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    Primary Breast Atypical Lipomatous Tumor/ Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma and Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma. Briski Laurence M,Jorns Julie M Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine Atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma (ALT/WDL) and its higher-grade counterpart, dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDL), are extraordinarily rare tumors in the breast. The main differential diagnostic consideration of primary breast ALT/WDL is malignant phyllodes tumor with liposarcomatous differentiation, and the main differential diagnostic consideration of DDL in the breast is metaplastic breast carcinoma, particularly the spindle cell type, with heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. These differential diagnoses may be particularly challenging when evaluating limited core needle biopsy sampling. MDM2 and/or CDK4 protein overexpression and gene amplification are beneficial ancillary studies that can help establish the diagnosis of primary breast ALT/WDL and DDL, and effectively rule out the diagnoses of malignant phyllodes tumor and metaplastic breast carcinoma. 10.5858/arpa.2016-0380-RSR2
    Trichoblastic sarcoma with osteosarcomatous differentiation: evolution of one lesion with 3 histologic appearances over a 3-year period. Hung Tawny,Crawford Richard I The American Journal of dermatopathology Only one description of trichoblastic sarcoma exists in the literature. Here, we present the first case of trichoblastic sarcoma with heterologous osteosarcomatous differentiation. Biospy 1 demonstrated an intermediate-grade trichoblastic sarcoma with pleomorphic cells and atypical mitotic figures observed only in the stroma. The epithelium contained no malignant cells. The histologic morphology was reminiscent of an intermediate-grade phyllodes tumor of the breast. Biopsy 2, an excisional biopsy taken 7 months later, showed a high-grade sarcoma with osteosarcomatous differentiation. Immunohistochemistry performed on both specimens showed positive CD10 and bcl-2 staining in the sarcomatous component; p63 was positive in the benign epithelium only. p53 was negative in both the benign epithelium and the malignant stroma. Ki-67 labeling was approximately 10% in both components. Specimen 3, a complete rhinectomy performed 3 months later, showed a poorly differentiated sarcoma. Six months following his rhinectomy procedure, multiple pulmonary nodules consistent with metastatic disease were detected on chest computed tomography. This is the first case report documenting the evolution of an intermediate-grade trichoblastic sarcoma to a high-grade lesion with osteosarcomatous differentiation, to a poorly differentiated sarcoma. The tumor morphologically resembles malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Our case is the first to show negative p53 and positive bcl-2 staining in a trichoblastic sarcoma. We propose that cutaneous trichoblastic sarcoma is pathogenetically analogous to phyllodes tumors of the breast, adenosarcoma of the uterus, or ameloblastoma of the oral cavity. 10.1097/DAD.0b013e3182491d52
    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with expression of osteonectin and vinculin. Kuroda N,Sugimoto T,Ueda S,Takahashi T,Moriki T,Sonobe H,Miyazaki E,Hayashi Y,Toi M,Hiroi M,Enzan H Pathology international Phyllodes tumor is a very rare neoplasm which accounts for 2.5% of all fibroepithelial lesions of the breast. The mesenchymal component of a malignant phyllodes tumor frequently contains heterologous components. We report a case of malignant phyllodes tumor. The patient was a 40-year-old woman with a lump on the left breast. Histological examination revealed the lump to be a malignant phyllodes tumor with foci of liposarcomatous differentiation. The mesenchymal tumor cells, including those in the liposarcomatous components, were found to express vimentin, osteonectin and vinculin. However, they showed no immunoreaction to CAM 5.2, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) nor S-100. Ultrastructurally, the mesenchymal tumor cells were found to have abundant cytoplasmic organelles, but there was no evidence showing their differentiation to myofibroblasts. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the significance of vinculin and osteonectin expression in malignant phyllodes tumor.
    Malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation and tubular adenoma-like epithelial component. Uriev L,Maslovsky I,Vainshtein P,Yoffe B,Ben-Dor D International journal of medical sciences Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasm. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of a palpable, asymptomatic right breast mass without axillary lymphadenopathy and family history of breast carcinoma. Malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed. The authors present not previously described histological appearance of this tumor where an epithelial component was identical to that of a tubular adenoma of the breast, with the review of the literature. This is in addition to very rare liposarcomatous stromal differentiation in the malignant phyllodes tumor. 10.7150/ijms.3.130
    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with predominant chondrosarcomatous differentiation. Vera-Sempere Francisco,García-Martínez Ana Pathology, research and practice Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare biphasic neoplasm, the stromal component of which may show homologous and heterologous sarcomatous elements. We present a case of a histologically malignant phyllodes tumor with sarcomatous overgrowth, affecting a 37-year-old woman in whom a chondrosarcomatous component constituted over 80% of the tumor volume. A malignant phyllodes tumor displaying a predominant chondrosarcomatous component is indeed rare, and the differential diagnosis could well affect the therapeutic approach, mainly with regard to metaplastic carcinoma and primary chondrosarcoma of the mammary gland. Thus, it is important to sample the tumor thoroughly to detect the presence of any area of typical phyllodes tumor, which could be very small. Immunohistochemical stains also should be performed so as to exclude a malignant epithelial component. After the final morphological diagnosis, our patient underwent a complete mastectomy without axillary disection. One year later, no local recurrence or metastasis was apparent. 10.1078/0344-0338-00505
    Phyllodes tumour with heterologous sarcomatous differentiation: Case series with literature review. Warrier Sanjay,Hwang Sang Y,Gibbings Keagan,Carmalt Hugh,O'Toole Sandra International journal of surgery case reports INTRODUCTION:Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial malignancies of the breast, accounting for less than 1% of malignant breast tumours. Further malignant differentiation of phyllodes tumours can occur, resulting in cases of extremely rare heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. PRESENTATION OF CASE:Two females in their fifties were diagnosed with malignant phyllodes tumour associated with heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. The first patient, aged 50 had phyllodes tumour with chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma and ductal carcinoma-in-situ. The second patient, aged 53 had phyllodes tumour with osteosarcoma and liposarcoma. DISCUSSION:The association of phyllodes tumour and heterologous sarcomatous differentiation is rare, with only 4 previously reported cases in English literature. The paucity of evidence presents challenges in its management with uncertain prognosis and monitoring requirements for two aforementioned patients. CONCLUSION:Further case series and long-term follow up is required for accurate characterisation of phyllodes tumours with heterologous sarcomatous differentiation. 10.1016/j.ijscr.2015.02.009
    The coexistence of invasive ductal carcinoma and malignant phyllodes tumor with liposarcomatous and chondrosarcomatous differentiation in the same breast in a post-osteosarcoma case. Kefeli Mehmet,Yildiz Levent,Akpolat Ilkser,Balci Pinar,Ozen Necati Pathology, research and practice Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare biphasic neoplasms, the stromal component of which may show homologous and heterologous sarcomatous elements. Malignant epithelial transformation is rare. It has been reported in a few cases of in situ and infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma. Rarely, breast carcinomas and phyllodes tumors may also develop in the same breast independent of each other. To our knowledge, this is the first case of two different types of tumor occurring in the same breast at the same time in a post-osteosarcoma case. 10.1016/j.prp.2008.07.004
    A Giant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast. Schillebeeckx Charlotte,Verbeeck Guy,Daenen Geert,Servaes Dirk,Bronckaers Marc Rare tumors Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic) and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow. 10.4081/rt.2016.6299
    Not Every Fat-Containing Lesion on Mammogram is a Benign Finding: Case Report and Review of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor with Heterologous Liposarcomatous Differentiation. Soni Neetu,Aly Nour T,Vidholia Aditi,Policeni Fabiana Journal of clinical imaging science Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are a rare fibroepithelial tumor of the breast. Histopathological confirmation of stromal and epithelial component is required for making the diagnosis of PT, and stromal component carries an increased risk of sarcomatous transformation. We present imaging findings of a histologically proven case of malignant PT with heterologous liposarcomatous transformation of the breast. 10.25259/JCIS_83_18
    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization improves the resectability of malignant breast phyllodes tumor with angiosarcoma component: a case report. Kuo Chih-Yu,Lin Shing-Huey,Lee Kuan-Der,Cheng Sho-Jen,Chu Jan-Show,Tu Shih-Hsin BMC surgery BACKGROUND:A giant phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion, and its treatment is controversial. Many case reports have reported performing skin graft reconstruction after tumor excision. Chest wall resection may be required if the tumor has invaded the chest muscle layer. We speculated that transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) can improve the resectability of malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast without requiring skin grafting. The English literature contains only one case report similar to our experience. CASE PRESENTATION:We report a rare case of a 51-year-old woman who had a giant malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous sarcomatous differentiation in her right breast. The tumor was 19.43 × 12.98 × 21.47 cm. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) and bone scan did not reveal distant metastasis. Chest magnetic resonance imaging showed chest wall tumor invasion. Considering that skin defects after mastectomy can be extensive, we administered four courses of chemoembolization in the 5 weeks before surgery (30 mg of epirubicin and embozene microspheres [400, 500, and 700 μm]/week). Each process was well tolerated, with no serious complications. Only fever and local pain at the tumor site were noted, and these symptoms resolved with time. The follow-up CT scan showed a 45% reduction in tumor volume. Therefore, simple mastectomy was performed without skin grafting reconstruction. Wound healing was satisfactory, and the patient was discharged 1 week after surgery. Pathological and immunohistochemistry (IHC) findings showed a malignant phyllodes tumor with an angiosarcoma component. Because of tumor invasion of the chest wall, we recommended the patient receive radiotherapy, but she refused. Two months after surgery, recurrence of the malignant phyllodes tumor with right axillary lymph node involvement and lung metastasis was confirmed. CONCLUSION:Initial surgical resection of giant phyllodes tumors is often challenging. For initial presentation with unresectable giant phyllodes tumor, we recommend to perform TACE prior to surgery. In our patient, preoperative TACE was effective and safe. If the tumor has invaded the chest wall, early radiotherapy after surgery may be recommended for preventing recurrence. 10.1186/s12893-019-0562-0
    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast with liposarcomatous differentiation and intraductal hyperplasia. Ayadi-Kaddour Aïda,Zeddini Abdelfatteh,Braham Emna,Ismail Olfa,Mlika Mona,Guelmami Karim,El Mezni Faouzi Breast disease Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasm. 10 to 20% of phyllodes tumor show malignant transformation, often in the form of stroma, which usually shows fibrosarcomatous differentiation and rarely heterologous sarcomatous elements. Liposarcomatous differentiation is not common among phyllodes tumors. The correct diagnosis of heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation in a malignant PT requires identification of the biphasic component of the tumor. We reported a case of malignant phyllodes tumor which initially transformed into liposarcoma, in addition to a very rare intraductal hyperplasia and flat epithelial atypia. The patient was a 75-year-old woman, with a lump in the left breast without axillary lymphadenopathy. She also have a positive family history of breast carcinoma. She underwent surgery and still alive and disease free after one year. 10.3233/BD-140377
    Malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous differentiation: A rare case report. Patil Okaly Geeta V,Devadass Clement Wilfred,Metikurke Sudha Horakerappa Journal of cancer research and therapeutics Sarcomas of the breast are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of breast malignancy. A 40-year-old-female with left breast mass underwent wide-excision and on histopathological examination a diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous differentiation of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma was rendered. The heterologous elements were tumor osteoid formation and tumor chondroid formation. The rarity of the lesion was considered for reporting and on follow-up the patient was free of metastasis. 10.4103/0973-1482.137996
    [Common benign breast tumors including fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumors, and papillary lesions: Guidelines]. Bendifallah S,Canlorbe G Journal de gynecologie, obstetrique et biologie de la reproduction OBJECTIVES:To provide guidelines for clinical practice from the French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (CNGOF), based on the best evidence available, concerning common benign breast tumors: fibroadenoma (FA), phyllodes breast tumors (PBT), and papillary lesions (BPL). METHODS:Bibliographical search in French and English languages by consultation of PubMed, Cochrane and international databases. RESULTS:In case of percutaneous biopsy diagnosis of FA, clinico-radiologic and pathologic discordance or complex FA or proliferative lesions or atypia with FA, a family history of cancer, it seems legitimate to discuss management in a multidisciplinary meeting. When surgery is proposed for FA, periareolar compared to direct incision is associated with more insensitive nipple but better aesthetic results (LE4). When surgery is proposed for FA, indirect incision is preferable for better cosmetic results (Grade C). Techniques of percutaneous destruction or resection can be used (Grade C). The WHO classification distinguishes three categories of phyllodes tumors (PBT): benign (grade 1), borderline (grade 2) and malignant (grade 3). For grade 1 PBT, the risk of local recurrence after surgical excision increases when PBT lesion is in contact with surgical limits (not in sano). After in sano resection, there is no correlation between margin size and the risk of recurrence (LE4). For grade 2 PBT, local recurrence after surgical excision increases for margins under 10mm margins (LE4). For grade 1-2 PBT, in sano excision is recommended. For grade 2 PBT, 10-mm margins are recommended (Grade C). No lymph node evaluation or neither systematic mastectomy is recommended (Grade C). Breast papillary lesion (BPL) without atypia, complete resection of radiologic signal is recommended (Grade C). For BPL with atypia, complete excisional surgery is recommended (Grade C). 10.1016/j.jgyn.2015.09.042
    Phyllodes tumors of the breast: a retrospective analysis of 57 cases. Noordman Philou C W,Klioueva Natasja M,Weimann Martina N,Borgstein Paul J,Vrouenraets Bart C Breast cancer research and treatment INTRODUCTION:Current guidelines for the treatment of phyllodes tumors recommend wide local excision for all histopathological subtypes. However, it is unknown which subtypes have tendency to recur after marginal or incomplete excision. This may lead to over-treatment by re-excision surgery for tumors with little or no potential to recur. MATERIALS AND METHODS:All patients with benign, borderline or malignant phyllode tumors presenting at our institution between 2000 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS:A total of 57 patients could be included, of which 39 tumors were benign (60%), three were borderline (5%), and seven were malignant phyllodes tumors (12%). There were also eight phyllodes-like fibroadenomas (14%). Fifty-two patients (91%) underwent local excision as primary treatment, resulting in tumor-positive or close-resection margins in 32 patients (61.5%) of whom five patients (15.6%) had re-excision surgery. During a median follow-up of 5 years, local recurrence occurred in four patients (7.0%) with a median time-to-recurrence of 12 months. Borderline and malignant subtypes were associated with a significantly higher recurrence rate compared to other subtypes (p = 0.039). CONCLUSION:Although an adequate tumor-negative resection margin should be obtained for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, this study confirms that wide local excision is the appropriate primary treatment for all histopathological subtypes. However, if tumor-negative margins were not obtained at first excision, a wait-and-see approach is justified for benign phyllodes tumors. 10.1007/s10549-020-05620-7
    Local recurrence after breast-conserving therapy for phyllodes tumors: A 15-year retrospective review. Cervoni Gabrielle E,Quintana Liza,Erlinger Adrienne L,Neo Dayna T,Recht Abram,Schnitt Stuart J,Hacker Michele R,Sharma Ranjna The breast journal There are few data on the long-term outcomes of patients with phyllodes tumors following breast-conserving surgery with or without radiation therapy (RT). We reviewed 69 patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2015 with surgical specimens available for central pathology assessment for outcome in relation to histopathologic subtype, margin width, and utilization of RT. Median follow-up was 63 months (interquartile range, 35-131 months). Forty-eight patients had benign, 13 borderline, and eight malignant phyllodes tumors, with local recurrence rates of 4%, 0%, and 38%, respectively (P ≤ .04 comparing malignant lesions to both benign and borderline lesions). None of the eight patients who received RT suffered a local recurrence. Two of the 26 (8%) patients with benign phyllodes tumors who did not receive RT with margins that were positive or <1 mm had local recurrence, compared to none of 18 patients with margins 1 mm or wider who did not receive RT. The one patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor who did not receive RT with margins that were positive or <1 mm did not locally recur, while both patients with margins 10 mm or wider who did not receive RT had local recurrence. One patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor developed distant recurrence following local recurrence. Phyllodes histologic type and margin width were both associated with the risk of local recurrence following breast-conserving surgery without RT, though the number of events and patients was too small to show these trends were statistically significant. 10.1111/tbj.13707
    Predicting clinical behaviour of breast phyllodes tumours: a nomogram based on histological criteria and surgical margins. Tan Puay Hoon,Thike Aye Aye,Tan Wai Jin,Thu Minn Minn Myint,Busmanis Inny,Li Huihua,Chay Wen Yee,Tan Min-Han, Journal of clinical pathology AIM:To define a predictive model for clinical behaviour of breast phyllodes tumours (PT) using histological parameters and surgical margin status. METHODS:Cases of breast PT diagnosed in the Department of Pathology Singapore General Hospital between January 1992 and December 2010 were stratified into benign, borderline and malignant grades based on a combination of histological parameters (stromal atypia, hypercellularity, mitoses, overgrowth and nature of tumour borders). Surgical margin status was assessed. Clinical follow-up and biostatistical modelling were accomplished. RESULTS:Of 605 PT, 440 (72.7%) were benign, 111 (18.4%) borderline and 54 (8.9%) malignant. Recurrences, which were predominantly local, were documented in 80 (13.2%) women. Deaths from PT occurred in 12 (2%) women. Multivariate analysis revealed stromal atypia, overgrowth and surgical margins to be independently predictive of clinical behaviour, with mitoses achieving near significance. Stromal hypercellularity and tumour borders were not independently useful. A nomogram developed based on atypia, mitoses, overgrowth and surgical margins (AMOS criteria) could predict recurrence-free survival at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years. This nomogram was superior to a total histological score derived from adding values assigned to each of five histological parameters. CONCLUSION:A predictive nomogram based on three histological criteria and surgical margin status can be used to calculate recurrence-free survival of an individual woman diagnosed with PT. This can be applied for patient counselling and clinical management. 10.1136/jclinpath-2011-200368
    Genomic profiling of malignant phyllodes tumors reveals aberrations in FGFR1 and PI-3 kinase/RAS signaling pathways and provides insights into intratumoral heterogeneity. Liu Su-Yang,Joseph Nancy M,Ravindranathan Ajay,Stohr Bradley A,Greenland Nancy Y,Vohra Poonam,Hosfield Elizabeth,Yeh Iwei,Talevich Eric,Onodera Courtney,Van Ziffle Jessica A,Grenert James P,Bastian Boris C,Chen Yunn-Yi,Krings Gregor Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are poorly understood rare neoplasms with potential for aggressive behavior. Few efficacious treatment options exist for progressed or metastatic disease. The molecular features of malignant phyllodes tumors are poorly defined, and a deeper understanding of the genetics of these tumors may shed light on pathogenesis and progression and potentially identify novel treatment approaches. We sequenced 510 cancer-related genes in 10 malignant phyllodes tumors, including 5 tumors with liposarcomatous differentiation and 1 with myxoid chondrosarcoma-like differentiation. Intratumoral heterogeneity was assessed by sequencing two separate areas in 7 tumors, including non-heterologous and heterologous components of tumors with heterologous differentiation. Activating hotspot mutations in FGFR1 were identified in 2 tumors. Additional recurrently mutated genes included TERT promoter (6/10), TP53 (4/10), PIK3CA (3/10), MED12 (3/10), SETD2 (2/10) and KMT2D (2/10). Together, genomic aberrations in FGFR/EGFR PI-3 kinase and RAS pathways were identified in 8 (80%) tumors and included mutually exclusive and potentially actionable activating FGFR1, PIK3CA and BRAF V600E mutations, inactivating TSC2 mutation, EGFR amplification and PTEN loss. Seven (70%) malignant phyllodes tumors harbored TERT aberrations (six promoter mutations, one amplification). For comparison, TERT promoter mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing in 33% borderline (n=12) and no (0%, n=8) benign phyllodes tumors (P=0.391 and P=0.013 vs malignant tumors, respectively). Genetic features specific to liposarcoma, including CDK4/MDM2 amplification, were not identified. Copy number analysis revealed intratumoral heterogeneity and evidence for divergent tumor evolution in malignant phyllodes tumors with and without heterologous differentiation. Tumors with liposarcomatous differentiation revealed more chromosomal aberrations in non-heterologous components compared with liposarcomatous components. EGFR amplification was heterogeneous and present only in the non-heterologous component of one tumor with liposarcomatous differentiation. The results identify novel pathways involved in the pathogenesis of malignant phyllodes tumors, which significantly increase our understanding of tumor biology and have potential clinical impact. 10.1038/modpathol.2016.97
    Size and heterologous elements predict metastases in malignant phyllodes tumours of the breast. Koh Valerie Cui Yun,Thike Aye Aye,Nasir Nur Diyana Md,Yip George Wai Cheong,Bay Boon Huat,Tan Puay Hoon Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology Phyllodes tumours (PTs) of the breast are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms comprising 0.3-1.0% of all primary breast tumours. The majority of PTs are benign and generally well managed with surgery. However, malignant PTs, and occasionally borderline PTs, can behave in a clinically aggressive manner by metastasizing to distant organs. Although distant metastasis is rare, the prognosis of patients with metastasis is dismal as many are unresponsive to standard chemotherapy and the risk of death is high. In this study, we correlated clinicopathological parameters to survival outcomes in a cohort of patients diagnosed with malignant PTs in our institution. The study cohort comprised 83 cases of malignant PTs diagnosed at the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Singapore General Hospital from 1994 to 2015. Clinicopathological features and follow-up were obtained from hospital records. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups using the log-rank test. Cox regression was carried out to identify factors predictive for metastasis. Mean and median age of patients was 48 years (range 21-71 years). Tumour size measured from 30 to 220 mm (mean 90 mm, median 77 mm). Follow-up data was available for 68 patients. Mean and median follow-up was 90 and 57 months, respectively, with a maximum of 291 months. Distant metastasis occurred in 16 out of 68 patients (23.5%). The most common site of metastasis was the lung. Malignant heterologous elements were observed in 16 (19.3%) cases. Individual clinicopathological parameters had no impact on outcome. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, women with large tumours and presence of malignant heterologous elements showed trends for poorer MFS (p = 0.217 and p = 0.566, respectively). However, the combination of large tumours (≥ 90 mm) containing malignant heterologous elements disclosed significantly worse MFS (p = 0.043) and a trend for poorer OS (p = 0.238). On multivariate analysis, large tumours harbouring malignant heterologous elements independently predicted metastasis (95% CI 1.041-12.517, HR 2.434, p = 0.049). Our study demonstrates that tumour size and presence of malignant heterologous elements predicted metastasis in malignant PTs. Further work needs to be done in determining if protein biomarkers and genomic aberrations are able to additionally refine metastatic risk and define therapeutic targets. 10.1007/s00428-017-2257-1
    Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: 307 Treated Cases, the Largest Mexican Experience at a Single Breast Disease Institution. Ruvalcaba-Limón Eva,Jiménez-López Josefina,Bautista-Piña Verónica,Ramírez-Bollas Julio,Morales-Vásquez Flavia,Domínguez-Reyes Carlos,Maffuz-Aziz Antonio,Rodríguez-Cuevas Sergio Iranian journal of pathology BACKGROUND:Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast in Hispanic patients is more frequently reported with large tumors and with more borderline/malignant subtypes compared with other populations. The objective of this study was to describe characteristics of patients with PT and to identify differences among subtypes in a Mexican population. METHODS:A retrospective study was conducted on patients with PT. Sociodemographic, histopathologic, and treatment characteristics were compared among subtypes, including only surgically treated cases due the complete surgical-specimen study requirement for appropriate WHO classification. RESULTS:During 10 years, 346 PT were diagnosed; only 307 were included (305 patients), with a mean age of 41.7 yr. Self-detected lump took place in 91.8%, usually discovered 6 months previously, with median tumor size of 4.5 cm. Local wide excisions were done in 213 (69.8%) and mastectomies in 92 (30.1%). Immediate breast reconstruction took place in 38% and oncoplastic procedures in 23%. PT were classified as benign in 222 (72.3%) cases, borderline in 50 (16.2%), and malignant in 35 (11.4%), with pathological tumor size of 4.2, 5.4, and 8.7 cm, respectively (<0.001). Patients with malignant PT were older (48 yr), with more diabetics (14.3%), less breastfeeding (37.1%), more smokers (17.1%), with more postmenopausal cases (42.9%), and older age at menopause (51.5 years) compared with the remaining subtypes (<0.05). Relapse occurred in 8.2% of patients with follow-up. CONCLUSION:In comparison with other Hispanic publications, these Mexican patients had similar age, with smaller tumors, modestly higher benign PT, fewer malignant PT, and lower documented relapse cases.
    Phyllodes tumor of the breast. Belkacémi Yazid,Bousquet Guilhem,Marsiglia Hugo,Ray-Coquard Isabelle,Magné Nicolas,Malard Yann,Lacroix Magalie,Gutierrez Cristina,Senkus Elzbieta,Christie David,Drumea Karen,Lagneau Edouard,Kadish Sidney P,Scandolaro Luciano,Azria David,Ozsahin Mahmut International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics PURPOSE:To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. METHODS AND MATERIALS:Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). RESULTS:After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size < or = 3 cm and no tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria. 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.06.059
    Massively parallel sequencing of phyllodes tumours of the breast reveals actionable mutations, and TERT promoter hotspot mutations and TERT gene amplification as likely drivers of progression. Piscuoglio Salvatore,Ng Charlotte Ky,Murray Melissa,Burke Kathleen A,Edelweiss Marcia,Geyer Felipe C,Macedo Gabriel S,Inagaki Akiko,Papanastasiou Anastasios D,Martelotto Luciano G,Marchio Caterina,Lim Raymond S,Ioris Rafael A,Nahar Pooja K,Bruijn Ino De,Smyth Lillian,Akram Muzaffar,Ross Dara,Petrini John H,Norton Larry,Solit David B,Baselga Jose,Brogi Edi,Ladanyi Marc,Weigelt Britta,Reis-Filho Jorge S The Journal of pathology Phyllodes tumours (PTs) are breast fibroepithelial lesions that are graded based on histological criteria as benign, borderline or malignant. PTs may recur locally. Borderline PTs and malignant PTs may metastasize to distant sites. Breast fibroepithelial lesions, including PTs and fibroadenomas, are characterized by recurrent MED12 exon 2 somatic mutations. We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations in PTs and whether these may assist in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We collected 100 fibroadenomas, 40 benign PTs, 14 borderline PTs and 22 malignant PTs; six, six and 13 benign, borderline and malignant PTs, respectively, and their matched normal tissue, were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the MSK-IMPACT sequencing assay. Recurrent MED12 mutations were found in 56% of PTs; in addition, mutations affecting cancer genes (eg TP53, RB1, SETD2 and EGFR) were exclusively detected in borderline and malignant PTs. We found a novel recurrent clonal hotspot mutation in the TERT promoter (-124 C>T) in 52% and TERT gene amplification in 4% of PTs. Laser capture microdissection revealed that these mutations were restricted to the mesenchymal component of PTs. Sequencing analysis of the entire cohort revealed that the frequency of TERT alterations increased from benign (18%) to borderline (57%) and to malignant PTs (68%; p < 0.01), and TERT alterations were associated with increased levels of TERT mRNA (p < 0.001). No TERT alterations were observed in fibroadenomas. An analysis of TERT promoter sequencing and gene amplification distinguished PTs from fibroadenomas with a sensitivity and a positive predictive value of 100% (CI 95.38-100%) and 100% (CI 85.86-100%), respectively, and a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 39% (CI 28.65-51.36%) and 68% (CI 60.21-75.78%), respectively. Our results suggest that TERT alterations may drive the progression of PTs, and may assist in the differential diagnosis between PTs and fibroadenomas. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 10.1002/path.4672
    Comparison of clinical characteristics between benign borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast. Wang Hui,Wang Xiang,Wang Cheng-Feng Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP BACKGROUND:Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial lesions, so relatively little is known about this disease entity. The present study was designed to identify differences in clinical features between benign borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data from 246 women with phyllodes tumors of the breast treated in Cancer Hospital Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between 2002 and 2012 were collected and analyzed, including age at presentation, age at treatment, course, size of primary tumor, location, histological type, type of surgery and treatment, local recurrence, distant metastasis, fibroadenoma history, disease-free survival and number of mitosis per 10hpf. There are 125 (55%) benign, 55 (24%) borderline and 47 (21%) malignant tumors. RESULTS:In univariate analysis, average age at presentation, average age at treatment, size of primary tumor, ulceration or not, type of primary surgery, distant metastasis and number of mitosis per 10 hpf turned out to be statistically different among the three PT types (p=0.014, 0.018, <0.000, 0.003, <0.000, 0.001 and <0.000, respectively), while recurrence and disease-free survival (DFS) demonstrated trends for statistical significance (P =0.055 and 0.060, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed distant metastasis and excision were significantly different in benign, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast (p=0.041 and 0.018, OR=0.061 and 0.051). At the same time, size of primary tumor with p=0.052 tended to be different between groups (OR=1.127). However, age at treatment, ulceration and DFS showed no statistically significant variation (p=0.400, 0.286 and 0.413, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Benign borderline and malignant phyllode tumors have different distant metastasis risk, different primary tumor size and different surgical procedures, and malignant PTs are more likely to be bigger and to metastasize. 10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.24.10791
    Management of malignant and borderline phyllodes tumors of the breast: our experience. Zervoudis Stefanos,Xepapadakis Grigoris,Psarros Nikos,Bothou Anastasia,Tsikouras Panagiotis,Galazios Georgios,Kontogianni Panagiota,Papazian Maria,Navrozoglou Iordanis,Iatrakis Georgios,Paschopoulos Minas Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology PURPOSE:Phyllodes breast tumors (PT) range from benign lesions to malignant ones that may give distant metastasis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult, while the treatment of borderline and malignant disease remains controversial. METHODS:Eighteen patients in 3 clinics were included in the study. Lumpectomy with large margins was performed in 15 patients, while mastectomy was performed in 3 patients. Lymph node excision was carried out in 3 patients with malignant tumors. Radiation therapy (RT) was delivered after a second lumpectomy in cases of local recurrence. Chemotherapy was used only in 2 patients with aggressive recurrent tumors. RESULTS:Borderline behavior was reported in 4 patients. Lumpectomy was performed in these cases, with local recurrence in 2 of them. Malignant behavior was reported in 14 patients. Lumpectomy was performed in 10 patients and mastectomy in 3. Local recurrence was reported in 5 cases and in 2 patients recurrence after a 2nd operation was also reported. CONCLUSIONS:Borderline PT were treated conservatively and the prognosis was excellent, while malignant subtypes needed mastectomy in about 25% of the cases, The local recurrence rate was high, but the disease free survival (DFS) and the overall survival (OS) were also very high (94%).
    Phyllodes tumors of the breast: clinicopathological analysis of 106 cases from a single institution. Efared Boubacar,Ebang Gabrielle Atsame,Tahiri Layla,Sidibé Ibrahim S,Erregad Fatimazahra,Hammas Nawal,Melhouf Moulay Abdelilah,Banani Abdelaziz,Chbani Laila,Fatemi Hinde El Breast disease BACKGROUND:Phyllodes tumors (PT) are uncommon biphasic tumors, accounting for less than 1% of all breast primary neoplasms. They form a wide variety of tumors ranging from benign to malignant. Several histological features are used to grade PT into 3 categories: benign (grade I), borderline (grade II) and malignant (grade III) tumors. The aim of our study was to analyse histolopathological, radiological and clinical features of PT from an experience of a single center. METHODS:It was a retrospective study including 106 patients diagnosed with phyllodes tumors on surgical specimens at the department of pathology, of Hassan II university hospital (Fez, Morocco), from 2009 to 2016. RESULTS:The mean age was 33.81 years (range of 13-66 years), and the mean age increases with the tumor grade (mean ages of 32.32, 32.87 and 33.65 years respectively for grade I, II and III PT) (p = 0.023); 78 patients (73.58%) had benign PT, 20 (18.86%) had borderline PT and 8 (7.54%) patients were diagnosed with malignant PT. Mostly, the tumor size was <5 cm (63.2%), with BI-RADS 3 (51 patients, 48.11%). The tumor size and the radiological suspicion (ACR/BI-RADS) increased with the tumor grade (p < 0.001). Mitosis count, cellular atypia and stromal cellularity increased with the tumor grade (p < 0.001). Also, the presence of necrosis is associated with malignant PT (p < 0.001). Before surgery, patients had undergone core needle biopsies (CNB) for diagnostic purpose, and the overral sensitivity of this diagnostic procedure was 71.83%. The sentivity of the CNB decreased from grade I PT to grade III PT (from 56.81% to 37.5%), however its specificity increased from grade I to grade III PT (from 59.25% to 100%). CONCLUSION:Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare neoplasms with a wide range of clinicopathologic presentations. The core needle biopsy has a good diagnostic sensitivity compared to definitive diagnosis on surgical specimens. There was a statistically significant association between the histological grade of PT and tumor size, radiological suspicion, mitotic count, cellular atypia, stromal cellularity, and tumor necrosis. 10.3233/BD-170297
    Case Report: presentation of pleomorphic liposarcoma arising in a borderline phyllodes tumor. Polat Yalçın,Arslan Gözde,Kebudi Abud,Apa Duygu Düşmez International journal of surgery case reports INTRODUCTION:The stromal component of Phyllodes tumors represents the neoplastic portion of the lesion. A variety of associated malignancies can arise from PTs, with its dual population of cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE:We share a very rare case of "borderline"breast phillodes tumour with a 75% liposarcoma component. A 48-year-old woman presented at the surgical clinic with a mass in the left breast. On mammograms, the lesion was dense with radiolucent areas inside which were thought to be compatible with fat. The mass was assumed to be breast imaging-reporting and data system (BIRADS) 3 on sonography as it was well contoured. The needle biopsy was reported to be consistent with a fibroadenomatous lesion. The lesion was completely excised. On microscopic examination, the lesion has benign mammary duct epithelium lining the slit-like spaces. The stroma composed of fibrous and adipous tissue. The fibrous part was cellular, and several cells appeared bizarre. Adipous tissue replaced most of the stroma and was diagnosed as pleomorphic liposarcoma. DISCUSSION:According to the 3 tiered grading criteria of PTs, our case normally suits in borderline category, without liposarcoma component. Heterologous sarcomatous elements usually accompany high grade PTs. Rare cases of benign and borderline PTs with sarcoma component have been reported. CONCLUSION:The presence of a malignant heterologous component places the tumour into the malignant category regardless of other histological features. 10.1016/j.ijscr.2018.10.038
    Analysis of patients with phyllodes tumor of the breast. Atalay Can,Kınaş Volkan,Çelebioğlu Sait Ulusal cerrahi dergisi OBJECTIVE:The diagnosis and management of phyllodes tumors is challenging due to its low incidence. The treatment of these tumors is surgery, however the extent of surgery, the application of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still controversial. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate patients who were treated with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the breast in our clinic. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Patients who were treated with a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor of the breast between June 2011 and June 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient demographic characteristics (age, gender), menopausal status, symptoms, radiologic and surgical methods used for diagnosis and treatment, histopathologic features of the tumor and type of adjuvant therapy were evaluated. Patients were grouped as benign or borderline/malignant according to histopathological diagnosis. Patients in these groups were compared in terms of age, menopausal status, tumor size and the number of mitosis within the tumor. RESULTS:The median age was 26 years (17-59), and 30 patients were female. The surgical treatment of choice was wide local excision with tumor-free surgical margins in 29 patients and mastectomy in one patient. Histopathological diagnosis after surgery was benign in 21 patients (70%), borderline in 6 patients (20%) and malignant phyllodes tumor in 3 patients (10%). Patients with borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors were significantly older (p=0.002) and had higher mitotic counts (p<0.0001). There was no significant relationship between histopathologic subtypes of phyllodes tumors and menopausal status (p=0.06) or tumor size (p=0.1). CONCLUSION:Surgery is the treatment of choice for phyllodes tumors, and obtaining tumor-free margins is important. Since phyllodes tumors might recur as borderline/malignant tumors, local control with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy should be provided when required. In this way, distant metastases and death that may arise due to possible malignant recurrences might be avoided. 10.5152/UCD.2014.2719
    Five-Year Disease-Free Follow-Up of a Borderline Breast Phyllodes Tumor in a 15-year-old Patient. Güler Sertaç Ata,Uğurlu M Ümit,Güllüoğlu Bahadır M The journal of breast health Phyllodes tumors are large breast tumors representing only 1% of breast neoplasms and are rarely seen in young women. Histologically, phyllodes tumors are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on the characteristics of the stroma. Although wide local excision is recommended for the treatment modality, the reoccurrence rate after surgical excision varies between 36% and 65%, with recurrence more likely in those with the tumor at the margins of excision. Our aim was to report -a case in a 15-year-old girl with a 115-mm borderline phyllodes tumor in her left breast mimicking a juvenile fibroadenoma. We presented a 5-year disease-free follow-up after wide local excision with negative margins. 10.5152/tjbh.2015.2146
    Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor. Roberts Nathan,Runk Dianne M International journal of surgery case reports INTRODUCTION:Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. PRESENTATION OF CASE:We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. CONCLUSION:Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. 10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.12.041
    Phyllodes tumor of the breast with nipple discharge: A case report. Jing Pengfei,Wei Bing,Yang Xiaoqin Medicine RATIONALE:Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are rare biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms which usually present with unilateral palpable breast lumps. Here we reported a case of borderline PTs with multifocal intraductal lesions whose primary clinical manifestation was nipple discharge. PATIENT CONCERNS:A rare case of PT with nipple discharge in a 26-year-old young lady accepted a wide local excision on her left breast, and the pathological examination turned out to be a malignant phyllodes tumor. After a 12-month follow-up, no local or distant recurrence was observed. DIAGNOSIS:Borderline PTs with multifocal intraductal lesions INTERVENTIONS:: The patient received wide local excision with clear margin. After the operation, the patient is undergoing surveillance through ultrasonography and physical examination every 3 months. OUTCOMES:After a follow-up of 12 months, no local or distant recurrence was observed. LESSONS:The lesions of the PTs are often manifested with unilateral, palpable masses in the breast. There are very few case reports of PTs manifested with nipple discharge in the literature. We should improve the understanding of the multiple clinical manifestations of PTs. 10.1097/MD.0000000000013767
    Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast With Malignant Melanoma Component: A Case Report. Vergine Marco,Guy Catherine,Taylor Mark R International journal of surgical pathology Phyllodes tumors of the breast display a wide variation in histological appearance and are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant categories based on a combination of histological parameters. These tumors may include a malignant heterologous component that is believed to originate through a process of multidirectional differentiation from a cancer stem cell. In these cases, the tumor is classified as a malignant phyllodes tumor. Among the heterologous elements that have been described in malignant phyllodes tumors are rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma and angiosarcoma. We present the first case of a phyllodes tumor with a malignant melanoma component in the breast of a 71-year-old lady, discussing the clinical implications of this diagnosis. 10.1177/1066896915592018
    A malignant phyllodes tumor with liposarcomatous differentiation case with 3-year follow-up. Nistor-Ciurba Codruţ Cosmin,Buiga Rareş,Popiţa Cristian,Eniu Dan Tudor,Puşcaş Marius Emil,Ignat Florin Laurenţiu Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are a group of rarely breast tumors of fibro-epithelial origin, counting for about 1% of the breast malignancies divided, based on histological features, in benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms, arising most of them in women in their 40's. Among this complex group of tumors, the liposarcomatous differentiation is an even more rare lesion, counting for about 0.3% of all primary sarcomas of the breast. This article presents a case of a 48-year-old woman with a breast malignant PT with liposarcomatous differentiation, diagnosed by guided core biopsy, treated by excision and subsequent simple mastectomy followed by radiotherapy, with a 3-year follow-up.
    Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: A Clinicopathological Evaluation of 55 Cases. Hasdemir Seçil,Tolunay Şahsine,Özşen Mine,Gökgöz Mustafa Şehsuvar European journal of breast health Objective:Phyllodes tumors are biphasic tumors consisting of epithelial and stromal components that account for less than 1% of all breast tumors. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) phyllodes tumors are classified into three categories as benign, borderline and malignant. It has been reported that these tumors are usually benign and both the stromal component and the epithelial component may progress to malignancy. In this descriptive study, it was aimed to present the cases of phyllodes tumor and to evaluate the clinicopathological features of these tumors in the light of the literature. Materials and Methods:In our study, 55 cases of phyllodes tumor diagnosed between 2005-2018 in the Department of Medical Pathology were retrospectively studied. A total of 55 cases were included in the study. Results:All cases were female with a mean age of 39.7+15.2 years. Fifty-seven tumors diagnosed in 55 cases were classed as benign in 20 cases (35.1%), borderline in 14 cases (24.6%) and malignant phyllodes tumors in 23 cases (40.3%). Ductal carcinoma in situ (solid and cribriform type) were detected in one case with malignant phyllodes tumor, whereas invasive ductal carcinoma was detected in one case. Bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ was present in the patient with invasive ductal carcinoma. Conclusion:These tumors which rapidly grow into large masses can be clinically and pathologically confused with benign lesions, macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of concomitant in situ-invasive carcinomas should be considered. Phyllodes tumors have an important role in breast surgery and pathology. 10.5152/ejbh.2019.4709
    Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast: Histopathologic Features, Differential Diagnosis, and Molecular/Genetic Updates. Zhang Yanhong,Kleer Celina G Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine CONTEXT:-Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm with risks of local recurrence and uncommon metastases. The classification proposed by the World Health Organization for PTs into benign, borderline, and malignant is based on a combination of several histologic features. The differential diagnosis between PT and fibroadenoma and the histologic grading of PT remain challenging. In addition, the molecular pathogenesis of PT is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE:-To provide an updated overview of pathologic features, diagnostic terminology, and molecular alterations of PT. DATA SOURCES:-Current English literature related to PT of the breast. CONCLUSIONS:-Phyllodes tumor shows a wide spectrum of morphology. There are no clearly distinct boundaries between PT and fibroadenoma. Strict histologic assessment of a combination of histologic features with classification can help to achieve the correct diagnosis and provide useful clinical information. The genomic landscapes of PT generated from genomic sequencing provide insights into the molecular pathogenesis of PT and help to improve diagnostic accuracy and identify potential drug targets in malignant PT. 10.5858/arpa.2016-0042-RA
    [Breast osteosarcoma originating in a phyllodes tumor. Report of one case]. Nieto-Coronel Tereza,Salazar-Campos Jessica Elizabeth,León David Cantú de,Díaz-Molina Raúl,Vázquez-Romo Rafael,Bargalló-Rocha Enrique Revista medica de Chile Phyllodes tumors account for less than 1% of tumors of the mammary gland, have both epithelial and stromal components and are classified as benign, borderline and malignant. The malignant tumors are highly heterogeneous: they can differentiate to liposarcomas, fibrosarcomas, rhabdomyosarcomas, chondrosarcomas or osteosarcomas. The differentiation to osteosarcoma is extremely rare, constitutes 1.3% of cases and is very aggressive. The standard treatment of these tumors is surgical. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is not clear. However, in patients in whom wide surgical margins are not achieved, adjuvant radiotherapy can be of help. We report a 63 years old female with a right breast osteosarcoma with an osteoclastic component, originating in a phyllodes tumor. The tumor was excised surgically and afterwards she was treated with 10 sessions of 50 Gy of radiotherapy in 25 fractions. She has remained free of disease for the last 10 months. 10.4067/s0034-98872017000801076
    Mammary phyllodes tumour: a 15-year multicentre clinical review. Co Michael,Chen Clement,Tsang Julia Y,Tse Gary,Kwong Ava Journal of clinical pathology AIMS:Phyllodes tumour (PT) is an uncommon fibroepithelial tumour of the breast. It has a spectrum of aggressiveness in biological behaviour with chance of local recurrence and, occasionally, metastasis. METHODS:A 15-year retrospective review from a multicentre database in Hong Kong was performed. RESULTS:Clinical and pathological records of 465 patients with 469 PTs between 1998 and 2014 were reviewed. Median age of occurrence was 44 years (range 12-86 years). 281 (59.9%) PTs were benign, 124 (26.4%) were borderline and 64 (13.6%) were malignant. About half of all PTs (239, 51.5%) were between 2 and 5 cm while another 186 (40.1%) were >5 cm in size. Most PT (84.6%) were radiologically benign. Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) was feasible in 384 (82%) patients, whereas 84 (18%) patients had mastectomy. Multivariate analysis found that positive surgical margin (P<0.001) and BCS (P<0.001) were the only significant risk factors for local recurrence, while large tumour size (P=0.008) and malignant PT histotype (P<0.001) were the only significant risk factors for metastasis. Long-term prognosis of benign and borderline PT was excellent. After median follow-up interval of 85 months (range 12-180 months), the disease-specific survival of benign, borderline and malignant PT were 99.6%, 100% and 90.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Local recurrence of PTs occurs irrespective of the tumour grade. Surgical margin is the only amendable factor to reduce the chance of recurrence. 10.1136/jclinpath-2017-204827
    Recurrent borderline phyllodes tumor in nipple: a rare case report and review of the literature. Sun Denghua,Tang Lu,Xing Hua,Zhang Lijuan,Zhang Le Gland surgery Phyllodes tumor (PT) of the breast is a rare tumor. They are usually located in the four quadrants of the mammary gland and may also appear below the nipple. Although there have been a number of cases reported, here we report a very rare case of this tumor in an unusual location. The patient has been diagnosed with right breast borderline PT, who accepted breast-conserving surgery. Twelve months after surgery we found right nipple enlargement, without nipple discharge, ipsilateral and contralateral breast without palpable mass. Interestingly, ultrasound showed a lesion in the right nipple: a hypoechoic mass with a diameter of 2.0 cm was seen in the nipple, with no significant calcification. The patient underwent nipple-sparing mastectomy without postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a borderline PT. There were no signs of recurrence after two years of follow-up. We consider that wide surgical resection and negative margin are still the main methods for the treatment of recurrent borderline PTs. 10.21037/gs.2020.01.17
    Incidentally Discovered Extensive Squamous Metaplasia within Borderline Phyllodes Tumor: Presentation of a Rare Tumor. Uğraş Nesrin,Tolunay Şahsine,Öz Atalay Fatma,Gökgöz Şehsuvar Turk patoloji dergisi Phyllodes tumors are uncommon biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of breast, comprising less than 1% of all breast neoplasms. We therefore aimed to present the case with its microscopic findings. In this article, we report a 59-year-old female admitted to the general surgery department with a rapidly, enlarging, palpable mass in right breast. After histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as borderline phyllodes tumor with extensive squamous metaplasia. Metaplastic changes are infrequent in the stromal and epithelial component of these tumors. Extensive squamous metaplasia within phyllodes tumor is rare and may occur in benign, borderline and malign subtypes. 10.5146/tjpath.2014.01225
    Phyllodes tumor of the breast: diagnosis, management and outcome during a 10-year experience. Ditsatham Chagkrit,Chongruksut Wilaiwan Cancer management and research Background:Phyllodes tumor is a very rare tumor of the breast, incidence being 0.3-0.9% of all breast tumors. Phyllodes tumors are classified into three grades: benign, borderline or malignant. The aim of this study was to investigate patient characteristics, imaging characteristic findings, surgical treatment and outcome of phyllodes tumor. Materials and methods:This is a retrospective review of phyllodes tumor patients who had undergone surgical management between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2015 in Head, Neck and Breast Unit, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital. Results:A total of 188 phyllodes tumor patients were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 35.6 years. The majority of the tumors were of lobulated shape. Tumor morphology from imaging: lobulated shaped tumor 112 cases, oval-shape 37 cases, round shape 8 cases and irregular 5 cases. Surgical management is the standard procedure for treatment of phyllodes tumors. A wide local excision was performed in 147 cases, mastectomy in 20 cases (modified radical mastectomy in 2 cases) and wide excision followed by mastectomy 21 cases. The final pathological diagnoses of the phyllodes tumors were: benign 118 cases (62%), borderline 33 cases (18%) and malignant in 37 cases (20%). The margin did not affect recurrence in all types. Conclusion:The most frequent is a benign phyllodes tumor. Surgical treatment to remove the tumor with a free margin is acceptable with no recurrence difference from a wider margin. However, younger age and malignant phyllodes tumor are the two highest risk factors for recurrence. 10.2147/CMAR.S215039
    Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumors of the breast: a multicenter study of 362 patients (KROG 16-08). Choi Noorie,Kim Kyubo,Shin Kyung Hwan,Kim Yumi,Moon Hyeong-Gon,Park Won,Choi Doo Ho,Kim Su Ssan,Ahn Seung Do,Kim Tae Hyun,Chun Mison,Kim Yong Bae,Kim Suzy,Choi Byung Ock,Kim Jin Hee Breast cancer research and treatment PURPOSE:To identify risk factors for local recurrence (LR) and investigate roles of adjuvant local therapy for malignant and borderline phyllodes tumors of the breast. METHODS:From 1981 to 2014, 362 patients with malignant (n = 235) and borderline (n = 127) phyllodes tumors were treated by breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or total mastectomy (TM) at 10 centers. Thirty-one patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), and those who received adjuvant chemotherapy were excluded from the study. RESULTS:Median follow-up was 5 years. LR developed in 60 (16.6%) patients. Regional recurrence occurred in 2 (0.6%) patients and distant metastasis (DM) developed in 19 (5.2%) patients. Patients receiving BCS (p = 0.025) and those not undergoing adjuvant RT (p = 0.041) showed higher LR rates. For malignant subtypes, local control (LC) rates at 5 years for BCS alone, BCS with adjuvant RT, TM alone, and TM with adjuvant RT were 80.7, 93.3, 92.4, and 100%, respectively (p = 0.033). Multivariate analyses revealed BCS alone, tumor size ≥ 5 cm, and positive margins as independent risk factors for LR. Margin-positive BCS alone showed poorest LC regardless of tumor size (62.5%, p = 0.007). For margin-negative BCS alone, 5-year LC rates for tumors ≥ 5 cm versus those < 5 cm were 71.8% versus 89.5% (p = 0.012). For borderline subtypes, only positive margins (p = 0.044) independently increased the risk of LR. DM developed exclusively in malignant subtypes and a prior LR event increased the risk of DM by sixfold (HR 6.2, 95% CI 1.6-16.1, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumors with positive margins after surgery have high LR rates. After treatment by margin-negative BCS alone, patients with large malignant phyllodes tumors ≥ 5 cm also have heightened risk of LR. Thus, such patients should be considered for additional local therapy. 10.1007/s10549-018-4838-3
    Phyllodes tumor with a benign heterologous osseous component: a diagnostic challenge. Christensen Lene Gaarsmand,Di Caterino Tina,Talman Maj-Lis APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica Phyllodes tumors (PTs) are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast and constitute 0.3-1% of all primary breast tumors. They should be characterized in to a benign, borderline or malignant category based on a combination of histological features. PTs can show heterologous components, typically sarcomatous, including osteosarcomatous and chondrosarcomatous. Benign heterologous components are exceedingly rare with only one prior reported case in the English literature. This case emphasizes how difficult establishing a correct diagnosis in PTs with heterologous components can be, especially when the tumor consists mainly of a benign heterologous component. We report the case of a 65 year old woman with a recurrent breast tumor initially misdiagnosed as benign osseous metaplasia. The tumor re-occurred as a malignant PT dominated by benign osseous and chondroid metaplasia. Multiple metastases consisting of primarily mature bone and cartilage were seen in the lungs. On microscopic revision and considering the clinical course the primary breast tumor was re-classified as a borderline PT. 10.1111/apm.12949
    Radiopathological characteristics and outcomes of phyllodes tumor of the breast in Malaysian women. Abdul Hamid Shamsiah,Rahmat Kartini,Ramli Marlina Tanty,Fadzli Farhana,Jamaris Suniza,See Mee Hoong,Teoh Kean Hooi,Taib Nur Aishah Mohd Medicine Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which arises from the periductal stroma of the breast. They are classified as benign, borderline, and malignant based on the histologic features. However, all phyllodes tumor (PT) subtypes are regarded as having malignant potential and correct diagnosis is important for surgical management and optimal care. This study is a retrospective review of 76 women diagnosed as PT with highlights on the imaging characteristics, pathology, and surgical treatment over a 7-year period in a tertiary medical center of urban population in Malaysia. There were 45 benign, 16 borderline, and 15 malignant PT. The median age for benign PT was 43, borderline 48.5, and malignant 42 years. The Malay ethnic group constitute 52.6% of cases, with 27.6% and 18.4% in Chinese and Indian ethnic groups, respectively. On mammograms, most benign (64.3%) and 33.3% of malignant PT showed high-density lesions. Calcifications were only seen in 2 benign PT. On ultrasound, 86% of benign PT was well-circumscribed whilst 50.0% of malignant PT had irregular outline. Cystic spaces were seen in 40.0% of malignant and 9.5% of benign PT. 80% of malignant PT lesions were heterogenous. Malignant PT demonstrates tumor heterogeneity, cystic spaces, and posterior acoustic enhancement on ultrasound. Half of malignant PT showed regular borders on ultrasound and appear well circumscribed on mammogram. A total of 46 patients had wide local excision or excision biopsy whilst 30 underwent mastectomy as primary treatment. The majority of the borderline and malignant PTs in our study (75.0% and 85.7% respectively) and only 5 out of the 43 (11.6%) benign PT underwent mastectomy. There were 2 tumor recurrence in the benign PT group and 1 case in the borderline and malignant group respectively. 10.1097/MD.0000000000011412
    Malignant Phyllodes tumor in a young female: A Case Report. Anand Priyanka,Sarin Namrata,Butti Amul K,Singh Sompal The Gulf journal of oncology Phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast and constitutes 0.3-0.5% of all breast tumors. They are usually benign and only few of them undergo malignant transformation. Benign or borderline phyllodes tumor typically never recur however, malignant phyllodes tumors do have a recurrence and a metastatic potential. Differentiating these two groups is of prime importance for proper management of the patient. We report a rare case of Malignant Phyllodes tumor in an 18 year old female. She presented with a left breast lump which was gradually increasing in size. There was no significant past or family history. Physical examination revealed a 10x10 cm mass which involved the entire left breast. There was no axillary or supraclavicular lymphadenopathy. On fine needle aspiration cytology, a diagnosis suggestive of an atypical cytology (C3) was given and patient was advised to undergo urgent biopsy and on histopathological examination a possibility of malignant phyllodes tumor was rendered. Following this, lumpectomy was performed and a diagnosis of Malignant Phyllodes tumor was confirmed. Within two months of surgery patient had a recurrence of a huge breast lump with overlying skin ulcerations and underwent a left simple mastectomy. Patient is currently under follow up period and free of disease. A definitive preoperative diagnosis is of utmost importance in correct surgical management of the patient and in order to avoid local recurrences.