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    Role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulation of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2. Matthews Vance B,Elliot Rosemary H,Rudnicka Caroline,Hricova Jana,Herat Lakshini,Schlaich Markus P Journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates glucose metabolism in various organs including the kidneys. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) mediates glucose reabsorption in renal proximal tubules and its inhibition has been shown to improve glucose control, cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We hypothesized that SNS-induced alterations of glucose metabolism may be mediated via regulation of SGLT2. METHOD:We used human renal proximal tubule cells to investigate the effects of noradrenaline on SGLT2 regulation. Mice fed a high-fat diet were oral gavaged with dapagliflozin and the expression of noradrenaline and tyrosine hydroxylase was measured in the kidney and heart. RESULTS:Noradrenaline treatment resulted in a pronounced increase in SGLT2 and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in HK2 cells and promoted translocation of SGLT2 to the cell surface. In vivo, dapagliflozin treatment resulted in marked glucosuria in high-fat diet-fed mice. SGLT2 inhibition significantly reduced high-fat diet-induced elevations of tyrosine hydroxylase and noradrenaline in the kidney and heart. We also aimed to assess the levels of hypertension-related cytokines in the kidneys of our mice treated with and without dapagliflozin. Excitingly, we demonstrate that SGLT2 inhibition with dapagliflozin promoted a trend towards reduced tumour necrosis factor-alpha and elevated IL-1β protein levels in the kidney. CONCLUSION:Our in-vitro and in-vivo studies provide first evidence for an important cross-talk between the SNS and SGLT2 regulation that may not only account for SNS-induced alterations of glucose metabolism but potentially contribute to cardiovascular and renal protection observed with SGLT2 inhibitors. 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001434
    Antihypertensive and Renal Mechanisms of SGLT2 (Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter 2) Inhibitors. Wilcox Christopher S Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) Empaglifolzin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin are SGLT2 (sodium-glucose linked transporter type 2) inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that also reduce blood pressure, mortality, and cardiovascular disease and slow the loss of glomerular filtration rate. SGLT2 inhibitors inhibit the coupled reabsorption of sodium and glucose from the proximal tubules, thereby increasing renal glucose and sodium excretion, but they have more widespread renal effects, including inhibition of the sodium:proton exchanger. They increase the delivery of sodium to the loop of Henle and can thereby activate the tubuloglomerular feedback response to correct glomerular hyperfiltration. There are multiple potential mechanisms whereby these drugs lower blood pressure and preserve kidney function that are the focus of this review. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.11684
    Renal Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition in Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension. Castoldi Giovanna,Carletti Raffaella,Ippolito Silvia,Colzani Massimiliano,Barzaghi Francesca,Stella Andrea,Zerbini Gianpaolo,Perseghin Gianluca,di Gioia Cira R T American journal of nephrology BACKGROUND:Clinical trials have shown that empagliflozin (Empa), a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, promotes nephroprotective effects in diabetic patients. The mechanisms underlying nephroprotection are not completely known and it is not known whether the renal beneficial action is present even in non-diabetic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Empa administration on the development of renal fibrosis in an experimental model of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension. METHODS:Sprague Dawley rats (n = 31) were divided into 4 experimental groups. Ang II (200 ng/kg/min, osmotic minipumps, s.c., n = 9) or Ang II + Empa (10 mg/kg/day, per os, n = 10) were administered for 2 weeks. Control rats were treated with placebo (physiological saline, n = 6), and another group was treated with placebo plus Empa (n = 6) for the same period. Blood pressure (plethysmographic method) was measured at the beginning and at the end of the experimental protocol. After 2 weeks, the rats were euthanized and the kidneys were excised for histomorphometric evaluation of glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and for the immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrates (monocytes/macrophages) and types I and IV collagen expression. RESULTS:The administration of Ang II resulted in an increase in blood pressure (p < 0.01), glomerular (p < 0.05) and tubulo-interstitial (p < 0.01) fibrosis, renal inflammatory infiltrates (p < 0.01) and type I (p < 0.01) and type IV collagen expression (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Treatment with Empa did not significantly modify the increase in blood pressure due to Ang II, but prevented the development of renal glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, and the increase in inflammatory infiltrates and types I and IV collagen expression in Ang II-treated rats (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that the treatment with Empa prevents the development of renal fibrosis in Ang II-dependent hypertension. In Ang II-dependent hypertension, the anti-fibrotic effect due to SGLT2 inhibition is caused by the reduction of inflammatory infiltrates and it is independent on the modulation of blood pressure increase. 10.1159/000505144
    Uric acid and the cardio-renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. Bailey Clifford J Diabetes, obesity & metabolism Sodium/glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which lower blood glucose by increasing renal glucose elimination, have been shown to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) and renal events in type 2 diabetes. This has been ascribed, in part, to haemodynamic changes, body weight reduction and several possible effects on myocardial, endothelial and tubulo-glomerular functions, as well as to reduced glucotoxicity. This review evaluates evidence that an effect of SGLT2 inhibitors to lower uric acid may also contribute to reduced cardio-renal risk. Chronically elevated circulating uric acid concentrations are associated with increased risk of hypertension, CV disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The extent to which uric acid contributes to these conditions, either as a cause or an aggravating factor, remains unclear, but interventions that reduce urate production or increase urate excretion in hyperuricaemic patients have consistently improved cardio-renal prognoses. Uric acid concentrations are often elevated in type 2 diabetes, contributing to the "metabolic syndrome" of CV risk. Treating type 2 diabetes with an SGLT2 inhibitor increases uric acid excretion, reduces circulating uric acid and improves parameters of CV and renal function. This raises the possibility that the lowering of uric acid by SGLT2 inhibition may assist in reducing adverse CV events and slowing progression of CKD in type 2 diabetes. SGLT2 inhibition might also be useful in the treatment of gout and gouty arthritis, especially when co-existent with diabetes. 10.1111/dom.13670