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    Multiple behavioral factors are associated with occurrence of large, flat colorectal polyps. Zhan Tianzuo,Hahn Felix,Hielscher Thomas,Bilge Asmé,Grüger Jürgen,Weers Jürgen,Betge Johannes,Gaiser Timo,Kähler Georg,Ebert Matthias P,Belle Sebastian International journal of colorectal disease PURPOSE:The prevalence of advanced dysplasia and synchronous lesions is particularly high in patients with large, flat colorectal polyps. However, the impact of lifestyle on the development of such polyps is poorly investigated. Hence, this study aims to identify associations between behavioral factors and the occurrence of large, flat colorectal polyps. METHODS:Behavioral factors were retrospectively analyzed in patients with large, flat polyps and control patients with at most one diminutive polyp. Information on lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and demographic parameters were determined by a structured, self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS:Questionnaires of 350 patients with large, flat polyps and 489 control patients were included in the analysis. Most large, flat colorectal polyps contained adenoma with low-grade neoplasia and were located in the right colon. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age (per 1-year increase-OR 1.09, CI 1.07-1.11, p < 0.0001), frequent cigarette smoking (OR 2.04, CI 1.25-3.32, p = 0.0041), daily consumption of red meat (OR 3.61, CI 1.00-12.96, p = 0.0492), and frequent bowel movements (OR 1.62, CI 1.13-2.33, p = 0.0093) were independent risk factors for occurrence of large, flat colorectal polyps. In contrast, frequent intake of cereals (OR 0.62, CI 0.44-0.88, p = 0.0074) was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSION:Multiple behavioral factors modulate the risk for developing large, flat colorectal polyps. This knowledge can be used to improve prevention of colorectal cancer. 10.1007/s00384-016-2717-0
    Colonoscopy Identifies Increased Prevalence of Large Polyps or Tumors in Patients 40-49 Years Old With Hematochezia vs Other Gastrointestinal Indications. Saks Karen,Enestvedt Brintha K,Holub Jennifer L,Lieberman David Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association BACKGROUND & AIMS:There is an unclear role for colonoscopy in the evaluation of symptomatic individuals younger than 50 years old. We aimed to determine the prevalence of large polyps (>9 mm) or tumors in individuals 40 to 49 years old who underwent colonoscopy for various signs and symptoms, and compare the results with those from average-risk individuals ages 50 to 54 years who underwent screening colonoscopy. METHODS:We collected data from a national endoscopy database, from 2000 through 2012, and identified patients 40 to 49 years old who underwent colonoscopy for bleeding and nonbleeding indications. The prevalence of large polyps (>9 mm) or tumors was compared with the prevalence in a reference group (n = 99,713 average-risk individuals ages 50-54 undergoing screening colonoscopy). RESULTS:A total of 65,892 patients ages 40 to 49 years underwent colonoscopy for a variety of indications. Significantly larger proportions of male and female patients with hematochezia without anemia or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) had large polyps or tumors (7.2%) compared with the reference group (men, 7.2% vs 6.2%; P = .0001; and women, 5.5% vs 4.1%; P < .0001). Patients with weight loss, anemia or IDA, or hematochezia with anemia or IDA did not have a significantly higher prevalence of large polyps or tumors than the reference group. Significantly lower proportions of patients with general gastrointestinal symptoms (pain, bloating, or change in bowel habits) had advanced neoplasia compared with the reference group (men, 3.9% vs 6.2%; P < .0001; and women, 2.7% vs 4.1%; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS:An analysis of a national endoscopy database supports the role of colonoscopy to evaluate hematochezia in patients 40 to 49 years old. A lower proportion of patients with anemia, weight loss, and general abdominal symptoms had large polyps or tumors compared with average-risk patients 50 to 54 years old. A significantly lower proportion of patients younger than 50 years with general gastrointestinal symptoms had large polyps-these patients are therefore less likely to benefit from colonoscopy. 10.1016/j.cgh.2015.12.046
    Association between the ulcer status and the risk of delayed bleeding after the endoscopic mucosal resection of colon. Kim Gwang-Un,Seo Myeongsook,Song Eun Mi,Hwang Sung Wook,Park Sang Hyoung,Yang Dong-Hoon,Byeon Jeong-Sik Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology BACKGROUND AND AIM:Bleeding is the most common adverse event following colonoscopic endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of a colon EMR according to the post-EMR ulcer status and determine the risk factors of delayed postpolypectomy bleeding (DPPB) based on the post-EMR ulcer status. METHODS:The medical records and endoscopic images of patients who underwent EMR of colon polyps with diameters of ≥ 5 mm were retrospectively reviewed by us. If any exposed vessels were observed on the post-EMR ulcer, the types of exposed vessels were classified into cut and uncut vessels. The coagulation injuries on the post-EMR ulcer were categorized as grades 1, 2, or 3. RESULTS:In total, 505 patients with 728 polyps were examined. Exposed vessels were present in 416 post-EMR ulcers, including cut vessels in 11 (1.5%) and uncut vessels in 405 (55.6%). With regard to coagulation injury, 113 (15.5%), 443 (60.9%), and 172 (23.6%) post-EMR ulcers had grades 1, 2, and 3 injuries, respectively. DPPB was observed in 20 lesions (2.7%). Multivariate analysis indicated that a polyp size > 10 mm (odds ratio [OR], 3.354; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229-9.154), cut vessels (OR, 18.913; 95% CI, 3.106-115.187), and grade 3 coagulation injury (OR, 16.796; 95% CI, 1.825-154.556) were associated with DPPB. CONCLUSIONS:Cut vessels and severe coagulation injury on post-EMR ulcers, as well as larger polyp size, are risk factors for DPPB. Careful inspection of post-EMR ulcers and prophylactic hemostasis, if necessary, may improve the clinical outcomes of colonoscopic EMR. 10.1111/jgh.13804
    Additional Thirty Seconds Observation with Linked Color Imaging Improves Detection of Missed Polyps in the Right-Sided Colon. Yoshida Naohisa,Inada Yutaka,Yasuda Ritsu,Murakami Takaaki,Hirose Ryohei,Inoue Ken,Dohi Osamu,Naito Yuji,Ogiso Kiyoshi,Morinaga Yukiko,Kishimoto Mitsuo,Konishi Eiichi,Itoh Yoshito Gastroenterology research and practice Background and Aims:Missed polyps are a pitfall of colonoscopy. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of an additional 30 seconds observation using linked color imaging (LCI) for detecting adenoma and sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P). Materials and Methods:We enrolled patients undergoing colonoscopy from February to October 2017 in two institutions. In all patients, the cecum and ascending colon were observed with white light imaging (WLI) first. The colonoscope was inserted again, and the cecum and ascending colon were observed for an additional 30 seconds using either LCI or WLI. The method for the 30 sec observation was to insufflate the cecum and ascending colon sufficiently and observe them in a distant view, because the length of the second observation was determined to be precisely 30 sec. For the second observation, LCI was performed for the first 65 patients and WLI for the next 65. Adenoma and SSA/P detection rate (ASDR) in the second observation were examined in both groups. According to a pilot study, the sample size was estimated 65. Results:In the first observation, ASDR were 30.7% in the LCI group and 32.2% in the WLI group ( = 0.85). For the second observation, 13 polyps were detected in the LCI group and 5 polyps in the WLI group ( = 0.04). Additionally, ASDR for the second observation were 18.5% and 6.1%, respectively ( = 0.03). There were no significant differences between the LCI and WLI groups with respect to morphology (ratio of polypoid) (38.5% versus 60.0%, = 0.52) and histology (ratio of adenoma) (92.3% versus 100.0%, = 0.91). Total adenoma and SSA/P number were 48 in the LCI group and 36 in the WLI group ( = 0.02). Conclusion:The 30 seconds additional observation with LCI improved the detection of adenoma and SSA/P in the right-sided colon. 10.1155/2018/5059834
    Associations among pericolonic fat, visceral fat, and colorectal polyps on CT colonography. Liu Jiamin,Pattanaik Sanket,Yao Jianhua,Dwyer Andrew J,Pickhardt Perry J,Choi J Richard,Summers Ronald M Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) OBJECTIVE:To determine the association between pericolonic fat and colorectal polyps using CT colonography (CTC). METHODS:A total of 1169 patients who underwent CTC and optical colonoscopy on the same day were assessed. Pericolonic fat was measured on CTC in a band surrounding the colon. Visceral adipose tissue volume was measured at the L2-L3 levels. Student's t-tests, odds ratio, logistic regression, binomial statistics, and weighted kappa were performed to ascertain associations with the incidence of colorectal polyps. RESULTS:Pericolonic fat volume fractions (PFVF) were 61.5 ± 11.0% versus 58.1 ± 11.5%, 61.6 ± 11.1% versus 58.7 ± 11.5%, and 62.4 ± 10.6% versus 58.8 ± 11.5% for patients with and without any polyps, adenomatous polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively (P<0.0001). Similar trends were observed when examining visceral fat volume fractions (VFVF). When patients were ordered by quintiles of PFVF or VFVF, there were 2.49-, 2.19-, and 2.39-fold increases in odds ratio for the presence of any polyp, adenomatous polyps, or hyperplastic polyps from the first to the fifth quintile for PFVF and 1.92-, 2.00-, and 1.71-fold increases in odds ratio for VFVF. Polyps tended to occur more commonly in parts of the colon that had more PFVF than the spatially adjusted average for patients in the highest quintile of VFVF. CONCLUSIONS:Pericolonic fat accumulations, like visceral fat, are correlated with an increased risk of adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. 10.1002/oby.20987
    Cold EMR of large sessile serrated polyps at colonoscopy (with video). Tutticci Nicholas J,Hewett David G Gastrointestinal endoscopy BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The optimal technique for the resection of sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) is unknown, with established limitations and risks with conventional polypectomy. Although cold snare polypectomy is safe, the efficacy of piecemeal resection for large lesions is untested. In this study we evaluate the safety and efficacy of cold EMR for large SSPs. METHODS:Patients presenting for elective colonoscopy at an academic endoscopy center with 1 or more SSPs ≥10 mm in size were enrolled, excluding those on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy other than aspirin. Lesions were resected with a cold EMR technique comprising submucosal injection of succinylated gelatin and dilute methylene blue before piecemeal cold snare resection of all visible polyp with a margin of normal tissue. Outcomes were the presence of residual serrated neoplasia in biopsy specimens from the defect margin and findings on surveillance colonoscopy. RESULTS:Cold EMR was performed on 163 SSPs during 105 procedures in 99 patients (97% women; median age, 57 years). The mean size was 17.5 mm: 61 SSPs were ≥20 mm and 13 SSPs ≥30 mm, and 97.5% were in the proximal colon. Cytologic dysplasia was present in 2 (1.2%). Margin biopsy specimens were positive in 2 lesions (1.2%). Surveillance colonoscopy for 82% of lesions (median, 5 months) showed residual serrated tissue in 1, treated with cold snare, but no evidence of recurrence in the remainder. Minor adverse events were seen in 3 patients; no delayed bleeding was observed. CONCLUSIONS:Cold EMR is a safe and effective method for the removal of large SSPs. 10.1016/j.gie.2017.11.002
    The ethnic distribution of sessile serrated polyps in the United States is inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori prevalence. Sonnenberg A,Turner K O,Genta R M Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland AIM:Little is known about the epidemiology of sessile serrated polyps (SSP). Our study aimed to investigate the influence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and patient demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity) on the prevalence of SSP using a large national database of patients undergoing bi-directional endoscopy. METHOD:De-identified patient data were extracted from the Miraca Life Sciences electronic database of histopathological reports. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the influence of H. pylori gastritis and demographic characteristics on the occurrence of SSP were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:The total study population comprised 228 506 subjects, of whom 28 890 carried a diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis and 11 285 SSP. Age (OR 4.35, 95% CI: 3.82-4.96), female gender (0.92, 0.88-0.95) and H. pylori gastritis (0.94, 0.88-0.99) exerted the strongest influence on the occurrence of SSP. In comparison with the population comprising Caucasians and African Americans, SSP were less common among subjects of Hispanic (0.67, 0.62-0.73), East Asian (0.59, 0.50-0.69), Indian (0.43, 0.27-0.64) or Middle Eastern descent (0.61, 0.41-0.87). All these ethnic subgroups were also characterized by a higher prevalence of H. pylori than the comparison group. A low prevalence of H. pylori was significantly associated with a high prevalence of SSP (R  = 0.82, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:The prevalence of SSP within the United States is characterized by a marked ethnic variation. The inverse correlation between the prevalence of H. pylori and SSP suggests that gastric infection with H. pylori may be partly responsible for the observed ethnic distribution of SSP. 10.1111/codi.13716
    Risk Factors for Delayed Hemorrhage after Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Patients Not on Antithrombotic Therapy: Retrospective Analysis of 3,844 Polyps of 1,660 Patients. Tsuruta Sanae,Tominaga Naoyuki,Ogata Shinichi,Tsuruoka Nanae,Sakata Yasuhisa,Shimoda Ryo,Eguchi Yuichiro,Anzai Keizo,Hara Megumi,Fujimoto Kazuma Digestion BACKGROUND/AIMS:Colonic endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is safe for patients without antithrombotic therapy; however, EMR is associated with several risks. This study was performed to evaluate the risk of delayed hemorrhage in patients undergoing EMR without antithrombotic therapy. METHODS:In the present retrospective single-center study, 1,792 patients without antithrombotic therapy underwent colonic EMR from March 2012 to December 2016 at the Saga Medical Centre Koseikan. Risk factors were evaluated with respect to patient and lesion characteristics, the endoscopist's experience, and preventive hemoclips. Delayed hemorrhage was defined as bleeding for which emergency endoscopic hemostasis was applied >24 h after EMR. RESULTS:Among the 1,792 patients, 1,660 with 3,844 tumors were evaluated. Delayed hemorrhage occurred in 43 patients (2.6%) and 46 polyps (1.2%). Preventive hemoclips were applied in 996 patients (60.0%). Univariate analysis indicated that delayed hemorrhage occurred more frequently in young patients (3-39 years, p < 0.001, 40-59 years, p = 0.005) compared to > 60 years and in association with large polyps (> 10 mm, p = 0.003), hemoclip (p = 0.019), and pedunculated polyps (p = 0.024). Multivariate analysis indicated that risk factors for hemorrhage were young age (age of 3-39 years p < 0.001, 40-59 years, p = 0.005) and large polyps (> 10 mm, p < 0.001). The risk of delayed hemorrhage was increased by an estimated 8% with a 1-mm increase in polyp size. CONCLUSION:The present study suggests that young age (under 60 years old) and large polyp size are risk factors for causing delayed hemorrhage after colonic EMR in patients without antithrombotic therapy. 10.1159/000494455
    A randomized study on the effectiveness of prophylactic clipping during endoscopic resection of colon polyps for the prevention of delayed bleeding. Dokoshi Tatsuya,Fujiya Mikihiro,Tanaka Kazuyuki,Sakatani Aki,Inaba Yuhei,Ueno Nobuhiro,Kashima Shin,Goto Takuma,Sasajima Junpei,Tominaga Motoya,Ito Takahiro,Moriichi Kentaro,Tanabe Hiroki,Ikuta Katsuya,Ohtake Takaaki,Kohgo Yutaka BioMed research international BACKGROUNDS:The efficacy of clipping for preventing the delayed bleeding after the removal of colon polyps is still controversial. In order to clarify this efficacy, a randomized controlled study was performed. METHODS:One hundred and fifty-six patients with colon neoplasms (288 lesions) were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: clipping or nonclipping groups using a sealed envelope method before the endoscopic resections. Eight specialists and nine residents were invited to perform this procedure. The risk factors and the rates of delayed bleeding after the endoscopic resections in each group were investigated. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in the bleeding rate between the clipping and nonclipping groups, while the length of the procedure was significantly longer and the cost was higher in the clipping group than in the nonclipping group. The rate of bleeding was significantly higher in cases with polyps 2 cm or larger and with a longer procedure time, while none of the other factors affected the bleeding rate. CONCLUSIONS:This randomized controlled study revealed no significant effect of prophylactic clipping for preventing delayed bleeding after the endoscopic resection of colon polyps. 10.1155/2015/490272
    Correlation between Colon Polyps and Metabolic Syndrome and HP Infection Status. Huang Lijuan,Wu Lihong,Qiao Qiaohua,Fang Lizheng Gastroenterology research and practice Background:This study investigated the relationships among the characteristics of colon polyps and potential risk factors, including metabolic condition, CEA level, uric acid level, and (Hp) infection status. Method:Clinical data from patients who received colonoscopy were collected and analyzed, including patients' gender, age, polyp pathology, metabolic syndrome (MS) status, CEA level, uric acid level, and Hp infection status. Patients were divided into a polyp group and a control group based on whether they presented with colon polyps. Then, clinical data were compared between the two groups to identify any differences between the groups and their relationships to colon polyps. Result:Compared with the control group, the polyp group had significant differences in patient gender, body mass index (BMI), waistline, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose level, blood lipid level, and uric acid level ( < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in LDL and CEA levels ( > 0.05). Patients with MS or a uric acid level > 340 mg/dl had a greater tendency to develop colon polyps but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion:The incidence of colon polyps may be associated with MS and uric acid levels, but further studies are warranted to confirm this conclusion. 10.1155/2019/3916154
    Smoking and Other Risk Factors in Individuals With Synchronous Conventional High-Risk Adenomas and Clinically Significant Serrated Polyps. Anderson Joseph C,Calderwood Audrey H,Christensen Brock C,Robinson Christina M,Amos Christopher I,Butterly Lynn The American journal of gastroenterology BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Serrated polyps (SPs) and conventional high-risk adenomas (HRAs) derive from two distinct biological pathways but can also occur synchronously. Adults with synchronous SPs and adenomas have been shown to be a high-risk group and may have a unique risk factor profile that differs from adults with conventional HRAs alone. We used the population-based New Hampshire Colonoscopy Registry (NHCR) to examine the risk profile of individuals with synchronous conventional HRAs and SPs. METHODS:Our study population included 20,281 first time screening colonoscopies from asymptomatic NHCR participants 40 years or older between 2004-15. Exams were categorized by findings: (1) normal, (2) HRA only (adenomas ≥ 1 cm, villous, high grade dysplasia, multiple adenomas ( > 2) and adenocarcinoma), (3) clinically significant SP (CSSP) only (any hyperplastic polyp ≥ 1 cm, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps or traditional serrated adenomas), and (4) synchronous HRA + CSSP. Risk factors examined included exposure of interest, smoking (never, past, and current/pack years), as well as age, sex, alcohol, education, and family history of colorectal cancer (CRC). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression tested the relation of risk factors with having synchronous HRA + CSSP versus having a normal exam or HRA alone. RESULTS:Among NHCR participants with 18,354 screening colonoscopies (with complete smoking, sex, bowel preparation data, and adequate preparation) there were 16,495 normal; 1309 HRA alone; 461 CSSP alone, and 89 synchronous HRA + CSSP. Current smoking was associated with an almost threefold increased risk for HRA or CSSP, and an eightfold risk for synchronous HRA + CSSP (aOR = 8.66; 95% CI: 4.73-15.86) compared to normal exams. Adults with synchronous HRA + CSSP were threefold more likely to be current smokers than those with HRA alone (aOR = 3.27; 95% CI:1.74-6.16). CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that current smokers may be at a higher risk for synchronous CSSP + HRA even when compared to having HRA alone. 10.1038/s41395-018-0393-0
    Comparison of clipping with and without epinephrine injection for the prevention of post-polypectomy bleeding in pedunculated colon polyps. Park Yehyun,Jeon Tae Joo,Park Ji Young,Park Soo Jung,Cheon Jae Hee,Kim Tae Il,Kim Won Ho,Hong Sung Pil Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology BACKGROUND AND AIM:Post-polypectomy bleeding (PPB) is the most common adverse event of colonoscopic polypectomy, especially in cases with large pedunculated polyps. To minimize the risk of PPB, several endoscopic preventive methods have been performed. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the rates of PPB following single (clipping alone) and combined (clipping plus epinephrine-saline injection) methods in prevention of PPB in large pedunculated polyps. METHODS:Adult patients with pedunculated colorectal polyps with heads ≥ 10 mm were prospectively enrolled from March 2011 to January 2013. Patients were randomized to receive treatment of either clips alone (group A) or clips plus injection of epinephrine-saline (group B) prior to a conventional polypectomy. PPB rate in both groups were compared. RESULTS:A total of 148 patients with 173 pedunculated colorectal polyps were enrolled. Groups A and B each had 74 patients, with 83 and 90 polyps, respectively. The mean head diameters were 17.2 ± 6.6 and 17.5 ± 6.7 mm in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.748). Immediate PPB (IPPB) occurred in 10 cases (12.0%) from group A and 13 cases (14.4%) from group B (P = 0.64). There were no cases of delayed PPB or perforation. Multivariate analysis showed that inadequate bowel preparation and large head diameter of polyp were independent risk factors for IPPB. CONCLUSIONS:The rate of IPPB is relatively high in cases with large pedunculated polyps, but these polyps can be successfully resected by snare polypectomy following use of the single prophylactic clipping method. 10.1111/jgh.12994
    Endoscopic resection is cost-effective compared with laparoscopic resection in the management of complex colon polyps: an economic analysis. Law Ryan,Das Ananya,Gregory Dyanna,Komanduri Srinadh,Muthusamy Raman,Rastogi Amit,Vargo John,Wallace Michael B,Raju G S,Mounzer Rawad,Klapman Jason,Shah Janak,Watson Rabindra,Wilson Robert,Edmundowicz Steven A,Wani Sachin Gastrointestinal endoscopy BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Endoscopic resection (ER) is an efficacious treatment for complex colon polyps (CCPs). Many patients are referred for surgical resection because of concerns over procedural safety, incomplete polyp resection, and adenoma recurrence after ER. Efficacy data for both resection strategies are widely available, but a paucity of data exist on the cost-effectiveness of each modality. The aim of this study was to perform an economic analysis comparing ER and laparoscopic resection (LR) strategies in patients with CCP. METHODS:A decision analysis tree was constructed using decision analysis software. The 2 strategies (ER vs LR) were evaluated in a hypothetical cohort of patients with CCPs. A hybrid Markov model with a 10-year time horizon was used. Patients entered the model after colonoscopic diagnosis at age 50. Under Strategy I, patients underwent ER followed by surveillance colonoscopy at 3 to 6 months and 12 months. Patients with failed ER and residual adenoma at 12 months were referred for LR. Under Strategy II, patients underwent LR as primary treatment. Patients with invasive cancer were excluded. Estimates regarding ER performance characteristics were obtained from a systematic review of published literature. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (2012-2013) and the 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project databases were used to determine the costs and loss of utility. We assumed that all procedures were performed with anesthesia support, and patients with adverse events in both strategies required inpatient hospitalization. Baseline estimates and costs were varied by using a sensitivity analysis through the ranges. RESULTS:LR was found to be more costly and yielded fewer quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) compared with ER. The cost of ER of a CCP was $5570 per patient and yielded 9.640 QALYs. LR of a CCP cost $18,717 per patient and yielded fewer QALYs (9.577). For LR to be more cost-effective, the thresholds of 1-way sensitivity analyses were (1) technical success of ER for complete resection in <75.8% of cases, (2) adverse event rates for ER > 12%, and (3) LR cost of <$14,000. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that ER is a cost-effective strategy for removal of CCPs. The effectiveness is driven by high technical success and low adverse event rates associated with ER, in addition to the increased cost of LR. 10.1016/j.gie.2015.11.014
    Mediterranean dietary components are inversely associated with advanced colorectal polyps: A case-control study. Fliss-Isakov Naomi,Kariv Revital,Webb Muriel,Ivancovsky Dana,Margalit Dana,Zelber-Sagi Shira World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To evaluate the association between the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern and its components, and advanced colorectal polyps (adenoma and serrated adenoma). METHODS:A case-control study among patients undergoing screening, diagnostic or surveillance colonoscopies during 2010-2015 at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Gastroenterology Department. Cases with advanced polyps were defined as: Advanced adenoma [> 10 mm, with features of high grade dysplasia (HGD) or villous histology], advanced serrated adenoma (> 10 mm or with dysplasia) or multiple (≥ 3) non-advanced adenomas or serrated adenomas. Cases of non-advanced adenomas were defined as adenomas < 10 mm, without features of HGD or villous histology. Controls were defined as those without polyps at the current colonoscopy and without a history of colorectal polyps. Data collection included: anthropometrics measured according to a standardized protocol, fasting blood tests performed at the same lab, medical history recorded by a structured interview and dietary intake evaluated by a 116-item food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to the MD components was evaluated according to intake above/below the sample median, for potentially beneficial/detrimental components respectively, as accepted. RESULTS:We recruited 206 cases with advanced polyps, 192 cases with non-advanced adenoma and 385 controls. The number of adhered MD components was inversely associated with a diagnosis of advanced polyps in a dose-response manner (OR = 0.34, 95%CI: 0.17-0.65; OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.11-0.43; and OR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.07-0.47 for 3-4, 5-7 and 8-10 components, respectively), but not with non-advanced adenomas (OR = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.25-1.13; OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.23-0.99; and OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.16-1.12 for 3-4, 5-7 and 8-10 components, respectively). Low intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and red meat, as well as high intake of fish, were inversely associated with advanced polyps (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.36-0.87; OR = 0.63, 95%CI: 0.42-0.95; and OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.44-0.99, respectively), while only low intake of red meat was inversely associated with non-advanced adenomas (OR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.49-0.97). CONCLUSION:A better adherence to the MD, specifically low intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and red meat as well as high intake of fish, is related to lower odds for advanced polyps. 10.3748/wjg.v24.i24.2617
    The dark side of the colon: current issues surrounding the significance, prevalence, detection, diagnosis and management of serrated polyps. Lindholm Christopher R,Anderson Joseph C,Srivastava Amitabh Current opinion in gastroenterology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Hyperplastic polyps, once considered to have no malignant potential, are now recognized to be part of a larger group of polyps known as serrated polyps. Serrated polyps can progress to CRC through an epigenetic pathway known as CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP), characterized by hypermethylation of specific DNA regions such as the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair genes like MLH1. The CIMP pathway is tightly linked with mutations of the oncogene BRAF. There are three subtypes of serrated polyps - hyperplastic polyps, sessile serrated polyps (SSPs) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). TSAs harbor cytologic dysplasia whereas hyperplastic polyps and SSPs are nondysplastic lesions. Currently, only SSPs and TSAs are believed to progress to CRC whereas hyperplastic polyps are thought to be benign with no malignant potential. This article will review the current evidence while highlighting some of the issues regarding serrated polyps. RECENT FINDINGS:One challenge has been pathologically distinguishing hyperplastic polyps from SSPs, which is an important distinction, given the potential for progression of SSPs to CRC. Other challenges regarding serrated polyps include adequate detection and resection. Surveillance guideline recommendations for some serrated polyps have been changed in current guidelines to reflect the malignant potential, recommending closer surveillance intervals than the 10-year follow-up that has been traditionally provided for hyperplastic polyps. SUMMARY:Given the difficulties in diagnosing as well as resecting, it is important for endoscopists to know how to detect, resect and manage follow-up in patients with serrated polyps. 10.1097/MOG.0000000000000495
    Outcomes of surgical resections for benign colon polyps: a systematic review. de Neree Tot Babberich Michael P M,Bronzwaer Maxime E S,Andriessen Jurr O,Bastiaansen Barbara A J,Mostafavi Nahid,Bemelman Willem A,Fockens Paul,Tanis Pieter J,Dekker Evelien Endoscopy BACKGROUND:Not all benign colonic polyps are suitable for endoscopic resection, although criteria for endoscopic non-resectability vary worldwide. Clinical decision-making largely depends on endoscopic treatment options, as well as postoperative risks after surgical resection. This systematic review aimed to determine postoperative outcomes and the characteristics of surgically resected benign colonic polyps. METHODS:MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies investigating the outcomes of surgical resection for benign colonic polyps since 1980. Studies were considered eligible when at least one postoperative outcome (morbidity and/or mortality) was reported. Meta-analyses were conducted for the primary outcome measures (morbidity and mortality) for studies that included patients only after the year 2000. RESULTS:Of the 4210 studies retrieved, 26 studies describing 139 897 patients were included. The most common indications for surgical resection were polyp location in the right-sided colon, non-pedunculated morphology, and large polyp size. The pooled 1-month complication and mortality rates of studies that included patients after the year 2000 were 24 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 15 % - 36 %) and 0.7 % (95 %CI 0.6 % - 0.8 %), respectively. CONCLUSION:The postoperative morbidity and mortality after colonic resection for benign polyps are substantial. Referral to an advanced interventional endoscopist should be considered before referral for surgery to evaluate the possibilities for endoscopic treatment of large, non-pedunculated, and/or colonic polyps in difficult locations without suspicion of submucosal malignant invasion. 10.1055/a-0962-9780
    Association Between Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer and Risk of Serrated Polyps and Conventional Adenomas. He Xiaosheng,Wu Kana,Ogino Shuji,Giovannucci Edward L,Chan Andrew T,Song Mingyang Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Serrated polyps (SPs) and conventional adenomas are precursor lesions for colorectal cancer (CRC), but they are believed to arise via distinct pathways. We characterized risk factor profiles for SPs and conventional adenomas in a post hoc analysis of data from 3 large prospective studies. METHODS:We collected data from the Nurses' Health Study, the Nurses' Health Study 2, and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study on subjects who developed SPs or conventional adenomas. Our analysis comprised 141,143 participants who had undergone lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, provided updated diet and lifestyle data every 2-4 years, and were followed until diagnosis of a first polyp. We assessed 13 risk factors for CRC in patients with SPs or conventional adenomas and examined the associations according to histopathology features. RESULTS:We documented 7945 SPs, 9212 conventional adenomas, and 2382 synchronous SPs and conventional adenomas during 18-20 years of follow-up. Smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, family history of CRC, and height were associated with higher risk of SPs and conventional adenomas, whereas higher intake of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid were associated with lower risk. The associations tended to be stronger for synchronous SPs and conventional adenomas. Smoking, body mass index, and alcohol intake were more strongly associated with SPs than conventional adenomas (P for heterogeneity <.05), whereas physical activity and intake of total folate and calcium were inversely associated with conventional adenomas but not SPs. For SPs and conventional adenomas, the associations tended to be stronger for polyps in the distal colon and rectum, of 10 mm or larger or with advanced histology. CONCLUSIONS:In an analysis of data from 3 large prospective studies, we found that although SPs and conventional adenomas share many risk factors, some factors are more strongly associated with one type of lesion than the other. These findings provide support for the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasia. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.04.019
    Histological outcomes between hot and cold snare polypectomy for small colorectal polyps. Yamamoto Toshiki,Suzuki Sho,Kusano Chika,Yakabe Kyoko,Iwamoto Maho,Ikehara Hisatomo,Gotoda Takuji,Moriyama Mitsuhiko Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association BACKGROUND/AIM:To compare the complete resection rate of hot and cold snare polypectomy for small colorectal polyps. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 233 consecutive patients with 461 colorectal polyps up to 10 mm in diameter that were treated by hot or cold snare polypectomy between April 2014 and August 2016. Lesions treated by hot snare polypectomy (n = 137) and cold snare polypectomy (n = 324) were compared. The histological complete resection rates were evaluated between the two groups. We analyzed the relationship between factors for complete resection and clinical factors using multivariate analysis. RESULTS:There was a significantly higher complete resection rate in hot snare polypectomy than in cold snare polypectomy (70.5% vs. 47.3%; P < 0.001). In the analysis of subgroups categorized according to polyp size, the complete resection rate for hot snare polypectomy was significantly higher than that for cold snare polypectomy among polyps ≥6 mm (69.0% vs. 43.5%; P < 0.001). Among polyps ≤5 mm, no significant difference regarding the complete resection rate was observed between the methods (81.3% vs. 53.4%; P = 0.057). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that using hot snare polypectomy (odds ratio 3.03; P < 0.001), small lesion size (odds ratio 1.57; P = 0.049), and lesion location in the left colon (odds ratio 1.73; P = 0.007) were independent factors for complete resection. CONCLUSION:Hot snare polypectomy provides a higher complete resection rate than does cold snare polypectomy for larger (6-10 mm) subcentimeter colorectal polyps. 10.4103/sjg.SJG_598_16
    Prevalence of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp in hyperplastic-appearing diminutive rectosigmoid polyps. Ponugoti Prasanna,Lin Jingmei,Odze Robert,Snover Dale,Kahi Charles,Rex Douglas K Gastrointestinal endoscopy BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends that distal colon hyperplastic lesions can be left in place without resection if adenomatous histology can be excluded with >90% negative predictive value. However, some lesions could be sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps), which is also precancerous. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of SSA/Ps in hyperplastic-appearing diminutive rectosigmoid polyps. METHODS:We prospectively placed 513 consecutive diminutive rectosigmoid polyps that appeared hyperplastic to an expert endoscopist in individual bottles for pathologic. Each polyp was examined by 3 expert GI pathologists. RESULTS:The prevalence of SSA/P in the study polyps ranged from .6% to 2.1%. The lowest negative predictive value found by the endoscopist for the combination of adenomas plus SSA/Ps was 96.7%. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of SSA/Ps in diminutive rectosigmoid hyperplastic-appearing polyps is very low. These results support the safety and feasibility of a "do not resect" policy for diminutive hyperplastic-appearing rectosigmoid polyps. 10.1016/j.gie.2016.10.022
    The association between coronary calcification and adenomatous polyps of colon in Korean adults. Kim Hong-Bae,Lee Yong-Jae,Shim Jae-Yong,Lee Hye-Ree Clinics and research in hepatology and gastroenterology BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Adenomatous polyps of colon is a precancerous lesion. Many studies have shown that the adenomatous polyps of colon and cardiovascular disease share several common risk factors. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether coronary calcification is associated with the adenomatous polyps of colon. METHODS:Among 1637 Korean adults, we examined the association between coronary calcium score (CCS) as a measurement of coronary calcification and the presence of adenomatous polyps of colon via multi-detected row computed tomography (MDCT) and colonoscopy, respectively. CCS values were categorized as follows: 0, 1-17, 18-105, or≥106. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the presence of adenomatous polyps of colon were calculated across CCS groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:After adjusting for confounding variables, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the presence of adenomatous polyps of colon in each of the four CCS groups were 1.00 (reference), 1.44 (0.91-2.33), 1.88 (1.15-3.01) and 3.61 (2.23-5.74). And higher CCS values were associated with multiple polyps (P≤0.001), villous histologic features or high-grade dysplasia (P=0.02), and advanced adenomatous polyps (P≤0.001). A higher level of CCS was found to be strongly and independently associated with the presence of adenomatous polyps of colon in Korean adults. This finding suggests that people at high risk for coronary atherosclerosis through MDCT should be considered for further evaluation of adenomatous polyps. 10.1016/j.clinre.2014.01.004
    Sex-influenced association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Chen Qin-Fen,Zhou Xiao-Dong,Sun Yang-Jie,Fang Dan-Hong,Zhao Qian,Huang Jun-Hua,Jin Yin,Wu Jian-Sheng World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To investigate the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. METHODS:A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 3686 individuals undergoing health checkups (2430 males and 1256 females). All subjects underwent laboratory testing, abdominal ultrasonography, colonoscopy, and an interview to ascertain the baseline characteristics and general state of health. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between NAFLD and the prevalence of colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Furthermore, the relationship was analyzed in different sex groups. Subgroup analysis was performed based on number, size, and location of colorectal polyps. RESULTS:The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 38.8% in males (16.2% for adenomatous polyps and 9.8% for hyperplastic polyps) and 19.3% in females (8.4% for adenomatous polyps and 3.9% for hyperplastic polyps). When adjusting for confounding variables, NAFLD was significantly associated with the prevalence of adenomatous polyps (OR = 1.28, 95%CI: 1.05-1.51, < 0.05) and hyperplastic polyps (OR = 1.35, 95%CI: 1.01-1.82, < 0.05). However, upon analyzing adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in different sex groups, the significant association remained in males (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.18-2.00, < 0.05; OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.04-1.95, < 0.05) but not in females (OR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.18-1.04, > 0.05; OR = 1.18, 95%CI: 0.50-2.78, > 0.05). CONCLUSION:NAFLD is specifically associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps in men. However, NAFLD may not be a significant factor in the prevalence of colorectal polyps in women. 10.3748/wjg.v23.i28.5206
    Colonoscopy surveillance for high risk polyps does not always prevent colorectal cancer. Mouchli Mohamad A,Ouk Lidia,Scheitel Marianne R,Chaudhry Alisha P,Felmlee-Devine Donna,Grill Diane E,Rashtak Shahrooz,Wang Panwen,Wang Junwen,Chaudhry Rajeev,Smyrk Thomas C,Oberg Ann L,Druliner Brooke R,Boardman Lisa A World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To determine the frequency and risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC) development among individuals with resected advanced adenoma (AA)/traditional serrated adenoma (TSA)/advanced sessile serrated adenoma (ASSA). METHODS:Data was collected from medical records of 14663 subjects found to have AA, TSA, or ASSA at screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or known genetic predisposition for CRC were excluded from the study. Factors associated with CRC developing after endoscopic management of high risk polyps were calculated in 4610 such patients who had at least one surveillance colonoscopy within 10 years following the original polypectomy of the incident advanced polyp. RESULTS:84/4610 (1.8%) patients developed CRC at the polypectomy site within a median of 4.2 years (mean 4.89 years), and 1.2% (54/4610) developed CRC in a region distinct from the AA/TSA/ASSA resection site within a median of 5.1 years (mean 6.67 years). Approximately, 30% (25/84) of patients who developed CRC at the AA/TSA/ASSA site and 27.8% (15/54) of patients who developed CRC at another site had colonoscopy at recommended surveillance intervals. Increasing age; polyp size; male sex; right-sided location; high degree of dysplasia; higher number of polyps resected; and piecemeal removal were associated with an increased risk for CRC development at the same site as the index polyp. Increasing age; right-sided location; higher number of polyps resected and sessile endoscopic appearance of the index AA/TSA/ASSA were significantly associated with an increased risk for CRC development at a different site. CONCLUSION:Recognition that CRC may develop following AA/TSA/ASSA removal is one step toward improving our practice efficiency and preventing a portion of CRC related morbidity and mortality. 10.3748/wjg.v24.i8.905
    Thyroid Nodules Are More Prevalent in Subjects with Colon Polyps, Independent of Insulin Resistance. Mousa Umut,Anil Cuneyd,Demir Canan Cicek,Bozkus Yusuf,Ozturk Kubra,Bascil Tutuncu Neslihan,Gursoy Alptekin Medical principles and practice : international journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre OBJECTIVE:Colorectal polyps and thyroid nodules are common disorders linked to hyperinsulinemia and metabolic syndrome (Mets). The direct association between these two diseases is not clear. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of thyroid nodules in subjects with and without colorectal polyps. The secondary aim was to establish the prevalence of Mets and its parameters in both disorders and to determine if insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are common underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:One hundred and five subjects with colorectal polyps (71 males, 34 females) and 68 controls (28 males, 40 females) were enrolled. The parameters of Mets together with TSH, insulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model for assessment of insulin resistance levels were calculated. We performed thyroid ultrasonography in all participants. RESULTS:The prevalence of Mets was similar in the colorectal polyp and control groups (37.1 vs. 37.3%, p = 0.982). The prevalence of Mets was nonsignificantly higher in subjects with a documented thyroid nodule compared to subjects without a thyroid nodule (43.0 vs. 32.6%, p = 0.205). The prevalence of thyroid nodules in subjects with colorectal polyps was significantly higher than in subjects without polyps (52.9 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.017). Compared to subjects with no colorectal polyps, we established a significant increase in the odds of having thyroid nodules (OR 2.05; 95% CI: 1.097-3.860, p = 0.017). The presence of colorectal polyps and age in the adjusted model were established to be independent risk factors for having thyroid nodules (p = 0.025 and p = 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSION:These results may support the presence of other common mechanisms in the development of these two pathologies other than insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. 10.1159/000499527
    Association of distal hyperplastic polyps and proximal neoplastic lesions: a prospective study of 5613 subjects. Wong Martin C S,Ching Jessica Y L,Chan Victor C W,Lam Thomas Y T,Luk Arthur K C,Wong Sunny H,Ng Siew C,Ng Simon S M,Wu Justin C Y,Chan Francis K L,Sung Joseph J Y Gastrointestinal endoscopy BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Current evidence of whether distal hyperplastic polyps (HPs) are markers of proximal neoplasia (PN) is mixed. We evaluated the association between distal neoplasia and synchronous PN in asymptomatic subjects. METHODS:We recruited 5819 Chinese asymptomatic screening participants 50 to 70 years of age who underwent colonoscopy in Hong Kong from 2008 to 2014, of whom 206 subjects with distal advanced neoplasia or cancer were excluded. The association between distal pathology (tubular adenomas [TAs], HPs, no polyps) and proximal pathology (PN, proximal advanced neoplasia [PAN]) was assessed by multivariate regression models, overall and stratified by the Asia Pacific Colorectal Screening scoring system (scores of 4-7, high risk; scores of 0-3, lower risk). RESULTS:The prevalence of PN in the no distal polyps group, distal HPs group, and distal TAs group was 14.8%, 19.3%, and 29.4%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of PAN was 1.8%, 3.2%, and 3.5%. Participants with distal HPs did not have significantly higher odds of PN (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.59; P = .089), and their association with PAN was marginally significant (AOR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.00-3.13; P = .052), except in lower risk subjects for whom the odds of PAN were marginally higher in the distal HPs group than the no distal polyps group (AOR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.01-3.85; P = .048). Overall, the distal polyps group had significantly lower odds of PN than the distal TAs group (AOR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.40-0.76; P < .001). The increased risk of PN and PAN among those with distal HPs was modest. CONCLUSIONS:A direct association between distal HPs and PN is lacking, and this implies a need for a multivariate assessment of the risk of PAN. Recommending colonoscopy for every patient with distal HPs detected by screening sigmoidoscopy is not supported by this study. 10.1016/j.gie.2015.06.049
    Metachronous Neoplasias Arise in a Higher Proportion of Colon Segments From Which Large Polyps Were Previously Removed, and Can be Used to Estimate Incomplete Resection of 10-20 mm Colorectal Polyps. Adler Jeffrey,Toy Dana,Anderson Joseph C,Robertson Douglas J,Pohl Heiko Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association BACKGROUND & AIMS:Incomplete resection of polyps could be an important cause of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer. However, it is difficult to study progression of incompletely removed polyps or their clinical importance. We aimed to estimate incomplete polyp resection using risk of metachronous neoplasia per colon segment. METHODS:We performed a retrospective study of 1031 patients (6186 colon segments) who initially underwent resection of a large (10-20 mm) neoplastic polyp at 2 academic medical centers (from 2000 through 2012) and then underwent a subsequent colonoscopy within 0.5 to 5 years. We determined the proportions of metachronous neoplasia in colon segments from which a single large neoplastic polyp was removed and in segments without prior neoplasia. We then used the absolute difference in proportions between these groups to estimate the rate of incomplete resection. Our analysis assumed that development of metachronous neoplasia in each colon segment was the consequence of a newly grown polyp, a previously missed polyp, or an incompletely removed polyp. RESULTS:Metachronous neoplasia was detected in 177 of 757 segments (23.4%) with a single large polyp, and in 438 of 4232 segments (10.3%) without any neoplasia at baseline colonoscopy (P < .001). Resections were therefore estimated to be incomplete in 13.0% of segments (95% CI, 9.8-16.2). This proportion was greater for sections with non-pedunculated polyps (18.3%; 95% CI, 14.2-22.5) than pedunculated polyps (3.5%; 95% CI, -0.7 to -11.3; P < .001). A higher proportion of piecemeal resections appeared to be incomplete (28.0%; 95% CI, 20.2-35.7) than of en bloc resections (9.2%; 95% CI, 5.9-12.5) (P < .001). No differences in incomplete resection were associated with polyp histology. CONCLUSION:Metachronous neoplasia arises in a significantly higher proportion of colon segments from which a polyp was previously removed. Based on these data, we estimate that 13% of all large polyps are incompletely resected and 18% of large non-pedunculated polyps are incompletely resected. These findings indicate that incomplete resection could be a risk factor for later development of neoplasia. Segment metachronous neoplasia might be used as a marker of resection quality. 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.01.047
    Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men. Liu Yen-Ling,Wu Jin-Shang,Yang Yi-Ching,Lu Feng-Hwa,Lee Chih-Ting,Lin Wan-Ju,Chang Chih-Jen Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Most cases of colorectal cancer develop via an adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Gallbladder polyps share some risk factors with colorectal polyps. Little is known about the relationship between gallbladder diseases and different status of colorectal polyps by gender. This study was to investigate the association of gallbladder stones and polyps with colorectal adenomas by gender in a Taiwanese population. METHODS:A total of 7066 eligible subjects who underwent a total colonoscopy as a part of health check-up between January 2001 and August 2009 were recruited. Colonoscopic findings were classified into polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps and colorectal adenomas. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps were diagnosed based on ultrasonographic findings. RESULTS:There was a significant difference in the status of colon polyps between subjects with and without gallbladder polyps. However, the status of colon polyps was not significantly different between subjects with or without gallbladder stones. After adjusting obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and other variables, there was a positive relationship between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenomas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.396, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.115-1.747) but not non-neoplastic polyps in all subjects. In men, gallbladder polyps (OR: 1.560, 95% CI: 1.204-2.019) and gallbladder stones (OR: 1.465, 95% CI 1.081-1.984) were positively associated with colorectal adenomas. In women, neither gallbladder polyps nor gallbladder stones were significantly related to colon polyps. CONCLUSIONS:Both gallbladder polyps and gallbladder stones were associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in men but not in women. Gender difference was significant for the association between gallbladder lesions and colorectal polyps. 10.1111/jgh.14006
    Economic value of narrow band imaging versus white light endoscopy for the characterization of diminutive polyps in the colon: systematic literature review and cost-consequence model. Solon Caroline,Klausnitzer Romy,Blissett Deirdre,Ihara Zenichi Journal of medical economics AIMS:To demonstrate the economic implication of adopting narrow-band imaging (NBI) for the characterization of diminutive polyps in the colon from an English payer perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A decision-tree model was undertaken to perform a cost-consequence and budget impact analysis from the NHS England perspective in the UK, over a 7-year time horizon. Clinical inputs came from the published literature (both randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses) identified through a systematic literature review, and cost inputs came from national list prices and unpublished internal market data. Deterministic sensitivity analysis (DSA) was conducted on the budget impact results to assess their robustness. RESULTS:Optical diagnosis with NBI offered cost savings vs white light endoscopy (WLE) over 7 years due to reductions in histological exams, resections, and associated adverse events, while having minimal impact on health outcomes. Budget impact analysis demonstrated annual cost savings of £141 192 057 over 7 years, with histological exams being the biggest cost driver. DSA showed these results to be robust, but most sensitive to the cost of tariff with and without biopsy, and the cost of histological exam. Break-even analysis to explore how changing the unit cost and number of biopsies per patient would change the budget impact found NBI consistently offered net savings, even if the cost of biopsy was £0. LIMITATIONS:Although every effort was made to ensure robustness of results, as with any model, there were some limitations including a lack of published data for certain clinical inputs and potential variation between model inputs and real-life cost and market share values. CONCLUSIONS:Optical diagnosis with NBI was found to be equally effective compared with the standard of care (WLE), while potentially enabling cost savings from the NHS England perspective. 10.1080/13696998.2016.1192550
    Diminutive Polyps With Advanced Histologic Features Do Not Increase Risk for Metachronous Advanced Colon Neoplasia. Vleugels Jasper L A,Hassan Cesare,Senore Carlo,Cassoni Paola,Baron John A,Rex Douglas K,Ponugoti Prasanna L,Pellise Maria,Parejo Sofia,Bessa Xavier,Arnau-Collell Coral,Kaminski Michal F,Bugajski Marek,Wieszczy Paulina,Kuipers Ernst J,Melson Joshua,Ma Karen H,Holman Rebecca,Dekker Evelien,Pohl Heiko Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:With advances in endoscopic imaging, it is possible to differentiate adenomatous from hyperplastic diminutive (1-5 mm) polyps during endoscopy. With the optical Resect-and-Discard strategy, these polyps are then removed and discarded without histopathology assessment. However, failure to recognize adenomas (vs hyperplastic polyps), or discarding a polyp with advanced histologic features, could result in a patient being considered at low risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia, resulting in an inappropriately long surveillance interval. We collected data from international cohorts of patients undergoing colonoscopy to determine what proportion of patients are high risk because of diminutive polyps advanced histologic features and their risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia. METHODS:We collected data from 12 cohorts (in the United States or Europe) of patients undergoing colonoscopy after a positive result from a fecal immunochemical test (FIT cohort, n = 34,221) or undergoing colonoscopies for screening, surveillance, or evaluation of symptoms (colonoscopy cohort, n = 30,123). Patients at high risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia were defined as patients with polyps that had advanced histologic features (cancer, high-grade dysplasia, ≥25% villous features), 3 or more diminutive or small (6-9 mm) nonadvanced adenomas, or an adenoma or sessile serrated lesion ≥10 mm. Using an inverse variance random effects model, we calculated the proportion of diminutive polyps with advanced histologic features; the proportion of patients classified as high risk because their diminutive polyps had advanced histologic features; and the risk of these patients for metachronous advanced neoplasia. RESULTS:In 51,510 diminutive polyps, advanced histologic features were observed in 7.1% of polyps from the FIT cohort and 1.5% polyps from the colonoscopy cohort (P = .044); however, this difference in prevalence did not produce a significant difference in the proportions of patients assigned to high-risk status (0.8% of patients in the FIT cohort and 0.4% of patients in the colonoscopy cohort) (P = .25). The proportions of high-risk patients because of diminutive polyps with advanced histologic features who were found to have metachronous advanced neoplasia (17.6%) did not differ significantly from the proportion of low-risk patients with metachronous advanced neoplasia (14.6%) (relative risk for high-risk categorization, 1.13; 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.61). CONCLUSION:In a pooled analysis of data from 12 international cohorts of patients undergoing colonoscopy for screening, surveillance, or evaluation of symptoms, we found that diminutive polyps with advanced histologic features do not increase risk for metachronous advanced neoplasia. 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.10.050
    Clip Closure Prevents Bleeding After Endoscopic Resection of Large Colon Polyps in a Randomized Trial. Pohl Heiko,Grimm Ian S,Moyer Matthew T,Hasan Muhammad K,Pleskow Douglas,Elmunzer B Joseph,Khashab Mouen A,Sanaei Omid,Al-Kawas Firas H,Gordon Stuart R,Mathew Abraham,Levenick John M,Aslanian Harry R,Antaki Fadi,von Renteln Daniel,Crockett Seth D,Rastogi Amit,Gill Jeffrey A,Law Ryan J,Elias Pooja A,Pellise Maria,Wallace Michael B,Mackenzie Todd A,Rex Douglas K Gastroenterology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Bleeding is the most common severe complication after endoscopic mucosal resection of large colon polyps and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. We examined whether prophylactic closure of the mucosal defect with hemoclips after polyp resection reduces the risk of bleeding. METHODS:We performed a multicenter, randomized trial of patients with a large nonpedunculated colon polyp (≥20 mm) at 18 medical centers in North America and Spain from April 2013 through October 2017. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that underwent endoscopic closure with a clip (clip group) or no closure (control group) and followed. The primary outcome, postprocedure bleeding, was defined as a severe bleeding event that required hospitalization, a blood transfusion, colonoscopy, surgery, or another invasive intervention within 30 days after completion of the colonoscopy. Subgroup analyses included postprocedure bleeding with polyp location, polyp size, or use of periprocedural antithrombotic medications. We also examined the risk of any serious adverse event. RESULTS:A total of 919 patients were randomly assigned to groups and completed follow-up. Postprocedure bleeding occurred in 3.5% of patients in the clip group and 7.1% in the control group (absolute risk difference [ARD] 3.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7%-6.5%). Among 615 patients (66.9%) with a proximal large polyp, the risk of bleeding in the clip group was 3.3% and in the control group was 9.6% (ARD 6.3%; 95% CI 2.5%-10.1%); among patients with a distal large polyp, the risks were 4.0% in the clip group and 1.4% in the control group (ARD -2.6%; 95% CI -6.3% to -1.1%). The effect of clip closure was independent of antithrombotic medications or polyp size. Serious adverse events occurred in 4.8% of patients in the clip group and 9.5% of patients in the control group (ARD 4.6%; 95% CI 1.3%-8.0%). CONCLUSIONS:In a randomized trial, we found that endoscopic clip closure of the mucosal defect following resection of large colon polyps reduces risk of postprocedure bleeding. The protective effect appeared to be restricted to large polyps located in the proximal colon. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01936948. 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.03.019
    High incidence of metachronous advanced adenoma and cancer after endoscopic resection of colon polyps ≥20 mm in size. Yoshida Naohisa,Naito Yuji,Siah Kewin Tien Ho,Murakami Takaaki,Ogiso Kiyoshi,Hirose Ryohei,Inada Yutaka,Inoue Ken,Konishi Hideyuki,Kugai Munehiro,Morimoto Yasutaka,Hasegawa Daisuke,Kanemasa Kazuyuki,Wakabayashi Naoki,Yagi Nobuaki,Yanagisawa Akio,Itoh Yoshito Digestive endoscopy : official journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society BACKGROUND AND AIM:There are limited studies on incidence rates of metachronous neoplastic lesions after resecting large colorectal polyps. In the present study, we analyzed metachronous lesions after endoscopic resection of colorectal polyps ≥20 mm in size. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic resection of polyps from 2006 to 2013 at two affiliated hospitals. All patients underwent at least two total colonoscopies before follow up to ensure minimal missed polyps. Only patients who had follow-up colonoscopy annually after resection were recruited. We separated patients according to size of polyp resected; there were 239 patients in the ≥20-mm group and 330 patients in the <20-mm group. Clinical characteristics and cumulative rates of metachronous advanced adenoma and cancer in both groups were analyzed. Advanced adenoma was defined as a neoplastic lesion ≥10 mm in size and adenoma with a villous component. RESULTS:Cumulative rate of development of metachronous advanced adenoma and cancer in the ≥20-mm group was significantly higher than in the <20-mm group (22.9% vs. 9.5%, P < 0.001) at 36 months. There was also more development of small polyps 5-9 mm in the ≥20-mm group than in the <20-mm group (45.2% vs. 28.8%, P < 0.001). With respect to metachronous lesions, there were more right-sided colonic lesions in the ≥20-mm group than in the <20-mm group (78.8% vs. 50.0%, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION:High incidence rates of development of metachronous neoplastic lesions were detected after resection of colorectal polyps ≥20 mm in size. 10.1111/den.12551
    Study of Differential Serum Metabolites in Patients with Adenomatous Polyps of Colon and Yang-Deficiency Constitution Based on Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Du Wen-Zhang,Zhang Ai-Hua,Ren Jun-Ling,Lyu Kun,Tuo Lu-Yao,Xu Wei Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To study the differences between the serum metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those without colon polyps and with balanced constitution, and look for biomarkers that can be used to distinguish between the two groups. METHODS:General patient information was gathered, and Chinese medicine constitution were collected in 940 patients who underwent electronic colonoscopy. A total of 119 patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution were included in the experimental group, and 150 patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution were included in the control group. Metabolomics analysis was performed on the fasting venous blood obtained from each patient in both groups. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed on the detection results, potential biomarkers were screened, metabolic pathway changes were determined, and the metabolic processes involved were discussed. RESULTS:A total of 59 differential biomarkers between the experimental group and the control group were identified. The differential metabolites were found mainly in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway, and the bile acid 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid was the biomarker that distinguished the experimental group from the control group. CONCLUSION:With the help of metabolomics analysis, the differential metabolites in patients with adenomatous polyps of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution and those in patients without colon polyps and with balanced constitution could be identified. The biomarker 3-oxo-4,6-choladienoic acid may have potential diagnostic value in patients with adenomatous polyp of the colon and yang-deficiency constitution. (Trial Registration No. NCT02986308). 10.1007/s11655-019-3181-9
    Gallbladder Polyps Are Associated with Proximal Colon Polyps. Lee Kuan-Chieh,Jeng Wen-Juei,Hsu Chen-Ming,Kuo Chia-Jung,Su Ming-Yao,Chiu Cheng-Tang Gastroenterology research and practice Background:The association between gallbladder (GB) disease and colorectal precancerous lesions remains elusive. This study sought to explore the association between GB disease and colorectal neoplasms at different locations. Methods:Patients who received general health checkup from January to December 2008 were included and subgrouped into three groups by polyp location: proximal, distal, and whole colon. GB disease and other known risk factors for colon cancer were compared and analyzed. Different types of polyps at different locations were further investigated. Results:Of a total of 3136 patients (1776 men and 1360 women; mean age, 49.3 years) who had colon polyps, 212 (6.8%) had GB stone and 512 (16.3%) had GB polyps. Patients in the proximal colon polyp group had higher rates of GB polyps and stones. GB polyps were independently associated with proximal colon polyps, including both hyperplastic polyps (odds ratio, 1.523; = 0.034) and adenomatous polyps (odds ratio, 1.351; = 0.048). No relationship between GB polyps and distal or any colon polyps was observed. Irrespective of the polyp location (i.e., proximal, distal, or any part of the colon), GB stone did not show any association with colon polyp. Conclusions:We suggested that GB polyps are associated with proximal colon polyps. Colonoscopy may be a more effective strategy for screening proximal precancerous lesions among patients with GB polyps. The association between GB disease and colon polyps demands further prospective investigation. 10.1155/2019/9832482