue were determined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) and immunohistochemical staining. The levels of cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed by ELISA. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were performed to explore the effects of SBT on the expression of IL-13, STAT6 and MUC5AC. RESULTS:Pretreatment with SBT attenuated the TNF-α, IL-8, IL-13 expression levels in BALF and the inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchial walls and peribronchial lung tissue. SBT exhibited a dose-dependent downregulation of MUC5AC expression as assessed by AB-PAS and immunohistochemical staining. The protein and mRNA levels of IL-13, STAT6/p-STAT6 and MUC5AC were also downregulated by SBT preconditioning. CONCLUSION:These results for the first time demonstrated that SBT exhibited protective effects on CS-induced airway inflammation and MUC5AC hypersecretion, which might be related to the downregulation of the IL-13/STAT6 signaling pathway. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.006
    Beneficial effects on H1N1-induced acute lung injury and structure characterization of anti-complementary acidic polysaccharides from Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii. Fu Zelong,Xia Long,De Ji,Zhu Mengxia,Li Hong,Lu Yan,Chen Daofeng International journal of biological macromolecules Juniperus pingii var. wilsonii has been traditionally used in Tibetan medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In the present study, J. pingii var. wilsonii polysaccharides (JPWP), with high content of d‑galacturonic acid, showed potent anti-complementary activity in vitro and significantly attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) induced by H1N1 influenza virus in vivo through reducing the inflammatory responses, alleviating oxidative stress and inhibiting the activation of complement. Thus, anti-complementary activity-guided fractionation of JPWP led to the isolation of an acidic homogeneous polysaccharide, JPWP-PS, whose structure was further elucidated by acid hydrolysis, PMP derivation, methylation and NMR analysis. JPWP-PS had potent anti-complementary activity with the CH value of 0.073 ± 0.009 mg/mL, and was characterized by the residues of T-Araf-(1→, →3)-Araf-(1→, →3,5)-Araf-(1→, →3)-Galp-(1→ and →4)-GalpA-(1→. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.01.163
    Botany, traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and authentication of Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae-A traditional medicine: A review. Zhang Xinxin,Zhan Guanqun,Jin Ming,Zhang Hui,Dang Jun,Zhang Yan,Guo Zengjun,Ito Yoichiro Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae, commonly known as Qinjiao (in Chinese), is dried roots of medicinal plants that belong to Gentianaceae family and Gentiana genus. It has medically been used for the treatment of various diseases such as arthritis, stroke, facial paralysis, and scapulohumeral periarthritis in China since ancient times. PURPOSE:The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and constructive overview of Qinjiao mainly containing Gentiana macrophylla Pall., Gentiana straminea Maxim., Gentiana crasicaulis Duthie ex Burk., and Gentiana daurica Fisch. in botany, traditional use, phytochemicals, pharmacology (biological activities and pharmacokinetics), quality control, and authentication according to the up-to-date data of available scientific literatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS:All information regarding these four plants was collected from various academic search engines for example Google, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, Pubmed, CNKI, and Wanfang. Additional information was obtained from botanical books, Chinese classic texts, and medical monographs. RESULTS:So far 166 compounds have been isolated and identified from Qinjiao plants together with Gentiana tibetica King ex Hook. f., Gentiana siphonantha Maxim., Gentiana officinalis H. Smith, and Gentiana waltonii Burk. Their constituents are mainly classified into iridoid glycosides, triterpenes, flavones, sterols, benzene derivatives, etc. The pharmacological studies demonstrate that Qinjiao plants display a wide range of bioactivities e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepato-protective, cardio- and neuro-protective, insecticidal, and anti-influenza effects. The conventional quality control is performed by determination of the concentration of some compounds, e.g., gentiopicroside, or establishment of the fingerprint. In addition to seed propagation, tissue culture technology has been used to address the limited supplies and guarantee the sustainable development of Qinjiao in the experimental scale. CONCLUSIONS:Although the identification of compounds from Qinjiao and demonstration of medicinal uses in vitro and in vivo have been carried out, various other studies on these plants should deserve our more attention. More efforts should be concentrated on the underlying mechanisms of their beneficial bioactivities. The proper toxic evaluation is indispensable to guarantee the safety, efficacy, and eligibility for medical use. To sum up, the summarized achievements could highlight the importance of Qinjiao and provide a solid foundation for scientists not only to further exploit the therapeutic potentials, but also possibly develop novel drugs in the subsequent research. 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.04.020
    [Medication rules for prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba based on data mining]. Zuo Fang,Wei Zhi-Cheng,Tang Ce,Wang Wen-Qian,Tong Dong,Meng Xian-Li,Zhang Yi Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica This study was aimed to discuss and analyze the medication rules for prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba in Chinese Medical Encyclopedia - Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Prescription Modern Research and Clinical Application, and Interpretation of Common Tibetan Medicines based on the collection of Pterocephali Herba and by using the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support system(V2.0.1)",with the use of association rules, apriori algorithm and other data mining methods. The frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rule and the combination of core drugs were analyzed. Through collection of the prescriptions, a total of 215 prescriptions were included, involving a total of 376 herbs. Through the "frequency statistics", the prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were commonly used to treat cold fever, distemper virus and arthritis. The highest frequently (frequency≥15) used drugs were Corydalis Herba, Lagotidis Herba, and Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix, et al. The most frequently used drug combinations were "Pterocephali Herba, Corydalis Herba","Pterocephali Herba, Lagotidis Herba", and "Pterocephali Herba, Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix" et al. The prescriptions containing Pterocephali Herba were used to primarily treat disease for Tourette syndrome caused by the dampness heat toxin, fever, arthritis etc, such as pestilent toxicity, pneumonia and influenza, rheumatoid arthritis etc. The drugs in the prescriptions mostly had the effects of heat-clearing and detoxifying, anti-inflammatory, dispelling wind and dampness, often in compatible use with heat-clearing drugs. The drug use was concentrated and reflected the clear thought of prescription statutes. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20170707.001