Overexpression of Sirtuin 1 protein in neurons prevents and reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy.
Chandrasekaran Krish,Salimian Mohammad,Konduru Sruthi R,Choi Joungil,Kumar Pranith,Long Aaron,Klimova Nina,Ho Cheng-Ying,Kristian Tibor,Russell James W
Brain : a journal of neurology
In diabetic neuropathy, there is activation of axonal and sensory neuronal degeneration pathways leading to distal axonopathy. The nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), can prevent activation of these pathways and promote axonal regeneration. In this study, we tested whether increased expression of SIRT1 protein in sensory neurons prevents and reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy induced by a high fat diet (HFD). We generated a transgenic mouse that is inducible and overexpresses SIRT1 protein in neurons (nSIRT1OE Tg). Higher levels of SIRT1 protein were localized to cortical and hippocampal neuronal nuclei in the brain and in nuclei and cytoplasm of small to medium sized neurons in dorsal root ganglia. Wild-type and nSIRT1OE Tg mice were fed with either control diet (6.2% fat) or a HFD (36% fat) for 2 months. HFD-fed wild-type mice developed neuropathy as determined by abnormal motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, mechanical allodynia, and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibres. In contrast, nSIRT1OE prevented a HFD-induced neuropathy despite the animals remaining hyperglycaemic. To test if nSIRT1OE would reverse HFD-induced neuropathy, nSIRT1OE was activated after mice developed peripheral neuropathy on a HFD. Two months after nSIRT1OE, we observed reversal of neuropathy and an increase in intraepidermal nerve fibre. Cultured adult dorsal root ganglion neurons from nSIRT1OE mice, maintained at high (30 mM) total glucose, showed higher basal and maximal respiratory capacity when compared to adult dorsal root ganglion neurons from wild-type mice. In dorsal root ganglion protein extracts from nSIRT1OE mice, the NAD+-consuming enzyme PARP1 was deactivated and the major deacetylated protein was identified to be an E3 protein ligase, NEDD4-1, a protein required for axonal growth, regeneration and proteostasis in neurodegenerative diseases. Our results indicate that nSIRT1OE prevents and reverses neuropathy. Increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity and NEDD4 activation was associated with increased axonal growth driven by neuronal overexpression of SIRT1. Therapies that regulate NAD+ and thereby target sirtuins may be beneficial in human diabetic sensory polyneuropathy.
Feldman Eva L,Callaghan Brian C,Pop-Busui Rodica,Zochodne Douglas W,Wright Douglas E,Bennett David L,Bril Vera,Russell James W,Viswanathan Vijay
Nature reviews. Disease primers
The global epidemic of prediabetes and diabetes has led to a corresponding epidemic of complications of these disorders. The most prevalent complication is neuropathy, of which distal symmetric polyneuropathy (for the purpose of this Primer, referred to as diabetic neuropathy) is very common. Diabetic neuropathy is a loss of sensory function beginning distally in the lower extremities that is also characterized by pain and substantial morbidity. Over time, at least 50% of individuals with diabetes develop diabetic neuropathy. Glucose control effectively halts the progression of diabetic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, but the effects are more modest in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These findings have led to new efforts to understand the aetiology of diabetic neuropathy, along with new 2017 recommendations on approaches to prevent and treat this disorder that are specific for each type of diabetes. In parallel, new guidelines for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy using distinct classes of drugs, with an emphasis on avoiding opioid use, have been issued. Although our understanding of the complexities of diabetic neuropathy has substantially evolved over the past decade, the distinct mechanisms underlying neuropathy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes remains unknown. Future discoveries on disease pathogenesis will be crucial to successfully address all aspects of diabetic neuropathy, from prevention to treatment.