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    Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Ablation of Prostate Tissue in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Phase 1 Clinical Trial. Chin Joseph L,Billia Michele,Relle James,Roethke Matthias C,Popeneciu Ionel V,Kuru Timur H,Hatiboglu Gencay,Mueller-Wolf Maya B,Motsch Johann,Romagnoli Cesare,Kassam Zahra,Harle Christopher C,Hafron Jason,Nandalur Kiran R,Chronik Blaine A,Burtnyk Mathieu,Schlemmer Heinz-Peter,Pahernik Sascha European urology BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound ablation (MRI-TULSA) is a novel minimally invasive technology for ablating prostate tissue, potentially offering good disease control of localized cancer and low morbidity. OBJECTIVE:To determine the clinical safety and feasibility of MRI-TULSA for whole-gland prostate ablation in a primary treatment setting of localized prostate cancer (PCa). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:A single-arm prospective phase 1 study was performed at three tertiary referral centers in Canada, Germany, and the United States. Thirty patients (median age: 69 yr; interquartile range [IQR]: 67-71 yr) with biopsy-proven low-risk (80%) and intermediate-risk (20%) PCa were treated and followed for 12 mo. INTERVENTION:MRI-TULSA treatment was delivered with the therapeutic intent of conservative whole-gland ablation including 3-mm safety margins and 10% residual viable prostate expected around the capsule. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Primary end points were safety (adverse events) and feasibility (technical accuracy and precision of conformal thermal ablation). Exploratory outcomes included quality of life, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and biopsy at 12 mo. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Median treatment time was 36min (IQR: 26-44) and prostate volume was 44ml (IQR: 38-48). Spatial control of thermal ablation was ±1.3mm on MRI thermometry. Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events included hematuria (43% grade [G] 1; 6.7% G2), urinary tract infections (33% G2), acute urinary retention (10% G1; 17% G2), and epididymitis (3.3% G3). There were no rectal injuries. Median pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Score 8 (IQR: 5-13) returned to 6 (IQR: 4-10) at 3 mo (mean change: -2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4 to 1). Median pretreatment International Index of Erectile Function 13 (IQR: 6-28) recovered to 13 (IQR: 5-25) at 12 mo (mean change: -1; 95% CI, -5 to 3). Median PSA decreased 87% at 1 mo and was stable at 0.8 ng/ml (IQR: 0.6-1.1) to 12 mo. Positive biopsies showed 61% reduction in total cancer length, clinically significant disease in 9 of 29 patients (31%; 95% CI, 15-51), and any disease in 16 of 29 patients (55%; 95% CI, 36-74). CONCLUSIONS:MRI-TULSA was feasible, safe, and technically precise for whole-gland prostate ablation in patients with localized PCa. Phase 1 data are sufficiently compelling to study MRI-TULSA further in a larger prospective trial with reduced safety margins. PATIENT SUMMARY:We used magnetic resonance imaging-guided transurethral ultrasound to heat and ablate the prostate in men with prostate cancer. We showed that the treatment can be targeted within a narrow range (1mm) and has a well-tolerated side effect profile. A larger study is under way. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01686958, DRKS00005311. 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.12.029