Cleavage furrow organization requires PIP(2)-mediated recruitment of anillin.
Liu Jinghe,Fairn Gregory D,Ceccarelli Derek F,Sicheri Frank,Wilde Andrew
Current biology : CB
Cell division is achieved by a plasma membrane furrow that must ingress between the segregating chromosomes during anaphase [1-3]. The force that drives furrow ingression is generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton, which is linked to the membrane by an as yet undefined molecular mechanism. A key component of the membrane furrow is anillin. Upon targeting to the furrow through its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, anillin acts as a scaffold linking the actomyosin and septin cytoskeletons to maintain furrow stability (reviewed in [4, 5]). We report that the PH domain of anillin interacts with phosphatidylinositol phosphate lipids (PIPs), including PI(4,5)P(2), which is enriched in the furrow. Reduction of cellular PI(4,5)P(2) or mutations in the PH domain of anillin that specifically disrupt the interaction with PI(4,5)P(2), interfere with the localization of anillin to the furrow. Reduced expression of anillin disrupts symmetric furrow ingression that can be restored by targeting ectopically expressed anillin to the furrow using an alternate PI(4,5)P(2) binding module, a condition where the septin cytoskeleton is not recruited to the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that the anillin PH domain has two functions: targeting anillin to the furrow by binding to PI(4,5)P(2) to maintain furrow organization and recruiting septins to the furrow.
F-actin binding protein, anillin, regulates integrity of intercellular junctions in human epithelial cells.
Wang Dongdong,Chadha Gibran K,Feygin Alex,Ivanov Andrei I
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) are key morphological features of differentiated epithelial cells that regulate the integrity and permeability of tissue barriers. Structure and remodeling of epithelial junctions depends on their association with the underlying actomyosin cytoskeleton. Anillin is a unique scaffolding protein interacting with different cytoskeletal components, including actin filaments and myosin motors. Its role in the regulation of mammalian epithelial junctions remains unexplored. Downregulation of anillin expression in human prostate, colonic, and lung epithelial cells triggered AJ and TJ disassembly without altering the expression of junctional proteins. This junctional disassembly was accompanied by dramatic disorganization of the perijunctional actomyosin belt; while the general architecture of the actin cytoskeleton, and activation status of non-muscle myosin II, remained unchanged. Furthermore, loss of anillin disrupted the adducin-spectrin membrane skeleton at the areas of cell-cell contact, selectively decreased γ-adducin expression, and induced cytoplasmic aggregation of αII-spectrin. Anillin knockdown activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and JNK inhibition restored AJ and TJ integrity and cytoskeletal organization in anillin-depleted cells. These findings suggest a novel role for anillin in regulating intercellular adhesion in model human epithelia by mechanisms involving the suppression of JNK activity and controlling the assembly of the perijunctional cytoskeleton.
Anillin facilitates septin assembly to prevent pathological outfoldings of central nervous system myelin.
Erwig Michelle S,Patzig Julia,Steyer Anna M,Dibaj Payam,Heilmann Mareike,Heilmann Ingo,Jung Ramona B,Kusch Kathrin,Möbius Wiebke,Jahn Olaf,Nave Klaus-Armin,Werner Hauke B
Myelin serves as an axonal insulator that facilitates rapid nerve conduction along axons. By transmission electron microscopy, a healthy myelin sheath comprises compacted membrane layers spiraling around the cross-sectioned axon. Previously we identified the assembly of septin filaments in the innermost non-compacted myelin layer as one of the latest steps of myelin maturation in the central nervous system (CNS) (Patzig et al., 2016). Here we show that loss of the cytoskeletal adaptor protein anillin (ANLN) from oligodendrocytes disrupts myelin septin assembly, thereby causing the emergence of pathological myelin outfoldings. Since myelin outfoldings are a poorly understood hallmark of myelin disease and brain aging we assessed axon/myelin-units in -mutant mice by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM); myelin outfoldings were three-dimensionally reconstructed as large sheets of multiple compact membrane layers. We suggest that anillin-dependent assembly of septin filaments scaffolds mature myelin sheaths, facilitating rapid nerve conduction in the healthy CNS.
The septin-binding protein anillin is overexpressed in diverse human tumors.
Hall Peter A,Todd Christopher B,Hyland Paula L,McDade Simon S,Grabsch Heike,Dattani Mit,Hillan Kenneth J,Russell S E Hilary
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Anillin is an actin-binding protein that can bind septins and is a component of the cytokinetic ring. We assessed the anillin expression in 7,579 human tissue samples and cell lines by DNA microarray analysis. Anillin is expressed ubiquitously but with variable levels of expression, being highest in the central nervous system. The median level of anillin mRNA expression was higher in tumors than normal tissues (median fold increase 2.58; 95% confidence intervals, 2.19-5.68, P < 0.0001) except in the central nervous system where anillin mRNA levels were lower in tumors. We developed a sensitive reverse transcription-PCR strategy to show that anillin mRNA is expressed in cell lines and in cDNA panels derived from fetal and adult tissues, thus validating the microarray data. We compared anillin with Ki67 mRNA expression and found a significant linear relationship between anillin and Ki67 mRNA expression (Spearmann r approximately 0.6, P < 0.0001). Anillin mRNA expression was analyzed during tumor progression in breast, ovarian, kidney, colorectal, hepatic, lung, endometrial, and pancreatic tumors and in all tissues there was progressive increase in anillin mRNA expression from normal to benign to malignant to metastatic disease. Finally, we used anti-anillin sera and found nuclear anillin immunoreactivity to be widespread in normal tissues, often not correlating with proliferative compartments. These data provide insight into the existence of nonproliferation-associated activities of anillin and roles in interphase nuclei. Thus, anillin is overexpressed in diverse common human tumors, but not simply as a consequence of being a proliferation marker. Anillin may have potential as a novel biomarker.
Anillin regulates breast cancer cell migration, growth, and metastasis by non-canonical mechanisms involving control of cell stemness and differentiation.
Wang Dongdong,Naydenov Nayden G,Dozmorov Mikhail G,Koblinski Jennifer E,Ivanov Andrei I
Breast cancer research : BCR
BACKGROUND:Breast cancer metastasis is driven by a profound remodeling of the cytoskeleton that enables efficient cell migration and invasion. Anillin is a unique scaffolding protein regulating major cytoskeletal structures, such as actin filaments, microtubules, and septin polymers. It is markedly overexpressed in breast cancer, and high anillin expression is associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of anillin in breast cancer cell migration, growth, and metastasis. METHODS:CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to deplete anillin in highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells and to overexpress it in poorly invasive MCF10AneoT cells. The effects of anillin depletion and overexpression on breast cancer cell motility in vitro were examined by wound healing and Matrigel invasion assays. Assembly of the actin cytoskeleton and matrix adhesion were evaluated by immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy. In vitro tumor development was monitored by soft agar growth assays, whereas cancer stem cells were examined using a mammosphere formation assay and flow cytometry. The effects of anillin knockout on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo were determined by injecting control and anillin-depleted breast cancer cells into NSG mice. RESULTS:Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies demonstrated that anillin is necessary and sufficient to accelerate migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, loss of anillin markedly attenuated primary tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer in vivo. In breast cancer cells, anillin was localized in the nucleus; however, knockout of this protein affected the cytoplasmic/cortical events, e.g., the organization of actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix adhesions. Furthermore, we observed a global transcriptional reprogramming of anillin-depleted breast cancer cells that resulted in suppression of their stemness and induction of the mesenchymal to epithelial trans-differentiation. Such trans-differentiation was manifested by the upregulation of basal keratins along with the increased expression of E-cadherin and P-cadherin. Knockdown of E-cadherin restored the impaired migration and invasion of anillin-deficient breast cancer cells. CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that anillin plays essential roles in promoting breast cancer growth and metastatic dissemination in vitro and in vivo and unravels novel functions of anillin in regulating breast cancer stemness and differentiation.
Epithelial polarity requires septin coupling of vesicle transport to polyglutamylated microtubules.
Spiliotis Elias T,Hunt Stephen J,Hu Qicong,Kinoshita Makoto,Nelson W James
The Journal of cell biology
In epithelial cells, polarized growth and maintenance of apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains depend on protein sorting from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane. Septins are filamentous GTPases required for polarized membrane growth in budding yeast, but whether they function in epithelial polarity is unknown. Here, we show that in epithelial cells septin 2 (SEPT2) fibers colocalize with a subset of microtubule tracks composed of polyglutamylated (polyGlu) tubulin, and that vesicles containing apical or basolateral proteins exit the TGN along these SEPT2/polyGlu microtubule tracks. Tubulin-associated SEPT2 facilitates vesicle transport by maintaining polyGlu microtubule tracks and impeding tubulin binding of microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). Significantly, this regulatory step is required for polarized, columnar-shaped epithelia biogenesis; upon SEPT2 depletion, cells become short and fibroblast-shaped due to intracellular accumulation of apical and basolateral membrane proteins, and loss of vertically oriented polyGlu microtubules. We suggest that septin coupling of the microtubule cytoskeleton to post-Golgi vesicle transport is required for the morphogenesis of polarized epithelia.