Measurement of lipid profiles in the early postpartum period after hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
Wen Chuan,Metcalfe Amy,Anderson Todd J,Johnson Jo-Ann,Sigal Ronald J,Nerenberg Kara A
Journal of clinical lipidology
BACKGROUND:The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), including preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GHTN), are independent risk factors for future maternal cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that women with HDP have abnormal cardiovascular risk factors in the early postpartum period, but this has not been fully characterized. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to assess the lipid profiles among women with PE, GHTN, and normal blood pressure in the first 4 years postpartum. METHODS:Discharge Abstract Database was used to identify women hospitalized for a delivery in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, between January 2010 and December 2012 (N = 27,300). This was linked with Calgary Laboratory Services (for lipid levels) and the Pharmaceutical Information Network database (for lipid medication prescriptions) over the first 4 years postpartum (2010-2016). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the frequency of lipid tests among HDP subtypes, adjusted for maternal age, gestational age at delivery, and parity. RESULTS:Only about half of the women with HDP had a lipid test in the first 4 years postpartum: 50.8% (PE) and 48.8% (GHTN) vs 41.5% in normotensive women (P < .001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in women with HDP: 106.3 ± 35.2 mg/dL (2.75 ± 0.91 mmol/L) in PE, 102.5 ± 30.5 mg/dL (2.65 ± 0.79 mmol/L) in GHTN, and 96.7 ± 29.0 mg/dL (2.50 ± 0.75 mmol/L) in normotensive women (P < .001). CONCLUSION:Postpartum lipid screening helps identify women at risk of cardiovascular disease; however, only 50% of women with HDP were tested in the first years postpartum. As such, an early opportunity for primary CVD prevention strategies in young women may be lost.
Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Eshriqui Ilana,Franco-Sena Ana Beatriz,Farias Dayana Rodrigues,Freitas-Vilela Ana Amélia,Cunha Diana Barbosa,Barros Erica Guimarães,Emmett Pauline M,Kac Gilberto
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
BACKGROUND:Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. AIM:To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. DESIGN:Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). PARTICIPANTS/SETTING:Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED:Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. RESULTS:Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. CONCLUSIONS:Prepregnancy dietary patterns were associated with gestational blood lipid levels; that is, higher scores for the Fast Food and Candies pattern were associated with higher triglyceride and slower HDL-C rates of change during pregnancy, whereas higher scores for the Vegetables and Dairy dietary patterns were associated with faster HDL-C rates of change over gestational weeks.
The metabolic profile of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and increased fetal growth.
Martineau Marcus G,Raker Christina,Dixon Peter H,Chambers Jenny,Machirori Mavis,King Nicole M,Hooks Melissa L,Manoharan Ramya,Chen Kenneth,Powrie Raymond,Williamson Catherine
OBJECTIVE:Quantification of changes in glucose and lipid concentrations in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and uncomplicated pregnancy and study of their influence on fetal growth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:A prospective study comparing metabolic outcomes in cholestastic and uncomplicated singleton pregnancies was undertaken at two university hospitals in the U.K. and U.S. from 2011-2014. A total of 26 women with ICP and 27 control pregnancies with no prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus were recruited from outpatient antenatal services and followed until delivery. Alterations in glucose, incretins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were studied using a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system and/or a standard glucose tolerance test (GTT) in conjunction with GLP-1 and a fasting lipid profile. Fetal growth was quantified using adjusted birth centiles. RESULTS:Maternal blood glucose concentrations were significantly increased in ICP during ambulatory CGM (P < 0.005) and following a GTT (P < 0.005). ICP is characterized by increased fasting triglycerides (P < 0.005) and reduced HDL cholesterol (P < 0.005), similar to changes observed in metabolic syndrome. The offspring of mothers with ICP had significantly larger customized birth weight centiles, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, and gestational age (P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS:ICP is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, and increased fetal growth. These findings may have implications regarding the future health of affected offspring.
Maternal hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is associated with obesity and adverse maternal metabolic parameters.
Knight Bridget A,Shields Beverley M,Hattersley Andrew T,Vaidya Bijay
European journal of endocrinology
OBJECTIVE:Subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes. We aimed to ascertain if these women have a worse metabolic phenotype than euthyroid pregnant women. DESIGN, SUBJECTS AND METHODS:We recruited 956 healthy Caucasian women with singleton, non-diabetic pregnancies from routine antenatal clinics. Detailed anthropometric measurements (including BMI and skinfold thickness) and fasting blood samples (for TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), HbA1c, lipid profile, plasma glucose and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) analysis) were obtained at 28 weeks gestation. RESULTS:In comparison to euthyroid women (n=741), women with isolated hypothyroxinaemia (n=82) had significantly increased BMI (29.5 vs 27.5 kg/m(2), P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (57.5 vs 51.3 mm, P=0.002), fasting plasma glucose (4.5 vs 4.3 mmol/l, P=0.01), triglycerides (2.3 vs 2.0 mmol/l, P<0.001) and HOMA-IR (2.0 vs 1.3, P=0.001). Metabolic parameters in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (n=133) were similar to those in euthyroid women. Maternal FT4 was negatively associated with BMI (r=-0.22), HbA1c (r=-0.14), triglycerides (r=-0.17), HOMA-IR (r=-0.15) but not total/HDL cholesterol ratio (r=-0.03). Maternal FT3:FT4 ratio was positively associated with BMI (r=0.4), HbA1c (r=0.21), triglycerides (r=0.2), HOMA-IR (r=0.33) and total/HDL cholesterol ratio (r=0.07). TSH was not associated with the metabolic parameters assessed. CONCLUSIONS:Isolated hypothyroxinaemia, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with adverse metabolic phenotype in pregnancy, as is decreasing maternal FT4 and increasing FT3:FT4 ratio. These associations may be a reflection of changes in the thyroid hormone levels secondary to increase in BMI rather than changes in thyroid hormone levels affecting body weight and related metabolic parameters.
Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy.
Lepsch Jaqueline,Eshriqui Ilana,Farias Dayana Rodrigues,Vaz Juliana S,Cunha Figueiredo Amanda C,Adegboye Amanda Rodrigues Amorim,Brito Alex,Mokhtar Rana,Allen Lindsay H,Holick Michael F,Kac Gilberto
Metabolism: clinical and experimental
OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) concentrations, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. We hypothesized that first trimester 25(OH)D inadequacy is associated with lower concentrations of HDL-c and higher LDL-c, TC, TG, TG/HDL-c, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. METHODS:A prospective cohort study with 3 visits at 5-13 (baseline), 20-26, and 30-36 gestational weeks, recruited 194 pregnant women attending a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in the first trimester using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 25(OH)D concentrations were classified as adequate (≥75nmol/L) or inadequate (<75nmol/L). Serum TC, HDL-c, and TG concentrations were measured enzymatically. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the association between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in serum lipid concentrations throughout pregnancy. Confounders adjusted for in the multiple analysis were age, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), early pregnancy BMI, leisure time physical activity before pregnancy, energy intake, and gestational age. RESULTS:At baseline, 69% of the women had inadequate concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D inadequacy had higher mean LDL-c than those with adequate concentrations (91.3 vs. 97.5mg/dL; P=0.064) at baseline. TC, HDL-c, LDL-c TG, TG/HDL-c ratios, and TC/HDL-c ratios, increased throughout pregnancy independently of 25(OH)D concentrations (ANOVA for repeated measures P<0.001). The adjusted models showed direct associations between the first trimester 25(OH)D status and changes in TC (β=9.53; 95%CI=1.12-17.94), LDL-c (β=9.99; 95% CI=3.62-16.36) concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios (β=0.16; 95% CI=0.01-0.31) throughout pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS:Inadequate plasma 25(OH)D concentrations during early pregnancy were associated with more pronounced changes of TC, LDL-c concentrations, and TC/HDL-c ratios throughout pregnancy. Changes in these cardiovascular markers suggest the importance of ensuring adequate vitamin D status at the beginning of pregnancy.
Associations between maternal lipid profile and pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes: a population-based study from China.
Jin Wen-Yuan,Lin Sheng-Liang,Hou Ruo-Lin,Chen Xiao-Yang,Han Ting,Jin Yan,Tang Li,Zhu Zhi-Wei,Zhao Zheng-Yan
BMC pregnancy and childbirth
BACKGROUND:Dyslipidemia in pregnancy are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preeclampsia, preterm birth and other adverse outcomes, which has been extensively studied in western countries. However, similar studies have rarely been conducted in Asian countries. Our study was aimed at investigating the associations between maternal dyslipidemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes among Chinese population. METHODS:Data were derived from 934 pairs of non-diabetic mothers and neonates between 2010 and 2011. Serum blood samples were assayed for fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations during the first, second and third trimesters. The present study explored the associations between maternal lipid profile and pregnancy complications and perinatal outcomes. The pregnancy complications included GDM, preeclampsia and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP); the perinatal outcomes included preterm birth, small/large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) infants and macrosomia. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and adjusted via stepwise logistic regression analysis. Optimal cut-off points were determined by ROC curve analysis. RESULTS:After adjustments for confounders, every unit elevation in third-trimester TG concentration was associated with increased risk for GDM (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.18-1.58), preeclampsia (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16-1.93), ICP (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.09-1.51), LGA (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.26), macrosomia (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.02-1.39) and decreased risk for SGA (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40-0.99); every unit increase in HDL-C concentration was associated with decreased risk for GDM and macrosomia, especially during the second trimester (GDM: OR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.03-0.31; macrosomia: OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09-0.73). The optimal cut-off points for third-trimester TG predicting GDM, preeclampsia, ICP, LGA and SGA were separately ≥ 3.871, 3.528, 3.177, 3.534 and ≤ 2.530 mmol/L. The optimal cut-off points for third-trimester HDL-C identifying GDM, macrosomia and SGA were respectively ≤ 1.712, 1.817 and ≥ 2.238 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS:Among Chinese population, maternal high TG in late pregnancy was independently associated with increased risk of GDM, preeclampsia, ICP, LGA, macrosomia and decreased risk of SGA. Relative low maternal HDL-C during pregnancy was significantly associated with increased risk of GDM and macrosomia; whereas relative high HDL-C was a protective factor for both of them.
Associations of lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Shen Hong,Liu Xiaohua,Chen Yan,He Biwei,Cheng Weiwei
OBJECTIVE:To assess associations of elevated lipid levels during gestation with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS:This prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary maternal hospital in Shanghai, China from February to November 2014. Lipid constituents, including triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) of 1310 eligible women were assessed in the first (10-13+ weeks), second (22-28 weeks) and third (30-35 weeks) trimesters consecutively. Associations of lipid profiles with HDP and/or GDM outcomes were assessed. RESULTS:Compared with the normal group, maternal TG concentrations were higher in the HDP/GDM groups across the three trimesters (p<0.001); TC and LDL-c amounts were only higher in the first trimester for the HDP and GDM groups (p<0.05). HDL-c levels were similar in the three groups. Compared with intermediate TG levels (25-75th centile), higher TG amounts (>75th centile) were associated with increased risk of HDP/GDM in each trimester with aORs (95% CI) of 2.04 (1.41 to 2.95), 1.81 (1.25 to 2.63) and 1.78 (1.24 to 2.54), respectively. High TG elevation from the first to third trimesters (>75th centile) was associated with increased risk of HDP, with an aOR of 2.09 (1.16 to 3.78). High TG elevation before 28 weeks was associated with increased risk of GDM, with an aOR of 1.67 (1.10 to 2.54). TG elevation was positively correlated with weight gain during gestation (R=0.089, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS:Controlling weight gain during pregnancy could decrease TG elevation and reduce the risk of HDP/GDM. TGs could be used as follow-up parameters during complicated pregnancy, while other lipids are meaningful only in the first trimester.
Vitamin D deficiency and dyslipidemia in early pregnancy.
Al-Ajlan Abdulrahman,Krishnaswamy Soundararajan,Alokail Majed S,Aljohani Naji J,Al-Serehi Amal,Sheshah Eman,Alshingetti Naemah M,Fouda Mona,Turkistani Iqbal Z,Al-Daghri Nasser M
BMC pregnancy and childbirth
BACKGROUND:Vitamin D deficiency is a common nutritional issue and dietary supplementation in the general population, including pregnant women, is generally advised. Appropriately high levels of vitamin D are expected to play a role in containing the glycemic and atherogenic profiles observed in pregnancy. However, the relation between vitamin D status and the lipid metabolic profile in Saudi women, who are known to suffer from chronic vitamin D deficiency and high incidence of obesity and type II DM, during the course of pregnancy is not known. METHODS:In this study, we analyzed the relation between serum vitamin D level and various serum metabolic markers among Saudi women (n = 515) in their first trimester of pregnancy (11.2 ± 3.4 weeks). Coefficients of Pearson correlation and Spearman rank correlation were calculated for Gaussian and non-Gaussian variables, respectively. Serum vitamin D status was defined as (in nmol/L): deficient (<25), insufficient (25-50); sufficient (50-75) and desirable (>75). RESULTS:Results indicated that vitamin D status was sufficient in only 3.5% of the study participants and insufficient and deficient in 26.2% and 68.0% of participants, respectively. Serum vitamin D values in the overall study population correlated positively with serum levels of total cholesterol (R = 0.172; p < 0.01), triglycerides (R = 0.184; p < 0.01) and corrected calcium (R = 0.141; p < 0.05). In the subgroup of vitamin D deficient subjects (n = 350), log serum vitamin D values correlated with serum triglycerides (R = 0.23; p = 0.002) and cholesterol (R = 0.26; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The positive correlations between serum vitamin D and the atherogenic factors such as total cholesterol and triglycerides indicate a pro-atherogenic metabolic status in vitamin D deficient expectant mothers. This may represent an adaptation to the high metabolic demands of pregnancy.
Maternal plasma cholesterol and duration of pregnancy: A prospective cohort study in Ghana.
Oaks Brietta M,Stewart Christine P,Laugero Kevin D,Adu-Afarwuah Seth,Lartey Anna,Vosti Stephen A,Ashorn Per,Dewey Kathryn G
Maternal & child nutrition
Low plasma cholesterol may be associated with preterm birth; however, results are mixed and limited primarily to high-income countries. Our objective was to determine whether maternal plasma lipid concentrations are associated with pregnancy duration. We performed a nested cohort (n = 320) study of pregnant Ghanaian women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were analyzed in plasma at ≤20and 36 weeks gestation as continuous variables and also categorized into low, referent, or high (<10th, 10th-90th, >90th percentile). At ≤20 weeks, plasma lipid concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. At 36 weeks, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. Higher HDL-C at 36 weeks was associated with a longer pregnancy duration (adjusted β-coefficient ± standard error: 0.05 ± 0.02 days mg /dL, p = .02); pregnancy duration was 5.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± standard error) days shorter among women with low HDL-C compared with the referent group (10th-90th percentile) (p = .02) and 8.6 ± 2.6 days shorter when compared with the high HDL-C group (p = .003). Pregnancy duration was 4.9 ± 2.1 days longer among women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 36 weeks gestation when compared with the referent group (p = .051). Our data suggest that low HDL-C in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with a shorter duration of pregnancy in this study population but do not support the hypothesis that low total cholesterol is associated with a shorter pregnancy duration.
Maternal High Triglyceride Levels During Early Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Delivery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Lin Xian-Hua,Wu Dan-Dan,Li Cheng,Xu Yi-Jing,Gao Ling,Lass Geffen,Zhang Jian,Tian Shen,Ivanova Deyana,Tang Lin,Chen Lei,Ding Rong,Liu Xi-Mei,Han Mi,Fan Jian-Xia,Li Xiao-Feng,Sheng Jian-Zhong,O'Byrne Kevin T,Huang He-Feng
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
CONTEXT:Maternal obesity increases the risk of preterm delivery. Obesity is known to be associated with altered lipid metabolism. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the associations between high maternal triglyceride (mTG) levels during early pregnancy and risks of preterm delivery stratified by early pregnancy body mass index (BMI). DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:University-based maternity center. PATIENTS:49,612 women with singleton pregnancy who underwent fasting serum lipid screening during early pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Risk of preterm delivery (total, <37 weeks; early, 28 to 33 weeks; and late, 34 to 36 weeks). RESULTS:Among women enrolled, 2494 had a preterm delivery, including 438 early preterm and 2056 late preterm delivery. High mTG (>90th percentile, 2.04 mM) was associated with shortened gestation. Risks of total, early, and late preterm deliveries increased with mTG levels, and the high mTG-related risk was highest for early preterm delivery [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.72; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.29]. After stratification by BMI, high mTG was associated with risk of preterm delivery in both overweight or obese (OWO) women (AOR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.70) and women with normal BMI (AOR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.59). In additional sensitivity analyses, we found that high mTG was related to higher risks of preterm delivery among OWO women and women with normal BMI (AOR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.22 and 1.62, 1.34 to 1.96, respectively), especially early preterm delivery (AOR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.19 to 5.10, and AOR 2.50; 95% CI, 1.65 to 3.78, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:High mTG level during early pregnancy increased the risks of preterm delivery not only in OWO women but also in women with normal BMI.
Maternal mid-pregnancy lipids and birthweight.
Mudd Lanay M,Holzman Claudia B,Evans Rhobert W
Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
OBJECTIVE:To describe associations between maternal lipids and birthweight and to determine whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) modifies these associations. DESIGN:Cohort study. SETTING:Multiple communities in Michigan, USA. POPULATION:Participants were a sub-cohort of women from the multi-community Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study (1998-2004). METHODS:Maternal total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDLc), and low-density lipoprotein (LDLc) cholesterol, and triglycerides were assessed at 16-27 weeks' gestation. Women were classified as having normal (< 25 kg/m(2) ) or overweight/obese (≥ 25 kg/m(2) ) pre-pregnancy BMI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Sex- and gestational-age-specific body weight z-score (BWz). RESULTS:Regression models examined associations among lipids (low: 1st quartile, referent: middle quartiles, high: 4th quartile) and BWz for the total sample and stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In adjusted analyses (n = 1207), low HDLc was associated with lower BWz (β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.06), whereas high triglycerides were associated with higher BWz (β = 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.41). Once stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI, low total cholesterol was associated with lower BWz in normal BMI women (β = -0.25, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.03), whereas in overweight/obese BMI women, high HDLc was inversely (β = -0.29, 95% CI -0.54 to -0.04) and high triglycerides were directly associated with BWz (β = 0.32, 95% CI 0.07-0.54). Removing women with gestational diabetes/hypertensive disorders did not alter the results. CONCLUSIONS:The associations between maternal lipids and BWz vary by lipid measure and pre-pregnancy BMI. Future work should examine whether lipids and pre-pregnancy BMI make unique contributions to the fetal programming of disease.
Recommended reference values for serum lipids during early and middle pregnancy: a retrospective study from China.
Wang Chen,Kong Lingying,Yang Yide,Wei Yumei,Zhu Weiwei,Su Rina,Lin Li,Yang Huixia
Lipids in health and disease
BACKGROUND:Disturbances in maternal lipid metabolism have been shown to increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there is no consensus as to what constitutes normal maternal lipid values during pregnancy. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish serum lipid reference ranges during early and middle pregnancy. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective survey in Beijing from 2013 to 2014. A total of 17,610 singleton pregnancies with lipid data from early and middle pregnancy were included. First, after excluding women with adverse pregnancy outcomes, we performed a descriptive analysis of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipid cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipid cholesterol (LDL-C) levels using means and standard deviations to determine appropriate percentiles. Second, in the total population, we examined the lipid levels in different trimesters with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes using categorical analyses and logistic regression models. Third, we determined the lipid reference range in early and middle pregnancy based on the first two results. Finally, based on the reference ranges we determined, we assessed whether the number of abnormal lipid values affected the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS:(1) Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C all increased significantly from early to middle pregnancy, with the greatest increase in TG. (2) A trend towards an increasing incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed with increasing levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C and decreasing levels of HDL-C in both early and middle pregnancy. (3) We recommend that serum TC, TG and LDL-C reference values in early and middle pregnancy should be less than the 95th percentiles, whereas that of HDL-C should be greater than the 5th percentile, i.e., in early pregnancy, TC < 5.64 mmol/L, TG < 1.95 mmol/L, HDL-C > 1.23 mmol/L, and LDL-C < 3.27 mmol/L, and in middle pregnancy, TC < 7.50 mmol/L, TG < 3.56 mmol/L, HDL-C > 1.41 mmol/L, and LDL-C < 4.83 mmol/L. (4) Higher numbers out-of-range lipids during early and middle pregnancy were correlated with a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:The reference ranges recommended in this paper can identify pregnant women with unfavourable lipid values.
Study on the association of hypertriglyceridemia with hypertensive states of pregnancy.
Serrano-Berrones Miguel Ángel,Barragán-Padilla Sergio Baltazar
Gaceta medica de Mexico
Background:Preeclampsia occurs in 8% of pregnancies and generates 25% of perinatal deaths. Although its etiology is multifactorial, some metabolic alterations are associated with the endothelial dysfunction present in the disease, and its study could identify early markers of damage. Objective:To determine the relationship between plasma concentration of triglycerides in pregnant patients with hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy. Methods:Prospective study that included 147 healthy pregnant women and 120 women with hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, Hemoglobin A1c, triglycerides, BH, QS, serum electrolytes, serum nitrites and liver function tests were determined. Results:A significant difference was found in the concentration of triglycerides between normotensive and patients with preeclampsia (261.22 ± 80.27 vs. 361.46 ± 135.17 mg/dl, p < 0.0008). In addition, a lower serum concentration of nitrites was observed in patients with preeclampsia, which helps explain vasoconstriction. Conclusions:We found an association between hypertriglyceridemia and the presence of diabetes mellitus II with the development of hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy.
Plasma concentrations of lipids during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: A longitudinal study.
Bao Wei,Dar Sharon,Zhu Yeyi,Wu Jing,Rawal Shristi,Li Shanshan,Weir Natalie L,Tsai Michael Y,Zhang Cuilin
Journal of diabetes
BACKGROUND:Abnormal lipid profiles have been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but studies with longitudinal measures of lipids throughout pregnancy are sparse. The aim of the present study was to characterize longitudinal changes in lipid profiles throughout pregnancy and prospectively examine the associations of plasma lipid concentrations with risk of GDM. METHODS:This study was a nested case-control study including 107 GDM cases and 214 matched non-GDM controls from participants in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies - Singleton cohort. Blood samples were collected longitudinally at Gestational Weeks (GW) 10-14, 15-26 (fasting sample), 23-31, and 33-39. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured by enzymatic assays. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated using Friedewald's formula. RESULTS:Plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-C increased as pregnancy progressed. At GW 10-14, the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of GDM comparing the highest versus lowest quartile were 3.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.38-7.15; P = 0.002) for triglycerides and 0.44 (95% CI 0.18-1.09; P = 0.045) for HDL-C. At GW 15-26, the aORs were 6.57 (95% CI 2.25-19.17; P = 0.001) for triglycerides and 0.23 (95% CI 0.08-0.63; P = 0.005) for HDL-C. No significant associations were observed for total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations with risk of GDM. CONCLUSIONS:Higher plasma triglyceride and lower HDL-C concentrations in early and mid-pregnancy were significantly associated with a greater risk of GDM. Total cholesterol and LDL-C concentrations during pregnancy were not significantly associated with GDM risk.