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    The novel chromatin architectural regulator SND1 promotes glioma proliferation and invasion and predicts the prognosis of patients. Yu Lin,Xu Jinling,Liu Jing,Zhang Huibian,Sun Cuiyun,Wang Qian,Shi Cuijuan,Zhou Xuexia,Hua Dan,Luo Wenjun,Bian Xiuwu,Yu Shizhu Neuro-oncology BACKGROUND:Upregulation of staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 (SND1) is a common phenomenon in different human malignant tissues. However, little information is available on the underlying mechanisms through which SND1 affects glioma cell proliferation and invasion. METHODS:SND1, Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), and marker of proliferation Ki-67 (MKI67) were analyzed in 187 gliomas by immunostaining. The correlation between those markers and patients' prognoses was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Gene Ontology, chromatin immunoprecipitation, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromosome conformation capture were applied to identify SND1-activated target genes. We also used MTT, colony formation, transwell and orthotopic implantation assays to investigate SND1 function in glioma cell proliferative and invasive activity. RESULTS:We identified SND1 and RhoA as independent predictors of poor prognosis in glioma patients. SND1 knockdown significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells. Mechanistically, we discovered that SND1 facilitated malignant glioma phenotypes by epigenetically inducing chromatin topological interaction, which activated downstream RhoA transcription. RhoA sequentially regulated expression of CCND1, CCNE1, CDK4, and CDKN1B and accelerated G1/S phase transition in glioma cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings identify SND1 as a novel chromatin architectural modifier and promising prognostic indicator for glioma classification and treatment. 10.1093/neuonc/noz038
    Correlated overexpression of metadherin and SND1 in glioma cells. Tong Liping,Wang Chao,Hu Xuebin,Pang Bo,Yang Zhonghui,He Zhangxiu,He Meihui,Wei Lanlan,Chu Ming Biological chemistry Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Effective treatment of glioma remains a big challenge due to complex pathogenic mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that metadherin (MTDH) and its interacting protein staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1) are overexpressed in many solid tumors. To elucidate the role of MDTH and SND1 in the pathogenesis of glioma, we examined the expression of MTDH and SND1 in primary glioma tissues and found that both MTDH and SND1 were highly expressed, with similar expression patterns. Co-expression of MTDH and SND1 was associated with advanced glioma grades. In addition, we detected the interaction between MTDH and SND1 in cultured glioma cell lines. MTDH could promote the expression of p65 and SND1 in glioma cells. However, enhanced SND1 expression by MTDH was abolished by the inhibition of p65. In conclusion, we demonstrated high expression levels MTDH and SND1 in primary glioma tissues. MTDH might promote glioma by inducing SND1 expression through the activation of NF-κB pathway. MTDH and SND1 may serve as the indicator of malignancy and prognosis as well as therapeutic targets for patients with glioma. 10.1515/hsz-2015-0174
    miR-361-5p inhibits glioma migration and invasion by targeting SND1. Liu Jing,Yang Jie,Yu Lin,Rao Chun,Wang Qian,Sun Cuiyun,Shi Cuijuan,Hua Dan,Zhou Xuexia,Luo Wenjun,Wang Run,Li Weiping,Yu Shizhu OncoTargets and therapy Background:Downregulation of miR-361-5p contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition of glioma cells. However, the relevance of miR-361-5p to migration and invasion of gliomas remains unknown. Materials and methods:The relationship between miR-361-5p and SND1 expression was analyzed in 120 human gliomas and 8 glioma cell lines by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to identify SND1 as a target of miR-361-5p. The mechanisms through which miR-361-5p inhibits glioma cell migration and invasion were studied by in vitro assays. Results:miR-361-5p expression was significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines, and was inversely correlated with glioma grades. However, SND1 expression was positively correlated with glioma grades and inversely correlated with miR-361-5p expression. miR-361-5p overexpression suppressed glioma cell migration and invasion through targeting SND1 and subsequently decreasing MMP-2 expression. In glioma cell lines, SND1 overexpression could partly reverse the antitumor effects of miR-361-5p. Conclusion:The findings provide evidence that miR-361-5p directly targets SND1 to degradation and then reduces MMP-2 gene transcription, thus inhibiting glioma migration and invasion. miR-361-5p is an important tumor suppressor and a novel diagnostic biomarker of glioma, and miR-361-5p and SND1 are potential therapeutic candidates for malignant gliomas. 10.2147/OTT.S171539
    PTB-AS, a Novel Natural Antisense Transcript, Promotes Glioma Progression by Improving PTBP1 mRNA Stability with SND1. Zhu Liyuan,Wei Qunfang,Qi Yingjiao,Ruan Xiangbin,Wu Fan,Li Liang,Zhou Junjie,Liu Wei,Jiang Tao,Zhang Jing,Yin Bin,Yuan Jiangang,Qiang Boqin,Han Wei,Peng Xiaozhong Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy Glioma, the most common primary malignancy in the brain, has high recurrence and lethality rates, and thus, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of this incurable disease is urgently needed. Poly-pyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1, also known as hnRNP I), an RNA-binding protein, has various mechanisms to promote gliomagenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating PTBP1 expression are unclear. Herein, we report a novel natural antisense noncoding RNA, PTB-AS, whose expression correlated positively with PTBP1 mRNA. We found that PTB-AS significantly promoted the proliferation and migration in vivo and in vitro of glioma cells. PTB-AS substantially increased the PTBP1 level by directly binding to its 3' UTR and stabilizing the mRNA. Furthermore, staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing 1 (SND1) dramatically increased the binding capacity between PTB-AS and PTBP1 mRNA. Mechanistically, PTB-AS could mask the binding site of miR-9 in the PTBP1-3' UTR; miR-9 negatively regulates PTBP1. To summarize, we revealed that PTB-AS, which maintains the PTBP1 level through extended base pairing to the PTBP1 3' UTR with the assistance of SND1, could significantly promote gliomagenesis. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.05.023
    miR-320a functions as a suppressor for gliomas by targeting SND1 and β-catenin, and predicts the prognosis of patients. Li Huining,Yu Lin,Liu Jing,Bian Xiuwu,Shi Cuijuan,Sun Cuiyun,Zhou Xuexia,Wen Yanjun,Hua Dan,Zhao Shujun,Ren Linlin,An Tongling,Luo Wenjun,Wang Qian,Yu Shizhu Oncotarget miR-320a downexpression contributes to tumorigenesis in several human cancers. However, the relevance of miR-320a to prognosis, proliferation and invasion in gliomas remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-320a expression was decreased in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, miR-320a expression was inversely correlated with glioma grades and Ki-67 index, but positively correlated with patients' survival. Contrarily, SND1 and β-catenin expressions were positively correlated with glioma grades and Ki-67 index, but inversely correlated with miR-320a expression and patients' survival. Furthermore, two subgroups with distinct prognoses in our glioma patients of different grade, IDH status, age and KPS were identified according to expression of miR-320a, SND1 or β-catenin. Cox regression showed that miR-320a and SND1 were independent predictors and β-catenin was an auxiliary predictor for patients' survival. miR-320a overexpression suppressed the G1/S phase transition, proliferation, migration and invasion of glioblastoma cells. Mechanistically, we validated SND1 and β-catenin as direct targets of miR-320a, and found that miR-320a overexpression increased SND1-inhibited tumor suppressor p21WAF1 and decreased Smad2, Smad4, MMP2, MMP7 and cyclinD1, the pivotal downstream effectors of SND1 or β-catenin. Our findings demonstrate the potential values of miR-320a, SND1 and β-catenin as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic candidates for malignant gliomas. 10.18632/oncotarget.14975
    Suppression of miR-184 in malignant gliomas upregulates SND1 and promotes tumor aggressiveness. Emdad Luni,Janjic Aleksandar,Alzubi Mohammad A,Hu Bin,Santhekadur Prasanna K,Menezes Mitchell E,Shen Xue-Ning,Das Swadesh K,Sarkar Devanand,Fisher Paul B Neuro-oncology BACKGROUND:Malignant glioma is an aggressive cancer requiring new therapeutic targets. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post transcriptionally and are implicated in cancer development and progression. Deregulated expressions of several miRNAs, specifically hsa-miR-184, correlate with glioma development. METHODS:Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify potential miR-184-regulated target genes involved in malignant glioma progression. This strategy identified a multifunctional nuclease, SND1, known to be overexpressed in multiple cancers, including breast, colon, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as a putative direct miR-184 target gene. SND1 levels were evaluated in patient tumor samples and human-derived cell lines. We analyzed invasion and signaling in vitro through SND1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function. An orthotopic xenograft model with primary glioma cells demonstrated a role of miR-184/SND1 in glioma pathogenesis in vivo. RESULTS:SND1 is highly expressed in human glioma tissue and inversely correlated with miR-184 expression. Transfection of glioma cells with a miR-184 mimic inhibited invasion, suppressed colony formation, and reduced anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Similar phenotypes were evident when SND1 was knocked down with siRNA. Additionally, knockdown (KD) of SND1 induced senescence and improved the chemoresistant properties of malignant glioma cells. In an orthotopic xenograft model, KD of SND1 or transfection with a miR-184 mimic induced a less invasive tumor phenotype and significantly improved survival of tumor bearing mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our study is the first to show a novel regulatory role of SND1, a direct target of miR-184, in glioma progression, suggesting that the miR-184/SND1 axis may be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for malignant glioma. 10.1093/neuonc/nou220
    Inhibitory effect of miR-184 on the potential of proliferation and invasion in human glioma and breast cancer cells in vitro. Feng Ren,Dong Lei International journal of clinical and experimental pathology MiR-184 was an important suppressor to tumor cells proliferation and invasion and some studies show that it was down-regulated in aggressive human tumor cells and a potential tumor therapy target through expression of miR-184 results in reduced tumor cell aggressiveness. In this study, miR-184 showed an inhibitive activity of glioma U87MG cell line and breast cancer MCF-7 cell line in proliferation and invasion by MTS and transwell assay. We found that the miR-184 also could arrest cell cycle and adhesion by up-regulating the expression of p53 and p21 and activity of caspase-3/8, suppressing the expression of SND1, MMP-2/9, CD44 and activity of AKT/NF-κB pathway. The results showed that miR-184 could be a potential target for glioma and breast cancer treatment.
    Role of the staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 in oncogenesis (review). Jariwala Nidhi,Rajasekaran Devaraja,Srivastava Jyoti,Gredler Rachel,Akiel Maaged A,Robertson Chadia L,Emdad Luni,Fisher Paul B,Sarkar Devanand International journal of oncology The staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is a multifunctional protein overexpressed in breast, prostate, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas and malignant glioma. Molecular studies have revealed the multifaceted activities of SND1 involved in regulating gene expression at transcriptional as well as post-transcriptional levels. Early studies identified SND1 as a transcriptional co-activator. SND1 is also a component of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) thus mediating RNAi function, a regulator of mRNA splicing, editing and stability, and plays a role in maintenance of cell viability. Such diverse actions allow the SND1 to modulate a complex array of molecular networks, thereby promoting carcinogenesis. Here, we describe the crucial role of SND1 in cancer development and progression, and highlight SND1 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 10.3892/ijo.2014.2766