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    Loss of mural cell-derived laminin aggravates hemorrhagic brain injury. Gautam Jyoti,Xu Lingling,Nirwane Abhijit,Nguyen Benjamin,Yao Yao Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Mural cells synthesize and deposit laminin to the basement membrane. To investigate the function of mural cell-derived laminin, we generated a mutant mouse line lacking mural cell-derived laminin (termed PKO). In a previous study, we showed that the PKO mice were grossly normal under homeostatic condition, but developed blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown with advanced age (> 8 months), suggesting that these mutants are intrinsically weak. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that PKO mice have exacerbated injuries in pathological conditions. METHODS:Using collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) as an injury model, we examined various stroke outcomes, including hematoma volume, neurological function, neuronal death, BBB integrity, paracellular/transcellular transport, inflammatory cell infiltration, and brain water content, in PKO mice and their wildtype littermates at young age (6-8 weeks). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and an in vitro ICH model were used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. RESULTS:Compared to age-matched wildtype littermates, PKO mice display aggravated stroke outcomes, including larger hematoma size, worse neurological function, increased neuronal cell death, enhanced BBB permeability, increased transcytosis, and elevated inflammatory cell infiltration. These mutants also exhibit high baseline brain water content independent of aquaporin-4 (AQP4). In addition, mural cell-derived laminin significantly reduced caveolin-1 without affecting tight junction proteins in the in vitro ICH model. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that mural cell-derived laminin attenuates BBB damage in ICH via decreasing caveolin-1 and thus transcytosis, regulates brain water homeostasis, and plays a beneficial role in ICH. 10.1186/s12974-020-01788-3