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    Fluid Intake Related to Brain Edema in Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction. Dharmasaroja Pornpatr A Translational stroke research Evidence of the appropriate amount of fluid intake during the first few days after acute stroke was scarce. Concerns were raised in patients with acute malignant middle cerebral infarction, who tended to have malignant brain edema later. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of fluid intake on the occurrence of malignant brain edema in patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction. Patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction who had National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of at least 15 were included. Baseline characteristics and amount of fluid intake during the first few days were compared in patients with and without malignant brain edema. One hundred ninety-three patients were studied. Mean NIHSS score was 20. Malignant brain edema occurred in 69 patients (36%). Higher amount of fluid intake (>1650 ml or >28 ml/kg/day or >93% of daily maintenance fluid) showed a significant association with malignant brain edema (OR = 13.86, 95% CI 5.11-37.60, p value <0.001). Decompressive surgery was performed in 35 patients (18%). With mean follow-up of 12 months, 49 patients (49/184, 27%) had favorable outcomes (modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-2) at final follow-up. Seventy-nine patients (79/184, 43%) died. In the subgroup of patients with malignant brain edema, 39 patients (39/65, 60%) died and only 11% (7/65 patients) had favorable outcome. High amount of fluid intake in the first few days of acute middle cerebral infarction was related to the occurrence of malignant brain edema. 10.1007/s12975-015-0439-1
    Therapeutic treatment with vitamin C reduces focal cerebral ischemia-induced brain infarction in rats by attenuating disruptions of blood brain barrier and cerebral neuronal apoptosis. Chang Chia-Yu,Chen Jen-Yin,Wu Ming-Hsiu,Hu Miao-Lin Free radical biology & medicine Stroke is a major public health problem and ranks third most common cause of death in adults worldwide. Thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy are the main revascularization therapies for acute ischemic stroke. However, ischemia-reperfusion injury, mainly caused by oxidative/nitrosative stress injury, after revascularization therapy can result in worsening outcomes. For better clinical prognosis, more and more studies have focused on the pharmaceutical neuroprotective therapies against free radical damage. The impact of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on oxidative stress-related diseases is moderate because of its limited oral bioavailability and rapid clearance. However, recent evidence of the clinical benefit of parenteral vitamin C administration has emerged, especially in critical care. In this study we demonstrated that parenteral administration of vitamin C significantly improved neurological deficits and reduced brain infarction and brain edema by attenuating the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO)-induced nitrosative stress, inflammatory responses, and the resultant disruptions of blood brain barrier and cerebral neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that parenteral administration of vitamin C has potential as an adjuvant agent with intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular thrombectomy in acute treatment of ischemic stroke. 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.05.015