The interplay between immunosenescence and age-related diseases.
Barbé-Tuana Florencia,Funchal Giselle,Schmitz Carine Raquel Richter,Maurmann Rafael Moura,Bauer Moisés E
Seminars in immunopathology
The aging immune system (immunosenescence) has been implicated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Of note, T cell aging and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) are implicated with several age-related conditions. The expansion of late-differentiated T cells (CD28), regulatory T cells, increased serum levels of autoantibodies, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were implicated with morbidities during aging. Features of accelerated immunosenescence can be identified in adults with chronic inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and are predictive of poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, there is an interplay between immunosenescence and age-related diseases. In this review, we discuss how the aging immune system may contribute to the development and clinical course of age-related diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases.
Immunosenescence and Inflamm-Aging As Two Sides of the Same Coin: Friends or Foes?
Fulop Tamas,Larbi Anis,Dupuis Gilles,Le Page Aurélie,Frost Eric H,Cohen Alan A,Witkowski Jacek M,Franceschi Claudio
Frontiers in immunology
The immune system is the most important protective physiological system of the organism. It has many connections with other systems and is, in fact, often considered as part of the larger neuro-endocrine-immune axis. Most experimental data on immune changes with aging show a decline in many immune parameters when compared to young healthy subjects. The bulk of these changes is termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence has been considered for some time as detrimental because it often leads to subclinical accumulation of pro-inflammatory factors and inflamm-aging. Together, immunosenescence and inflamm-aging are suggested to stand at the origin of most of the diseases of the elderly, such as infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, an increasing number of immune-gerontologists have challenged this negative interpretation of immunosenescence with respect to its significance in aging-related alterations of the immune system. If one considers these changes from an evolutionary perspective, they can be viewed preferably as adaptive or remodeling rather than solely detrimental. Whereas it is conceivable that global immune changes may lead to various diseases, it is also obvious that these changes may be needed for extended survival/longevity. Recent cumulative data suggest that, without the existence of the immunosenescence/inflamm-aging duo (representing two sides of the same phenomenon), human longevity would be greatly shortened. This review summarizes recent data on the dynamic reassessment of immune changes with aging. Accordingly, attempts to intervene on the aging immune system by targeting its rejuvenation, it may be more suitable to aim to maintain general homeostasis and function by appropriately improving immune-inflammatory-functions.
Age and immunity: What is "immunosenescence"?
As is apparent from the many contributions to this Special Issue of the Journal, the impact of age on immunity is nefarious, with all manner of dysregulated responses attributed to "immunosenescence". These range from poorer responses to vaccination, lower capacity to mediate anti-cancer responses, more inflammation and tissue damage, along with autoimmunity and loss of control of persistent infections. Given the grave clinical implications of altered immune status in aged people, it is of paramount importance to understand the nature of and mechanisms responsible for "immunosenescence". As in any rapidly developing research area, certain paradigms establish themselves early on, by necessity based on earlier and fewer data, and have a disproportionate influence on how investigators think about the subject, especially investigators from other disciplines. It may therefore be appropriate to reconsider our basic knowledge at this juncture, asking exactly what do we mean by the term "immunosenescence"? This is attempted in this contribution to the Special Issue.
TREM2 sustains microglial expansion during aging and response to demyelination.
Poliani Pietro Luigi,Wang Yaming,Fontana Elena,Robinette Michelle L,Yamanishi Yoshinori,Gilfillan Susan,Colonna Marco
The Journal of clinical investigation
Microglia contribute to development, homeostasis, and immunity of the CNS. Like other tissue-resident macrophage populations, microglia express the surface receptor triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), which binds polyanions, such as dextran sulphate and bacterial LPS, and activates downstream signaling cascades through the adapter DAP12. Individuals homozygous for inactivating mutations in TREM2 exhibit demyelination of subcortical white matter and a lethal early onset dementia known as Nasu-Hakola disease. How TREM2 deficiency mediates demyelination and disease is unknown. Here, we addressed the basis for this genetic association using Trem2(-/-) mice. In WT mice, microglia expanded in the corpus callosum with age, whereas aged Trem2(-/-) mice had fewer microglia with an abnormal morphology. In the cuprizone model of oligodendrocyte degeneration and demyelination, Trem2(-/-) microglia failed to amplify transcripts indicative of activation, phagocytosis, and lipid catabolism in response to myelin damage. As a result, Trem2(-/-) mice exhibited impaired myelin debris clearance, axonal dystrophy, oligodendrocyte reduction, and persistent demyelination after prolonged cuprizone treatment. Moreover, myelin-associated lipids robustly triggered TREM2 signaling in vitro, suggesting that TREM2 may directly sense lipid components exposed during myelin damage. We conclude that TREM2 is required for promoting microglial expansion during aging and microglial response to insults of the white matter.
Major aging-associated RNA expressions change at two distinct age-positions.
Gheorghe Marius,Snoeck Marc,Emmerich Michael,Bäck Thomas,Goeman Jelle J,Raz Vered
BACKGROUND:Genome-wide expression profiles are altered during biological aging and can describe molecular regulation of tissue degeneration. Age-regulated mRNA expression trends from cross-sectional studies could describe how aging progresses. We developed a novel statistical methodology to identify age-regulated expression trends in cross-sectional datasets. RESULTS:We studied six cross-sectional RNA expression profiles from different human tissues. Our methodology, capable of overcoming technical and genetic background differences, identified an age-regulation in four of the tissues. For the identification of expression trends, five regression models were compared and the quadratic model was found as the most suitable for this study. After k-means clustering of the age-associated probes, expression trends were found to change at two major age-positions in brain cortex and in Vastus lateralis muscles. The first age-position was found to occur during the fifth decade and a later one during the eighth decade. In kidney cortex, however, only one age-position was identified correlating with a late age-position. Functional mapping of genes at each age-position suggests that calcium homeostasis and lipid metabolisms are initially affected and subsequently, in elderly mitochondria, apoptosis and hormonal signaling pathways are affected. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that age-associated temporal changes in human tissues progress at distinct age-positions, which differ between tissues and in their molecular composition.