The electron transport chain in anaerobically functioning eukaryotes.
Tielens A G,Van Hellemond J J
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Many lower eukaryotes can survive anaerobic conditions via a fermentation pathway that involves the use of the reduction of endogenously produced fumarate as electron sink. This fumarate reduction is linked to electron transport in an especially adapted, anaerobically functioning electron-transport chain. An aerobic energy metabolism with Krebs cycle activity is accompanied by electron transfer from succinate to ubiquinone via complex II of the respiratory chain. On the other hand, in an anaerobic metabolism, where fumarate functions as terminal electron acceptor, electrons are transferred from rhodoquinone to fumarate, which is the reversed direction. Ubiquinone cannot replace rhodoquinone in the process of fumarate reduction in vivo, as ubiquinone can only accept electrons from complex II and cannot donate them to fumarate. Rhodoquinone, with its lower redox potential than ubiquinone, is capable of donating electrons to fumarate. Eukaryotic fumarate reductases were shown to interact with rhodoquinone (a benzoquinone), whereas most prokaryotic fumarate reductases interact with the naphtoquinones menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone. Fumarate reductase, the enzyme essential for the anaerobic functioning of many eukaryotes, is structurally very similar to succinate dehydrogenase, the Krebs cycle enzyme catalysing the reverse reaction. In prokaryotes these enzymes are differentially expressed depending on the external conditions. Evidence is now emerging that also in eukaryotes two different enzymes exist for succinate oxidation and fumarate reduction that are differentially expressed.
Synthetic atpenin analogs: Potent mitochondrial inhibitors of mammalian and fungal succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
Selby Thomas P,Hughes Kenneth A,Rauh James J,Hanna Wayne S
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
Atpenins and harzianopyridone represent a unique class of penta-substituted pyridine-based natural products that are potent inhibitors of complex II (succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These compounds block electron transfer in oxidative phosphorylation by inhibiting oxidation of succinate to fumarate and the coupled reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol. From our investigations of complex II inhibitors as potential agricultural fungicides, we report here on the synthesis and complex II inhibition for a series of synthetic atpenin analogs against both mammalian and fungal forms of the enzyme. Synthetic atpenin 2e provided optimum mammalian and fungal inhibition with slightly higher potency than natural occurring atpenin A5.
Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression.
Hsu Chia-Chi,Tseng Ling-Ming,Lee Hsin-Chen
Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
Deregulated cellular energetics was one of the cancer hallmarks. Several underlying mechanisms of deregulated cellular energetics are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial enzyme defects, or altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. Point mutations and copy number changes are the two most common mitochondrial DNA alterations in cancers, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemical depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells promotes cancer progression to a chemoresistance or invasive phenotype. Moreover, defects in mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. Deregulated mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 might modulate cancer progression by regulating cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. These mitochondrial defects during oncogenesis and tumor progression activate cytosolic signaling pathways that ultimately alter nuclear gene expression, a process called retrograde signaling. Changes in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, Ca(2+), or oncometabolites are important in the mitochondrial retrograde signaling for neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. In addition, altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor suppressor p53 regulate mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism by modulating the expression of their target genes. We thus suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cancer progression and that targeting mitochondrial alterations and mitochondrial retrograde signaling might be a promising strategy for the development of selective anticancer therapy.
Variation in proton donor/acceptor pathways in succinate:quinone oxidoreductases.
Cecchini Gary,Maklashina Elena,Yankovskaya Victoria,Iverson Tina M,Iwata So
The anaerobically expressed fumarate reductase and aerobically expressed succinate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli comprise two different classes of succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR), often termed respiratory complex II. The X-ray structures of both membrane-bound complexes have revealed that while the catalytic/soluble domains are structurally similar the quinone binding domains of the enzyme complexes are significantly different. These results suggest that the anaerobic and aerobic forms of complex II have evolved different mechanisms for electron and proton transfer in their respective membrane domains.
Energetics of Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mycobacteria.
Cook Gregory M,Hards Kiel,Vilchèze Catherine,Hartman Travis,Berney Michael
Mycobacteria inhabit a wide range of intracellular and extracellular environments. Many of these environments are highly dynamic and therefore mycobacteria are faced with the constant challenge of redirecting their metabolic activity to be commensurate with either replicative growth or a non-replicative quiescence. A fundamental feature in this adaptation is the ability of mycobacteria to respire, regenerate reducing equivalents and generate ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Mycobacteria harbor multiple primary dehydrogenases to fuel the electron transport chain and two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3 -type cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase, are present for dioxygen reduction coupled to the generation of a protonmotive force. Hypoxia leads to the downregulation of key respiratory complexes, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this expression are unknown. Despite being obligate aerobes, mycobacteria have the ability to metabolize in the absence of oxygen and a number of reductases are present to facilitate the turnover of reducing equivalents under these conditions (e.g. nitrate reductase, succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase). Hydrogenases and ferredoxins are also present in the genomes of mycobacteria suggesting the ability of these bacteria to adapt to an anaerobic-type of metabolism in the absence of oxygen. ATP synthesis by the membrane-bound F1FO-ATP synthase is essential for growing and non-growing mycobacteria and the enzyme is able to function over a wide range of protonmotive force values (aerobic to hypoxic). The discovery of lead compounds that target respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights the importance of this area for the generation of new front line drugs to combat tuberculosis.
The quinone-binding and catalytic site of complex II.
Maklashina Elena,Cecchini Gary
Biochimica et biophysica acta
The complex II family of proteins includes succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) and quinol:fumarate oxidoreductase (QFR). In the facultative bacterium Escherichia coli both are expressed as part of the aerobic (SQR) and anaerobic (QFR) respiratory chains. SQR from E. coli is homologous to mitochondrial complex II and has proven to be an excellent model system for structure/function studies of the enzyme. Both SQR and QFR from E. coli are tetrameric membrane-bound enzymes that couple succinate/fumarate interconversion with quinone/quinol reduction/oxidation. Both enzymes are capable of binding either ubiquinone or menaquinone, however, they have adopted different quinone binding sites where catalytic reactions with quinones occur. A comparison of the structures of the quinone binding sites in SQR and QFR reveals how the enzymes have adapted in order to accommodate both benzo- and napthoquinones. A combination of structural, computational, and kinetic studies of members of the complex II family of enzymes has revealed that the catalytic quinone adopts different positions in the quinone-binding pocket. These data suggest that movement of the quinone within the quinone-binding pocket is essential for catalysis.
Archaeal complex II: 'classical' and 'non-classical' succinate:quinone reductases with unusual features.
Schäfer Günter,Anemüller Stefan,Moll Ralf
Biochimica et biophysica acta
Reversible succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities have been ubiquitously detected in organisms from the three domains of life. They represent constituents either of respiratory complexes II in aerobes, or of fumarate dehydrogenase complexes in anaerobes. The present review gives a survey on archaeal succinate:quinone oxidoreductases (SQRs) analyzed so far. Though some of these could be studied in detail enzymologically and spectroscopically, the existence of others has been deduced only from published genome sequences. Interestingly, two groups of enzyme complexes can be distinguished in Archaea. One group resembles the properties of SDHs known from bacteria and mitochondria. The other represents a novel class with an unusual iron-sulfur cluster in subunit B and atypical sequence motifs in subunit C which may influence electron transport mechanisms and pathways. This novel class of SQRs is discussed in comparison to the so-called 'classical' complexes. A phylogenetic analysis is presented suggesting a co-evolution of the flavoprotein-binding subunit A and subunit B containing the three iron-sulfur clusters.