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    Dysregulation of galectin-3. Implications for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome pulmonary fibrosis. Cullinane Andrew R,Yeager Caroline,Dorward Heidi,Carmona-Rivera Carmelo,Wu Hai Ping,Moss Joel,O'Brien Kevin J,Nathan Steven D,Meyer Keith C,Rosas Ivan O,Helip-Wooley Amanda,Huizing Marjan,Gahl William A,Gochuico Bernadette R American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology The etiology of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) pulmonary fibrosis (HPSPF), a progressive interstitial lung disease with high mortality, is unknown. Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding lectin with profibrotic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of galectin-3 in HPSPF. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting in human specimens from subjects with HPS and control subjects. Mechanisms of galectin-3 accumulation were studied by quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot analysis, membrane biotinylation assays, and rescue of HPS1-deficient cells by transfection. Bronchoalveolar lavage galectin-3 concentrations were significantly higher in HPSPF compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or that from normal volunteers, and correlated with disease severity. Galectin-3 immunostaining was increased in HPSPF compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or normal lung tissue. Fibroblasts from subjects with HPS subtypes associated with pulmonary fibrosis had increased galectin-3 protein expression compared with cells from nonfibrotic HPS subtypes. Galectin-3 protein accumulation was associated with reduced Galectin-3 mRNA, normal Mucin 1 levels, and up-regulated microRNA-322 in HPSPF cells. Membrane biotinylation assays showed reduced galectin-3 and normal Mucin 1 expression at the plasma membrane in HPSPF cells compared with control cells, which suggests that galectin-3 is mistrafficked in these cells. Reconstitution of HPS1 cDNA into HPS1-deficient cells normalized galectin-3 protein and mRNA levels, as well as corrected galectin-3 trafficking to the membrane. Intracellular galectin-3 levels are regulated by HPS1 protein. Abnormal accumulation of galectin-3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of HPSPF. 10.1165/rcmb.2013-0025OC
    Galectin-3 Interacts with the CHI3L1 Axis and Contributes to Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Lung Disease. Zhou Yang,He Chuan Hua,Yang Daniel S,Nguyen Tung,Cao Yueming,Kamle Suchitra,Lee Chang-Min,Gochuico Bernadette R,Gahl William A,Shea Barry S,Lee Chun Geun,Elias Jack A Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) comprises a group of inherited disorders caused by mutations that alter the function of lysosome-related organelles. Pulmonary fibrosis is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in HPS-1 and HPS-4 patients. However, the mechanisms that underlie the exaggerated injury and fibroproliferative repair responses in HPS have not been adequately defined. In particular, although Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is dysregulated in HPS, its roles in the pathogenesis of HPS have not been adequately defined. In addition, although chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and its receptors play major roles in the injury and repair responses in HPS, the ability of Gal-3 to interact with or alter the function of these moieties has not been evaluated. In this article, we demonstrate that Gal-3 accumulates in exaggerated quantities in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and traffics abnormally and accumulates intracellularly in lung fibroblasts and macrophages from bleomycin-treated pale ear, HPS-1-deficient mice. We also demonstrate that Gal-3 drives epithelial apoptosis when in the extracellular space, and stimulates cell proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation when accumulated in fibroblasts and M2-like differentiation when accumulated in macrophages. Biophysical and signaling evaluations also demonstrated that Gal-3 physically interacts with IL-13Rα2 and CHI3L1, and competes with TMEM219 for IL-13Rα2 binding. By doing so, Gal-3 diminishes the antiapoptotic effects of and the antiapoptotic signaling induced by CHI3L1 in epithelial cells while augmenting macrophage Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Thus, Gal-3 contributes to the exaggerated injury and fibroproliferative repair responses in HPS by altering the antiapoptotic and fibroproliferative effects of CHI3L1 and its receptor complex in a tissue compartment-specific manner. 10.4049/jimmunol.1701442