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    Phase I trial and pharmacokinetic study of all-trans-retinoic acid administered on an intermittent schedule in combination with interferon-alpha2a in pediatric patients with refractory cancer. Adamson P C,Reaman G,Finklestein J Z,Feusner J,Berg S L,Blaney S M,O'Brien M,Murphy R F,Balis F M Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) administered on an intermittent oral schedule with interferon-alpha2a (IFN-alpha2a) in children with refractory cancer, and whether the marked reduction in plasma ATRA concentrations observed with chronic daily oral dosing could be circumvented with an intermittent dosing schedule. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Thirty-three children with refractory cancer (stratified by age, < or = 12 and > 12 years) were treated with ATRA 3 consecutive days per week and IFN-alpha2a 3 x 10(6) U/m2 5 consecutive days per week, both repeated weekly. The starting dose of ATRA was 60 mg/m2/d divided into three doses, with planned escalations to 90 and 120 mg/m2/d. Because severe headaches have been noted to occur on the initial day of ATRA administration, only two of three doses of ATRA were administered on day 1 of each week. RESULTS:Pseudotumor cerebri or dose-limiting headache was observed in two of five patients older than 12 years treated at the 120-mg/m2/d dose level and in one of six < or = 12 years at the 90-mg/m2/d level. Other non-dose-limiting toxicities of ATRA included reversible elevations in hepatic transaminases and triglycerides, dry skin, cheilitis, and nausea/vomiting. One child with recurrent neuroblastoma had an objective response of 6 months' duration, and one with recurrent Wilms' tumor had histologic maturation of multiple tumors. This intermittent schedule allowed for exposure to relatively high plasma concentrations of ATRA on a repetitive basis. Following 30-mg/m2 doses, the ATRA area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decreased from 96 +/- 14 micromol/L/min on day 1 to 26 +/- 24 micromol/L/min by day 3 of drug administration, but on day 1 of the fourth consecutive week of therapy, the AUC averaged 110 +/- 16 micromol/L/min. The recommended pediatric phase II dose of ATRA administered on this schedule is 90 mg/m2/d. CONCLUSION:An intermittent schedule of ATRA administration appears to circumvent the low plasma drug exposure that is a result of the sustained upregulation of metabolism when this drug is administered on a chronic daily schedule. Based on the results of this trial, a phase II trial of ATRA/IFN-alpha2a in neuroblastoma and Wilms' tumor using this schedule is in progress. 10.1200/JCO.1997.15.11.3330
    A phase 2 trial of all-trans-retinoic acid in combination with interferon-alpha2a in children with recurrent neuroblastoma or Wilms tumor: A Pediatric Oncology Branch, NCI and Children's Oncology Group Study. Adamson Peter C,Matthay Katherine K,O'Brien Michelle,Reaman Gregory H,Sato Judith K,Balis Frank M Pediatric blood & cancer BACKGROUND:The combination of the antiproliferative and differentiation-inducing effects of retinoids together with the antiproliferative, immunostimulatory, and differentiation-potentiating effects of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) were the basis for the development of this combination in pediatric patients with refractory neuroblastoma or Wilms tumor. PROCEDURE:A phase 2 trial of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/m(2)/day in three divided doses for 3 consecutive days per week, and IFN-alpha2a, administered subcutaneously daily at a dose of 3 x 10(6) U/m(2)/day for 5 consecutive days per week, in 4 week cycles was performed. A two-stage design was used for each disease stratum. RESULTS:Seventeen patients (16 evaluable) with neuroblastoma, median age 9 years, and 15 patients (14 evaluable) with Wilms tumor, median age 6 years, were enrolled. Overall, the combination was well tolerated, with headache being the most common toxicity observed. There were no complete or partial responses. The median number of cycles administered was 1 (range 1-9). Four patients with neuroblastoma had stable disease for 12 or more weeks. CONCLUSIONS:The combination of ATRA and IFN-alpha2a was inactive in children with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor. The lack of activity with this combination in children with refractory neuroblastoma is similar to the disappointing phase 2 results of single agent 13-cis-retinoic-acid (13cRA) and does not support further development of ATRA for children with relapsed neuroblastoma. 10.1002/pbc.21011