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    Vestibular migraine. Lempert Thomas Seminars in neurology Vestibular migraine presents with attacks of spontaneous or positional vertigo, head motion-induced vertigo, and visual vertigo lasting 5 minutes to 3 days. The recent classification of vestibular migraine, jointly proposed by the Bárány Society and the International Headache Society, allows identification of vestibular migraine and probable vestibular migraine based on explicit criteria. The diagnosis is based on symptom type, severity and duration, a history of migraine, temporal association of migraine symptoms with vertigo attacks, and exclusion of other causes. Because headache is often absent during acute attacks, other migraine features such as photophobia or auras have to be specifically inquired about. During acute attacks, one may find central spontaneous or positional nystagmus, and less commonly, unilateral vestibular hypofunction. In the symptom-free interval, vestibular testing adds little to the diagnosis as findings are mostly minor and nonspecific. The pathophysiology of vestibular migraine is unknown, but several mechanisms link the trigeminal system, which is activated during migraine attacks, and the vestibular system. Treatment includes antiemetics for severe acute attacks, pharmacological migraine prophylaxis, and lifestyle changes. 10.1055/s-0033-1354596
    Vestibular migraine. Furman Joseph M,Balaban Carey D Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Vestibular migraine is now considered a distinct diagnostic entity by both the Barany Society and the International Headache Society. The recognition of vestibular migraine as a diagnostic entity required decades and was presaged by several reports indicating that a large proportion of patients with migraine headaches have vestibular symptoms and that a large proportion of patients with undiagnosed episodic vestibular symptoms have migraine headache. Despite the availability of diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, challenges to diagnosis include variability in terms of the character of dizziness, the presence or absence of clearly defined attacks, the duration of attacks, and the temporal association between headache or other migrainous features and vestibular symptoms. Also, symptoms of vestibular migraine often overlap with symptoms of other causes of dizziness, especially Ménière's disease and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). This article will discuss the demographics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, physical examination findings, laboratory testing, comorbidities, treatment options, and pathophysiology of vestibular migraine. Future research in the field of vestibular migraine should include both clinical and basic science efforts to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Controlled treatment trials for vestibular migraine are desperately needed. 10.1111/nyas.12645
    Vestibular Migraine. Lempert Thomas,von Brevern Michael Neurologic clinics The term vestibular migraine designates recurrent vertigo that is caused by migraine. Vestibular migraine presents with episodes of spontaneous or positional vertigo lasting seconds to days that are accompanied by migraine symptoms. Because headache is often absent during acute attacks, other migraine features have to be identified by thorough history taking. In contrast, vestibular testing serves mainly for the exclusion of other diagnoses. Treatment still lacks solid evidence. It is targeted at the underlying migraine and comprises explanation and reassurance, lifestyle modifications, and drugs. 10.1016/j.ncl.2019.06.003
    Vestibular migraine. Stolte Benjamin,Holle Dagny,Naegel Steffen,Diener Hans-Christoph,Obermann Mark Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache BACKGROUND:The combination of vertigo, dizziness and balance disturbance with migraine is called vestibular migraine. Although it is estimated that up to 1% of the population suffers from this disease, it is still widely unknown and often underdiagnosed. Recently, the International Headache Society and the Báràny Society published the first joint document with mutually accepted diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine. METHOD:This review summarizes current knowledge on vestibular migraine with regard to epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and therapeutic options. RESULTS:Approximately 30-50% of patients with migraine report vertigo, dizziness or balance disturbances with at least one migraine attack. Vestibular migraine often appears in a temporal delay to the first onset of migraine headache. In some patients the symptom of sudden onset disequilibrium was the main complaint and more worrisome than the accompanying migraine headache. The duration of attacks varies from a few seconds up to few days. The underlying pathophysiology of vestibular migraine is still widely unknown. As an important differential diagnosis, Ménière's disease has to be considered and excluded. CONCLUSION:As randomized controlled treatment trials are still missing in vestibular migraine, the therapeutic recommendations for vestibular migraine are currently based on the guidelines of migraine. 10.1177/0333102414535113