Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 attenuates murine ulcerative colitis through interference with mucosal immunity.
Li Heng,Fan Chen,Feng Chunlan,Wu Yanwei,Lu Huimin,He Peilan,Yang Xiaoqian,Zhu Fenghua,Qi Qing,Gao Yuanzhuo,Zuo Jianping,Tang Wei
British journal of pharmacology
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an aetiologically refractory inflammatory disease, accompanied by dysfunction of the epithelial barrier and intestinal inflammation. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) serves as an intracellular proinflammatory enzyme, hydrolyzing and inactivating cAMP. Though PDE4 inhibitors have been approved for pulmonary and dermatological diseases, the role of PDE4 inhibition in modulating mucosal immunity in the intestine remains ill-defined. This study was designed to explore whether PDE4 inhibition by apremilast exerts protective effects in dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine UC. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Intestinal inflammation and disease severity were evaluated by morphological, histopathological and biochemical assays, and in vivo imaging. Expression of inflammatory mediators, components of PDE4-mediated pathways in colon and macrophages were determined using quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA, Luminex assay, immunostaining, or western blotting, along with siRNA knockdown. Immune cells in mesenteric lymph nodes and colonic lamina propria were analysed by flow cytometry. KEY RESULTS:Apremilast attenuated clinical features of UC, suppressing microscopic colon damage, production of inflammatory mediators, oxidative stresses, and fibrosis. Apremilast also promoted epithelial barrier function and inhibited infiltration of immune cells into inflamed tissues, through decreasing expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors. Furthermore, in UC, PDE4A, PDE4B, and PDE4D were highly expressed in colon. Apremilast not only inhibited PDE4 isoform expression but also activated PKA-CREB and Epac-Rap1 pathways and subsequently suppressed MAPK, NF-κB, PI3K-mTOR, and JAK-STAT-SOCS3 activation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:Inhibition of PDE4 by apremilast protected against UC, by interfering with mucosal immunity. These findings represent a promising strategy for regulating intestinal inflammation.
Myelofibrosis-associated complications: pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and effects on outcomes.
Mughal Tariq I,Vaddi Kris,Sarlis Nicholas J,Verstovsek Srdan
International journal of general medicine
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a rare chronic BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homologue 1)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by progressive bone marrow fibrosis, inefficient hematopoiesis, and shortened survival. The clinical manifestations of MF include splenomegaly, consequent to extramedullary hematopoiesis, cytopenias, and an array of potentially debilitating abdominal and constitutional symptoms. Dysregulated Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling underlies secondary disease-associated effects in MF, such as myeloproliferation, bone marrow fibrosis, constitutional symptoms, and cachexia. Common fatal complications of MF include transformation to acute leukemia, thrombohemorrhagic events, organ failure, and infections. Potential complications from hepatosplenomegaly include portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, whereas extramedullary hematopoiesis outside the spleen and liver - depending on the affected organ - may result in intracranial hypertension, spinal cord compression, pulmonary hypertension, pleural effusions, lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, and/or exacerbation of abdominal symptoms. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only potentially curative therapy, it is suitable for few patients. The JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib is effective in improving splenomegaly, MF-related symptoms, and quality-of-life measures. Emerging evidence that ruxolitinib may be associated with a survival benefit in intermediate- or high-risk MF suggests the possibility of a disease-modifying effect. Consequently, ruxolitinib could provide a treatment backbone to which other (conventional and novel) therapies may be added for the prevention and effective management of specific MF-associated complications.
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Myelofibrosis and Related Neoplasms.
Bjørn Mads Emil,Hasselbalch Hans Carl
Mediators of inflammation
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in a wide variety of disorders ranging between traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. ROS are involved in inflammation-induced oxidative damage to cellular components including regulatory proteins and DNA. Furthermore, ROS have a major role in carcinogenesis and disease progression in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), where the malignant clone itself produces excess of ROS thereby creating a vicious self-perpetuating circle in which ROS activate proinflammatory pathways (NF-κB) which in turn create more ROS. Targeting ROS may be a therapeutic option, which could possibly prevent genomic instability and ultimately myelofibrotic and leukemic transformation. In regard to the potent efficacy of the ROS-scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in decreasing ROS levels, it is intriguing to consider if NAC treatment might benefit patients with MPN. The encouraging results from studies in cystic fibrosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease warrant such studies. In addition, the antioxidative potential of the widely used agents, interferon-alpha2, statins, and JAK inhibitors, should be investigated as well. A combinatorial approach using old agents with anticancer properties together with novel JAK1/2 inhibitors may open a new era for patients with MPNs, the outlook not only being "minimal residual disease" and potential cure but also a marked improvement in inflammation-mediated comorbidities.
Type 2 macrophages and Th2 CD4+ cells in interstitial lung diseases (ILDs): an overview.
Partida-Zavala Neftali,Antonio Ponce-Gallegos Marco,Buendía-Roldán Ivette,Falfán-Valencia Ramcés
Sarcoidosis, vasculitis, and diffuse lung diseases : official journal of WASOG
Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogeneous group characterized mainly by damage to pulmonary parenchyma, through histopathological processes such as granulomatous pneumopathy, inflammation and fibrosis. Factors that generate susceptibility to ILDs include age, exposure to occupational and environmental compounds, genetic, family history, radiation and chemotherapy/immunomodulatory and cigarette smoke. IFN-γ, IL-1β, and LPS are necessary to induce a classical activation of macrophages, whereas cytokines as IL-4 and IL-13 can induce an alternative activation in macrophages, through the JAK-STAT mediated signal transduction. M2 macrophages are identified based on the gene transcription or protein expression of a set of M2 markers. These markers include transmembrane glycoproteins, scavenger receptors, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and cytokine receptors with diverse and often yet unexplored functions. Fibrotic lung disorders may have a M2 polarization background. The Th2 pathway with an elevated CCL-18 (marker of M2) concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is linked to fibrosis in ILDs. Besides the role of M2 in tissue repair and ECM remodeling, activated fibroblasts summon and stimulate macrophages by producing MCP-1, M-CSF and other chemokines, as well as activated macrophages secrete cytokines that attract and stimulate proliferation, survival and migration of fibroblast mediated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). .
Anti-inflammatory Property of Imperatorin on Alveolar Macrophages and Inflammatory Lung Injury.
Li Ya-Zhen,Chen Jia-Hong,Tsai Cheng-Fang,Yeh Wei-Lan
Journal of natural products
Imperatorin is one of the furanocoumarin derivatives and exists in many medicinal herbs with anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antihypertensive activities. In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of imperatorin on inflammation-associated lung diseases. Imperatorin reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression and also IL-6 and TNFα production enhanced by zymosan. Imperatorin also inhibited the signaling pathways of JAK/STAT and NF-κB. Moreover, in vivo study also revealed that zymosan-induced immune cell infiltration, pulmonary fibrosis, and edema were relieved by imperatorin in mice. We found that imperatorin exerts anti-inflammatory effects that are associated with amelioration of lung inflammation, edema, and rapid fibrosis. Studies on alveolar macrophages also reveal that imperatorin reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines and inhibited pro-inflammatory JAK1/STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results indicate that imperatorin may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for inflammatory-associated lung diseases.
IL-27 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells.
Dong Zhaoxing,Tai Wenlin,Lei Wen,Wang Yin,Li ZhenKun,Zhang Tao
BMC cell biology
BACKGROUND:IL-27 is a multifunctional cytokine that has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Although IL-27 has been shown to potently inhibit lung fibrosis, the detailed mechanism of IL-27 in this process is poorly understood. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the key mechanisms involved in pulmonary fibrosis. We assessed the effects of IL-27 on TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. METHODS:A549 cells (a human AEC cell line) were incubated with TGF-β1, IL-27, or both TGF-β1 and IL-27, and changes in E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin and a-SMA levels were measured using real-time PCR, western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. The related proteins in the JAK/STAT and TGF-β/Smad signalling pathways were examined by western blot. RESULTS:IL-27 increased the expression of epithelial phenotypic markers, including E-cadherin and β-catenin, and inhibited mesenchymal phenotypic markers, including vimentin and a-SMA in A549 cells. Moreover, TGF-β1-induced EMT was attenuated by IL-27. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β1 activated the phosphorylation of JAK1, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, Smad1, Smad3 and Smad5, and IL-27 partially inhibited these changes in this process. When cells were treated with the STAT3 specific inhibitor wp1006 and the Smad3 specific inhibitor SIS3, the inhibition of EMT by IL-27 was significantly strengthened. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that IL-27 attenuates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells in the absence or presence of TGF-β1 through the JAK/STAT and TGF-β/Smad signalling pathways.
TGF-β1/p53 signaling in renal fibrogenesis.
Higgins Stephen P,Tang Yi,Higgins Craig E,Mian Badar,Zhang Wenzheng,Czekay Ralf-Peter,Samarakoon Rohan,Conti David J,Higgins Paul J
Fibrotic disorders of the renal, pulmonary, cardiac, and hepatic systems are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective therapies to prevent or curtail the advancement to organ failure, however, remain a major clinical challenge. Chronic kidney disease, in particular, constitutes an increasing medical burden affecting >15% of the US population. Regardless of etiology (diabetes, hypertension, ischemia, acute injury, urologic obstruction), persistently elevated TGF-β1 levels are causatively linked to the activation of profibrotic signaling networks and disease progression. TGF-β1 is the principal driver of renal fibrogenesis, a dynamic pathophysiologic process that involves tubular cell injury/apoptosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, interstitial fibroblast activation and excess extracellular matrix synthesis/deposition leading to impaired kidney function and, eventually, to chronic and end-stage disease. TGF-β1 activates the ALK5 type I receptor (which phosphorylates SMAD2/3) as well as non-canonical (e.g., src kinase, EGFR, JAK/STAT, p53) pathways that collectively drive the fibrotic genomic program. Such multiplexed signal integration has pathophysiological consequences. Indeed, TGF-β1 stimulates the activation and assembly of p53-SMAD3 complexes required for transcription of the renal fibrotic genes plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, connective tissue growth factor and TGF-β1. Tubular-specific ablation of p53 in mice or pifithrin-α-mediated inactivation of p53 prevents epithelial G/M arrest, reduces the secretion of fibrotic effectors and attenuates the transition from acute to chronic renal injury, further supporting the involvement of p53 in disease progression. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of TGF-β1-initiated renal fibrogenesis and the role of p53 as a regulator of profibrotic gene expression.
Bioinformatics analysis of molecular mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chen W,Hong Y-Q,Meng Z-L
European review for medical and pharmacological sciences
OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to explore the molecular mechanisms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with DNA Microarray. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The gene expression profile GSE475 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. There were 7 tissue samples of human diaphragm muscle available, including 4 normal samples and 3 samples from COPD patients. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by LIMMA package in R language and were further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Firstly, DEGs were classified into different COG clusters by BLAST. Then, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING and pathways of DEGs were analyzed by FuncAssociate. Finally, the DEGs enriched diseases were obtained by EASE. RESULTS:We selected 524 DEGs including 118 down-regulated DEGs and 406 up-regulated DEGs. The most significant pathway was JAK/STAT signaling pathway and the DEGs of IL6 and SOCS3 were directly participated in this pathway. Furthermore, the DEGs of SOCS3, IL4, IL18R1, IL1R1, and IL6 were participated in the disease of pulmonary fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that IL6 and SOCS3 play important roles in COPD and have the potential to serve as therapeutic targets of COPD.
Landscape of transcription and long non-coding RNAs reveals new insights into the inflammatory and fibrotic response following ventilator-induced lung injury.
Wang Lu,Zhang Nannan,Zhang Yi,Xia Jingen,Zhan Qingyuan,Wang Chen
BACKGROUND:Mechanical ventilation can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and lung fibrosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. RNA sequencing is a powerful means for detecting vitally important protein-coding transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) on a genome-wide scale, which may be helpful for reducing this knowledge gap. METHODS:Ninety C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either high tidal volume ventilation or sham operation, and then mice with ventilation were randomly allocated to periods of recovery for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days. Lung histopathology, wet-to-dry weight ratio, hydroxyproline concentration, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) levels were determined to evaluate the progression of inflammation and fibrosis. To compare sham-operated lungs, and 0- and 7-day post-ventilated lungs, RNA sequencing was used to elucidate the expression patterns, biological processes, and functional pathways involved in inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS:A well-defined fibrotic response was most pronounced on day 7 post-ventilation. Pairwise comparisons among the sham and VILI groups showed a total of 1297 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs). Gene Ontology analysis determined that the stimulus response and immune response were the most important factors involved in inflammation and fibrosis, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling were implicated in early inflammation; whereas TGF-β, hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), Toll-like receptor (TLR), and kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathways were significantly involved in subsequent fibrosis. Additionally, 332 DE lncRNAs were identified and enriched in the processes of cellular and biological regulation. These lncRNAs may potentially regulate fibrosis through signaling pathways such as wingless/integrase-1 (Wnt), HIF-1, and TLR. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first transcriptome study to reveal all of the transcript expression patterns and critical pathways involved in the VILI fibrotic process based on the early inflammatory state, and to show the important DE lncRNAs regulated in inflammation and fibrosis. Together, the results of this study provide novel perspectives into the potential molecular mechanisms underlying VILI and subsequent fibrosis.
Human metapneumovirus inhibits the IL-6-induced JAK/STAT3 signalling cascade in airway epithelium.
Mitzel Dana N,Jaramillo Richard J,Stout-Delgado Heather,Senft Albert P,Harrod Kevin S
The Journal of general virology
The host cytokine IL-6 plays an important role in host defence and prevention of lung injury from various pathogens, making IL-6 an important mediator in the host's susceptibility to respiratory infections. The cellular response to IL-6 is mediated through a Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) signal transduction pathway. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important causative agent of viral respiratory infections known to inhibit the IFN-mediated activation of STAT1. However, little is known about the interactions between this virus and other STAT signalling cascades. Herein, we showed that hMPV can attenuate the IL-6-mediated JAK/STAT3 signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. HMPV inhibited a key event in this pathway by impeding the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 in A549 cells and in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Further studies established that hMPV interrupted the IL-6-induced JAK/STAT pathway early in the signal transduction pathway by blocking the phosphorylation of JAK2. By antagonizing the IL-6-mediated JAK/STAT3 pathway, hMPV perturbed the expression of IL-6-inducible genes important for apoptosis, cell differentiation and growth. Infection with hMPV also differentially regulated the effects of IL-6 on apoptosis. Thus, hMPV regulation of these genes could usurp the protective roles of IL-6, and these data provide insight into an important element of viral pathogenesis.
An Allergic Lung Microenvironment Suppresses Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammasome Activation via STAT6-Dependent Inhibition of Caspase-1.
Shipkowski Kelly A,Taylor Alexia J,Thompson Elizabeth A,Glista-Baker Ellen E,Sayers Brian C,Messenger Zachary J,Bauer Rebecca N,Jaspers Ilona,Bonner James C
BACKGROUND:Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) represent a human health risk as mice exposed by inhalation display pulmonary fibrosis. Production of IL-1β via inflammasome activation is a mechanism of MWCNT-induced acute inflammation and has been implicated in chronic fibrogenesis. Mice sensitized to allergens have elevated T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and are susceptible to MWCNT-induced airway fibrosis. We postulated that Th2 cytokines would modulate MWCNT-induced inflammasome activation and IL-1β release in vitro and in vivo during allergic inflammation. METHODS:THP-1 macrophages were primed with LPS, exposed to MWCNTs and/or IL-4 or IL-13 for 24 hours, and analyzed for indicators of inflammasome activation. C57BL6 mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and MWCNTs were delivered to the lungs by oropharyngeal aspiration. Mice were euthanized 1 or 21 days post-MWCNT exposure and evaluated for lung inflammasome components and allergic inflammatory responses. RESULTS:Priming of THP-1 macrophages with LPS increased pro-IL-1β and subsequent exposure to MWCNTs induced IL-1β secretion. IL-4 or IL-13 decreased MWCNT-induced IL-1β secretion by THP-1 cells and reduced pro-caspase-1 but not pro-IL-1β. Treatment of THP-1 cells with STAT6 inhibitors, either Leflunomide or JAK I inhibitor, blocked suppression of caspase activity by IL-4 and IL-13. In vivo, MWCNTs alone caused neutrophilic infiltration into the lungs of mice 1 day post-exposure and increased IL-1β in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pro-caspase-1 immuno-staining in macrophages and airway epithelium. HDM sensitization alone caused eosinophilic inflammation with increased IL-13. MWCNT exposure after HDM sensitization increased total cell numbers in BALF, but decreased numbers of neutrophils and IL-1β in BALF as well as reduced pro-caspase-1 in lung tissue. Despite reduced IL-1β mice exposed to MWCNTs after HDM developed more severe airway fibrosis by 21 days and had increased pro-fibrogenic cytokine mRNAs. CONCLUSIONS:These data indicate that Th2 cytokines suppress MWCNT-induced inflammasome activation via STAT6-dependent down-regulation of pro-caspase-1 and suggest that suppression of inflammasome activation and IL-1β by an allergic lung microenvironment is a mechanism through which MWCNTs exacerbate allergen-induced airway fibrosis.
Pirfenidone exerts a suppressive effect on CCL18 expression in U937-derived macrophages partly by inhibiting STAT6 phosphorylation.
Saito Yoshinobu,Azuma Arata,Matsuda Kuniko,Kamio Koichiro,Abe Shinji,Gemma Akihiko
Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology
CONTEXT:CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is suggested to play a role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Macrophages are thought to be the main source of CCL18, and the effect of pirfenidone, an anti-fibrotic agent for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, on the expression of CCL18 in macrophages warrants investigation. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pirfenidone on the expression of CCL18 in macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS:U937 cells were differentiated into macrophages by phorbol myristate acetate and then stimulated with recombinant IL-4 to induce the production of CCL18. The cells were treated with pirfenidone, and the mRNA and protein levels for CCL18 were measured by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The effects of pirfenidone on the IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) expression and STAT6 activation were investigated and on the JAK kinase activity were measured using the Z'-LYTE™ kinase assay. RESULTS:Pirfenidone significantly suppressed the expression of CCL18 when the cells were treated with concentrations of 50-250 μg/mL. Pirfenidone did not affect the expression of the IL-4R components. The selective STAT6 inhibitor AS1517499 suppressed CCL18 expression. Both AS1517499 and pirfenidone suppressed STAT6 phosphorylation (p < .05), although the effect of pirfenidone was less marked than that of AS1517499. The Z'-LYTE™ kinase assay showed a reduction in the activities of JAK1, JAK3 and TYK2 by pirfenidone. CONCLUSION:Pirfenidone suppresses CCL18 expression in macrophages and this effect is thought to be attributed partly to the inhibition of STAT6 phosphorylation.
Systemic treatment with resveratrol alleviates adjuvant arthritis-interstitial lung disease in rats via modulation of JAK/STAT/RANKL signaling pathway.
Yang Guangxia,Lyu Lei,Wang Xinhua,Bao Liang,Lyu Beili,Lin Zikai
Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common pulmonary manifestation of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lung disease. The mechanism of RA-ILD remains obscure and more effective treatments are still needed. Resveratrol (RSV) a phytoalexin found with anti-inflammation and antioxidant activity. RSV has been reported to protect against RA. In current study, we evaluated the effects of RSV on RA-ILD and further explored the underlying mechanisms. We established the RA-ILD rat model by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). After administration of RSV into RA-ILD rats, the disease parameters were assessed, inflammatory cytokines productions were analyzed, and the effects of RSV on JAK/STAT/RANKL were evaluated. Injection of FCA caused RA-ILD in rats, which had clear lung damage, fibrosis, and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines in both serum and lung. RSV treatment significantly ameliorated the lung disease and prevented pro-inflammatory cytokines production. In addition, RSV inhibited JAK/STAT/RANKL signaling pathway in RA-ILD rats. RSV treatment alleviates RA-ILD in rats by inhibiting JAK/STAT/RANKL signaling pathway.
IL-27 attenuates the TGF-β1-induced proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts.
Dong Zhaoxing,Zhao Xinxiang,Tai Wenlin,Lei Wen,Wang Yin,Li ZhenKun,Zhang Tao
AIMS:Pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic lung disease and has characteristics that progress quickly, has a high fatality rate and a poor therapeutic effect. Our previous research showed that interleukin-27(IL-27) potentially attenuates BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but the function of IL-27 in lung fibroblasts (LFs) differentiation pulmonary fibrosis is yet to be known. MAIN METHODS:Here we investigated the effect of IL-27 on the proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis of lung fibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)using MTT, bromodeoxyuridine(BrdU) staining, real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR), Western blot, cell cycle FACS assay and immunofluorescence. We also examined the expression of the JAK/STAT and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway of IL-27 in lung fibroblasts. KEY FINDINGS:TGF-β1 treated lung fibroblasts showed significantly increased proliferation, differentiation and collagen synthesis as well as overactivated JAK/STAT and TGF-β1/Smad signaling. However, the presence of IL-27 weakened these effects and obviously inactivated the JAK/STAT and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways. SIGNIFICANCE:Our results indicate that IL-27 may play an anti-fibrotic role in the development, differentiation and collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts. These data also may provide a target gene therapy method in treating pulmonary fibrosis.
CXCR3 Requirement for the Interleukin-13-Mediated Up-Regulation of Interleukin-13Rα2 in Pulmonary Fibroblasts.
Barnes Jennifer C,Lumsden Robert V,Worrell Julie,Counihan Ian P,O'Beirne Sarah L,Belperio John A,Fabre Aurelie,Donnelly Seamas C,Boylan Denise,Kane Rosemary,Keane Michael P
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease characterized by fibrosis and abnormal vascularity. IL-13, a profibrotic cytokine that plays a role in IPF, functions through the Jak/STAT pathway after binding to the IL-13 receptor α1 (IL-13Rα1)/IL-4Rα complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, which has been thought to function as a nonsignaling decoy receptor, although possible signaling roles of this receptor have been proposed. CXCR3 and its IFN-inducible ligands-CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11-have been implicated in vascular remodeling and fibroblast motility during the development of IPF. In this study, CXCR3 expression was demonstrated in cultured pulmonary fibroblasts from wild-type BALB/c mice and was found to be necessary for the IL-13-mediated gene and protein up-regulation of IL-13Rα2. In fibroblasts from CXCR3-deficient mice, STAT6 activation was prolonged. This study is the first to demonstrate the expression of CXCR3 in fibroblasts and its association with the expression of IL-13Rα2. Taken together, the results from this study point strongly to a requirement for CXCR3 for IL-13-mediated IL-13Rα2 gene expression. Understanding the function of CXCR3 in IL-13-mediated lung injury may lead to novel approaches to combat the development of pulmonary fibrosis, whether by limiting the effects of IL-13 or by manipulation of angiostatic pathways. The elucidation of the complex relationship between these antifibrotic receptors and manipulation of the CXCR3-mediated regulation of IL-13Rα2 may represent a novel therapeutic modality in cases of acute lung injury or chronic inflammation that may progress to fibrosis.
SHIP-1, a target of miR-155, regulates endothelial cell responses in lung fibrosis.
Tang Haiying,Mao Jingwei,Ye Xujun,Zhang Fengrui,Kerr William G,Zheng Tao,Zhu Zhou
FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Src Homology 2-containing Inositol Phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is a target of miR-155, a pro-inflammatory factor. Deletion of the SHIP-1 gene in mice caused spontaneous lung inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role and function of endothelial miR-155 and SHIP-1 in lung fibrosis remain unknown. Using whole-body miR-155 knockout mice and endothelial cell-specific conditional miR-155 (VEC-Cre-miR-155 or VEC-miR-155) or SHIP-1 (VEC-SHIP-1) knockout mice, we assessed endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and fibrotic responses in bleomycin (BLM) induced lung fibrosis models. Primary mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with SHIP-1 knockdown were analyzed in TGF-β1 or BLM, respectively, induced fibrotic responses. Fibrosis and EndoMT were significantly reduced in miR-155KO mice and changes in EndoMT markers in MLEC after TGF-β1 stimulation confirmed the in vivo findings. Furthermore, lung fibrosis and EndoMT responses were reduced in VEC-miR-155 mice but significantly enhanced in VEC-SHIP-1 mice after BLM challenge. SHIP-1 knockdown in HUVEC cells resulted in enhanced EndoMT induced by BLM. Meanwhile, these changes involved the PI3K/AKT, JAK/STAT3, and SMAD/STAT signaling pathways. These studies demonstrate that endothelial miR-155 plays an important role in fibrotic responses in the lung through EndoMT. Endothelial SHIP-1 is essential in controlling fibrotic responses and SHIP-1 is a target of miR-155. Endothelial cells are an integral part in lung fibrosis.
Dexamethasone attenuates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice through TGF-β, Smad3 and JAK-STAT pathway.
Shi Keyun,Jiang Jianzhong,Ma Tieliang,Xie Jing,Duan Lirong,Chen Ruhua,Song Ping,Yu Zhixin,Liu Chao,Zhu Qin,Zheng Jinxu
International journal of clinical and experimental medicine
In order to find the possible mechanism of Dexamethasone (Dex) during curing fibrosis, the bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice model was used. After fibrosis were induced by BLM, histopathological evaluation and RT-PCR were employed to detect the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3 and STAT1. It was found that BLM promoted the development of inflammation, leading to severe pulmonary fibrosis with the increasing of TGF-β1, Smad3 and STAT1. After Dex treatment, the expression of TGF-β1, Smad3 and STAT1 showed a little higher with alleviation of the fibrosis. Thus it is concluded that there is a possible pathway of mouse pulmonary fibrosis model through TGF-β, Smad3 and JAK-STAT pathway.
Novel Pyrimidines as Multitarget Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF).
Sun Bo,Liu Xiaowen,Zheng Xu,Wang Changyuan,Meng Qiang,Sun Huijun,Shu Xiaohong,Liu Kexin,Sun Xiuli,Li Yanxia,Ma Xiaodong
A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were identified as potent protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Most of these small-molecule inhibitors displayed strong enzymatic activity against BTK and JAK3 kinases at concentrations lower than 10 nM. The representative compound N-(3-((5-chloro-2-(4-((1-morpholino)acetylamino)phenylamino)-4-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (6 a) also exhibited high inhibitory potency toward both BTK and JAK kinase families, as well as ErbB4, at a concentration of 10 nM, achieving rates of inhibition higher than 57 %. Additionally, in vivo biological evaluations showed that 6 a can remarkably decrease the severity of IPF disease. All these investigations suggested that the multi-PTK inhibitor 6 a may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of IPF.
Comparative RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis on silica induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice silicosis model.
Chen Jiayi,Yao Yuqin,Su Xiaolan,Shi Ying,Song Xuejiao,Xie Linshen,You Jia,Tian Liantian,Yang Luo,Fang Aiping,Xiong Jingyuan
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
Silicosis is a long-established public health issue in developing countries due to increasingly serious air pollution and poorly implemented occupational safety regulation. Inhalation of silica triggers cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, pulmonary inflammation and eventually silicosis. Current understanding in the pathogenesis and mechanism of silicosis is limited, and no effective cure is clinically available once silicosis is developed. A number of studies were conducted to investigate silica-induced alternate gene expressions in pulmonary cells. However, transcriptome analysis in a silicosis animal model is needed. This study was performed to evaluate the transcriptional alternations in silicotic mice using comparative RNA-Seq. A silicosis mice model was established by intratracheal instillation of silica suspensions, and validated by histological examinations. High-throughput sequencing and differential gene expression analysis revealed 749 upregulated genes and 70 downregulated genes in the silicosis model. Genes related to immune cell interactions, immune cell responses and inflammation were significantly enriched. Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and downstream JAK-STAT signaling pathways were the most significantly enriched KEGG pathways. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to validate further the differential expression patterns of representative genes. The reported results in this study provide the basis for elucidating the molecular mechanisms for silica-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, and support the prevention and treatment of silicosis.
Pathogenesis pathways of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-induced lung injury model in mice.
Shi Keyun,Jiang Jianzhong,Ma Tieliang,Xie Jing,Duan Lirong,Chen Ruhua,Song Ping,Yu Zhixin,Liu Chao,Zhu Qin,Zheng Jinxu
Respiratory physiology & neurobiology
Our objective was to investigate the pathogenesis pathways of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Bleomycin (BLM) induced animal models of experimental lung fibrosis were used. CHIP assay was executed to find the link between Smad3 and IL-31, and the expressions of TGF-β1, Smad3, IL-31 and STAT1 were detected to find whether they were similar with each other. We found that in the early injury or inflammation of the animal model, BLM promoted the development of inflammation, leading to severe pulmonary fibrosis. Then the expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 increased. Activated Smad3 bound to the IL-31 promoter region, followed by the activation of JAK-STAT pathways. The inhibitor of TGF-β1 receptor decreased the IL-31 expression and knocking-down of IL-31 also decreased the STAT1 expression. We conclude that there is a pathway of pathogenesis in BLM-induced mouse model that involves the TGF-β, IL-31 and JAKs/STATs pathway.
Synthesis and biological activity of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines as potent JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Zhu Yanming,Zheng Xu,Wang Changyuan,Sun Xiuli,Sun Huijun,Ma Tengyue,Li Yanxia,Liu Kexin,Chen Lixue,Ma Xiaodong
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious and fatal lung disease, with a median survival of only 3-5 years from diagnosis. Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) has a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune-related pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, through the use of a conformationally-constrained design strategy, a series of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines were synthesized as potent JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of IPF. Among them, the most potent JAK3 inhibitor, namely 8e (IC = 1.38 nM), significantly reduced the degree of airsacculitis and fibrosis according to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining assay for the lung tissue in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clear reduction of the lung collagen deposition by the determination of Masson and hydroxyproline (HYP) content also demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of fibrosis. In addition, 8e also reduced the expression of the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-17A, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung tissue, which indicated its higher anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of the reference agents (nintedanib and gefitinib). Furthermore, it possessed low cytotoxicity against normal human bronchial epithelia (HBE) cells (IC > 39.0 μM) and C57BL mice. All these evaluated biological properties suggest that 8e may be a potential JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of IPF.
Discovery and validation of extracellular/circulating microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression.
Yang Guanghai,Yang Lin,Wang Wendong,Wang Jiashun,Wang Jianjun,Xu Zhongping
BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrosing interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology that is currently untreatable. In this study we aim to characterize the potential of extracellular/circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum as biomarkers for IPF. METHODS:Total serum RNAs were isolated from serum from healthy control subjects (n=12), rapid progressive (n=12) and slowly progressive IPF patients (n=12). Serum RNA was analyzed by using TaqMan microRNA assays containing probes for 366 human miRNAs, and selected findings were validated with quantitative RT-PCR. Target prediction and pathway analysis on the significant differential miRNAs were performed using DIANA-mirPath. RESULTS:We found 47 significantly differentially expressed serum miRNAs (p<0.05) in rapid progressive or slowly progressive IPF patients compared to healthy controls, including 21 up-regulated miRNAs and 26 down-regulated miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis by DIANA-mirPath demonstrated that 53 KEGG biological processes were significantly enriched (p < 0.05, FDR corrected) among differentially expressed serum miRNAs, including TGF-beta signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), MAPK signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), Wnt signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), HIF-1 signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), Regulation of actin cytoskeleton (p < 0.0001), Jak-STAT signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), Notch signaling pathway (p < 0.0001), and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (p = 0.0062). We further validated six miRNAs (miR-21, miR-199a-5p, miR-200c, miR-31, let-7a, and let-7d) for further validation using an independent cohort of 20 rapid progressive IPF, 24 slowly progressive IPF patients and 20 healthy controls. In agreement with the preliminary data from miRNA assay, miR-21, miR-199a-5p, and miR-200c were significantly increased in serums of IPF patients while miR-31, let-7a, and let-7d were significantly under expressed in serums of IPF patients compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:These studies demonstrated that extracellular/circulating miRNAs in serum could be potentially served as novel regulators influencing disease progression of IPF.
Profibrotic effect of IL-17A and elevated IL-17RA in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease support a direct role for IL-17A/IL-17RA in human fibrotic interstitial lung disease.
Zhang Jie,Wang Dan,Wang Lei,Wang Shaohua,Roden Anja C,Zhao Hao,Li Xiujuan,Prakash Y S,Matteson Eric L,Tschumperlin Daniel J,Vassallo Robert
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology
Interleukin (IL)-17 is a T helper 17 cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although IL-17A has a well-established role in murine pulmonary fibrosis models, its role in the tissue remodeling and fibrosis occurring in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and RA-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is not very well defined. To address this question, we utilized complimentary studies to determine responsiveness of human normal and pathogenic lung fibroblasts to IL-17A and used lung biopsies acquired from patients with IPF and RA-ILD to determine IL-17A receptor (IL-17RA) expression. Both normal and pathogenic IPF lung fibroblasts express functional IL-17RA and respond to IL-17A stimulation with cell proliferation, generation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and induction of myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing of IL-17RA attenuated this fibroblast response to IL-17A on ECM production. These fibroblast responses to IL-17A are dependent on NF-κB-mediated signaling. In addition, inhibiting Janus activated kinase (JAK) 2 by either siRNA or a selective pharmacological inhibitor, AZD1480-but not a JAK1/JAK3 selective inhibitor, tofacitinib-also significantly reduced this IL-17A-induced fibrogenic response. Lung biopsies of RA-ILD patients demonstrate significantly higher IL-17RA expression in areas of fibroblast accumulation and fibrosis, compared with either IPF or normal lung tissue. These observations support a direct role for IL-17A in lung fibrosis that may be particularly relevant in the context of RA-ILD.
IL-27 alleviates the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating the Th17 cell differentiation.
Dong Zhaoxing,Lu Xin,Yang Yanni,Zhang Tao,Li Yongxia,Chai Yanlin,Lei Wen,Li Changbo,Ai Li,Tai Wenlin
BMC pulmonary medicine
BACKGROUND:Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory functions. At present, the role of IL-27 in pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. METHODS:In this study, we observed the expression of IL-27/IL-27R in a mouse model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. We verified the role of IL-27 using hematoxylin and eosin as well as Masson's staining methods and measuring the content of hydroxyproline as well as collagen I and III. We assessed the differentiation of T lymphocytes in the spleen and measured the concentration of cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the expression level of relevant proteins in the JAK/STAT and TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathways in lung tissue. RESULTS:Increased IL-27 expression in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis was noted. IL-27 treatment may alleviate pulmonary fibrosis and increase the survival of mice. IL-27 inhibited the development of CD4(+) IL-17(+), CD4(+) IL-4(+) T, and CD4(+) Foxp3(+) cells and the secretion of IL-17, IL-4, IL-6, and TGF-ß. IL-27 induced the production of CD4(+) IL-10(+) and CD4(+) INF-γ(+) T cells. IL-27 decreased the levels of phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, Smad1, and Smad3 but increased the level of SOCS3. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that IL-27 potentially attenuates BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by regulating Th17 differentiation and cytokine secretion.
Diabetic Microvascular Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis: The Contribution of Platelets and Systemic Inflammation.
Jagadapillai Rekha,Rane Madhavi J,Lin Xingyu,Roberts Andrew M,Hoyle Gary W,Cai Lu,Gozal Evelyne
International journal of molecular sciences
Diabetes is strongly associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, but its effect on pulmonary vascular disease and lung function has often been disregarded. Several studies identified restrictive lung disease and fibrotic changes in diabetic patients and in animal models of diabetes. While microvascular dysfunction is a well-known complication of diabetes, the mechanisms leading to diabetes-induced lung injury have largely been disregarded. We described the potential involvement of diabetes-induced platelet-endothelial interactions in perpetuating vascular inflammation and oxidative injury leading to fibrotic changes in the lung. Changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation and decreased NO bioavailability in the diabetic lung increase platelet activation and vascular injury and may account for platelet hyperreactivity reported in diabetic patients. Additionally, the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway has been reported to mediate pancreatic islet damage, and is implicated in the onset of diabetes, inflammation and vascular injury. Many growth factors and diabetes-induced agonists act via the JAK/STAT pathway. Other studies reported the contribution of the JAK/STAT pathway to the regulation of the pulmonary fibrotic process but the role of this pathway in the development of diabetic lung fibrosis has not been considered. These observations may open new therapeutic perspectives for modulating multiple pathways to mitigate diabetes onset or its pulmonary consequences.
Effects of matrine on JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
Ma Xiuqin,Chen Ruhua,Liu Xiufang,Xie Jin,Si Keyun,Duan Lirong
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM
The current study aims to investigate the effects of matrine on the JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF) and to explore its action mechanism. A total of 72 male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into the control, model, and treatment groups. PF models were established by instilling BLM intratracheally. The treatment group was given daily matrine through gastric lavage. Six mice were sacrificed in each group at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The lung tissues were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression of JAK, STAT1, and STAT3 was observed using immunohistochemistry and then determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Alveolitis and PF significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the model group (P < 0.05). The expression of JAK, STAT1, and STAT3 in the model group increased at day 7, peaked at day 14 and then decreased, but the expression was still higher than that in the control group at day 28 (P < 0.05). The three indices in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group at any detection time point (P < 0.05). PF causes high expression of JAK, STAT1, and STAT3. Matrine exerts an anti-PF effect by inhibiting the JAK-STAT signaling transduction pathways.
Feifukang ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting JAK-STAT signaling pathway.
Li Hongbo,Wang Zhenkai,Zhang Jie,Wang Youlei,Yu Chen,Zhang Jinjin,Song Xiaodong,Lv Changjun
BMC complementary and alternative medicine
BACKGROUND:Feifukang (FFK) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of herbs that protect lung function. However, difficulty arises regarding the clinical application of FFK due to the complex mechanism of Chinese medicines. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of FFK and explore its targeted genes and pathways. METHODS:Histopathological changes and collagen deposition were measured to evaluate the effect of FFK on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. The differentially expressed targeted genes and pathways were first screened using RNA sequencing. Then network pharmacology and other experiments were conducted to confirm RNA sequencing data. RESULTS:FFK treatment reduced the pathological score and collagen deposition, with a decrease in α-SMA and collagen. RNA sequencing and network pharmacology results all showed that FFK can ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis through multi-genes and multi-pathways. The targeted genes in JAK-STAT signaling pathway are some of the most notable components of these multi-genes and multi-pathways. Further experiments illustrated that FFK regulated phosphorylation of SMAD3, STAT3 and JAK1, and their co-expressed lncRNAs, which all are the important genes in JAK-STAT signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:FFK can ameliorate pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting JAK-STAT signaling pathway and has potential therapeutic value for lung fibrosis treatment. Our study provides a new idea for the study of traditional Chinese medicine.
Bronchoalveolar lavage proteomic analysis in pulmonary fibrosis associated with systemic sclerosis: S100A6 and 14-3-3ε as potential biomarkers.
Landi Claudia,Bargagli Elena,Carleo Alfonso,Refini Rosa Metella,Bennett David,Bianchi Laura,Cillis Giuseppe,Prasse Antje,Bini Luca,Rottoli Paola
Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
Objective:SSc is a rare severe connective tissue disorder. Its prognosis is mainly related to the development of pulmonary fibrosis (PF)-SSc and pulmonary arterial hypertension. No known therapy for PF-SSc modifies progressive lung fibrotic involvement. Research is therefore aimed at a deeper understanding of complex pathogenetic mechanisms and the possibility of new prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Methods:Towards the first of these aims, we conducted functional proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage samples from PF-SSc patients and smoker and non-smoker controls. Results:The differential expression pattern revealed by principal component analysis highlighted a specific protein profile of PF-SSc with respect to control samples, and enrichment analysis shed light on process networks involved in pathogenesis. The proteins identified are known to be involved in lung inflammation of PF-SSc-induced IL6 signalling, the complement system, innate immunity, Jak-STAT, the kallikrein-kinin system, blood coagulation, the immune response mediated by phagocytosis and phagosomes in antigen presentation. In particular, our MetaCore network suggested C3a, APOAI, 14-3-3ε, SPFA2 and S100A6 as potential biomarkers; these are upstream molecules involved in lung fibrosis, innate immunity and vascular damage occurring in PF-SSc. Conclusion:This report provides a molecular overview of pathological processes in PF-SSc, pinpointing possible new disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Combined anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties of JAK-inhibitors on macrophages in vitro and in vivo: Perspectives for scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease.
Lescoat Alain,Lelong Marie,Jeljeli Mohamed,Piquet-Pellorce Claire,Morzadec Claudie,Ballerie Alice,Jouneau Stéphane,Jego Patrick,Vernhet Laurent,Batteux Fréderic,Fardel Olivier,Lecureur Valérie
Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (also termed Jakinibs) constitute a family of small drugs that target various isoforms of JAKs (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and/or tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2)). They exert anti-inflammatory properties linked, in part, to the modulation of the activation state of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages. The exact impact of JAK inhibitors on a wider spectrum of activation states of macrophages is however still to be determined, especially in the context of disorders involving concomitant activation of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and profibrotic M2 macrophages. This is especially the case in autoimmune pulmonary fibrosis like scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), in which M1 and M2 macrophages play a key pathogenic role. In this study, we directly compared the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of three JAK inhibitors (ruxolitinib (JAK2/1 inhibitor); tofacitinib (JAK3/2 inhibitor) and itacitinib (JAK1 inhibitor)) on five different activation states of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). These three JAK inhibitors exert anti-inflammatory properties towards macrophages, as demonstrated by the down-expression of key polarization markers (CD86, MHCII, TLR4) and the limited secretion of key pro-inflammatory cytokines (CXCL10, IL-6 and TNFα) in M1 macrophages activated by IFNγ and LPS or by IFNγ alone. We also highlighted that these JAK inhibitors can limit M2a activation of macrophages induced by IL-4 and IL-13, as notably demonstrated by the down-regulation of the M2a associated surface marker CD206 and of the secretion of CCL18. Moreover, these JAK inhibitors reduced the expression of markers such as CXCL13, MARCO and SOCS3 in alternatively activated macrophages induced by IL-10 and dexamethasone (M2c + dex) or IL-10 alone (M2c MDM). For all polarization states, Jakinibs with inhibitory properties over JAK2 had the highest effects, at both 1 μM or 0.1 μM. Based on these in vitro results, we also explored the effects of JAK2/1 inhibition by ruxolitinib in vivo, on mouse macrophages in a model of HOCl-induced ILD, that mimics scleroderma-associated ILD. In this model, we showed that ruxolitinib significantly prevented the upregulation of pro-inflammatory M1 markers (TNFα, CXCL10, NOS2) and pro-fibrotic M2 markers (Arg1 and Chi3L3). These results were associated with an improvement of skin and pulmonary involvement. Overall, our results suggest that the combined anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties of JAK2/1 inhibitors could be relevant to target lung macrophages in autoimmune and inflammatory pulmonary disorders that have no efficient disease modifying drugs to date.
JAK1-dependent transphosphorylation of JAK2 limits the antifibrotic effects of selective JAK2 inhibitors on long-term treatment.
Zhang Yun,Liang Ruifang,Chen Chih-Wei,Mallano Tatjana,Dees Clara,Distler Alfiya,Reich Adam,Bergmann Christina,Ramming Andreas,Gelse Kolja,Mielenz Dirk,Distler Oliver,Schett Georg,Distler Jörg H W
Annals of the rheumatic diseases
OBJECTIVES:Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) has recently been described as a novel downstream mediator of the pro-fibrotic effects of transforming growth factor-β. Although JAK2 inhibitors are in clinical use for myelodysplastic syndromes, patients often rapidly develop resistance. Tumour cells can escape the therapeutic effects of selective JAK2 inhibitors by mutation-independent transactivation of JAK2 by JAK1. Here, we used selective JAK2 inhibition as a model to test the hypothesis that chronic treatment may provoke resistance by facilitating non-physiological signalling pathways in fibroblasts. METHODS:The antifibrotic effects of long-term treatment with selective JAK2 inhibitors and reactivation of JAK2 signalling by JAK1-dependent transphosphorylation was analysed in cultured fibroblasts and experimental dermal and pulmonary fibrosis. Combined JAK1/JAK2 inhibition and co-treatment with an HSP90 inhibitor were evaluated as strategies to overcome resistance. RESULTS:The antifibrotic effects of selective JAK2 inhibitors on fibroblasts decreased with prolonged treatment as JAK2 signalling was reactivated by JAK1-dependent transphosphorylation of JAK2. This reactivation could be prevented by HSP90 inhibition, which destabilised JAK2 protein, or with combined JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors. Treatment with combined JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors or with JAK2 inhibitors in combination with HSP90 inhibitors was more effective than monotherapy with JAK2 inhibitors in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and in adTBR-induced dermal fibrosis. CONCLUSION:Fibroblasts can develop resistance to chronic treatment with JAK2 inhibitors by induction of non-physiological JAK1-dependent transactivation of JAK2 and that inhibition of this compensatory signalling pathway, for example, by co-inhibition of JAK1 or HSP90 is important to maintain the antifibrotic effects of JAK2 inhibition with long-term treatment.