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    Treating psychological insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Allen Nancy A,Zagarins Sofija E,Feinberg Rebecca G,Welch Garry Journal of clinical & translational endocrinology AIMS:The phenomenon of psychological insulin resistance (PIR) has been well documented for two decades, but interventions to treat PIR have not been well described. The aim of this study was to describe interventions used to treat psychological insulin resistance by certified diabetes educators (CDE's). METHODS:A secondary data analysis study using empirical data from a trial (N = 234) that included four CDEs providing counseling for psychological insulin resistance. Participants not currently using insulin completed the 10-item Barriers to Insulin Therapy measure. The four CDE interventionists documented their approach to addressing participants' barriers to taking insulin using a standard form. Recommendations were collated and summarized. RESULTS:Strong PIR was shown by 28.4% of participants reporting that they "would not start insulin" and a moderate degree of PIR was shown by 61.2% who said they "would be upset, but would start insulin." The CDE's treated PIR with four primary interventions: 1) teaching and providing explanations, 2) demonstrations and sharing examples of success using insulin therapy, 3) return demonstrations, and 4) addressing feelings and positively managing expectations. CONCLUSION:This is the first study to describe in some detail potentially effective patient management strategies for PIR. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of PIR interventions is needed. 10.1016/j.jcte.2016.11.005
    Peer Education Group Intervention to Reduce Psychological Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Mixed-Method Study in a Chinese Population. Or Ka Yan,Yip Benjamin Hoi-Kei,Lau Chi Hang,Chen Hing Han,Chan Yuk Wah,Lee Kam Pui Diabetes therapy : research, treatment and education of diabetes and related disorders INTRODUCTION:Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) is common among type II diabetes (DM) patients. Although interventions to reduce PIR have been suggested, there is no standardized intervention to reduce PIR. This trial aimed to assess the preliminary effectiveness of a well-structured interventional patient group (for sample size calculation for larger trials), as well as the acceptability and feasibility of this intervention group. METHODS:This study used a quasi-experimental, mixed-method approach. Fifty-three patients with DM were recruited to an interventional group that included a general education of DM and insulin, an insulin pen demonstration, and an insulin-using peer sharing session. Each group consisted of around 15 participants and lasted for 2 h each. The validated Chinese version of the insulin treatment appraisal scale (C-ITAS) was administered before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention to measure any changes in the participants' PIR. Patients were interviewed to assess the acceptability of the intervention until data saturation. RESULTS:Repeated measures ANOVA showed that the post-intervention C-ITAS scores (immediately post group and at 1 month) were lower than the pre-intervention C-ITAS scores (p < 0.001). Changes in multiple attitudes toward insulin were detected before and after the group intervention. Ten patient interviews were conducted and found that the intervention was welcomed by all interviewees; no discomfort or adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSION:Preliminary results showed that patient intervention groups with general education, insulin pen demonstration, and peer sharing appeared to be safe, acceptable, and effective in reducing PIR. Larger multicenter trials are needed to generalize these findings. 10.1007/s13300-017-0347-3
    Key factors for overcoming psychological insulin resistance: an examination of patient perspectives through content analysis. Stuckey Heather,Fisher Lawrence,Polonsky William H,Hessler Danielle,Snoek Frank J,Tang Tricia S,Hermanns Norbert,Mundet-Tuduri Xavier,da Silva Maria Elizabeth Rossi,Sturt Jackie,Okazaki Kentaro,Cao Dachuang,Hadjiyianni Irene,Ivanova Jasmina I,Desai Urvi,Perez-Nieves Magaly BMJ open diabetes research & care Objective:To understand participant perceptions about insulin and identify key behaviors of healthcare professionals (HCPs) that motivated initially reluctant adults from seven countries (n=40) who had type 2 diabetes (T2D) to start insulin treatment. Research design and methods:Telephone interviews were conducted with a subset of participants from an international investigation of adults with T2D who were reluctant to start insulin (EMOTION). Questions related to: (a) participants' thoughts about insulin before and after initiation; (b) reasons behind responses on the survey that were either 'not helpful at all' or 'helped a lot'; (c) actions their HCP may have taken to help start insulin treatment; and (d) advice they would give to others in a similar situation of starting insulin. Responses were coded by two independent reviewers (kappa 0.992). Results:Starting insulin treatment was perceived as a negative experience that would be painful and would lead down a 'slippery slope' to complications. HCPs engaged in four primary behaviors that helped with insulin acceptance: (1) showed the insulin pen/needle and demonstrated the injection process; (2) explained how insulin could help with diabetes control and reduce risk of complications; (3) used collaborative communication style; and (4) offered support and willingness to answer questions so that participants would not be 'on their own'. Following initiation, most participants noted that insulin was not 'as bad as they thought' and recommended insulin to other adults with T2D. Conclusions:Based on these themes, two actionable strategies are suggested for HCPs to help people with psychological insulin resistance: (1) demonstrate the injection process and discuss negative perceptions of insulin as well as potential benefits; (2) offer autonomy in a person-centred collaborative approach, but provide support and accessibility to address concerns. These findings help HCPs to better understand ways in which they can engage reluctant people with T2D with specific strategies. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000723