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    Role of IL-10 in Resolution of Inflammation and Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury. Siqueira Mietto Bruno,Kroner Antje,Girolami Elizabeth I,Santos-Nogueira Eva,Zhang Ji,David Samuel The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience UNLABELLED:A rapid proinflammatory response after peripheral nerve injury is required for clearance of tissue debris (Wallerian degeneration) and effective regeneration. Unlike the CNS, this response is rapidly terminated in peripheral nerves starting between 2 and 3 weeks after crush injury. We examined the expression and role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in the resolution of inflammation and regeneration after sciatic nerve crush injury in mice. IL-10 mRNA increased over the first 7 d after injury, whereas at the protein level, immunofluorescence labeling showed IL-10(+) cells increased almost 3-fold in the first 3 weeks, with macrophages being the major cell type expressing IL-10. The role of IL-10 in nerve injury was assessed using IL-10-null mice. Increased numbers of macrophages were found in the distal segment of IL-10-null mice at early (3 d) and late (14 and 21 d) time points, suggesting that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the early influx and the later efflux of macrophages out of the nerve. A chemokine/cytokine PCR array of the nerve 24 h after crush showed a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of 10 proinflammatory mediators in IL-10(-/-) mice. In addition, myelin phagocytosis in vitro by LPS stimulated bone-marrow-derived macrophages from IL-10-null mice failed to downregulate expression of proinflammatory chemokines/cytokines, suggesting that IL-10 is required for the myelin-phagocytosis-induced shift of macrophages from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory/pro-repair phenotype. The failure to switch off inflammation in IL-10-null mice was accompanied by impaired axon regeneration and poor recovery of motor and sensory function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:An appropriately regulated inflammatory response after peripheral nerve injury is essential for axon regeneration and recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in terminating inflammation after sciatic nerve crush injury and promoting regeneration. IL-10 is rapidly expressed by macrophages after crush injury. Its role was assessed using IL-10-null mice, which showed that IL-10 plays a role in controlling the early influx and the later efflux of macrophages out of the injured nerve, reduces the expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, and is required for myelin-phagocytosis-induced shift of macrophages from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory. Furthermore, lack of IL-10 leads to impaired axon regeneration and poor recovery of motor and sensory function. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2119-15.2015
    Non-thermal plasma accelerates the healing process of peripheral nerve crush injury in rats. Lee Hyeong-Geun,Choi Jeong-Hae,Jang Yoon-Seo,Kim Uk-Kyu,Kim Gyoo-Cheon,Hwang Dae-Seok International journal of medical sciences The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) on the healing process of peripheral nerve crush injuries, which can occur during dental implant procedures. For this, a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury (SNCI) was adopted. The rats were divided into three groups: non-nerve damage (non-ND), nerve damage (ND), and ND+NTP group. To evaluate the sciatic nerve (SN) function, the static sciatic index was calculated, and the muscle and SN tissues were subjected to a histologic analysis. The results showed that NTP effectively accelerated the healing process of SNCI in rats. In contrast to the ND group, which showed approximately 60% recovery in the SN function, the NTP-treated rats showed complete recovery. Histologically, the NTP treatments not only accelerated the muscle healing, but also reduced the edema-like phenotype of the damaged SN tissues. In the ND group, the SN tissues had an accumulation of CD68-positive macrophages, partially destroyed axonal fibers and myelinated Schwann cells. Conversely, in the ND+NTP group, the macrophage accumulation was reduced and an overall regeneration of the damaged axon fibers and the myelin sheath was accomplished. The results of this study indicate that NTP can be used for healing of injured peripheral nerves. 10.7150/ijms.44041
    Nociceptive input after peripheral nerve injury results in cognitive impairment and alterations in primary afferent physiology in rats. Boada M Danilo,Ririe Douglas G,Martin Conner W,Martin Salem J,Kim Susy A,Eisenach James C,Martin Thomas J Pain Pain alters cognitive performance through centrally mediated effects in the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that persistent activation of peripheral nociceptors after injury would lead to the development of a chronic pain state that impairs attention-related behavior and results in changes in peripheral neuron phenotypes. Attentional performance was measured in rats using the 5-choice serial reaction time titration variant to determine the initial impact of partial L5 spinal nerve ligation and the effect of persistent nociceptor activation on the resolution of injury. The changes in peripheral neuronal sensibilities and phenotypes were determined in sensory afferents using electrophysiologic signatures and receptive field properties from dorsal root ganglion recordings. Partial spinal nerve injury impaired attentional performance, and this was further impaired in a graded fashion by nociceptive input through an engineered surface. Impairment in attention persisted for only up to 4 days initially, followed by a second phase 7 to 10 weeks after injury in animals exposed to nociceptive input. In animals with prolonged impairment in behavior, the mechanonociceptors displayed a persistent hypersensitivity marked by decreased threshold, increased activity to a given stimulus, and spontaneous activity. Nerve injury disrupts attentional performance acutely and is worsened with peripheral mechanonociceptor activation. Acute impairment resolves, but persistent nociceptive activation produces re-emergence of impairment in the attention-related task associated with electrophysiological abnormalities in peripheral nociceptors. This is consistent with the development of a chronic pain state marked by cognitive impairment and related to persistently abnormal peripheral input. 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001782
    Ultrasound therapy with optimal intensity facilitates peripheral nerve regeneration in rats through suppression of pro-inflammatory and nerve growth inhibitor gene expression. Ito Akira,Wang Tianshu,Nakahara Ryo,Kawai Hideki,Nishitani Kohei,Aoyama Tomoki,Kuroki Hiroshi PloS one BACKGROUND:Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is a promising physical therapy modality for peripheral nerve regeneration. However, it is necessary to identify the most effective US parameters and clarify the underlying mechanisms before its clinical application. The intensity of US is one of the most important parameters. However, the optimum intensity for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES:To identify the optimum intensity of US necessary for the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injuries in rats and to clarify the underlying mechanisms of US by mRNA expression analysis. METHODS:We inflicted sciatic nerve crush injuries on adult Lewis rats and performed ultrasound irradiation using 4 different US intensities: 0 (sham stimulation), 30, 140, and 250 mW/cm2 with frequency (5 days/week) and duration (5 min/day). We evaluated peripheral nerve regeneration by quantitative real-time PCR one week after injury. Histomorphometric analyses and motor function analysis were evaluated 3 weeks after injury. RESULTS:US stimulation enhanced re-myelination as well as sprouting of axons, especially at an intensity of 140 mW/cm2. mRNA expression revealed that US suppressed the expression of the inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 and the axonal growth inhibitors SEMA3A and GSK3β. CONCLUSIONS:An intensity of 140 mW/cm2 was optimal to support regeneration of the sciatic nerve after a crush injury in rats by, in part, the suppression of pro-inflammatory and nerve growth inhibitor gene expression. 10.1371/journal.pone.0234691