Mural thrombus in the normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta of a chronic smoker.
Habib Habib,Hsu Judy,Winchell Patricia Jo,Daoko Joseph
Texas Heart Institute journal
Thrombus formation in an atherosclerotic or aneurysmal descending thoracic aorta is a well-described, frequently encountered vascular condition. In comparison, thrombus formation in a normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta is reported far less often. We describe the case of a 46-year-old woman who had splenic and renal infarctions secondary to embolic showers from a large, mobile thrombus in a morphologically normal proximal descending thoracic aorta. After the patient underwent anticoagulation, stent-grafting, and surgical bypass to correct an arterial blockage caused by the stent-graft, she resumed a relatively normal life. In contrast with other cases of a thrombotic but normal-appearing descending thoracic aorta, this patient had no known malignancy or systemic coagulative disorders; her sole risk factor was chronic smoking. We discuss our patient's case and review the relevant medical literature, focusing on the effect of smoking on coagulation physiology.
Aortic Mural Thrombus Associated with Congenital Protein C Deficiency in an Elderly Patient.
Ueda Kazuki,Morishita Eriko,Shiraki Hironaga,Matsuoka Shunzo,Imashuku Shinsaku
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
Thrombophilia increases the risk of venous thrombosis, but is rarely responsible for aortic thrombosis. Aortic mural thrombus (AMT) may be associated with a protein C deficiency. However, it is necessary to determine whether the protein C deficiency is congenital/hereditary or secondary/acquired (consumption of protein C during the process of thrombus formation). This study describes a 77-year-old Japanese woman with incidentally diagnosed AMT, who had a protein C deficiency (activity 54%, antigen 42%). Sequencing of the protein C gene revealed a heterozygous mutation of c.1268delG, p.Gly423Valfs82 in exon 9, indicating a congenital protein C deficiency. These findings indicate that very late onset AMT can occur in an adult with congenital protein C deficiency.
Contemporary management of symptomatic primary aortic mural thrombus.
Verma Himanshu,Meda Narendranadh,Vora Simit,George Robbie K,Tripathi Ramesh K
Journal of vascular surgery
OBJECTIVE:Primary aortic mural thrombus (PAMT) is an uncommon condition but an important source of noncardiogenic emboli with a difficult diagnosis and a high rate of complications, including high mortality. We report our experience of thromboembolic disease from PAMT and review its contemporary management. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all patients who presented with acute occlusion of a limb or visceral vessels between January 2011 and September 2013 was performed. RESULTS:A total of 88 patients presented with acute occlusion of the extremities or visceral arteries. All underwent extensive evaluation for the possible source of the embolism. Of these 88 patients, 19 patients (mean age, 41.2 years; male:female ratio, 1:2.1) were found to have aortic mural thrombus as the source of distal embolism. Thrombus was located in the thoracic aorta in 10 patients, in the perivisceral aorta in three patients, and in the infrarenal aorta in six patients. Thrombus in the thoracic aorta was treated with stent grafts in four patients, bare metal stents in three patients, and anticoagulation alone in two patients. In the suprarenal abdominal aorta, all three patients underwent trapdoor aortic thrombectomy. Infrarenal aortic thrombus was managed by aortobifemoral embolectomy in two patients, aortic stenting in two patients, surgical thrombectomy in one patient, and anticoagulation alone in one patient. Successful treatment, defined as freedom from further embolic events or recurrence of thrombus, was achieved in 14 of 19 patients (76.4%) with a mean follow-up period of 16.2 months (range, 2-28 months). There were four (21%) thrombus-related deaths, all due to primary thromboembolic insults. One patient needed a below-knee amputation because of a recurrent thrombotic episode. CONCLUSIONS:Symptomatic PAMT is an uncommon but important source of noncardiogenic embolus. It appears to occur more frequently in young women. Endovascular coverage of the aortic thrombus, when feasible, appears to be an effective and safe procedure with either stent grafts or closed-cell metal stents. When thrombus is located adjacent to visceral vessels, it should be managed with an open trapdoor thromboembolectomy.
Symptomatic Aortic Mural Thrombus Treatment and Outcomes.
Borghese Ottavia,Pisani Angelo,Di Centa Isabelle
Annals of vascular surgery
BACKGROUND:To report results achieved in treatment of symptomatic aortic mural thrombus in a single institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A retrospective analysis of data about 97 patients presenting with acute onset lower limb ischemia (Rutherford stage II-III), upper limb ischemia, and mesenteric ischemia surgically treated between January 2011 and December 2018 in the Vascular and Endovascular Unit of Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France) was conducted. Only patients affected with primary aortic mural thrombus (PAMT) as source of embolism were included. RESULTS:A total of 9 patients (mean age 51 years, range 28-69; 55.5%, n 5 men and 44.5% n 4 women) were affected with PAMT. Three (33.3%) patients presented a concomitant renal embolism (22.2% of acute renal failure). Thrombus was located at the level of thoracic aorta (4 patients), visceral aorta (2 patients), or infrarenal aorta (3 patients). PAMT was sessile or pedunculated in 5 (55.5%) and 4 (44.4%) patients, respectively. Treatment consisted of anticoagulation in all patients in association with surgical exclusion of the PAMT, distal thrombectomy alone, or in addition to distal bypass. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range 1-57 months) no patients died, 4 patients (44.4%) recovered well, and 5 patients (55.5%) experienced recurrence/thrombus persistency and needed secondary interventions. The best results and absence of recurrences were achieved in patients undergoing immediate exclusion of the PAMT. CONCLUSIONS:PAMT is an uncommon source of embolism, and no guidelines are at disposal in its management. An aggressive approach with anticoagulation and exclusion of thrombus seems to be efficacious in preventing recurrences limiting complications and optimizing outcomes.
Percutaneous thrombectomy of mural aortic thrombus using intravascular ultrasound guidance.
Murter Christopher D,Sigdel Abindra,Dwivedi Amit J,Wayne Erik J
Journal of vascular surgery cases and innovative techniques
Mural aortic thrombus is a challenging clinical problem with significant potential complications. Particularly precarious are situations with involvement of the visceral segment of the aorta. We describe a technique for percutaneous thrombectomy of mural aortic thrombus using intravascular ultrasound to guide an angled mechanical thrombectomy catheter in conjunction with a continuous aspiration system (Indigo mechanical thrombectomy system; Penumbra, Alameda, Calif). Use of this technique in three patients with challenging cases of mural aortic thrombus is discussed. All patients were treated successfully and without complication using this technique.
Thoracoabdominal aortic mural and floating thrombus extending into superior mesenteric artery.
Kandemirli Sedat Giray,Balkanay Ozan Onur,Awiwi Muhammad Osama,Durmaz Eser,Goksedef Deniz,Comunoglu Nil
Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
Thrombus in the thoracic aorta not related to aneurysm or atherosclerosis is a rare clinical entity with a limited number of cases reported. Floating thrombus is defined as non-adherent part of the thrombus floating within the aortic lumen. Herein, we present a 48-year-old woman who presented with progressive midline dull, aching abdominal pain of 2-day duration. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography revealed a free floating thrombus extending from the aortic arch into the superior mesenteric artery. Transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the findings of a thrombus extending through the aortic arch. Floating thrombus within the aortic lumen in a morphologically normal descending thoracic and abdominal aorta is a rare entity.
Two consecutive fatal cases of acute myocardial infarction caused by free floating thrombus in the ascending aorta and review of literature.
Knoess M,Otto M,Kracht T,Neis P
Forensic science international
Free floating thrombus in the ascending aorta is an uncommon source of acute myocardial infarction. We report on two cases of young women who died of acute myocardial infarction caused by a free floating thrombus in the sinus of Valsalva obstructing the coronary arteries' ostia. The first case reports on a 30-year-old pregnant woman who anamnestically had episodes with short loss of consciousness and weakness. The second case presents a 37-year-old woman suffering from multiple sclerosis with no previous history of thrombotic events. The review of literature revealed a predominance of women (eight females and three males). Interestingly, the coronary arteries bear no preference concerning the right (RCA) or left coronary artery (LCA) being more often occluded by a free floating thrombus. Especially, younger women (mean age 45.5 years, range 30-59 years) with no history of cardiac symptoms and without atherosclerotic changes seem to be predispositioned. The hypothesis that thrombus formation in cases without plaque disruption may depend on an endothelial erosion which seems to be more common in younger women and promoted by a hyperthrombogenic state is supported by our two cases. A comprehensive literature search revealed, that these are the first two reports on a free floating thrombus being the cause of fatal acute myocardial infarction in a pregnant woman, respectively, a woman suffering from multiple sclerosis.
Thrombosis of abdominal aorta in congenital afibrinogenemia: case report and review of literature.
Sartori M T,Teresa S M,Milan M,Marta M,de Bon E,Emiliano D B,Fadin M,Mariangela F,Pesavento R,Raffaele P,Zanon E,Ezio Z
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Thrombotic events in congenital hypo-afibrinogenemia have been rarely reported, either in association or not with replacement therapy or thrombotic risk factors. We describe clinical findings and management of thrombosis of abdominal aorta with peripheral embolism in a patient with congenital afibrinogenemia. A review of arterial thrombosis in inherited hypo-afibrinogenemia was also performed. The patient with a severe bleeding history requiring prophylaxis with fibrinogen concentrates (FC) was admitted for ischaemia of the 4th right toe. An angio-CT of abdominal aorta showed a thrombosis from the origin of renal arteries to the carrefour with a distal floating part. No thrombotic risk factors were found; a previous traumatic lesion of aortic wall might have triggered the thrombus formation, whereas the role of FC prophylaxis remains uncertain. The patient was successfully treated with FC, enoxaparin followed by fondaparinux, and low-dose aspirin without bleeding or thrombosis recurrence. After 2 years, aortic thrombus was almost completely recovered. Sixteen hypo/afibrinogenemia patients with arterial thrombosis were found in Literature, showing that thrombosis often occurs at a young age, involves large vessels, its recurrence is not unusual, and therapeutic strategy is not defined yet. Our therapeutic approach was effective and also safe, but further studies are needed to improve the knowledge of pathogenesis and the anti-thrombotic management in this peculiar setting.
Thoracic mural thrombi: a case series and literature review.
Morris Marvin E,Galiñanes Edgar Luis,Nichols W Kirt,Ross Charles B,Chauvupun Joe
Annals of vascular surgery
Thoracic mural thrombi (TMT) are rare but an important source of distal emboli. Treatment options are dynamic, ranging from open, endovascular to conservative therapies. We report two cases of TMT, one successfully treated with thoracic aortic endoluminal stent placement for visceral and peripheral embolization, the second treated conservatively for digital embolization secondary to TMT in the innominate artery.
Aortic mural thrombi in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: report of two cases and review of the literature.
Novacek Gottfried,Haumer Markus,Schima Wolfgang,Müller Christian,Miehsler Wolfgang,Polterauer Peter,Vogelsang Harald
Inflammatory bowel diseases
Thromboembolic events are a known complication in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We report on 2 young women with IBD and aortic mural thrombi as a source of arterioarterial embolization to the lower limbs resulting in significant morbidity. The first case was a 36-year-old woman with severe ulcerative colitis who presented with signs of microembolism into two toes of her right foot. A thrombus in the otherwise normal infrarenal aorta with occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery was revealed by computed tomography (CT) and intrarterial angiography. The digital ischemia resolved without sequelae. The second case was a 41-year-old woman with Crohn's disease complicated by fistulas. She developed acute ischemia of her right leg. Arteriography and CT revealed infrapopliteal embolic occlusions and a thrombus in the distal otherwise normal abdominal aorta and the left iliac artery. A primarily successful thrombectomy had to be repeated 5 times because of reocclusion. Eventually the leg was exarticulated at the knee. In both patients no further thromboembolic event occurred during follow-up of 4 1/2 years and 5 1/2 years, respectively, and aortic thrombi had resolved at follow-up CT scans. Extensive work up for hypercoagulability was negative in both patients. We consider IBD as the most likely trigger for arterioarterial embolization in the absence of thrombophilia in both patients. Finally we give an overview of the literature of similar cases with aortic mural thrombi in IBD patients.
Arterial thrombosis in unusual sites: A practical review.
O'Donnell Matthew,Shatzel Joseph J,Olson Sven R,Daughety Molly M,Nguyen Khanh P,Hum Justine,DeLoughery Thomas G
European journal of haematology
While cardiovascular disease is common, occasionally hematologists and other practitioners will encounter patients with arterial thrombosis/infarction in unusual sites, without clear cause or obvious diagnostic and treatment paradigms. Contrary to the more commonly encountered cerebrovascular accident and cardiovascular disorders, the various infarctions outlined in this review have unique presentations, pathophysiology, workup, and treatments that all hematologists should be aware of. This review outlines the current literature on arterial thrombosis, with consideration given to anatomic sources and hypercoagulable associations, while focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, provoking factors, and current recommended treatments for intracardiac thrombus, primary aortic mural thrombus, visceral infarctions, and cryptogenic limb ischemia to provide a useful and practical review for the practitioner.
Treatment of symptomatic mobile aortic thrombus.
Martens T,Van Herzeele I,Jacobs B,De Ryck F,Randon C,Vermassen F
Acta chirurgica Belgica
BACKGROUND:Mobile thoracic or abdominal aortic thrombi are a potential source of embolism to visceral organs or lower limbs. Detection levels of this type of aortic pathology after any embolic event have increased considerably. Nevertheless, therapeutic management of an intraluminal mobile thrombus of the aorta remains controversial. The aim of this study is to describe the treatment modalities for symptomatic mural aortic thrombi based on three cases diagnosed at our institution and to review the literature. METHODS:During the last decade, several patients with peripheral embolisation were diagnosed with an intraluminal mobile aortic thrombus. Three patients who were treated differently were selected and reviewed. In addition a literature search was performed on PubMed and Medline from their inception to the present for all English language articles using the following keywords: blue toe syndrome, peripheral arterial embolisation, mobile thrombus and aorta. The advantages and drawbacks of medical management, open and endovascular treatment are described. RESULTS:Three particular patients with embolisation due to a floating aortic thrombus were reviewed. The first patient underwent a thoracotomy with replacement of the descending thoracic aorta. Another case was treated successfully by implanting an endovascular stent graft in the descending thoracic aorta. The last patient was treated medically because of the involvement of the visceral vessels. When reviewing the literature, no randomised controlled trials were found but several case reports have described both open and endovascular techniques. No long-term follow up of this rare pathology is available. CONCLUSIONS:In the literature there is no consensus how to treat a symptomatic floating aortic thrombus. This report shows that therapeutic strategies are influenced by the localisation of the thrombus, the co-morbidities of the patient and the physician' s preferences. Endovascular treatment in combination with high dose statins has become the preferred treatment method although long-term data are lacking.
Chronic complete thrombosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm: an unusual presentation of an unusual complication.
Pejkic Sinisa,Opacic Dragan,Mutavdzic Perica,Radmili Oliver,Krstic Nevena,Davidovic Lazar
Although mural thrombosis frequently accompanies aneurysmal disease, complete thrombosis is distinctly unusual complication of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). A case study of a patient with chronic, asymptomatic complete thrombosis of a large juxtarenal AAA is presented along with a literature review and discussion of the potential secondary complications, mandating aggressive management of this condition. A 67-year-old man with multiple atherogenic risk factors and unattended complaints consistent with a recent episode of a transient right hemispheric ischemic attack was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of a thrombosed AAA established by computed tomography. Duplex ultrasonography and aortography confirmed the referral diagnosis and also revealed near occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. The patient underwent a two-stage surgery, with preliminary left-sided carotid endarterectomy followed three days later by an aneurysmectomy and aortobifemoral reconstruction. He had an uncomplicated recovery and was discharged home on postoperative day 7, remaining asymptomatic at the 42-month follow-up. Complete thrombosis is an uncommon presentation of AAA and may be clinically silent. It is frequently associated with other manifestations of generalized atherosclerosis. Radical open repair yields durable result and is the preferred treatment modality.
Antithrombotic therapy in aortic diseases: A narrative review.
Caron Francois,Anand Sonia S
Vascular medicine (London, England)
Aortic diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, including atherothrombotic conditions like aortic atheroma, cholesterol embolization syndrome, aortic mural thrombus, thrombus within an aneurysm, and large vessel vasculitis. In this review, we provide a summary of the current evidence regarding atherothrombotic diseases of the aorta, focusing on therapeutic avenues. In patients with previous stroke, aortic arch atheroma is recognized as a strong predictor of recurrent atheroembolism, and antiplatelet therapy alone is still associated with a high (11.1%) residual risk of recurrent stroke. In secondary prevention, the use of dual antiplatelet therapy or moderate intensity anticoagulation with warfarin may lower the risk of recurrent stroke at a cost of increased life-threatening bleeding. Thrombi adherent to the aortic wall are generally associated with underlying atherosclerosis or aneurysmal disease. Primary aortic mural thrombus is a rare condition, sometimes related with systemic prothrombotic or inflammatory diseases. Retrospective studies suggest that anticoagulation is beneficial in patients with mobile mural thrombus. The pathogenesis and consequences of thrombus in an aortic aneurysm, or in an endograft following endovascular aneurysm repair, have been studied, but the role of antiplatelet therapy in those two conditions is still unclear and should be driven by general cardiovascular risk prevention. The benefit of anticoagulation to reduce thrombus load is uncertain. Patients with large vessel vasculitis experience increased cardiovascular events secondary to inflammation-driven atherothrombotic processes. Antiplatelet therapy is recommended as part of the therapy for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Anticoagulation with warfarin has shown limited benefit in few retrospective studies.
A critical reappraisal of the treatment modalities of normal appearing thoracic aorta mural thrombi.
Karaolanis Georgios,Moris Demetrios,Bakoyiannis Chris,Tsilimigras Diamantis I,Palla Viktoria-Varvara,Spartalis Eleftherios,Schizas Dimitrios,Georgopoulos Sotirios
Annals of translational medicine
Mural thrombus in non-atherosclerotic or aneurysmatic thoracic aorta is a relatively uncommon entity. Currently there is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic algorithm of its management. We aim to present the current knowledge on the treatment of thoracic aorta mural thrombi (TAMT) in minimally atherosclerotic vessels and we hope that the juxtaposed discussions will shed light on the uncharted waters regarding this rare syndrome. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched for publications with the medical subject "aortic mural thrombus" and keywords "thoracic", "embolism", "normal vessel", "minimally atherosclerotic vessel" or "treatment". We restricted our search to English language, till January 2017. The electronic literature search yielded 23 reports that were deemed appropriate for further analysis. Anticoagulation is the standard of care for the treatment of the thrombus whereas surgical and interventional treatment seems to be related with increased mortality and lower recurrence rates. TAMT treatment is controversial. Anticoagulants are the mainstay of treatment but surgery seems to gain ground in several settings as an only therapy or a combined treatment modality. More data are needed on the role of novel oral anticoagulants and endografts.
Aortic Thrombosis in a Patient With Malignant Disease: A Literature Review and Case Presentation.
Arima Takahiro,Muroya Ken,Kawamoto Ken,Koba Yuji,Omura Takashi
Vascular and endovascular surgery
INTRODUCTION::Aortic mural thrombosis associated with a malignant disease is rare, and whether anticoagulation therapy or surgical treatment is the more definitive primary treatment remains uncertain. This study aims to determine the best treatment strategy for aortic thrombosis in a patient with a malignant disease. METHODS::We reviewed medical literature using the PubMed database and present a case of aortic thrombosis due to a hypercoagulable state related to sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. RESULTS::Of the 18 patients from 14 articles included in this study, 13 received simple anticoagulation as a primary treatment (anticoagulation group), while 5 underwent surgical treatment (surgical treatment group). Recurrence or exacerbation of embolism was found in 2 (15.4%) of the 13 patients and in 1 (20.0%) of the 5 patients ( P = 1.0). Major complications were observed in 1 (7.7%) of the patients in the anticoagulation group and in 1 (20.0%) of the 5 patients in the surgical treatment group ( P = .49). No significant differences between the groups were found. CONCLUSIONS::A simple anticoagulation therapy may be as effective as surgical treatment in patients with aortic thrombosis associated with malignancy.
Endovascular management of a mobile thoracic aortic thrombus following recurrent distal thromboembolism: a case report and literature review.
Scott Daniel J,White Joseph M,Arthurs Zachary M
Vascular and endovascular surgery
Sources of lower extremity and visceral arterial thromboembolism most commonly include the heart and proximal aneurysmal disease. Infrequently, further workup of "cryptogenic" emboli will reveal a mural atheroma or thrombus of the descending thoracic aorta. Without prospective data, anticoagulation and open surgical thrombectomy with or without aortic replacement have been the standard approach. Presented is a case of a floating mural thrombus in the setting of superior mesenteric and femoral arterial thromboembolism that was effectively treated with endovascular stent graft exclusion.
Mural thrombus and the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a large population-based prospective cohort study.
Behr-Rasmussen C,Grøndal N,Bramsen M B,Thomsen M D,Lindholt J S
European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery
OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether the relative size of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is associated with AAA growth. METHODS:This large observational study was based on a randomised population-based screening trial. Six hundred and fifteen AAAs were diagnosed in men aged 65-74 years. The relative cross-sectional area covered by the mural thrombus was estimated by a semiautomatic method using ultrasound equipment to measure the area of the ellipses, and adapting the inner ellipse (IA) to the luminal border of the thrombus and the outer ellipse to the area inside the media border (OA). The relative thrombus area was then calculated as ((OA-IA)/OU) × 100%. Four hundred and sixteen of the patients with AAA were eligible for analysis. RESULTS:The mean size of the AAA was 40.6 mm, and the mean observation time was 1.78 years. In the group with AAAs measuring 30-34 mm, 42% had ILT, with a mean relative size of 12% of the outer area. In the group with AAAs measuring >64 mm, the presence of ILT increased to 100%, with a mean relative size of 70% of the outer area. Univariate analysis showed relative ILT size, aortic diameter, smoking history, and diastolic blood pressure were significantly positively associated with growth rate, while the presence of diabetes mellitus was significantly negatively associated with growth rate. The relative ILT size remained significantly positively associated with the growth rate after a multivariate linear regression adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that ILT may play a part in the progression of AAAs.
Aortic mural thrombus in the normal or minimally atherosclerotic aorta.
Fayad Ziad Y,Semaan Elie,Fahoum Bashar,Briggs Matt,Tortolani Anthony,D'Ayala Marcus
Annals of vascular surgery
BACKGROUND:Aortic mural thrombus in a nonaneurysmal minimally atherosclerotic or normal aorta is a rare clinical entity and an uncommon cause of peripheral arterial embolization. Both anticoagulation therapy and aortic surgery are commonly used as primary treatment, but there are no consensuses or clinical guidelines to outline the best management strategy for this unusual problem. This systematic review compares the outcomes of these different strategies for the treatment of aortic mural thrombus. METHODS:An extensive search of the literature was conducted, and all relevant publications were reviewed, with individual patient data pooled in this meta-analysis. The outcome variables included were persistence or recurrence of aortic thrombus, recurrence of peripheral embolization, mortality, and a composite end point of complications consisting of stroke, limb loss, and bowel resection. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare groups and to find any predictors of adverse outcome. RESULTS:Two hundred patients from 98 articles were considered. Of these, 112 patients received anticoagulation and 88 underwent aortic surgery as primary treatment. Smoking was more prevalent in the surgery group, but no other significant differences in demographics, comorbidities, or mode of presentation were seen between groups. The surgery group was more likely to have aortic thrombus located in the arch, but there were no differences in terms of the mobility or size of the thrombus between groups. Aortic thrombus persisted or recurred in 26.4% of the anticoagulation group and in 5.7% of the surgery group (P < 0.001). Recurrence of peripheral arterial embolization was seen in 25.7% of the anticoagulation group and 9.1% of the surgery group (P = 0.003). Mortality rates were similar at 6.2% and 5.7% for the anticoagulation group and the surgery group, respectively (P = 0.879). Complications were noted in 27% of the anticoagulation group and 17% of the surgery group (P = 0.07), and major limb amputation rates were 9% for the anticoagulation group and 2% for the surgery group (P = 0.004). Logistic regression analysis established thrombus location in the ascending aorta (odds ratio [OR]: 12.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-238.8) or arch (OR: 18.3; 95% CI: 2.6-376.7), mild atherosclerosis of the aortic wall (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1-6.4), and stroke presentation (OR: 11.8; 95% CI: 3.3-49.5) as important predictors of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:The results of our meta-analysis seem to favor the surgical management of aortic mural thrombus in the normal or minimally diseased aorta. Anticoagulation as primary therapy is associated with a higher likelihood of recurrence, a trend toward a higher incidence of complications, and a higher incidence of limb loss. Aortic surgery should be considered as primary treatment, particularly for those patients at high risk for recurrence considered to be good operative candidates.
Descending thoracic aortic mural thrombus presentation and treatment strategies.
Meyermann Karol,Trani Jose,Caputo Francis J,Lombardi Joseph V
Journal of vascular surgery
BACKGROUND:Thoracic aortic mural thrombus (TAMT) of the descending aorta is rare but can result in dramatic embolic events. Early treatment is therefore crucial; however, there is not a consensus on ideal initial treatment. METHODS:A review of the literature using PubMed was conducted, and all relevant publications describing descending TAMT of the past 15 years were reviewed. Variables included for this analysis were presentation, initial treatment strategy employed, outcome measures of thrombus resolution or regression, recurrence of symptomatic emboli, and mortality. RESULTS:Seventy-four patients were included in this analysis. Women were significantly more likely to be described with descending TAMT. The majority (82.4%) of cases reported were diagnosed after an embolic event. Patients were equally likely to receive medical, open surgical, or endovascular therapy as the initial treatment modality. However, there is a trend within the past 5 years to report cases describing successful thoracic endovascular aortic repair for initial management. Of patients who initially underwent medical management, nine patients (34.6%) had persistent thrombus. Of the patients who initially underwent open surgical repair, six patients (31.6%) had persistent thrombus; of these patients, four underwent endovascular repair. Twenty-nine patients (39.2%) with descending TAMT initially underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair. Twenty-seven (93.1%) had fully excluded thrombus at the time of the procedure, with no recurrence or evidence of repeated embolic phenomena at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Whereas mural thrombus of the thoracic aorta is uncommon, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of embolic events. Although endovascular therapy may be a useful first-line option for TAMT with reports of positive outcomes in select literature, further study of this treatment option is required.
[Aortic mural thrombus].
Varino Juliana,Rodrigues Roger,Pereira Bárbara,Moreira Mário,Gonçalves Óscar
Revista portuguesa de cirurgia cardio-toracica e vascular : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-Toracica e Vascular
Aortic mural thrombus is a rare clinical finding in the absence of aneurysm or atherosclerosis but an important source of noncardiogenic emboli with a difficult diagnosis and a high rate of complications, including high mortality. It appears to occur more frequently in young adults usually with underlying pro-thrombotic disorder. With the increasing use of high resolution imaging, the asymptomatic mural thrombus became an increasingly frequent finding, but its potential for embolization or the best treatment are still a matter of debate. The management of mural thrombus in non-atherosclerotic aorta represents a challenge because no guidelines are available, and should be individualized. The therapeutic approach should include the triple aspects of aortic mural thrombus: primary disease anticoagulation treatment, surgical thrombectomy to solve embolic complications and endovascular/classical surgery to exclude the thrombus from the aorta. Historically therapeutic anticoagulation was proposed as first-line therapy and surgical intervention was reserved for mobile thrombus, recurrent embolism and contraindication for anticoagulation. However, it is associated with a 25-50% embolic recurrence rate, thrombus persistence in 35% and secondary aortic surgery in up to 31% of the cases. Recent data suggest that endovascular coverage of the aortic thrombus, when feasible, appears to be an effective and safe procedure with a low recurrence and re-embolization rates. In this article we review the published literature concerning this topic.