Association between diet quality indices and arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Nutrition Ancillary Study.
Liese Angela D,Couch Sarah C,The Natalie S,Crandell Jamie L,Lawrence Jean M,Crume Tessa L,Mayer-Davis Elizabeth J,Zhong Victor W,Urbina Elaine M
Journal of diabetes and its complications
AIMS:We studied the association of three distinct diet quality indices and two measures of arterial stiffness in youth and young adults (YYA) aged 10 to 30 with T1D. METHODS:Cross-sectional (n = 1421) and longitudinal (n = 520) analyses were conducted in T1D YYA participating in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. The diet quality indices included the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index, the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), and a modified Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (mKIDMED). Arterial stiffness was measured with pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) obtained using a SphygmoCor-Vx device and tonometer. RESULTS:Average diet quality was moderate to poor, with mean scores of 41 (DASH, range 0-80), 55 (HEI-2015, range 0-100), 3.7 (mKIDMED, range - 3-12). None of the diet quality scores was associated with the central PWV or Aix, independent of demographic, clinical and lifestyle factors, body mass index and HbA1c. Longitudinal data yielded consistent findings with cross-sectional results. CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests that diet quality may not function as an independent risk factor for arterial stiffening in YYA with T1D. These findings do not diminish the importance of consuming a quality diet for the management of diabetes, as demonstrated in previous work.