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    Dendritic cell dysfunction and diabetic sensory neuropathy in the cornea. Gao Nan,Yan Chenxi,Lee Patrick,Sun Haijing,Yu Fu-Shin The Journal of clinical investigation Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) often leads to neurotrophic ulcerations in the cornea and skin; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this complication are poorly understood. Here, we used post-wound corneal sensory degeneration and regeneration as a model and tested the hypothesis that diabetes adversely affects DC populations and infiltration, resulting in disrupted DC-nerve communication and DPN. In streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice, there was a substantial reduction in sensory nerve density and the number of intraepithelial DCs in unwounded (UW) corneas. In wounded corneas, diabetes markedly delayed sensory nerve regeneration and reduced the number of infiltrating DCs, which were a major source of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in the cornea. While CNTF neutralization retarded reinnervation in normal corneas, exogenous CNTF accelerated nerve regeneration in the wounded corneas of diabetic mice and healthy animals, in which DCs had been locally depleted. Moreover, blockade of the CNTF-specific receptor CNTFRα induced sensory nerve degeneration and retarded regeneration in normal corneas. Soluble CNTFRα also partially restored the branching of diabetes-suppressed sensory nerve endings and regeneration in the diabetic corneas. Collectively, our data show that DCs mediate sensory nerve innervation and regeneration through CNTF and that diabetes reduces DC populations in UW and wounded corneas, resulting in decreased CNTF and impaired sensory nerve innervation and regeneration. 10.1172/JCI85097
    [Prognostic value of changes in the cornea and conjunctiva in diabetes mellitus]. Bikbov M M,Surkova V K Vestnik oftalmologii Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease, and therefore a pressing medical and social problem. In many cases, ocular manifestations of DM are considered the particular cause of patients' disability. The review presents an analysis of morphological, experimental and clinical studies of the cornea in patients with diabetes mellitus - full articles, reviews and monographs of Russian and foreign authors, mostly those published in the recent years. Among the considered topics are modern methods of examining conjunctiva and cornea, clinical and morphological changes in these tissues, and the early diabetic changes in all their structural layers. The review also describes the importance of diabetes-related changes in the conjunctival vessels and corneal nerve fibers and shows the correlation between the densities of corneal nerve fibers and epidermal nerve fibers. 10.17116/oftalma201913501190
    Experimental modeling of cornea wound healing in diabetes: clinical applications and beyond. Bu Yashan,Shih Kendrick Co,Kwok Sum Sum,Chan Yau Kei,Lo Amy Cheuk-Yin,Chan Tommy Chung Yan,Jhanji Vishal,Tong Louis BMJ open diabetes research & care Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of blindness in working age populations worldwide. While much of the focus for public health has been on secondary prevention in sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy, the cornea, including its epithelium and nerves, represents a major site of damage by chronic hyperglycemia. On injury, the diabetic cornea exhibits a delayed wound-healing response, as well as an altered ocular surface immune response. This suggests a potential association between the dysfunctional wound healing response and altered inflammation on the ocular surface. However, the presence of potential confounders makes this association difficult to investigate in human epidemiological studies. Thus, we turn to animal diabetic models for a better understanding. In this review, 20 original studies, published between 2008 and 2018, describe in vivo and in vitro models of diabetic cornea disease. We compared different models of diabetic cornea wound healing and discussed the relative strengths and drawbacks of each model. A number of molecular and cellular components involved in the corneal wound healing response that are altered in the presence of diabetes have been identified in the reviewed studies. Particularly, altered corneal epithelial protein concentrations of lumician and occludin were detected in diabetic eyes compared with controls. Additionally, the importance of IL-1β in modulating the inflammatory response after corneal injury in patients with diabetes and controls was further elucidated. Meanwhile, abnormal P2×7 receptor localization and decreased corneal sub-basal nerve density in diabetic eyes were shown to contribute to altered corneal nerve signaling after injury and thus affecting the wound healing response. Finally, the discovery of the therapeutic effects of topically administered aloe vera, Serpine 1, Resolvin D1 (RvD1), pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn in diabetic animal models of cornea epithelial and nerve injury provide encouraging evidence for the future availability of effective treatment for diabetic keratopathy. 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000779