New antiangiogenetic agents and non-small cell lung cancer.
Gridelli C,Rossi A,Maione P
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
New blood vessel formation, known as angiogenesis is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Due to its central role in tumor angiogenesis, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor have been a major focus of basic research and drug development in the field of oncology, including the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Approaches targeting VEGF include monoclonal antibodies and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs). Bevacizumab (Avastin) is an anti-VEGF recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody. A very recent randomized phase III trial demonstrated a statistically significant advantage in median survival favouring the combination of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in the treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC. This study represents the first evidence of superior efficacy of targeted therapy combined with chemotherapy over chemotherapy alone in the treatment of NSCLC. ZD6474 is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase. First evidences of antitumor activity and its excellent toxicity profile make it a promising targeted agent for the treatment of NSCLC. A recent phase I/II study examined the combination of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-TKI erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with non-squamous stage IIIB/IV NSCLC. Data on antitumor activity of this combination have to be considered very promising. Clinical trials of multiple targeted therapy may represent the second generation studies in the treatment of NSCLC.
An update on angiogenesis targeting in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Micaily Ida,Johnson Jennifer,Argiris Athanassios
Cancers of the head & neck
Angiogenesis is an integral aspect of the growth and proliferation of solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and has potential implications in prognosis and treatment of both localized and recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. Therefore, there has been a significant interest in utilizing anti-angiogenic agents either alone or in combination with currently approved and emerging therapies. A phase III randomized trial (E1305) of chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab in the first-line treatment of recurrent/metastatic HNSCC showed an increased response rate and longer progression-free survival but fell short in demonstrating a statistically significant improved survival with bevacizumab. Moreover, toxicity, especially bleeding, was increased. Nevertheless, the study of other anti-angiogenic agents and novel combinations with other therapies, including immunotherapy, remains of interest. Several clinical trials are currently underway.
Targeted therapies for non-small cell lung cancer: an evolving landscape.
Pal Sumanta Kumar,Figlin Robert A,Reckamp Karen
Molecular cancer therapeutics
Over the past decade, a multitude of targeted agents have been explored in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thus far, two broad classes of agents have been implemented in clinical practice: (a) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-directed therapies and (b) antagonists of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the former category, the agent bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody) has shown landmark improvements in survival when added to cytotoxic therapy. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) targeting the VEGF receptor (i.e., sunitinib, sorafenib, and vandetanib) show activity in phase II clinical studies. With respect to EGFR-directed therapies, the TKIs gefitinib and erlotinib have shown significant benefit, and have uncovered valuable information about the biology of lung cancer. Outside of therapies directed specifically at VEGF- and EGFR-mediated signaling, trials evaluating insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-IR)-targeting agents, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, c-met inhibitors, irreversible pan-HER inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are ongoing. Inhibitors of ALK show great promise in patients with the relevant gene translocation. Herein, the clinical development of novel therapies for NSCLC is described, including some discussion of relevant biomarkers and determination of synergy with both cytotoxic therapy and other targeted agents.
Update on antiangiogenic treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor, and is the first antiangiogenic agent to be approved for first-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Evidence from two large phase III trials demonstrates that bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy improves outcomes for patients with non-squamous NSCLC. In patients with adenocarcinoma without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, a median overall survival of 18.0 months is achieved. Several post-registration phase IV studies have confirmed bevacizumab's efficacy and tolerability profile and have clarified the eligibility criteria. Clinical research is still ongoing to define the role of bevacizumab in different settings, such as single-agent bevacizumab for continuation maintenance therapy in advanced disease, treatment beyond disease progression, adjuvant therapy in early-stage NSCLC, or bevacizumab in combination with other targeted agents. A number of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have also been investigated in phase II and III trials. None of these drugs has proven significant clinical benefit in unselected patient populations. This article reviews the extensive information from randomized trials and large observational studies for bevacizumab in advanced NSCLC, and shortly describes the current clinical development of antiangiogenic monoclonal antibodies, TKIs and related compounds.
The Journey of an EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma through Erlotinib, Osimertinib and ABCP Immunotherapy Regimens: Sensitivity and Resistance.
Kibirova Albina,Mattes Malcolm D,Smolkin Matthew,Ma Patrick C
Case reports in oncology
Patients with epidermal growth factor receptor () mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have several EGFR targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) available in frontline management. However, the disease will inevitably progress over time due to acquired resistance. Longitudinal tumor profiling for genomics guided therapy is indicated upon disease progression. It is a common scenario yet, when after failure of EGFR-TKIs, potentially actionable genomic alterations are lacking. Management of such patient is challenging with very limited options available. Combination of chemotherapy, anti-vascular/anti-angiogenic and immune-checkpoint inhibitors may become a salvage option for such patients. Here we describe a case of TKI refractory -mutant NSCLC successfully treated with carboplatin, paclitaxel, atezolizumab and bevacizumab combination with remarkable prompt tumor response.
Therapeutic options for advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer: a Bayesian network secondary analysis.
Zeng Xinmin,Wan Xuan,Xu Jun,Wang Hui,Chen Hua,Zeng Qinghua,Zhang Wenxiong,Zhao Binghao
The most favorable treatments for advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC are less indicated. Forty-one studies were eligible for this Bayesian network secondary analysis. For PFS, erlotinib (Erlo)+bevacizumab (Bev) (HR 0.26, 95% CrI: 0.08-0.75 vs placebo), osimertinib (Osi) (HR 0.29, 0.11-0.70 vs placebo), and afatinib (Afa) were top-ranking individual treatments, while immunotherapy (IT)+anti-VEGFR (aVEGFR)+platinum-based therapy (Plat) (HR 0.42, 0.06-2.63 vs placebo), EGFR-TKI (ET)+aVEGFR (HR 0.35, 0.14-0.85 vs placebo), and ET+aVEGFR+Plat were top-ranking medication classes. For OS, Osi (HR 0.52, 0.10-2.00 vs placebo), cetuximab (Cet)+Bev+Plat (HR 0.51, 0.06-3.38 vs placebo), and cilengitide (Cil)+Cet+Plat were top-ranking individual treatments, while ET+aVEGFR+Plat, ET+Plat, and third-generation EGFR-TKI (3 ET) were top-ranking medication classes. For PFS regarding the EGFR genomic aberration status, Erlo+Bev, Osi, and Afa were superior for exon 19 deletion status, whereas ET+Bev, Osi, and gefitinib (Gef)+pemetrexed (Peme) were excellent for exon 21 L858Arg mutation status. The results were consistent in terms of the ORR and DoR and remained robust across sensitivity analyses. However, Erlo + Bev had the most grade 3 or higher adverse events. Osi, Erlo+Bev, and Erlo+Bev+Plat are reasonably recommended to balance PFS and OS, but adverse events should be considered. IT+aVEGFR+Plat shows potential superiority, but more clinical evidence is needed.
Phase I/II study of erlotinib, carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer harboring epidermal growth factor receptor mutation.
Kurata Takayasu,Nakaya Aya,Yokoi Takashi,Niki Maiko,Kibata Kayoko,Takeyasu Yuki,Torii Yoshitaro,Katashiba Yuichi,Ogata Makoto,Miyara Takayuki,Nomura Shosaku
Genes & cancer
BACKGROUND:Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly prolong the progression-free survival of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most patients develop tumor regrowth and their prognosis remains poor. A new treatment strategy for NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation is therefore necessary. METHODS:In phase I, eligible patients were administered oral erlotinib daily and intravenous pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab every 3 weeks for four cycles with maintenance of pemetrexed and bevacizumab until progressive disease was observed. The dose of erlotinib was 100 mg for dose level 1 and 150 mg for dose level 2. The doses of pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab were fixed at 500 mg/m, area under the concentration-time curve of 6 mg/mL · min, and 15 mg/kg, respectively. The dose-limiting toxicities were grade 3/4 neutropenia with fever or infection, grade 4 leukopenia lasting for ≥7 days, grade 4 thrombocytopenia, grade 3/4 uncontrollable nonhematological toxicity, and delayed administration of the subsequent cycle by >2 weeks because of adverse events. RESULTS:Six patients were enrolled in phase I (dose level 1, n = 3; dose level 2, n = 3). During the induction phase, grade 3 neutropenia without fever was observed in one patient at dose level 1 and two patients at dose level 2. Grade 3 anemia was reported in one patient at dose level 1 and grade 3 thrombocytopenia was reported in two patients at dose level 1 and dose level 2, respectively. CONCLUSION:Four-drug combination therapy is a feasible and promising.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor combination therapy in first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: systematic review and network meta-analysis.
Batson Sarah,Mitchell Stephen A,Windisch Ricarda,Damonte Elisabetta,Munk Veronica C,Reguart Noemi
OncoTargets and therapy
INTRODUCTION:The introduction of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) has improved the outlook for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with + mutations. However, most patients develop resistance, with the result that median progression-free survival (PFS) iŝ12 months. Combining EGFR-TKIs with other agents, such as bevacizumab, is a promising approach to prolonging remission. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were undertaken to assess available evidence regarding the benefits of first-line combination therapy involving EGFR-TKIs in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS:Literature searches were performed using relevant search terms. Study-level pseudo-individual patient-level data (IPD) were recreated from digitized Kaplan-Meier curve data, using a published algorithm. Study IPD were analyzed using both the proportional hazards and the acceleration failure time (AFT) survival models, and it was concluded that the AFT model was most appropriate. An NMA was performed based on acceleration factors (AFs) using a Bayesian framework to compare EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy. RESULTS:Nine randomized controlled trials were identified that provided data for EGFR-TKI therapy in patients with + tumors. These included studies of afatinib (n=3), erlotinib (n=3), erlotinib plus bevacizumab (n=1) and gefitinib (n=2). Erlotinib plus bevacizumab produced the greatest increase in PFS compared with chemotherapy, with 1/AF being 0.24 (95% credible interval [CrI] 0.17, 0.34). This combination also produced greater increases in PFS compared with EGFR-TKI monotherapy: 1/AF versus afatinib, 0.51 (95% CrI 0.35, 0.73); versus erlotinib, 0.53 (95% CrI 0.39, 0.72) and versus gefitinib, 0.46 (95% CrI 0.32, 0.66). All three EGFR-TKI monotherapies prolonged PFS compared with chemotherapy; estimates of treatment effect ranged from 1/AF 0.53 (95% CrI 0.48, 0.60) for gefitinib to 1/AF 0.46 (95% CrI 0.40, 0.53) for erlotinib. There was no evidence for differences between EGFR-TKI monotherapies, as all 95% CrIs included the null value. CONCLUSION:Although data for erlotinib plus bevacizumab came from a single Phase 2 study, the results of the NMA suggest that adding bevacizumab to erlotinib may be a promising approach to improving the outcomes achieved with EGFR-TKI monotherapy in patients with advanced + NSCLC.
Pemetrexed/carboplatin plus gefitinib as a first-line treatment for EGFR-mutant advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: a Bayesian network meta-analysis.
Zhang Zhonghan,Zeng Kangmei,Zhao Shen,Zhao Yuanyuan,Hou Xue,Luo Fan,Lu Feiteng,Zhang Yaxiong,Zhou Ting,Ma Yuxiang,Yang Yunpeng,Fang Wenfeng,Huang Yan,Zhang Li,Zhao Hongyun
Therapeutic advances in medical oncology
Background:First-line treatments for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations have been evaluated in various clinical trials. However, it remains unclear which is the optimal treatment. Methods:A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to assess the efficacy and safety profile of gefitinib, erlotinib, afatinib, dacomitinib, osimertinib, erlotinib plus bevacizumab and pemetrexed/carboplatin, or pemetrexed alone plus gefitinib. Literature was sourced from electronic databases. Data regarding objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs), treatment-related adverse event grades 3-5 (TRAE 3-5), specific TRAEs [diarrhea, rash, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT)] were extracted. The regimens were then ranked using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Results:A total of 19 studies involving 4607 EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients were analyzed. In regards to efficacy, pemetrexed/carboplatin (PC) plus gefitinib was superior in ORR and OS to chemotherapy and first-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). All the TKI-based regimens had equivalent DCR and PFS. Patients with the L858R mutation treated with PC plus gefitinib achieved a better outcome than most EGFR TKI-related groups (except osimertinib) in the PFS subgroup. In regards to safety, no statistical significance for TRAEs was observed among the eight treatments. In regards to SUCRA, PC plus gefitinib ranked first in terms of PFS, OS, and TRAE grades 3-5. Conclusions:Pemetrexed/carboplatin plus gefitinib is a promising treatment option for EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients in the first-line setting.
Efficacy and Safety of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitors Plus Antiangiogenic Agents as First-Line Treatments for Patients With Advanced -Mutated Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Chen Fei,Chen Naifei,Yu Yu,Cui Jiuwei
Frontiers in oncology
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are standard treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with epidermal growth factor receptor () mutations. Increasing clinical investigations have explored the value of EGFR-TKIs plus antiangiogenic drugs as the first-line treatment for -mutated NSCLC. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating EGFR-TKIs administered with or without antiangiogenic agents for advanced -mutated NSCLC. The latest RCT that was presented orally at the 2019 European Society for Medical Oncology Congress was obtained online. The endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rates (DCRs), and grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs). We included seven articles on five trials with 1,226 patients. The interventions for the experimental group were the first-generation EGFR-TKI erlotinib combined with bevacizumab (four studies) or ramucirumab (one study), and erlotinib monotherapy (four studies) or erlotinib plus placebo (one study) for the control group. All studies reached their primary study endpoints (i.e., PFS). Compared to erlotinib monotherapy, erlotinib plus antiangiogenic agents remarkably prolonged PFS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.69, = 0.000]; however, ORR, DCR, and OS were similar between the two groups. The overall grade 3-5 AEs increased in combination group (OR = 5.772, 95% CI = 2.38-13.94, = 0.000), particularly the incidence of diarrhea (OR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.21-5.23, = 0.014), acneiform (OR = 1.815, 95% CI = 1.084-3.037, = 0.023), hypertension (OR = 6.77, 95% CI = 3.62-12.66, = 0.000), and proteinuria (OR = 13.48, 95% CI = 4.11-44.22, = 0.000). Additionally, subgroup analysis demonstrated that Asian patients could significantly benefit from combination therapy (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.50-0.69, = 0.000). Patients with deletions (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.49-0.75, = 0.000) and mutations (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.47-0.73, = 0.000) had almost equivalent PFS benefits when treated with double-blocking therapy. Patients with brain metastases at baseline in the combination group had a trend toward better PFS (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-1.01, = 0.001). Erlotinib plus bevacizumab or ramucirumab in EFGR-mutated NSCLC first-line setting yielded remarkable PFS benefits; however, this was accompanied by higher AEs. Epidermal growth factor receptor-TKI plus antiangiogenic agent therapy may be considered a new option for advanced -mutated NSCLC patients.
Efficacy and safety of chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with bevacizumab versus chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors alone in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sun Li,Ma Jie-Tao,Zhang Shu-Ling,Zou Hua-Wei,Han Cheng-Bo
Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
The meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors combined with bevacizumab versus chemotherapy or tyrosine kinase inhibitors alone in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The PubMed/MEDLINE, Ovid, Web of Science, CNKI, and the Cochrane Library database were searched for eligible randomized controlled trials comparing the combination of chemotherapy or epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) with bevacizumab to chemotherapy or EGFR-TKI alone. Main outcome measures were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and adverse effects. The pooled data were analyzed by STATA 12.0 and expressed as hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR), with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Nine eligible trials comprising 3,547 patients (1,779 for bevacizumab and 1,768 for controls) were included in the study. Chemotherapy or TKIs in combination with bevacizumab significantly prolonged PFS (HRpfs 0.72, 95 % CIpfs 0.66-0.79, P pfs < 0.001) and OS (HRos 0.90, 95 % CIos 0.82-0.99, P os = 0.029) as first-line treatment for NSCLC compared with chemotherapy or TKIs alone. Bevacizumab combination regimens significantly prolonged PFS (HR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.52-0.74, P < 0.001) as second-line treatment; however, no benefit regarding OS was observed with the addition of bevacizumab (HR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.78-1.12, P = 0.479). The bevacizumab group showed increased ORR in both first- and second-line treatments. The high-dose bevacizumab subgroup in combination with chemotherapy showed a statistically significant improvement in OS, PFS, and ORR (HRos 0.89, 95 % CIos 0.80-0.99, P os 0.037; HRpfs 0.71, 95 % CIpfs 0.64-0.79, P pfs < 0.01, RRorr 1.85, 95 % CIorr 1.59-2.15, P orr < 0.001, respectively); however, the low-dose bevacizumab subgroup did not show enhanced OS (HRos 0.91, 95 % CIos 0.77-1.07, P os = 0.263), and a moderate improvement of PFS and ORR (HRpfs 0.85, 95 % CIpfs 0.72-1.00, P pfs = 0.049; RRorr 1.60, 95 % CIorr 1.28-2.0, P orr < 0.001). Erlotinib in combination with bevacizumab significantly prolonged PFS (HR 0.60, P < 0.001, 95 % CI 0.51-0.71) and increased ORR (RR 1.21, 95 % CI 0.98-1.49, P = 0.067) compared with erlotinib alone. A higher incidence of grade ≥3 adverse events such as proteinuria, hypertension, and hemorrhage was observed in the bevacizumab combination group than in the control group without bevacizumab (P all < 0.05). The addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy or erlotinib can significantly improve PFS and ORR both in first- and second-line treatments of advanced NSCLC, with an acceptable risk of bleeding events, hypertension, proteinuria, and rash. Combination therapy with bevacizumab and chemotherapy is beneficial regarding OS; however, whether bevacizumab plus erlotinib can prolong OS need further validation.
Evaluation of plasma EGFR mutation as an early predictor of response of erlotinib plus bevacizumab treatment in the NEJ026 study.
Fukuhara Tatsuro,Saito Haruhiro,Furuya Naoki,Watanabe Kana,Sugawara Shunichi,Iwasawa Shunichiro,Tsunezuka Yoshio,Yamaguchi Ou,Okada Prof Morihito,Yoshimori Kozo,Nakachi Ichiro,Gemma Prof Akihiko,Azuma Koichi,Kurimoto Futoshi,Tsubata Yukari,Fujita Yuka,Nagashima Hiromi,Asai Gyo,Watanabe Satoshi,Miyazaki Masaki,Hagiwara Prof Koichi,Nukiwa Prof Toshihiro,Morita Prof Satoshi,Kobayashi Prof Kunihiko,Maemondo Prof Makoto
BACKGROUND:The NEJ026 Phase 3 study demonstrated that erlotinib and bevacizumab (BE)-treated NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations had significantly better progression-free survival (PFS) than those treated with erlotinib alone (E). This study included a prospective analysis of the relationship between the mutational status of EGFR in plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and the efficacy of TKI monotherapy or combination therapy. We describe these results herein. METHODS:Plasma samples were collected from patients enrolled in NEJ026 at the start of treatment (P0), 6 weeks after the start of treatment (P1), and upon confirmation of progressive disease (P2). Plasma ctDNA was analyzed using a modified PNA-LNA PCR clamp method. PFS and OS according to EGFR status at the time of plasma collection were evaluated. FINDINGS:Plasma activating EGFR mutation (aEGFR) at P0 was detected in 68% of cases; patients without plasma aEGFR had longer PFS. The frequency of T790M mutation at P2 was similar in both arms: 8 (19.0%) in BE and 11 (20.8%) in E. Based on the aEGFR profiles, PFS was evaluated among three groups: type A [P0(-), P1(-)], type B [P0(+), P1(-)], and type C [P0(+), P1(+)]. This revealed that BE was more efficacious than E, and that BE was associated with improved PFS in all types. INTERPRETATION:Pre-treatment plasma aEGFR status have a potential of early predictor of response of TKI efficacy. Monitoring plasma aEGFR mutation will contribute to selection and continuation of treatment with BE or E. FUNDING:Chugai Pharmaceutical.
Comprehensive characterization and clinical impact of concomitant genomic alterations in EGFR-mutant NSCLCs treated with EGFR kinase inhibitors.
Cheng Ying,Ma Lixia,Liu Ying,Zhu Jing,Xin Ying,Liu Xianhong,Wang Ying,Zhang Tingting,Yang Changliang,Wang Sheng,Cui Hongxia,Zhang Liang,Dai Jixin,Shao Lin,Lin Jing,Ye Junyi,Liu Hao
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES:Although the majority of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients respond to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), significant heterogeneity in clinical response is observed which might be attributed to the distinct sub-molecular characteristics. The present study aims to identify genetic alterations correlated with clinical outcomes and treatment response to different EGFR-TKI inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We integrated the genomic data and clinical outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 179 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant NSCLC who were treated with EGFR-TKI as 1st line of treatment. RESULTS:We found that EGFR-mutant patients harboring concomitant TP53 mutation (OS: 21 vs. 40 months, P = 0.05), ERBB2 amplification (PFS: 6.1 vs. 12.5 months, P = 0.01) or FGF19 amplification (OS: 11.2 vs. 27.1 months, P = 0.01) were significantly associated with a poorer clinical prognosis after treated with 1st generation EGFR-TKI. In contrast, the presence of TP53 mutation did not affect the PFS nor OS of patients treated with 2nd generation EGFR-TKI. Furthermore, EGFR-mutant and TP53-wild type (WT) patients benefited more from a combinatorial treatment consisting of EGFR-TKI and bevacizumab comparing to EGFR-TKI as a single agent (PFS: 21.7 vs. 9.3 months, P < 0.01). Copy number variation (CNV) (PFS: 4.6 vs.9.4 months, p = 0.018) was identified as an unfavorable predictive factor to 3rd-generation TKI. We also revealed distinct resistance mechanisms associated with different EGFR-TKIs. CONCLUSION:Our study highlights the heterogeneity both in the primary molecular landscape and acquired alterations in EGFR-mutated NSCLCs, which might play a role in determining the clinical efficacy of EGFR-TKIs. We also revealed the differential prognostic role of TP53 mutation in patients treated with the 1st or 2nd generation of EGFR-TKI. Our study also suggests that EGFR-mutant and TP53-WT patients may benefit more from combinatorial treatment consisting of EGFR-TKI and bevacizumab, highlighting the importance of further stratifying EGFR-mutant patients.
Paired Phase II Studies of Erlotinib/Bevacizumab for Advanced Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma or Never Smokers With Advanced Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: SWOG S0635 and S0636 Trials.
West Howard L,Moon James,Wozniak Antoinette J,Mack Philip,Hirsch Fred R,Bury Martin J,Kwong Myron,Nguyen Dorothy D,Moore Dennis F,Miao Jieling,Redman Mary,Kelly Karen,Gandara David R
Clinical lung cancer
BACKGROUND:Before mutation testing of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene was recognized as highly associated with the activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), clinically defined patient populations with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and never smokers were identified as likely to benefit from EGFR TKIs. From preclinical and clinical data suggesting potentially improved efficacy with a combination of an EGFR TKI and the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab, the Southwestern Oncology Group (SWOG) initiated paired phase II trials to evaluate the combination of erlotinib/bevacizumab in patients with advanced BAC (SWOG S0635) or never smokers with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (SWOG S0636). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Eligible patients with BAC or adenocarcinoma with BAC features (SWOG S0635) or never smokers with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (SWOG S0636) received erlotinib 150 mg/day with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg until progression or prohibitive toxicity. Never smokers with BAC were preferentially enrolled to SWOG S0636. The primary endpoint for both trials was overall survival. RESULTS:A total of 84 patients were enrolled in the SWOG S0635 trial and 85 in the SWOG S0636 trial. The objective response rate was 22% (3% complete response) in the SWOG S0635 trial and 50% (38% confirmed; 3% complete response) in the SWOG S0636 trial. The median progression-free survival was 5 and 7.4 months in the S0635 and S0636 trials, respectively. The median overall survival was 21 and 29.8 months, respectively. Toxicity consisted mainly of rash and diarrhea in both trials. CONCLUSION:Although the field has moved toward molecular, rather than clinical, selection of patients as optimal candidates for EGFR TKI therapy, these results support the hypothesis that a subset of patients in whom erlotinib is particularly active could receive an incremental benefit from the addition of bevacizumab.
Overcoming resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer, focusing on non-T790M mechanisms.
Suda Kenichi,Rivard Christopher J,Mitsudomi Tetsuya,Hirsch Fred R
Expert review of anticancer therapy
INTRODUCTION:despite initial dramatic efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients, emergence of acquired resistance is almost inevitable. The EGFR T790M secondary mutation that accounts for ~50% of resistance is now treatable with osimertinib. However, for the remaining 50% of patients who develop resistance mechanisms other than T790M mutation, cytotoxic chemotherapies are still the standard of care and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss current experimental and clinical evidence to develop better treatment strategies to overcome or prevent acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs in lung cancers, focusing on non-T790M mechanisms. Expert commentary: There are numerous non-T790M resistant mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, and therefore, strategies that can be applied to many of these resistance mechanisms may be reasonable and useful in clinical practice. Although the combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy plus an EGFR-TKI has proved to be detrimental following front-line EGFR-TKI treatment failure, promising experimental and/or early clinical data have been reported for the combination of bevacizumab or anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody plus EGFR-TKIs. Upfront polytherapy, which co-targets potential resistance mechanisms or other important signaling for EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells, is also a promising strategy.
Efficacy of third-line pemetrexed monotherapy versus pemetrexed combination with bevacizumab in patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma.
Zhou Cheng-Zhi,Qin Yin-Yin,Xie Zhan-Hong,Zhang Jie-Xia,Ou-Yang Ming,Li Shi-Yue,Chen Rong-Chang
Chinese journal of cancer research = Chung-kuo yen cheng yen chiu
OBJECTIVE:The purposes of this study were to observe the effects of different treatment strategies, including third-line pemetrexed alone versus its combination with bevacizumab, in patients with advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma, and to analyze the effects of the different medication orders of first- and second-line drugs on third-line efficacy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:One hundred and sixteen cases of patients with EGFR-positive lung adenocarcinoma who had received third-line pemetrexed alone or in combination with bevacizumab between March 2010 and March 2014 at Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University were analyzed retrospectively. Additionally, all the patients were treated with first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy and second-line EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) or with first-line EGFR-TKI and second-line GP chemotherapy. RESULTS:The median survival of 61 cases with third-line pemetrexed monotherapy was 36.22 months, the median survival time of 55 cases with third-line pemetrexed plus bevacizumab was 38.76 months, and there was a significant difference in survival time between the two groups (P=0.04). Subgroup analysis revealed that among the 55 cases with third-line bevacizumab plus pemetrexed treatment, the median survival of 29 patients with first-line GP and second-line EGFR-TKI was 42.80 months, while the median survival of 26 patients with first-line EGFR-TKI and second-line GP was only 34.46 months; additionally, there was a significant difference in the survival time between the two subgroups (P=0.001). Among 61 cases with third-line pemetrexed treatment, the median survival of 34 patients with first-line GP and second-line EGFR-TKI was 38.72 months, while the median survival of 27 patients with first-line EGFR-TKI and second-line GP was only 32.94 months; the survival time of the two subgroups was significantly different (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Regardless of the order of the first- and second-line chemotherapy and TKI therapy, the pemetrexed plus bevacizumab regimen was superior to the pemetrexed monotherapy as the third-line therapy in patients with advanced EGFR-positive lung adenocarcinoma. However, this strategy is worth further investigation in prospective studies.
Combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blockade inhibits tumor growth in xenograft models of EGFR inhibitor resistance.
Naumov George N,Nilsson Monique B,Cascone Tina,Briggs Alexandra,Straume Oddbjorn,Akslen Lars A,Lifshits Eugene,Byers Lauren Averett,Xu Li,Wu Hua-Kang,Jänne Pasi,Kobayashi Susumu,Halmos Balazs,Tenen Daniel,Tang Xi M,Engelman Jeffrey,Yeap Beow,Folkman Judah,Johnson Bruce E,Heymach John V
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE:The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib and erlotinib benefit some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but most do not respond (primary resistance) and those who initially respond eventually progress (acquired resistance). EGFR TKI resistance is not completely understood and has been associated with certain EGFR and K-RAS mutations and MET amplification. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We hypothesized that dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR pathways may overcome primary and acquired resistance. We investigated the VEGF receptor/EGFR TKI vandetanib, and the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in vivo using xenograft models of EGFR TKI sensitivity, primary resistance, and three models of acquired resistance, including models with mutated K-RAS and secondary EGFR T790M mutation. RESULTS:Vandetanib, gefitinib, and erlotinib had similar profiles of in vitro activity and caused sustained tumor regressions in vivo in the sensitive HCC827 model. In all four resistant models, vandetanib and bevacizumab/erlotinib were significantly more effective than erlotinib or gefitinib alone. Erlotinib resistance was associated with a rise in both host and tumor-derived VEGF but not EGFR secondary mutations in the KRAS mutant-bearing A549 xenografts. Dual inhibition reduced tumor endothelial proliferation compared with VEGF or EGFR blockade alone, suggesting that the enhanced activity of dual inhibition is due at least in part to antiendothelial effects. CONCLUSION:These studies suggest that erlotinib resistance may be associated with a rise in both tumor cell and host stromal VEGF and that combined blockade of the VEGFR and EGFR pathways can abrogate primary or acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. This approach merits further evaluation in NSCLC patients.
Investigation of efficacy and acquired resistance for EGFR-TKI plus bevacizumab as first-line treatment in patients with EGFR sensitive mutant non-small cell lung cancer in a Real world population.
Zeng Liang,Xiao Lili,Jiang Wenjuan,Yang Haiyan,Hu Dandan,Xia Chen,Li Yizhi,Zhou Chunhua,Xiong Yi,Liu Li,Liao Dehua,Guan Rui,Li Kunyan,Wang Jing,Zhang Yongchang,Yang Nong,Mansfield Aaron S
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, T) plus bevacizumab (an antiangiogenic therapy, A) in a real-world population and to provide insights into their mechanism of resistance. METHODS:This study included 256 NSCLC patients harboring EGFR sensitizing mutations (EGFR 19del and L858R) who underwent nextgeneration sequencing (NGS) with 168-gene panel prior to treatment between Jan 2015 to Aug 2018. Cohort A included 60 patients treated with A + T; while cohort B consisted of 120 patients treated with EGFR-TKI monotherapy with the patients identified using Propensity Score Matching (Ratio of 1:2). Clinical outcomes and potential resistance mechanism were evaluated. RESULTS:Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different between Cohort A and B. Compared with cohort B, cohort A had significantly better overall response rate (95% vs 74.2%, p = 0.001) and longer median progression-free survival (PFS, 16.5m vs.12.0 m, HR = 0.7, p = 0.001). Until Jan 2019, 31 and 103 patients in cohort A and B, respectively, were evaluated with progressive disease and underwent tissue re-biopsy and NGS profiling with 168-gene panel. In cohort B, T790M was the predominant acquired resistance mechanism, detected in 51.5% (53/103) of progressive tumors, followed by amplifications in EGFR (15.5%, 16/103) and MET (6.8%, 7/103). Contrastingly, cohort A had a significantly lower rate of T790 M mutation (35.5%, 11/31, p = 0.0003), followed by mutations in TP53 (29.0%, 9/31), RB1 (9.7%, 3/31), SMAD4 (3.2%, 1/31) and EGFR V834 L (3.2%, 1/31) and amplifications in EGFR (9.7%, 3/31), and MET(6.5%, 2/31). CONCLUSION:Treatment with first-line A + T significantly extends the time to progression and increases the response rate with acceptable safety profile. T790 M was the most common acquired resistance mechanism but it was less common in patients who received A + T.
Erlotinib plus bevacizumab versus erlotinib alone in patients with EGFR-positive advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NEJ026): interim analysis of an open-label, randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial.
Saito Haruhiro,Fukuhara Tatsuro,Furuya Naoki,Watanabe Kana,Sugawara Shunichi,Iwasawa Shunichiro,Tsunezuka Yoshio,Yamaguchi Ou,Okada Morihito,Yoshimori Kozo,Nakachi Ichiro,Gemma Akihiko,Azuma Koichi,Kurimoto Futoshi,Tsubata Yukari,Fujita Yuka,Nagashima Hiromi,Asai Gyo,Watanabe Satoshi,Miyazaki Masaki,Hagiwara Koichi,Nukiwa Toshihiro,Morita Satoshi,Kobayashi Kunihiko,Maemondo Makoto
The Lancet. Oncology
BACKGROUND:Resistance to first-generation or second-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) monotherapy develops in almost half of patients with EGFR-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after 1 year of treatment. The JO25567 phase 2 trial comparing erlotinib plus bevacizumab combination therapy with erlotinib monotherapy established the activity and manageable toxicity of erlotinib plus bevacizumab in patients with NSCLC. We did a phase 3 trial to validate the results of the JO25567 study and report here the results from the preplanned interim analysis. METHODS:In this prespecified interim analysis of the randomised, open-label, phase 3 NEJ026 trial, we recruited patients with stage IIIB-IV disease or recurrent, cytologically or histologically confirmed non-squamous NSCLC with activating EGFR genomic aberrations from 69 centres across Japan. Eligible patients were at least 20 years old, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower, no previous chemotherapy for advanced disease, and one or more measurable lesions based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (1.1). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral erlotinib 150 mg per day plus intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg once every 21 days, or erlotinib 150 mg per day monotherapy. Randomisation was done by minimisation, stratified by sex, smoking status, clinical stage, and EGFR mutation subtype. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. This study is ongoing; the data cutoff for this prespecified interim analysis was Sept 21, 2017. Efficacy was analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of treatment and had at least one response evaluation. Safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry, number UMIN000017069. FINDINGS:Between June 3, 2015, and Aug 31, 2016, 228 patients were randomly assigned to receive erlotinib plus bevacizumab (n=114) or erlotinib alone (n=114). 112 patients in each group were evaluable for efficacy, and safety was evaluated in 112 patients in the combination therapy group and 114 in the monotherapy group. Median follow-up was 12·4 months (IQR 7·0-15·7). At the time of interim analysis, median progression-free survival for patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group was 16·9 months (95% CI 14·2-21·0) compared with 13·3 months (11·1-15·3) for patients in the erlotinib group (hazard ratio 0·605, 95% CI 0·417-0·877; p=0·016). 98 (88%) of 112 patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group and 53 (46%) of 114 patients in the erlotinib alone group had grade 3 or worse adverse events. The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was rash (23 [21%] of 112 patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group vs 24 [21%] of 114 patients in the erlotinib alone group). Nine (8%) of 112 patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group and five (4%) of 114 patients in the erlotinib alone group had serious adverse events. The most common serious adverse events were grade 4 neutropenia (two [2%] of 112 patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group) and grade 4 hepatic dysfunction (one [1%] of 112 patients in the erlotinib plus bevacizumab group and one [1%] of 114 patients in the erlotinib alone group). No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION:The results of this interim analysis showed that bevacizumab plus erlotinib combination therapy improves progression-free survival compared with erlotinib alone in patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC. Future studies with longer follow-up, and overall survival and quality-of-life data will be required to further assess the efficacy of this combination in this setting. FUNDING:Chugai Pharmaceutical.
Additional bevacizumab in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients who had oligo-progression after the failure of EGFR-TKI: A single-institute retrospective study.
Kashiwabara Kosuke,Fujii Shinji,Tsumura Shinsuke,Sakamoto Kazuhiko,Semba Hiroshi
Cancer treatment and research communications
INTRODUCTION:In EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients with oligo-progression disease (oligo-PD) after the EGFR-TKI failure, additional local ablative therapy (LAT) including stereotactic ablative radiotherapy reportedly extends the duration of the current EGFR-TKI and prolongs survival times. In clinical practice, however, all the patients cannot receive LAT for oligo-PD. METHODS:We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of additional bevacizumab as an alternative to LAT for oligo-PD after the EGFR-TKI failure in previously treated lung adenocarcinoma patients (median number of previous therapies, 2 regimens). Oligo-PD was defined as a situation in which disease progression has occurred in less than 5 anatomical sites after EGFR-TKI that has achieved at least stable disease. RESULTS:During a median 29.6-month follow-up period from the initiation of EGFR-TKI, 9 patients developed oligo-PD. One patient underwent LAT, but other 8 patients did not because of a few micro-metastatic lesions (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), no indication of pleurodesis (n = 1), patient refusal (n = 2) or oligo-PD in the LAT treated sites (n = 3). Additional bevacizumab with continuation of the current EGFR-TKI had a disease control rate of 100% and a median time of progression-free survival from additional bevacizumab until another PD was 8.8 months. The reason for the discontinuation was because of another PD (n = 6) or treatment-related adverse events (n = 3). Four patients received sequential therapy and overall survival from additional bevacizumab was 10.1 months. CONCLUSIONS:Additional bevacizumab could be useful for EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma patients with oligo-PD after the EGFR-TKI failure.
TTF-1 Expression Predicts the Merit of Additional Antiangiogenic Treatment in Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Takeuchi Akira,Oguri Tetsuya,Yamashita Yoriko,Sone Kazuki,Fukuda Satoshi,Takakuwa Osamu,Uemura Takehiro,Maeno Ken,Fukumitsu Kensuke,Kanemitsu Yoshihiro,Ohkubo Hirotsugu,Takemura Masaya,Ito Yutaka,Niimi Akio
BACKGROUND/AIM:To investigate whether TTF-1 expression predicts a beneficial response of non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC) patients to bevacizumab. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively screened 118 advanced NS-NSCLC patients who were treated with pemetrexed plus platinum derivatives alone (Bev(-)) or with bevacizumab (Bev(+)), and investigated the relationship between expression of TTF-1 and treatment outcomes. RESULTS:Among the 92 TTF-1-positive patients, clinical outcomes in the Bev(+) group were significantly better than those in the Bev(-) group (response rate, 51.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.027; median progression-free survival, 216 days vs. 137 days, p=0.012). Overall survival in the Bev(+) group tended to be longer than that in the Bev(-) group. However, the addition of bevacizumab to the standard treatment of 26 TTF-1-negative patients offered no clinical benefit. CONCLUSION:TTF-1 expression may serve as a predictive marker to identify patients who may benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to platinum doublet therapy.
Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy plus bevacizumab without bevacizumab maintenance in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Nørøxe Dorte Schou,Wallerek Sandra,Sørensen Jens Benn
BACKGROUND:We report on a retrospective, consecutive non-randomized group of patients who received bevacizumab plus chemotherapy without bevazicumab maintenance. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients with adenocarcinoma subtype of NSCLC and advanced disease received carboplatin and vinorelbine together with bevazicumab for four cycles without bevazicumab maintenance. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR) and toxicity were reviewed. RESULTS:A total of 30 consecutive patients were included in a period of two years. RR, bleeding, thromboembolic and haematological complications were comparable to those of the literature. Median OS and PFS were 8.8 and 4.5 months for patients with performance status (PS) 0-1, while they were 2.6 and 1.2 months for those with PS 2, p-values being 0.006 and 0.039, respectively. CONCLUSION:The effect of maintenance bevazicumab on OS has not yet been established but it has been proven as being favourable on PFS. Our data suggest that patients with PS 2 should not receive this treatment.
Phase II Trial of Carboplatin and Pemetrexed Plus Bevacizumab with Maintenance Bevacizumab as a First-line Treatment for Advanced Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients.
Takeoka Hiroaki,Yamada Kazuhiko,Naito Yoshiko,Matsuo Norikazu,Ishii Hidenobu,Tokito Takaaki,Azuma Koichi,Ichiki Masao,Hoshino Tomoaki
BACKGROUND/AIM:The combination of platinum-doublet chemotherapy with bevacizumab has been established as a first-line treatment option in non-elderly patients with non-squamous (non-sq) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the safety and efficacy of this regimen have not yet been fully established in elderly patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Chemo-naïve patients with non-sq NSCLC, aged ≥75 years, having a good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1) and adequate organ function were considered eligible. Patients received carboplatin (area under the curve=5 mg/ml/min), pemetrexed (500 mg/m), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) every 3 weeks for up to 4 cycles, followed by maintenance bevacizumab. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR; target=50%, threshold=30%; Simon's two-stage design), and the secondary endpoints were safety, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Twelve patients were enrolled from June 2013 to July 2017. The study was closed because of slow patient accrual. The median patient age was 80 years. Eleven patients (92%) completed 4 cycles of induction chemotherapy. Seven patients achieved a partial response (PR), yielding an ORR of 58%. The median PFS was 8.4 [95% confidence interval (CI)=4.4-10.5] months, and the median OS was 33.9 (95%CI=13.2-43.3) months. Toxicities were generally mild and consistent with previous reports. There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION:A regimen comprising carboplatin and pemetrexed plus bevacizumab followed by maintenance bevacizumab is feasible and potentially efficacious in elderly patients with non-sq NSCLC.
EAGLES study: First-line Bevacizumab in Combination with Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Advanced, Metastatic, Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
DE Marinis Filippo,Bidoli Paolo,Luciani Andrea,Amoroso Domenico,Tonini Giuseppe,Bertolini Alessandro,Brandes Alba A,Migliorino Maria Rita,Favaretto Adolfo,Gridelli Cesare
BACKGROUND/AIM:The management of elderly patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC includes several strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients (≥70 years) were randomly assigned to bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v. on day 1) plus gemcitabine (1,200 mg/m i.v. on days 1-8) (arm A) or bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg i.v.) and cisplatin (60 mg/m i.v.) plus gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m i.v. on days 1-8) (arm B), to independently evaluate treatments. The primary endpoint was progression-free rate at 6 months; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety profiles. RESULTS:At 6 months, 5 (11.6%) patients in arm A and 5 patients (12.5%) in arm B were found to be progression-free. Median PFS was 4.8 months in arm A and 6.5 months in arm B, respectively. CONCLUSION:In our experience, combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy had encouraging anti-tumor efficacy as first-line therapy in elderly patients with non-squamous NSCLC.
Randomized phase II study of pemetrexed or pemetrexed plus bevacizumab for elderly patients with previously untreated non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer: Results of the Lung Oncology Group in Kyushu (LOGIK1201).
Fukuda Minoru,Kitazaki Takeshi,Ogawara Daiki,Ichiki Masao,Mukae Hiroshi,Maruyama Riichiroh,Nakagaki Noriaki,Shimada Midori,Ikeda Takaya,Kishimoto Junji,Harada Taishi,Seto Takashi,Ebi Noriyuki,Takayama Koichi,Okamoto Isamu,Ichinose Yukito,Sugio Kenji
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and safety, we conducted a randomized phase II study of pemetrexed (Pem) versus Pem + bevacizumab (Bev) for elderly patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSqNSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:The eligibility criteria were as follows: NSqNSCLC, no prior therapy, stage IIIB/IV disease or postoperative recurrence, age: ≥75 years, performance status (PS): 0-1, and adequate bone marrow function. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive Pem or Pem + Bev. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were the response rate, OS, toxicities, and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS:Forty-one patients were enrolled and 40 (20 from each group) were assessable. Their characteristics were as follows: male/female = 23/17; median age (range) = 78 (75-83); stage IIIB/IV/postoperative recurrence = 1/30/9; PS 0/1 = 11/29. All cases involved adenocarcinoma. There was no significant intergroup difference in PFS and the median PFS (95% confidence interval) values of the Pem and Pem + Bev groups were 5.4 (3.0-7.4) and 5.5 (3.6-9.9) months, respectively (p = 0.66). The response rate was significantly higher in the Pem + Bev group (15% vs. 55%, p = 0.0146), and there was no significant difference in OS (median: 16.0 vs. 16.4 months, p = 0.58). Grade 3 and 4 leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia were seen in 10 and 30, 20 and 55, and 5 and 5 cases, respectively. Drug costs were higher in the Pem + Bev group (median: 1,522,008 vs. 3,368,428 JPY, p = 0.01). No treatment-related deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS:Adding Bev to Pem did not result in improved survival in the elderly NSqNSCLC patients. Compared with Pem + Bev, Pem monotherapy had similar effects on survival, a more favorable toxicity profile, and was more cost-effective in elderly NSqNSCLC patients. Pem monotherapy might be one of the optional regimen for NSqNSCLC patients aged ≥75 years.
Feasibility study of first-line chemotherapy using Pemetrexed and Bevacizumab for advanced or recurrent nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer in elderly patients: TORG1015.
Kozuki Toshiyuki,Nogami Naoyuki,Kitajima Hiromoto,Iwasawa Shunichiro,Sakaida Emiko,Takiguchi Yuichi,Ikeda Satoshi,Yoshida Masahiro,Kato Terufumi,Miyamoto Shingo,Sakamaki Kentaro,Shinkai Tetsu,Watanabe Koshiro
BACKGROUND:The addition of bevacizumab to cytotoxic agents prolongs survival in patients with nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To date, there is no evidence to suggest that treatment with a cytotoxic agent plus bevacizumab is more effective than a cytotoxic agent alone for nonsquamous NSCLC in elderly patients. We conducted a feasibility study of pemetrexed plus bevacizumab as a first-line treatment for advanced or recurrent nonsquamous NSCLC in elderly patients. METHODS:Major eligibility and exclusion criteria included: chemotherapy-naive status; non-fitness for bolus combination chemotherapy; stage III/IV or relapsed nonsquamous NSCLC; age ≥70; performance status 0-1; absence of brain metastasis; and no history of hemoptysis and thoracic irradiation. Pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) were administered intravenously on day 1, and repeated every 3 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint was safety, and the secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the percentage of patients who completed ≥3 cycles. RESULTS:From October 2010 to April 2012, a total of 12 patients were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity or treatment-related deaths were observed. Three patients achieved PR, and the ORR was 25 %. The median PFS and OS were 5.4 months (95 % CI 1.1-8.8 months) and 13.6 months (95 % CI 5.3-15.6 months), respectively. Seven of 12 patients (58 %) received ≥3 cycles. CONCLUSIONS:Pemetrexed plus bevacizumab in the treatment of elderly patients with nonsquamous NSCLC was well tolerated and shows promise as first-line treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN Clinical Trial Registry; UMIN000004263 . Registered on 25 September, 2010.
Maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab versus pemetrexed monotherapy after induction therapy with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-squamous non small cell lung cancer.
Karayama Masato,Inui Naoki,Fujisawa Tomoyuki,Enomoto Noriyuki,Nakamura Yutaro,Kuroishi Shigeki,Yokomura Koshi,Koshimizu Naoki,Sato Masaki,Toyoshima Mikio,Shirai Toshihiro,Masuda Masafumi,Yamada Takashi,Imokawa Shiro,Suda Takafumi
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
OBJECTIVES:Single agent maintenance therapy is widely accepted for advanced non-squamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is no consensus on the initial and maintenance phase regimens, and the clinical benefit of adding bevacizumab to cytotoxic drugs in the maintenance phase remains unclear. METHODS:Chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-squamous NSCLC were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab or pemetrexed alone, after achieving disease control after four cycles of induction therapy with carboplatin (area under the curve = 6), pemetrexed (500 mg/m(2)), and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg). The primary end-point was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. RESULTS:One hundred ten patients were enrolled in the study, with 55 patients assigned to the two groups. The mean 1-year PFS rate was 43.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.6-59.2%) in the combination maintenance group and 35.2% (95% CI: 22.1-51.0%) in the pemetrexed maintenance group, and the difference was not significant (p = 0.433). Median PFS measured from enrolment was 11.5 months (95% CI: 7.1-19.0) in the combination maintenance group and 7.3 months (95% CI: 5.7-14.1, hazard ratio: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.44-1.19, log-rank p = 0.198) in the pemetrexed maintenance group. Nasal haemorrhage, hypertension, and proteinuria were significantly more frequent in the combination maintenance group, but they were mild and tolerable. CONCLUSION:Both maintenance therapy with pemetrexed alone and pemetrexed and bevacizumab in combination were feasible in patients with non-squamous NSCLC who have achieved disease control after induction therapy with carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab. According to the selection design, differences in the superiority between these maintenance therapies were not demonstrated.
Protective effect of bevacizumab on chemotherapy-related acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.
Hamada Shohei,Ichiyasu Hidenori,Ikeda Tokunori,Inaba Megumi,Kashiwabara Kosuke,Sadamatsu Tomoki,Sato Nahoko,Akaike Kimitaka,Okabayashi Hiroko,Saruwatari Koichi,Tomita Yusuke,Saeki Sho,Hirata Naomi,Yoshinaga Takeshi,Fujii Kazuhiko
BMC pulmonary medicine
BACKGROUND:Acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (AE-ILD) is the most serious complication in lung cancer patients with pre-existing ILD receiving chemotherapy. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pathogenesis of AE-ILD is conflicting. The influence of bevacizumab (Bev), a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, on lung cancer patients with pre-existing ILD remains unclear. We examined the effect of Bev on reducing AE-ILD risk in non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS:We analysed incidence of AE-ILD and outcomes of 48 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with ILD who received first-line chemotherapy with (Bev group, n = 17) and without (non-Bev group, n = 31) Bev between July 2011 and July 2016. Gray's test, which was competing risk analysis during the study period, was performed for both groups. RESULTS:The most common regimen used for first-line chemotherapy was the combination of carboplatin plus pemetrexed (PEM) in both groups. The incidences of chemotherapy-related AE-ILD 120 days after first-line chemotherapy initiation were significantly lower in the Bev than in the non-Bev groups (0% vs. 22.6%, p = 0.037, Gray's test). However, there were no differences in development of progressive disease of lung cancer and other events as the competing risk factors of AE-ILD between the two groups. Only patients receiving PEM-containing regimens also showed a significant difference in the incidence of AE-ILD between the two groups (p = 0.044). The overall-cumulative incidence of AE-ILD during the first-line and subsequent chemotherapy was 29.2% (14 of the 48). The median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the Bev than in the non-Bev groups (8.0 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS:The addition of Bev to chemotherapy regimens may reduce the risk of chemotherapy-related AE-ILD in patients with lung cancer.
A Randomized Phase II Study of Maintenance Bevacizumab, Pemetrexed or Bevacizumab Plus Pemetrexed for Advanced Non-squamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Yoshida Hironori,Kim Young Hak,Sakamori Yuichi,Nagai Hiroki,Ozasa Hiroaki,Kaneda Toshihiko,Yoshioka Hiroshige,Nakagawa Hiroaki,Tomii Keisuke,Okada Asuka,Yoshimura Kenichi,Hirabayashi Masataka,Hirai Toyohiro
BACKGROUND/AIM:Continuation maintenance therapy is standard for advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer; however, the optimal maintenance strategy has yet to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients without disease progression after four cycles of carboplatin (CBDCA)+ pemetrexed (PEM)+ bevacizumab (BEV) were randomized to maintenance therapy with BEV, PEM, or BEV+PEM. The primary endpoint was 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate. RESULTS:Of the 90 patients enrolled, 64 were randomly assigned to maintenance therapy. The 1-year PFS rate was 9.1% in the BEV arm, 19.1% in the PEM arm, and 19.1% in the BEV+PEM arm. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 4.0 and 43.1 months in the BEV arm, 4.5 and 32.0 months in the PEM arm, and 6.4 and 41.8 months in the BEV+PEM arm. CONCLUSION:The median PFS was numerically better in the BEV+PEM arm, but the median OS was not significantly different among the three arms.
Osimertinib compared docetaxel-bevacizumab as third-line treatment in EGFR T790M mutated non-small-cell lung cancer.
Nie Keke,Zhang Zhongfa,Zhang Chunling,Geng Chuanxin,Zhang Ling,Xu Xiajuan,Liu Shichao,Wang Songping,Zhuang Xingjun,Lan Ketao,Ji Youxin
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and toxicity of osimertinib versus docetaxel-bevacizumab as third-line treatment in EGFR T790M mutated NSCLC. METHODS:In this phase 3, open-label, three-center study, we randomly assigned (1:1) previously treated with TKI-chemotherapy or chemotherapy-TKI recurrent or metastatic advanced non-squamous lung cancer patients into two groups. These patients had acquired EGFR T790M resistance mutation confirmed by tumor tissues or serum. One group received oral osimertinib (80 mg/day) and the other group received intravenous infusion docetaxel (75 mg/m) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) every 21 days until disease progression, unacceptable toxic effects or patient death. The primary endpoint of this study was progression-free survival (PFS) and the secondary endpoints were response rates, toxicities and overall survival (OS). This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02959749. RESULTS:A total of 147 patients were treated. Among them, 74 were enrolled in the osimertinib group and 73 were in the docetaxel-bevacizumab group. The median progression-free survival was 10.20 months in the osimertinib group versus 2.95 months in the docetaxel-bevacizumab group (hazard ratio 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12-0.38; P < 0.001). The overall response rate in the osimertinib group was significantly better than in the docetaxel-bevacizumab group (61.6%; 95% CI, 55.5-67.7 versus 8.3%; 95% CI, 1.3-15.3; p < 0.001). Because all the progressed patients in the docetaxel-bevacizumab group crossed over to the osimertinib group, there was no significant difference in the median OS between two groups at the time of last follow-up (hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI, 0.38-1.61; P = .551). The main grade 3 or 4 toxic effects were diarrhea (2.7%) and interstitial lung disease (1.4%) in the osimertinib group and alopecia (15.3%), anorexia (12.5%), neutropenia (9.7%) and nausea (8.3%) in the docetaxel-bevacizumab group. CONCLUSIONS:Osimertinib had higher response rate, longer PFS and milder side effects than docetaxel-bevacizumab in third-line therapy in patients with EGFR T790 M positive advanced NSCLC.
Real world study of regimen containing bevacizumab as first-line therapy in Chinese patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Xing Puyuan,Mu Yuxin,Wang Yan,Hao Xuezhi,Zhu Yixiang,Hu Xingsheng,Wang Hongyu,Liu Peng,Lin Lin,Wang Zhijie,Li Junling
BACKGROUND:Large scale randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that the use of bevacizumab in addition to chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conveys significant survival benefits. We explored the clinical impact of a first-line regimen containing bevacizumab (B+) versus a non-bevacizumab regimen (non-B) in advanced non-squamous NSCLC (NS-NSCLC) patients in a real world setting. METHODS:The medical records of patients with advanced NS-NSCLC who received first-line therapy with or without bevacizumab were retrospectively collected. The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS), with secondary objectives of objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety. Exploratory analysis of EGFR and ALK status was conducted in subgroup. RESULTS:One hundred and forty-nine patients met the selection criteria: 62 in the B+ and 87 in the non-B group. The baseline characteristics were well balanced. In the overall population, the median PFS was significantly longer in the B+ than in the non-B group (9.7 vs. 7.0 months, hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.91; P = 0.0184). Improved trends in both ORR and DCR were observed in the B+ group. In wild-type patients, the median PFS of the B+ was 11.3 compared to 5.5 months in the non-B group (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.91; P = 0.0234). In wild type and unknown populations, the median PFS was 11.3 (B+) compared to 6.0 months (non-B) (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.28-1.02; P = 0.0520). The safety profile was acceptable in both groups and no unexpected findings were observed. CONCLUSION:Our analysis confirmed that a first-line regimen containing bevacizumab showed superior clinical benefits over a non-bevacizumab regimen in Chinese patients with advanced NS-NSCLC in a real world setting.
Randomized phase 2 trial of pemetrexed, pemetrexed/bevacizumab, and pemetrexed/carboplatin/bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2.
Spigel David R,Hainsworth John D,Joseph Mathew J,Shipley Dianna L,Hagan M Kelly,Thompson Dana S,Burris Howard A,Greco F Anthony
BACKGROUND:The best treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a poor performance status is not well defined. In this phase 2 trial, patients were randomized to receive treatment with either single-agent pemetrexed or 1 of 2 combination regimens. METHODS:Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed nonsquamous NSCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 were stratified by age and serum albumin level and were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 regimens: pemetrexed (arm 1), pemetrexed and bevacizumab (arm 2), or pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (arm 3). The response to treatment was assessed every 2 cycles; responding and stable patients continued treatment until progression or unacceptable toxicity. RESULTS:One hundred seventy-two patients were randomized, 162 patients began the study treatment, and 146 patients completed 2 cycles and were evaluated for their response. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.8 months in arm 1, 4.0 months in arm 2, and 4.8 months in arm 3. The overall response rates were 15% in arm 1, 31% in arm 2, and 44% in arm 3. The overall survival was similar in the 3 treatment arms. All 3 regimens were relatively well tolerated. Patients receiving bevacizumab had an increased incidence of hypertension, proteinuria, and bleeding episodes, but most events were mild or moderate. CONCLUSIONS:All 3 regimens were feasible for patients with advanced NSCLC and an ECOG performance status of 2. The addition of bevacizumab to pemetrexed increased the overall response rate. The efficacy of pemetrexed/carboplatin/bevacizumab (median PFS, 4.8 months) approached the prespecified study PFS goal of 5 months. Larger studies will be necessary to define the role of bevacizumab in addition to standard pemetrexed and carboplatin in this population. Cancer 2018;124:1982-91. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
Comparative Effectiveness of Pemetrexed-platinum Doublet Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab as First-line Therapy for Treatment-naive Patients With Advanced Nonsquamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer in China.
Li Xiaoyou,Abbas Muhammad,Li Yun,Teng Yue,Fang Ying,Yu Shaorong,Wen Yi,Wang Li,Shi Meiqi
PURPOSE:Bevacizumab plus platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is recommended by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network as a category 1 regimen and is widely used in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC). In China, a common first-line chemotherapy for NS-NSCLC is the pemetrexed-platinum doublet regimen (Pem-Pt). However, limited evaluation exists to show the effectiveness of the Pem-Pt + bevacizumab (Bev) regimen in advanced NS-NSCLC. This study describes the treatment patterns, effectiveness, and safety profile of Pem-Pt + Bev in patients with NS-NSCLC in China in clinical practice. METHODS:Data from eligible patients with advanced NS-NSCLC who received Pem-Pt with (136 patients) or without (97 patients) bevacizumab from January 2012 to March 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. The effectiveness outcomes included the assessment of progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) in the overall population, the percentage of patients with pleural effusion or brain metastasis, as well as the percentage of patients receiving maintenance therapy. Moreover, the intracranial remission rate in patients with brain metastasis was estimated. Finally, the adverse events with the 2 treatments were addressed. FINDINGS:Compared with the Pem-Pt regimen, the Pem-Pt + Bev regimen was associated with a significantly longer median PFS and a higher ORR in the overall population (P = 0.0002). An improvement in ORR was observed in Pem-Pt + Bev-treated patients with brain metastasis (P = 0.0045). Moreover, patients receiving Pem-Pt + Bev and maintenance therapy not only showed a longer median PFS than that in those whose treatment was interrupted after induction but also a longer median PFS than that in patients who received Pem-Pt and maintenance therapy. The safety profile was acceptable in all groups, with no observations of hypertension, proteinuria, severe bleeding (1 case of grade I epistaxis was reported with Pem-Pt + Bev), or any unexpected findings reported. IMPLICATIONS:These results from clinical practice further support the concept that pemetrexed-platinum doublet plus bevacizumab could be an effective and tolerable regimen in patients with advanced NS-NSCLC in China.
A phase II study of bevacizumab with carboplatin-pemetrexed in non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma patients with malignant pleural effusions: North East Japan Study Group Trial NEJ013A.
Usui Kazuhiro,Sugawara Shunichi,Nishitsuji Masaru,Fujita Yuka,Inoue Akira,Mouri Atsuto,Watanabe Hiroshi,Sakai Hiroshi,Kinoshita Ichiro,Ohhara Yoshihito,Maemondo Makoto,Kagamu Hiroshi,Hagiwara Koichi,Kobayashi Kunihiko,
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
BACKGROUND:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Here, a multicenter phase II trial to evaluate bevacizumab in non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma patients with MPE was conducted. METHODS:Patients having MPE with no prior treatment and performance status of 0-2 received carboplatin (area under the curve: AUC 6; up to 6 cycles) and pemetrexed (500mg/m(2)) with bevacizumab (15mg/kg) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the control rate of MPE without pleurodesis at 8 weeks after treatment. VEGF levels in plasma and MPE were measured by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS:Of 30 patients entered (median 66 years; 24 males; adenocarcinoma; 4 epidermal growth factor receptor: EGFR mutations), 28 patients (2 withdrawn patients) were given a median of 4 cycles of carboplatin, and 68% of the patients received maintenance pemetrexed with bevacizumab (median 8 cycles). At eight weeks, MPE was controlled without pleurodesis in 93% of treated patients (95% confidence interval: 77-99%). At the median follow-up time of 12.8 months, 78.6% of the cases required no pleurodesis. Response rate was 46%, and median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 8.2 months and 18.6 months, respectively. Toxicities of grade ≥3 included neutropenia (28.6%), thrombocytopenia (28.6%), proteinuria (3.6%), and hypertension (3.6%). Assessment of VEGF levels before treatment indicated that patients with low VEGF (<1000pg/ml) in MPE frequently needed pleurodesis (p=0.011), and that high VEGF (≥100pg/ml) in plasma was indicative of poor prognosis in the context of PFS (p=0.012). CONCLUSION:The combination of bevacizumab with carboplatin and pemetrexed demonstrated efficacy with acceptable toxicities in patients with MPE.