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    Synovial fibroblast-neutrophil interactions promote pathogenic adaptive immunity in rheumatoid arthritis. Carmona-Rivera Carmelo,Carlucci Philip M,Moore Erica,Lingampalli Nithya,Uchtenhagen Hannes,James Eddie,Liu Yudong,Bicker Kevin L,Wahamaa Heidi,Hoffmann Victoria,Catrina Anca Irinel,Thompson PaulR,Buckner Jane H,Robinson William H,Fox David A,Kaplan Mariana J Science immunology Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial joint inflammation and by development of pathogenic humoral and cellular autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and activate RA synovial fibroblasts (FLS), cells crucial in joint damage. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which NETs promote proinflammatory phenotypes in FLS, and whether these interactions generate pathogenic anti-citrulline adaptive immune responses. NETs containing citrullinated peptides are internalized by FLS through a RAGE-TLR9 pathway promoting FLS inflammatory phenotype and their upregulation of MHC class II. Once internalized, arthritogenic NET-peptides are loaded into FLS MHC class II and presented to Ag-specific T cells. HLADRB1*0401 transgenic mice immunized with mouse FLS loaded with NETs develop antibodies specific to citrullinated forms of relevant RA autoantigens implicated in RA pathogenesis as well as cartilage damage. These results implicate FLS as mediators in RA pathogenesis, through the internalization and presentation of NET citrullinated peptides to the adaptive immune system leading to pathogenic autoimmunity and cartilage damage. 10.1126/sciimmunol.aag3358