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    Molecular remission of FLT3-ITD(+) positive AML relapse after allo-SCT by acute GVHD in addition to sorafenib. Krüger W H,Hirt C,Kiefer T,Neumann T,Busemann C,Dölken G Bone marrow transplantation 10.1038/bmt.2011.7
    Harnessing the immune system after allogeneic stem cell transplant in acute myeloid leukemia. Sterling Cole,Webster Jonathan American journal of hematology Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is the most successful and widely used immunotherapy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as a result of its anti-leukemic properties driven by T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, leading to a graft-vs-leukemia (GVL) effect. Despite its essential role in AML treatment, relapse after allo-SCT is common and associated with a poor prognosis. There is longstanding interest in developing immunologic strategies to augment the GVL effect post-transplant to prevent relapse and improve outcomes. In addition to prophylactic maintenance strategies, the GVL effect can also be used in relapsed patients to reinduce remission. While immune checkpoint inhibitors and other novel immune-targeted agents have been successfully used in the post-transplant setting to augment the GVL effect and induce remission in small clinical trials of relapsed patients, exacerbations of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) have limited their broader use. Here we review advances in three areas of immunotherapy that have been studied in post-transplant AML: donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI), immune checkpoint inhibitors, and other monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and ligand receptor antagonists. We also discuss additional therapies with proposed immunologic mechanisms, such as hypomethylating agents, histone deacetylase inhibitors, and the FLT3 inhibitor sorafenib. 10.1002/ajh.25750
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation and targeted therapy for FLT3/ITD+ acute myeloid leukemia: an update. Hu Bei,Vikas Praveen,Mohty Mohamad,Savani Bipin N Expert review of hematology Survival of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), particularly in younger patients, has improved in recent years due to improved understanding of disease biology, post remission therapies and supportive care. AML, however, remains difficult to treat as many patients will still ultimately relapse and die of their disease. This is particularly true in AML patients with identified FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) molecular mutations, which typically confers a poor prognosis. The FLT3-ITD mutation occurs in about one-quarter of patients diagnosed with AML. Oftentimes, these patients are referred for early allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in hopes of overcoming this poor prognostic factor. Several studies have demonstrated some benefit with HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD mutation. However, recent data suggested that FLT3-ITD mutation remains a poor prognostic factor even after early HSCT; these patients remain at risk for early relapse after transplantation, emphasizing ongoing efforts to explore maintenance therapy with FLT3-ITD inhibitors in the post-transplant setting. 10.1586/17474086.2014.857596
    Maintenance sorafenib is superior to prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusion at improving the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Shi Jimin,Cao Liqin,Luo Yi,Zhao Yanmin,Tan Yamin,Yu Jian,Lai Xiaoyu,Zhu Yuanyuan,Hu Yongxian,He Jingsong,Sun Jie,Zheng Weiyan,Wei Guoqing,Huang He Bone marrow transplantation 10.1038/s41409-020-01015-w
    Outcome of FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia: impact of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Fleischmann Maximilian,Schnetzke Ulf,Schrenk Karin G,Schmidt Volker,Sayer Herbert G,Hilgendorf Inken,Hochhaus Andreas,Scholl Sebastian Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology BACKGROUND:Activating mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 (fms-related tyrosine kinase 3) reflect the most frequent molecular aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) are characterized by an unfavorable prognosis and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic SCT) in first complete remission is recommended. In case of imminent or frank relapse following allogeneic SCT, treatment with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) constitutes a promising clinical approach to induce hematologic remission without conventional chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed the response to induction chemotherapy and the outcome of 76 patients with FLT3-ITD-positive AML including 50 patients who underwent allogeneic SCT. Furthermore, efficacy of TKI treatment was evaluated in 18 patients (median age 54 years, range 21-74) with relapsed or refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML. RESULTS:Response to induction chemotherapy in 76 FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients was characterized by a complete remission (CR) rate of 68%. In total, 50 of 76 patients (66%) underwent allogeneic SCT including 40 patients (80%) in CR. Relapse of AML was observed in 21 of 47 patients (45%) after allogeneic SCT with a median relapse-free survival (RFS) of 13 months (range 3-224) for patients with CR prior to or at day +30 after SCT. Myeloablative conditioning resulted in an improved median RFS of 29 months (4-217) as compared to a reduced intensity conditioning protocol prior to allogeneic SCT with a RFS of 8 months (1-197, P = 0.048), respectively. Median OS of FLT3-ITD-positive AML was 17 months (5-225) for patients who received an allogeneic SCT as compared to 9 months (1-184) for patients who did not undergo SCT. Response of FLT3-ITD-positive AML to sorafenib was characterized by only 3 of 18 patients achieving a bone marrow response (17%), while there was no response to second-line treatment with ponatinib. CONCLUSION:This "real-life" data reflect the continuing challenge of FLT3-ITD-positive AML and confirm the poor outcome even after allogeneic SCT. Furthermore, efficacy of TKI treatment of relapsed or refractory FLT3-ITD AML is still limited and requires substantial improvement, e.g., by the introduction of second-generation inhibitors targeting constitutively active FLT3. 10.1007/s00432-016-2290-5
    Sorafenib and novel multikinase inhibitors in AML. Daver Naval,Konopleva Marina The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00454-4
    Sorafenib improves rituximab and ofatumumab efficacy by decreasing the expression of complement regulatory proteins. Dwojak M,Bobrowicz M,Bil J,Bojarczuk K,Pyrzynska B,Siernicka M,Malenda A,Lech-Maranda E,Tomczak W,Giannopoulos K,Golab J,Winiarska M Blood cancer journal 10.1038/bcj.2015.27
    Sorafenib treatment in 13 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and activating FLT3 mutations in combination with chemotherapy or as monotherapy. Schroeder Thomas,Zohren Fabian,Saure Christian,Bruns Ingmar,Czibere Akos,Safaian Nelli Nancy,Fenk Roland,Haas Rainer,Kobbe Guido Acta haematologica 10.1159/000320173
    Sorafenib for refractory FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (FLT3/ITD+) acute myeloid leukemia after allogenic stem cell transplantation. Sorà Federica,Chiusolo Patrizia,Metafuni Elisabetta,Bellesi Silvia,Giammarco Sabrina,Laurenti Luca,Ausoni Giuseppe,Zini Gina,Bayer Alina J,Mario Balducci,Leone Giuseppe,Sica Simona Leukemia research 10.1016/j.leukres.2010.10.025
    Maintenance after allogeneic HSCT in acute myeloid leukaemia. Mohty Mohamad The Lancet. Oncology 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30434-4
    Compassionate use of sorafenib in FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia: sustained regression before and after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Metzelder Stephan,Wang Ying,Wollmer Ellen,Wanzel Michael,Teichler Sabine,Chaturvedi Anuhar,Eilers Martin,Enghofer Erich,Neubauer Andreas,Burchert Andreas Blood Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in the Fms-like tyrosine-3 (FLT3) gene have a dismal prognosis. Here we report compassionate-use results with the multikinase and FLT3-ITD inhibitor sorafenib for the treatment of relapsed or refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML. Sorafenib induced clinically meaningful and very rapid responses in all 6 patients treated either before (n = 2), after (n = 3), or both before and after (n = 1) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Sorafenib-induced remissions facilitated allo-SCT in 2 of the 3 refractory patients. Two of the 4 patients who were treated after allo-SCT survived 216 and 221 days, respectively, whereas the other 2 remain in ongoing complete molecular remission. Sorafenib response was associated with an inhibition of the antiapoptotic FLT3-ITD target Stat-5 in vivo. Together, sorafenib monotherapy before or after allo-SCT has remarkable clinical activity in poor risk FLT3-ITD-positive AML and deserves further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. 10.1182/blood-2009-03-208298
    A Prospective Study of Peritransplant Sorafenib for Patients with FLT3-ITD Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Transplantation. Pratz Keith W,Rudek Michelle A,Smith B Douglas,Karp Judith,Gojo Ivana,Dezern Amy,Jones Richard J,Greer Jackie,Gocke Christopher,Baer Maria R,Duong Vu H,Rosner Gary,Zahurak Marianna,Wright John J,Emadi Ashkan,Levis Mark, Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation FLT3-ITD-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a therapeutic challenge. FLT3 inhibition in the setting of minimal residual disease and a new immune system via allogeneic transplantation offers a promise of improved survival for these patients. We performed a prospective study of patients with FLT3-ITD AML undergoing allogeneic transplant that was conducted to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and outcome of sorafenib administered peritransplant. Sorafenib dosing was individualized, starting at 200 mg twice a day (BID), and titrated based on tolerability or toxicities until a tolerable dose was identified. Forty-four patients, with a median age of 52 years, undergoing allogeneic transplant were started on sorafenib in the peritransplant period (21 pretransplant). The median duration of post-transplant follow-up was 27.6 months (range, 5.2 to 60.4). Overall survival was 76% at both 24 and 36 months. Event-free survival at 24 and 36 months was 74% and 64%, respectively. Ten patients died in the post-transplant period, with 6 deaths due to relapsed leukemia and 4 from transplant-associated toxicity. Tolerable doses ranged from 200 mg every other day to 400 mg BID with similar exposure. Correlative studies evaluating FLT3 inhibition via a plasma inhibitory activity assay showed consistent inhibition of FLT3 at all tolerability-determined dosing levels. Sorafenib is well tolerated in the peritransplant setting irrespective of the conditioning intensity or the donor source. Our findings indicate that sorafenib dosing can be individualized in the post-transplantation setting according to patient tolerability. This approach results in effective in vivo FLT3 inhibition and yields encouraging survival results. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.09.023
    Late relapse after stopping sorafenib in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Gerull S,Tschan-Plessl A,Mathew R,Nair G,Passweg J R,Halter J P Bone marrow transplantation 10.1038/s41409-018-0376-1
    Phase I/II study of combination therapy with sorafenib, idarubicin, and cytarabine in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Ravandi Farhad,Cortes Jorge E,Jones Daniel,Faderl Stefan,Garcia-Manero Guillermo,Konopleva Marina Y,O'Brien Susan,Estrov Zeev,Borthakur Gautam,Thomas Deborah,Pierce Sherry R,Brandt Mark,Byrd Anna,Bekele B Nebiyou,Pratz Keith,Luthra Rajyalakshmi,Levis Mark,Andreeff Michael,Kantarjian Hagop M Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE To determine the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of sorafenib, cytarabine, and idarubicin in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) younger than age 65 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the phase I part of the study, 10 patients with relapsed AML were treated with escalating doses of sorafenib with chemotherapy to establish the feasibility of the combination. We then treated 51 patients (median age, 53 years; range, 18 to 65 years) who had previously untreated AML with cytarabine at 1.5 g/m(2) by continuous intravenous (IV) infusion daily for 4 days (3 days if > 60 years of age), idarubicin at 12 mg/m(2) IV daily for 3 days, and sorafenib at 400 mg orally twice daily for 7 days. RESULTS Overall, 38 (75%) patients have achieved a complete remission (CR), including 14 (93%) of 15 patients with mutated FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3; the 15th patient had complete remission with incomplete platelet recovery [CRp]) and 24 (66%) of 36 patients with FLT3 wild-type (WT) disease (three additional FLT3-WT patients had CRp). FLT3-mutated patients were more likely to achieve a CR than FLT3-WT patients (P = .033). With a median follow-up of 54 weeks (range, 8 to 87 weeks), the probability of survival at 1 year is 74%. Among the FLT3-mutated patients, 10 have relapsed and five remain in CR with a median follow-up of 62 weeks (range, 10 to 76 weeks). Plasma inhibitory assay demonstrated an on-target effect on FLT3 kinase activity. CONCLUSION Sorafenib can be safely combined with chemotherapy, produces a high CR rate in FLT3-mutated patients, and inhibits FLT3 signaling. 10.1200/JCO.2009.25.4888
    Maintenance sorafenib in FLT3-ITD AML following allogeneic HCT favorably impacts relapse and overall survival. Chappell Grant,Geer Marcus,Gatza Erin,Braun Thomas,Churay Tracey,Brisson Joseph,Bixby Dale,Marini Bernard,Perissinotti Anthony,Frame David,Parkin Brian,Reddy Pavan,Magenau John,Choi Sung Won Bone marrow transplantation 10.1038/s41409-019-0493-5
    Sorafenib Maintenance After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia With -Internal Tandem Duplication Mutation (SORMAIN). Burchert Andreas,Bug Gesine,Fritz Lea V,Finke Jürgen,Stelljes Matthias,Röllig Christoph,Wollmer Ellen,Wäsch Ralph,Bornhäuser Martin,Berg Tobias,Lang Fabian,Ehninger Gerhard,Serve Hubert,Zeiser Robert,Wagner Eva-Maria,Kröger Nicolaus,Wolschke Christine,Schleuning Michael,Götze Katharina S,Schmid Christoph,Crysandt Martina,Eßeling Eva,Wolf Dominik,Wang Ying,Böhm Alexandra,Thiede Christian,Haferlach Torsten,Michel Christian,Bethge Wolfgang,Wündisch Thomas,Brandts Christian,Harnisch Susanne,Wittenberg Michael,Hoeffkes Heinz-Gert,Rospleszcz Susanne,Burchardt Alexander,Neubauer Andreas,Brugger Markus,Strauch Konstantin,Schade-Brittinger Carmen,Metzelder Stephan K Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Despite undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with internal tandem duplication mutation in the like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (ITD) have a poor prognosis, frequently relapse, and die as a result of AML. It is currently unknown whether a maintenance therapy using FLT3 inhibitors, such as the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, improves outcome after HCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS:In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II trial (SORMAIN; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00000591), 83 adult patients with ITD-positive AML in complete hematologic remission after HCT were randomly assigned to receive for 24 months either the multitargeted and FLT3-kinase inhibitor sorafenib (n = 43) or placebo (n = 40 placebo). Relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary endpoint of this trial. Relapse was defined as relapse or death, whatever occurred first. RESULTS:With a median follow-up of 41.8 months, the hazard ratio (HR) for relapse or death in the sorafenib group versus placebo group was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.85; log-rank = .013). The 24-month RFS probability was 53.3% (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.68) with placebo versus 85.0% (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93) with sorafenib (HR, 0.256; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65; log-rank = .002). Exploratory data show that patients with undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) before HCT and those with detectable MRD after HCT derive the strongest benefit from sorafenib. CONCLUSION:Sorafenib maintenance therapy reduces the risk of relapse and death after HCT for ITD-positive AML. 10.1200/JCO.19.03345
    Combination of sorafenib, vorinostat and bortezomib for the treatment of poor-risk AML: report of two consecutive clinical trials. Sayar Hamid,Cripe Larry D,Saliba Antoine N,Abu Zaid Mohammad,Konig Heiko,Boswell H Scott Leukemia research 10.1016/j.leukres.2018.12.011
    Sorafenib is tolerable and improves clinical outcomes in patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia prior to stem cell transplant and after relapse post-transplant. Sammons Sarah L,Pratz Keith W,Smith B Douglas,Karp Judith E,Emadi Ashkan American journal of hematology 10.1002/ajh.23782
    Treatment of FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with sorafenib. Sharma Manish,Ravandi Farhad,Bayraktar Ulas Darda,Chiattone Alexandre,Bashir Qaiser,Giralt Sergio,Chen Julianne,Qazilbash Muzaffar,Kebriaei Partow,Konopleva Marina,Andreeff Michael,Cortes Jorge,McCue Deborah,Kantarjian Hagop,Champlin Richard E,de Lima Marcos Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and internal tandem duplication of FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 gene (FLT3-ITD) mutation have poor prognoses and are often treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib, an inhibitor of multiple kinases including FLT3, has shown promising activity in FLT3-ITD-positive AML. We treated 16 patients with FLT3-ITD-positive AML who relapsed after HSCT with sorafenib alone (n = 8) or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy (n = 8). The number of circulating blasts decreased in 80% of cases, but none of the patients achieved complete remission (CR); 3 achieved partial remission. Two patients were bridged to a second transplantation but both relapsed within 3 months of the transplantation. Median overall survival (OS) was 83 days, with none surviving more than a year. Sorafenib is not effective in the treatment of FLT3-ITD-positive AML relapsing after HSCT. Preventive strategies after HSCT may be more suitable for these high-risk patients. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.011
    Synergistic effect of sorafenib and cGvHD in patients with high-risk FLT3-ITD+AML allows long-term disease control after allogeneic transplantation. Tschan-Plessl A,Halter J P,Heim D,Medinger M,Passweg J R,Gerull S Annals of hematology The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown a strong anti-leukemic effect in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, remission is often transient. To better understand the role of sorafenib, we performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who received sorafenib in combination with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at our center. Seventeen patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML were treated with sorafenib in combination with allogeneic HSCT. Seven patients received sorafenib therapy pre- and posttransplant, and 10 patients were given sorafenib only posttransplant. Median duration of sorafenib treatment was 13 months (range 1-42); median dose was 600 mg (range 100-1200). Fourteen patients (82 %) achieved a complete remission (CR), while 5 patients (29 %) eventually developed progressive disease. Developing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) had a strong protective influence on the risk of sorafenib resistance (p = 0.028, HR 0.08, 95 % CI 0.01-0.76). In a total of 8 patients, sorafenib had to be stopped, paused or dose-reduced due to toxicity. In 5 patients with pronounced toxicity, we switched to an alternating dosing schedule with 1 month on/1 month off sorafenib. These patients subsequently remained in sustained complete molecular remission, with a median follow-up of 20 months. Our data indicate that sorafenib can achieve high rates of sustained remission in high-risk patients treated in combination with HSCT. 10.1007/s00277-015-2461-5
    Sorafenib plus all-trans retinoic acid for AML patients with FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. Guenounou Sarah,Delabesse Eric,Récher Christian European journal of haematology Knowledge of the molecular basis of acute myeloid leukaemia has increased considerably in the past few years, and therapies targeting specific molecular defects of this disease are intensively investigated. Patients with both NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations encompass 20% of cytogenetically normal AML. The multikinase and FLT3 inhibitor, sorafenib, has shown some efficacy in patients with relapsed FLT3-ITD(+) AML. In addition, it is suggested that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) used in combination with chemotherapy has shown to improve outcome of patients harbouring NPM1 mutations. We report here the clinical course of three patients with refractory or relapsed FLT3-ITD(+) /NPM1(+) AML who achieved significant response upon sorafenib and ATRA combination. 10.1111/ejh.12334
    A phase I/II study of sorafenib in combination with low dose cytarabine in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome from the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group: trial IND.186. Macdonald David A,Assouline Sarit E,Brandwein Joseph,Kamel-Reid Suzanne,Eisenhauer Elizabeth A,Couban Stephen,Caplan Stephen,Foo Alison,Walsh Wendy,Leber Brian Leukemia & lymphoma Sorafenib is active in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) Clinical Trials Group initiated a phase I/II study of the combination of sorafenib with cytarabine in older patients with AML or high-risk MDS who were unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy. FLT3 mutational status was determined in all patients. Twenty-one patients were enrolled (four MDS, 17 AML) with a median age of 77 years. The recommended phase II dose (RP2D) was cytarabine 10 mg bid days 1-10 and sorafenib 600 mg/day days 2-28. Dose-limiting toxicities were fatigue, sepsis and skin rash. Of 15 evaluable patients treated at the RP2D, two patients responded. The overall response rate for eligible patients was 10%. FLT3 mutations were found in only three patients. We conclude that this combination of sorafenib and cytarabine has limited activity in this unselected cohort of elderly patients with AML/MDS in which FLT3 mutations seemed underrepresented. 10.3109/10428194.2012.737917
    Use of sorafenib for post-transplant relapse in FLT3/ITD-positive acute myelogenous leukemia: maturation induction and cytotoxic effect. Liegel Jessica,Courville Elizabeth,Sachs Zohar,Ustun Celalettin Haematologica 10.3324/haematol.2014.109975
    Phase 2 study of azacytidine plus sorafenib in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and FLT-3 internal tandem duplication mutation. Ravandi Farhad,Alattar Mona Lisa,Grunwald Michael R,Rudek Michelle A,Rajkhowa Trivikram,Richie Mary Ann,Pierce Sherry,Daver Naval,Garcia-Manero Guillermo,Faderl Stefan,Nazha Aziz,Konopleva Marina,Borthakur Gautam,Burger Jan,Kadia Tapan,Dellasala Sara,Andreeff Michael,Cortes Jorge,Kantarjian Hagop,Levis Mark Blood Patients received 5-azacytidine (AZA) 75 mg/m(2) intravenously daily for 7 days and sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily continuously; cycles were repeated at ~1-month intervals. Forty-three acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with a median age of 64 years (range, 24-87 years) were enrolled; 37 were evaluable for response. FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation was detected in 40 (93%) patients, with a median allelic ratio of 0.32 (range, 0.009-0.93). They had received a median of 2 prior treatment regimens (range, 0-7); 9 had failed prior therapy with a FLT3 kinase inhibitor. The response rate was 46%, including 10 (27%) complete response with incomplete count recovery (CRi), 6 (16%) complete responses (CR), and 1 (3%) partial response. The median time to achieve CR/CRi was 2 cycles (range, 1-4), and the median duration of CR/CRi was 2.3 months (range, 1-14.3 months). Sixty-four percent of patients achieved adequate (defined as >85%) FLT3 inhibition during their first cycle of therapy. The degree of FLT3 inhibition correlated with plasma sorafenib concentrations. FLT3 ligand levels did not rise to levels seen in prior studies of patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. The combination of AZA and sorafenib is effective for patients with relapsed AML and FLT-3-ITD. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01254890. 10.1182/blood-2013-01-480228
    Sorafenib and azacitidine as salvage therapy for relapse of FLT3-ITD mutated AML after allo-SCT. Rautenberg Christina,Nachtkamp Kathrin,Dienst Ariane,Schmidt Pia Verena,Heyn Claudia,Kondakci Mustafa,Germing Ulrich,Haas Rainer,Kobbe Guido,Schroeder Thomas European journal of haematology OBJECTIVE:Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) carrying FLT3-ITD mutations (FLT3-ITD+) who relapse after allogeneic transplantation (allo-SCT) have a very dismal prognosis with the currently available treatment options. METHODS:We treated eight patients with FLT3-ITD+ AML who had relapsed in median 91 d (range, 28-249) following allo-SCT with a combination of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor azacitidine (Aza). RESULTS:Patients received a median of five cycles of Aza (range, 2-9) and sorafenib with a median daily dosage of 750 mg (range 400-800) for 129 d (range, 61-221). Six of eight patients received donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) with a median number of two DLI per patient (range, 1-4). Following this treatment, four patients (50%) achieved a complete remission and three of them a complete molecular remission. Median duration of CR was 182 d (range, 158-406), and two patients remain in ongoing remission for 406 and 168 d. Median overall survival was 322 d (range, 108-574 d) with three patients being currently alive. CONCLUSION:Taken together, the combination of sorafenib, Aza, and DLI shows promising efficacy and deserves further evaluation in larger patient groups. 10.1111/ejh.12832
    Final report of phase II study of sorafenib, cytarabine and idarubicin for initial therapy in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Ravandi F,Arana Yi C,Cortes J E,Levis M,Faderl S,Garcia-Manero G,Jabbour E,Konopleva M,O'Brien S,Estrov Z,Borthakur G,Thomas D,Pierce S,Brandt M,Pratz K,Luthra R,Andreeff M,Kantarjian H Leukemia 10.1038/leu.2014.54
    Azacitidine and Sorafenib Therapy in a Pediatric Patient With Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Monosomy 7 and Somatic PTPN11 Mutation. Dahl Nathan A,Michaels Samantha T,McMasters Richard L,Chandra Sharat,O'Brien Maureen M Pediatric blood & cancer Monosomy 7 is a well-documented cytogenetic aberration in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and may occur in combinations with molecular abnormalities including PTPN11 mutation. PTPN11 mutations contribute to leukemogenesis through upregulation of Ras pathway signaling. We present the case of a 3-year-old female with AML with monosomy 7 and somatic PTPN11 mutation who was refractory to conventional AML chemotherapy but responded to a novel regimen of azacitidine and sorafenib followed by stem cell transplantation. Combination therapy with azacitidine and sorafenib may be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with AML with Ras pathway abnormalities. 10.1002/pbc.25805
    Azacitidine as post-remission consolidation for sorafenib-induced remission of Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 internal tandem duplication positive acute myeloid leukemia. Gill Harinder,Man Cheuk-Him,Ip Alvin H W,Choi William W L,Chow Howard C H,Kwong Yok-Lam,Leung Anskar Y H Haematologica 10.3324/haematol.2014.123034
    Emergence of polyclonal FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations during sequential therapy with sorafenib and sunitinib in FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. Baker Sharyn D,Zimmerman Eric I,Wang Yong-Dong,Orwick Shelley,Zatechka Douglas S,Buaboonnam Jassada,Neale Geoffrey A,Olsen Scott R,Enemark Eric J,Shurtleff Sheila,Rubnitz Jeffrey E,Mullighan Charles G,Inaba Hiroto Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:To evaluate the clinical activity of sequential therapy with sorafenib and sunitinib in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD)-positive acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and monitor the emergence of secondary FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutations during treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Six children with relapsed/refractory AML were treated with sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine, followed by single-agent sorafenib if not a candidate for transplantation. Sunitinib was initiated after sorafenib relapse. Bone marrow samples were obtained for assessment of FLT3 TKD mutations by deep amplicon sequencing. The phase of secondary mutations with ITD alleles was assessed by cloning and sequencing of FLT3 exons 14 through 20. Identified mutations were modeled in Ba/F3 cells, and the effect of kinase inhibitors on FLT3 signaling and cell viability was assessed. RESULTS:Four patients achieved complete remission, but 3 receiving maintenance therapy with sorafenib relapsed after 14 to 37 weeks. Sunitinib reduced circulating blasts in two patients and marrow blasts in one. Two patients did not respond to sorafenib combination therapy or sunitinib. FLT3 mutations at residues D835 and F691 were observed in sorafenib resistance samples on both ITD-positive and -negative alleles. Deep sequencing revealed low-level mutations and their evolution during sorafenib treatment. Sunitinib suppressed leukemic clones with D835H and F691L mutations, but not D835Y. Cells expressing sorafenib-resistant FLT3 mutations were sensitive to sunitinib in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Sunitinib has activity in patients that are resistant to sorafenib and harbor secondary FLT3 TKD mutations. The use of sensitive methods to monitor FLT3 mutations during therapy may allow individualized treatment with the currently available kinase inhibitors. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1323
    Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine in pediatric relapsed/refractory leukemia. Inaba Hiroto,Rubnitz Jeffrey E,Coustan-Smith Elaine,Li Lie,Furmanski Brian D,Mascara Gerard P,Heym Kenneth M,Christensen Robbin,Onciu Mihaela,Shurtleff Sheila A,Pounds Stanley B,Pui Ching-Hon,Ribeiro Raul C,Campana Dario,Baker Sharyn D Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:To assess the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine in children with relapsed/refractory leukemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Twelve patients with acute leukemia (11 with acute myeloid leukemia [AML]) received sorafenib on days 1 to 7 and then concurrently with cytarabine (1 g/m(2)) and clofarabine (stratum one: 40 mg/m(2), n = 10; stratum two [recent transplantation or fungal infection]: 20 mg/m(2), n = 2) on days 8 to 12. Sorafenib was continued until day 28 if tolerated. Two sorafenib dose levels (200 mg/m(2) and 150 mg/m(2) twice daily) were planned. Sorafenib pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed on days 7 and 8. RESULTS:At sorafenib 200 mg/m(2), two of four patients in stratum one and one of two patients in stratum two had grade 3 hand-foot skin reaction and/or rash as dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs). No DLTs were observed in six patients in stratum one at sorafenib 150 mg/m(2). Sorafenib inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT, S6 ribosomal protein, and 4E-BP1 in leukemia cells. The rate of sorafenib conversion to its metabolite sorafenib N-oxide was high (mean, 33%; range, 17% to 69%). In vitro, the N-oxide potently inhibited FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD; binding constant, 70 nmol/L) and the viability of five AML cell lines. On day 8, sorafenib decreased blast percentages in 10 of 12 patients (median, 66%; range, 9% to 95%). After combination chemotherapy, six patients (three FLT3-ITD and three FLT3 wild-type AML) achieved complete remission, two (both FLT3-ITD AML) had complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, and one (FLT3 wild-type AML) had partial remission. CONCLUSION:Sorafenib in combination with clofarabine and cytarabine is tolerable and shows activity in relapsed/refractory pediatric AML. 10.1200/JCO.2011.34.7427
    Sorafenib in combination with intensive chemotherapy in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Serve Hubert,Krug Utz,Wagner Ruth,Sauerland M Cristina,Heinecke Achim,Brunnberg Uta,Schaich Markus,Ottmann Oliver,Duyster Justus,Wandt Hannes,Fischer Thomas,Giagounidis Aristoteles,Neubauer Andreas,Reichle Albrecht,Aulitzky Walter,Noppeney Richard,Blau Igor,Kunzmann Volker,Stuhlmann Reingard,Krämer Alwin,Kreuzer Karl-Anton,Brandts Christian,Steffen Björn,Thiede Christian,Müller-Tidow Carsten,Ehninger Gerhard,Berdel Wolfgang E Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:The prognosis of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still dismal even with intensive chemotherapy. In this trial, we compared the antileukemic activity of standard induction and consolidation therapy with or without the addition of the kinase inhibitor sorafenib in elderly patients with AML. PATIENTS AND METHODS:All patients received standard cytarabine and daunorubicin induction (7+3 regimen) and up to two cycles of intermediate-dose cytarabine consolidation. Two hundred one patients were equally randomly assigned to receive either sorafenib or placebo between the chemotherapy cycles and subsequently for up to 1 year after the beginning of therapy. The primary objective was to test for an improvement in event-free survival (EFS). Overall survival (OS), complete remission (CR) rate, tolerability, and several predefined subgroup analyses were among the secondary objectives. RESULTS:Age, sex, CR and early death (ED) probability, and prognostic factors were balanced between both study arms. Treatment in the sorafenib arm did not result in significant improvement in EFS or OS. This was also true for subgroup analyses, including the subgroup positive for FLT3 internal tandem duplications. Results of induction therapy were worse in the sorafenib arm, with higher treatment-related mortality and lower CR rates. More adverse effects occurred during induction therapy in the sorafenib arm, and patients in this arm received less consolidation chemotherapy as a result of higher induction toxicity. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, combination of standard induction and consolidation therapy with sorafenib in the schedule investigated in our trial is not beneficial for elderly patients with AML. 10.1200/JCO.2012.46.4990
    Sorafenib treatment of FLT3-ITD(+) acute myeloid leukemia: favorable initial outcome and mechanisms of subsequent nonresponsiveness associated with the emergence of a D835 mutation. Man Cheuk Him,Fung Tsz Kan,Ho Christa,Han Heron H C,Chow Howard C H,Ma Alvin C H,Choi William W L,Lok Si,Cheung Alice M S,Eaves Connie,Kwong Yok Lam,Leung Anskar Y H Blood Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene occurs in 30% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and confers a poor prognosis. Thirteen relapsed or chemo-refractory FLT3-ITD(+) AML patients were treated with sorafenib (200-400 mg twice daily). Twelve patients showed clearance or near clearance of bone marrow myeloblasts after 27 (range 21-84) days with evidence of differentiation of leukemia cells. The sorafenib response was lost in most patients after 72 (range 54-287) days but the FLT3 and downstream effectors remained suppressed. Gene expression profiling showed that leukemia cells that have become sorafenib resistant expressed several genes including ALDH1A1, JAK3, and MMP15, whose functions were unknown in AML. Nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice transplanted with leukemia cells from patients before and during sorafenib resistance recapitulated the clinical results. Both ITD and tyrosine kinase domain mutations at D835 were identified in leukemia initiating cells (LICs) from samples before sorafenib treatment. LICs bearing the D835 mutant have expanded during sorafenib treatment and dominated during the subsequent clinical resistance. These results suggest that sorafenib have selected more aggressive sorafenib-resistant subclones carrying both FLT3-ITD and D835 mutations, and might provide important leads to further improvement of treatment outcome with FLT3 inhibitors. 10.1182/blood-2011-06-363960
    The sorafenib anti-relapse effect after alloHSCT is associated with heightened alloreactivity and accumulation of CD8+PD-1+ (CD279+) lymphocytes in marrow. Lange Andrzej,Jaskula Emilia,Lange Janusz,Dworacki Grzegorz,Nowak Dorota,Simiczyjew Aleksandra,Mordak-Domagala Monika,Sedzimirska Mariola PloS one We studied three FLT3 ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who relapsed after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and received multikinase inhibitor (MKI) sorafenib as part of salvage therapy. MKI was given to block the effect of FLT3 ITD mutation which powers proliferation of blast cells. However, the known facts that sorafenib is more effective in patents post alloHSCT suggested that this MKI can augment the immune system surveillance on leukaemia. In the present study, we investigated in depth the effect of sorafenib on the alloreactivity seen post-transplant including that on leukaemia. The patients (i) responded to the treatment with cessation of blasts which lasted 1, 17 and 42+ months, (ii) developed skin lesions with CD3+ cell invasion of the epidermis, (iii) had marrow infiltrated with CD8+ lymphocytes which co-expressed PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1 receptor, CD279) in higher proportions than those in the blood (163±32 x103 cells/μl vs 38±8 x103 cells/μl, p<0.001). The Lymphoprep fraction of marrow cells investigated for the expression of genes involved in lymphocyte activation showed in the patients with long lasting complete remission (CR) a similar pattern characterized by (i) a low expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) as well as that of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) (supporting the immune response and anti-angiogenic) genes, and (ii) higher expression of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and collagen type IV alpha 3 chain (COL4A3) as well as toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) (pro-inflammatory expression profile) genes as compared with the normal individual. The positive effect in one patient hardly justified the presence of unwanted effects (progressive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) and avascular necrosis of the femur), which were in contrast negligible in the other patient. The anti-leukemic and unwanted effects of sorafenib do not rely on each other. 10.1371/journal.pone.0190525
    Sorafenib Maintenance Appears Safe and Improves Clinical Outcomes in FLT3-ITD Acute Myeloid Leukemia After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Antar Ahmad,Kharfan-Dabaja Mohamed A,Mahfouz Rami,Bazarbachi Ali Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia BACKGROUND:The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) gene is one of the most frequently observed genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with an incidence of about 20% to 30%. FLT3-ITD is significantly associated with a poor outcome, and offering an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is recommended for patients harboring this mutation. Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor active against RAF, VEGF, and FLT3-ITD. It has been used in an off-label fashion in FLT3-ITD AML. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We retrospectively assessed the successful use of sorafenib after allo-HCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML. Six FLT3-ITD AML patients received sorafenib as posttransplantation maintenance therapy (n = 5) or as salvage therapy after a post-allo-HCT relapse (n = 1) and continued afterward. RESULTS:One patient developed myocardial infarction 100 days after initiation of sorafenib. Interestingly, skin graft versus host disease (grade II) was observed in 5 of 6 patients and generally occurred within few days after initiation of sorafenib, but it responded promptly to corticosteroid therapy in all patients. All 6 patients were alive and in complete remission at a median follow-up of 16 months (range, 10-29 months) since first induction and at a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 4-20 months) since initiation of sorafenib. Remarkably, the disease of all patients was in molecular remission. CONCLUSION:Sorafenib appears to be an effective maintenance therapy after allo-HCT in FLT3-ITD AML, with achievement of durable complete responses. This suggests an immunomodulatory effect of sorafenib in the posttransplantation setting and warrants a broader clinical evaluation of the use of maintenance sorafenib in FLT3-ITD AML. 10.1016/j.clml.2014.12.005
    High activity of sorafenib in FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia synergizes with allo-immune effects to induce sustained responses. Metzelder S K,Schroeder T,Finck A,Scholl S,Fey M,Götze K,Linn Y C,Kröger M,Reiter A,Salih H R,Heinicke T,Stuhlmann R,Müller L,Giagounidis A,Meyer R G,Brugger W,Vöhringer M,Dreger P,Mori M,Basara N,Schäfer-Eckart K,Schultheis B,Baldus C,Neubauer A,Burchert A Leukemia Preliminary evidence suggests that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has clinical activity in FLT3-ITD-positive (FLT3-ITD) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the quality and sustainability of achievable remissions and clinical variables that influence the outcome of sorafenib monotherapy are largely undefined. To address these questions, we evaluated sorafenib monotherapy in 65 FLT3-ITD AML patients treated at 23 centers. All but two patients had relapsed or were chemotherapy-refractory after a median of three prior chemotherapy cycles. Twenty-nine patients (45%) had undergone prior allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The documented best responses were: hematological remission in 24 patients (37%), bone marrow remission in 5 patients (8%), complete remission (with and without normalization of peripheral blood counts) in 15 patients (23%) and molecular remission with undetectable FLT3-ITD mRNA in 10 patients (15%), respectively. Seventeen of the patients without prior allo-SCT (47%) developed sorafenib resistance after a median treatment duration of 136 days (range, 56-270 days). In contrast, allo-SCT patients developed sorafenib resistance less frequently (38%) and significantly later (197 days, range 38-225 days; P=0.03). Sustained remissions were seen exclusively in the allo-SCT cohort. Thus, sorafenib monotherapy has significant activity in FLT3-ITD AML and may synergize with allogeneic immune effects to induce durable remissions. 10.1038/leu.2012.105
    Sorafenib Combined with 5-azacytidine in Older Patients with Untreated FLT3-ITD Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Ohanian Maro,Garcia-Manero Guillermo,Levis Mark,Jabbour Elias,Daver Naval,Borthakur Gautam,Kadia Tapan,Pierce Sherry,Burger Jan,Richie Mary Ann,Patel Keyur,Andreeff Michael,Estrov Zeev,Cortes Jorge,Kantarjian Hagop,Ravandi Farhad American journal of hematology Based on our previous study of the combination of sorafenib with 5-azacytidine (AZA) in relapsed/refractory patients with FLT3 mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we hypothesized that the combination would be efficacious and well tolerated in untreated patients with FLT3 mutated AML who are unsuitable for standard chemotherapy due to advanced age or lack of fitness. Newly diagnosed patients with untreated FLT3 mutated AML who underwent frontline therapy on 2 separate protocols of AZA plus sorafenib were analyzed. The clinical trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02196857 and NCT01254890). Overall, 27 patients with untreated FLT3 mutated AML (median age of 74 years, range, 61-86) were enrolled. The overall response rate was 78% (7 [26%] CR, 12 [44%] CRi/CRp, and 2 [7%] PR). Patients received a median of 3 treatment cycles (1-35). The median duration of CR/CRp/CRi is 14.5 months (1.1-28.7 months). Three (11%) responding patients (1 CR, 2 CRi) proceeded to allogeneic stem cell transplant. The median follow-up for surviving patients was 4.1 months (3.0-17.3 months). The median overall survival for the entire group was 8.3 months, and 9.2 months in the 19 responders. The regimen was well tolerated in elderly patients with untreated FLT3 mutated AML with no early deaths. 10.1002/ajh.25198
    Sorafenib improves survival of -mutated acute myeloid leukemia in relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a report of the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party. Bazarbachi Ali,Labopin Myriam,Battipaglia Giorgia,Djabali Azedine,Passweg Jakob,Socié Gerard,Forcade Edouard,Blaise Didier,Chevallier Patrice,Orvain Corentin,Cornelissen Jan J,Arcese William,Chantepie Sylvain,Hashaishi Khowla,El Cheikh Jean,Medinger Michael,Esteve Jordi,Nagler Arnon,Mohty Mohamad Haematologica 10.3324/haematol.2018.211615
    Phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication acute myeloid leukemia. Chen Yi-Bin,Li Shuli,Lane Andrew A,Connolly Christine,Del Rio Candice,Valles Betsy,Curtis Morgan,Ballen Karen,Cutler Corey,Dey Bimalangshu R,El-Jawahri Areej,Fathi Amir T,Ho Vincent T,Joyce Amy,McAfee Steven,Rudek Michelle,Rajkhowa Trivikram,Verselis Sigitas,Antin Joseph H,Spitzer Thomas R,Levis Mark,Soiffer Robert Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation The fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is associated with a high relapse rate for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which inhibits the FLT3 tyrosine kinase and has shown encouraging activity in FLT3-ITD AML. We conducted a phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01398501). Patients received a variety of conditioning regimens and graft sources. A dose escalation 3 + 3 cohort design was used to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), with an additional 10 patients treated at the MTD. Sorafenib was initiated between days 45 and 120 after HSCT and continued for 12 28-day cycles. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (status at HSCT: first complete remission [CR1], n = 16; second complete remission [CR2], n = 3; refractory, n = 3). The MTD was established at 400 mg twice daily with 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observed (pericardial effusion). Two patients died of transplantation-related causes, both unrelated to sorafenib. Two patients stopped sorafenib after relapse and 5 stopped because of attributable toxicities after the DLT period. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 16.7 months after HSCT (range, 8.1 to 35.0). There was 1 case of grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after starting sorafenib and the 12-month cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 38% (90% confidence interval [CI], 21% to 56%). For all patients, 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 85% (90% CI, 66% to 94%) and 1-year overall survival (OS) was 95% (90% CI, 79% to 99%) after HSCT. For patients in CR1/CR2 before HSCT (n = 19), 1-year PFS was 95% (90% CI, 76% to 99%) and 1-year OS was 100%, with only 1 patient who relapsed. Sorafenib is safe after HSCT for FLT3-ITD AML and merits further investigation for the prevention of relapse. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.09.007
    Sorafenib Therapy for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia with FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3-internal Tandem Duplication Mutations: 2 Case Reports. Osone Shinya,Imamura Toshihiko,Kanayama Takuyo,Tsuma Yusuke,Kawashima-Goto Sachiko,Nakatani Takuya,Sugimoto Atsuya,Takai Akari,Miyachi Mitsuru,Tamura Shinichi,Ishida Hiroyuki,Hosoi Hajime Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Sorafenib is a promising agent for treating pediatric refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) exhibiting FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD); however, its optimal use needs to be established. We report 2 cases of refractory pediatric FLT3-ITD-positive AML treated with sorafenib. Case 1 underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT) without entering remission, despite the use of chemotherapy. This patient relapsed despite receiving post-SCT sorafenib. Chemotherapy combined with sorafenib successfully achieved complete remission in case 2. This patient received post-SCT sorafenib and remains in complete remission. The combination of pre-SCT and post-SCT sorafenib may thus be effective for pediatric refractory FLT3-ITD-positive AML. 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000672
    Sorafenib treatment following hematopoietic stem cell transplant in pediatric FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia. Tarlock Katherine,Chang Bill,Cooper Todd,Gross Thomas,Gupta Sumit,Neudorf Steven,Adlard Kathleen,Ho Phoenix A,McGoldrick Suzanne,Watt Tanya,Templeman Tina,Sisler India,Garee Amy,Thomson Blythe,Woolfrey Ann,Estey Elihu,Meshinchi Soheil,Pollard Jessica A Pediatric blood & cancer BACKGROUND:FLT3/ITD is associated with poor outcomes in adult and pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can improve cure rates, however relapse is still common. Recent studies demonstrate the activity of FLT3 inhibitors, including sorafenib, in targeting the underlying mutation. PROCEDURE:We conducted a retrospective study of 15 pediatric patients with FLT3/ITD+ AML treated with sorafenib within 18 months after receiving HSCT. Sorafenib was administered either as prophylaxis in patients considered at very high risk for relapse (n = 6) or at the time of disease recurrence (n = 9). RESULTS:Sorafenib was initiated at a median of 100 days post HSCT. Overall, 11/15 (73%) of patients experienced medically significant toxicities. Among patients who experienced toxicity, 6/11 (55%) received treatment at doses above what was later determined to be the maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib for pediatric leukemia. Importantly, sorafenib did not appear to exacerbate graft versus host disease. Our findings suggest that sorafenib may be of particular efficacy in patients with minimal residual disease (MRD); all patients who received sorafenib for MRD immediately prior to transplant or with emergence post-HSCT are alive and remain in complete remission at a median of 48 months post HSCT. CONCLUSIONS:Our case series suggests that sorafenib administration is feasible and tolerable in pediatric FLT3/ITD+ AML patients early post HSCT. Ongoing prospective controlled studies are needed to further define the dosing of sorafenib in the post-HSCT period and to determine the optimal context for this treatment approach. 10.1002/pbc.25437
    High rate of hematological responses to sorafenib in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. De Freitas Tiago,Marktel Sarah,Piemontese Simona,Carrabba Matteo G,Tresoldi Cristina,Messina Carlo,Lupo Stanghellini Maria Teresa,Assanelli Andrea,Corti Consuelo,Bernardi Massimo,Peccatori Jacopo,Vago Luca,Ciceri Fabio European journal of haematology Relapse represents the most significant cause of failure of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and available therapies are largely unsatisfactory. In this study, we retrospectively collected data on the off-label use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, either alone or in association with hypomethylating agents and adoptive immunotherapy, in 13 patients with post-transplantation FLT3-ITD-positive AML relapses. Hematological response was documented in 12 of 13 patients (92%), and five of 13 (38%) achieved complete bone marrow remission. Treatment was overall manageable in the outpatient setting, although all patients experienced significant adverse events, especially severe cytopenias (requiring a donor stem cell boost in five patients) and typical hand-foot syndrome. None of the patients developed graft-vs.-host disease following sorafenib alone, whereas this was frequently observed when this was given in association with donor T-cell infusions. Six patients are alive and in remission at the last follow-up, and four could be bridged to a second allogeneic HSCT, configuring a 65 ± 14% overall survival at 100 d from relapse. Taken together, our data suggest that sorafenib might represent a valid treatment option for patients with FLT3-ITD-positive post-transplantation relapses, manageable also in combination with other therapeutic strategies. 10.1111/ejh.12647
    Prognostic significance of baseline FLT3-ITD mutant allele level in acute myeloid leukemia treated with intensive chemotherapy with/without sorafenib. Yalniz Fevzi,Abou Dalle Iman,Kantarjian Hagop,Borthakur Gautam,Kadia Tapan,Patel Keyur,Loghavi Sanam,Garcia-Manero Guillermo,Sasaki Koji,Daver Naval,DiNardo Courtney,Pemmaraju Naveen,Short Nicholas J,Yilmaz Musa,Bose Prithviraj,Naqvi Kiran,Pierce Sherry,Nogueras González Graciela M,Konopleva Marina,Andreeff Michael,Cortes Jorge,Ravandi Farhad American journal of hematology Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 gene (FLT3) confer a poor prognosis in adult AML. Studies have reported that a higher mutant allelic burden is associated with a worse prognosis. Adult patients with FLT3-ITD mutated AML treated at our institution were identified. Patients were assigned into 2 groups; patients who received idarubicin and cytarabine (IA, group one) containing induction, and who received sorafenib in addition to IA containing regimens at induction (group two). The optimal FLT3-ITD mutant allele cut-off was defined as the cut-off to divide the whole cohort with the highest statistical significance. A total of 183 patients including 104 (57%) in group one and 79 (43%) in group two were identified. The complete remission (CR)/CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi) for group one and group two were 85% and 99%, respectively (P = .004). The median relapse free survival (RFS) for group one and two were 12 and 45 months, respectively (P = .02). The median overall survival (mOS) was 17 months in group one, and has not been reached in group two (P = .008). The optimal FLT3-ITD mutant allele cut-off for OS was 6.9% in group one, there was no optimal cut-off in group two. On multivariate analysis, poor performance status (PS) (P = .003), sorafenib (P = .01), and presenting white blood cells (WBC) (P < .001) were independent predictors of OS. Higher FLT3-ITD allele burden is associated with a worse outcome in patients treated with IA-based chemotherapy. Addition of sorafenib to chemotherapy not only nullifies the negative prognostic impact of higher allele burden, but also improves outcome of FLT3-ITD mutated AML patients regardless of the allele burden. 10.1002/ajh.25553
    Efficacy and feasibility of sorafenib as a maintenance agent after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia. Battipaglia Giorgia,Ruggeri Annalisa,Massoud Radwan,El Cheikh Jean,Jestin Matthieu,Antar Ahmad,Ahmed Syed Osman,Rasheed Walid,Shaheen Marwan,Belhocine Ramdane,Brissot Eolia,Dulery Remy,Eder Sandra,Giannotti Federica,Isnard Francoise,Lapusan Simona,Rubio Marie-Therese,Vekhoff Anne,Aljurf Mahmoud,Legrand Ollivier,Mohty Mohamad,Bazarbachi Ali Cancer BACKGROUND:Sorafenib has shown encouraging results in patients with Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-positive acute myeloid leukemia. Its role after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been reported in a few cases with encouraging results. METHODS:The authors describe the use of sorafenib as a maintenance agent after HSCT in 27 patients with FLT3-positive acute myeloid leukemia. RESULTS:The median age of the patients was 46 years (range, 15-57 years). Sorafenib was introduced at a median of 70 days (range, 29-337 days) after HSCT. The median treatment duration was 8.4 months (range, 0.2-46 months). Eleven patients experienced treatment toxicities, mainly of grade 1 to 2 (graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria [version 4.0]). Dose reduction or withdrawal was required in 4 patients and 4 patients, respectively. The persistence of toxicity prompted treatment withdrawal in 1 patient. Clinical improvement followed dose modifications. Thirteen patients experienced chronic graft-versus-host disease (limited in 9 patients and extensive in 4 patients), resulting in dose reduction in 5 patients followed by withdrawal in 1 of these individuals. At a median follow-up of 18 months (range, 4-48 months), 25 patients were alive (all of whom were in complete molecular remission) and 18 were still receiving treatment, with 1-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates of 92% ± 6% and 92% ± 5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Sorafenib treatment after HSCT appears to be feasible and highly effective with dose individualization according to patient tolerability. Further analysis is needed to evaluate the immunomodulating role of sorafenib after HSCT. The data from the current support prospective controlled trials of sorafenib after HSCT. Cancer 2017;123:2867-74. © 2017 American Cancer Society. 10.1002/cncr.30680
    Effect of sorafenib on the outcomes of patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Xuan Li,Wang Yu,Huang Fen,Jiang Erlie,Deng Lan,Wu Bingyi,Fan Zhiping,Liang Xinquan,Xu Na,Ye Jieyu,Lin Ren,Yin Changxin,Zhang Yuanyuan,Sun Jing,Han Mingzhe,Huang Xiaojun,Liu Qifa Cancer BACKGROUND:The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorafenib on the outcomes of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS:A total of 144 patients with FLT3-ITD AML undergoing allo-HSCT between January 2012 and December 2015 were enrolled in this study. Depending on whether they were receiving sorafenib before transplantation or sorafenib maintenance after transplantation, patients were divided into 4 groups: patients receiving sorafenib before transplantation (group A; n = 36), patients receiving sorafenib after transplantation (group B; n = 32), patients receiving sorafenib both before and after transplantation (group C; n = 26), and patients receiving sorafenib neither before nor after transplantation (group D; n = 50). Outcomes were compared among these groups. RESULTS:The 3-year relapse rates were 22.2%, 18.8%, 15.8%, and 46.1% for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (P = .006). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 74.9%, 78.1%, 84.6%, and 50.9%, respectively (P = .023), and the 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates were 69.4%, 78.1%, 80.4%, and 34.8%, respectively (P < .001). The relapse rate was higher and the LFS was shorter in group D versus groups A, B, and C. The OS in group D was shorter than the OS in group C but was similar to the OS in groups A and B. A multivariate analysis revealed that sorafenib before transplantation, sorafenib maintenance after transplantation, and their combined application were protective factors for a lower relapse rate (hazard ratios [HRs], 0.436 [P = .048], 0.431 [P = .046], and 0.173 [P = .002], respectively) and longer LFS (HRs, 0.322 [P = .010], 0.343 [P = .014], and 0.187 [P = .001], respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Sorafenib before transplantation, sorafenib maintenance after transplantation, and their combined application all could improve the outcomes for patients with FLT3-ITD AML. Further study is needed to determine whether the use of sorafenib both before and after transplantation might be ideal. Cancer 2018;124:1954-63. © 2018 American Cancer Society. 10.1002/cncr.31295
    Sorafenib plus intensive chemotherapy improves survival in patients with newly diagnosed, FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutation-positive acute myeloid leukemia. Sasaki Koji,Kantarjian Hagop M,Kadia Tapan,Patel Keyur,Loghavi Sanam,Garcia-Manero Guillermo,Jabbour Elias J,DiNardo Courtney,Pemmaraju Naveen,Daver Naval,Dalle Iman Abou,Short Nicholas,Yilmaz Musa,Bose Prithviraj,Naqvi Kiran,Pierce Sherry,Yalniz Fevzi,Cortes Jorge E,Ravandi Farhad Cancer BACKGROUND:The addition of midostaurin to induction chemotherapy improves survival in younger patients with newly diagnosed, FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Sorafenib is a potent multikinase inhibitor with efficacy when given as monotherapy. The authors investigated whether the addition of sorafenib to intensive induction chemotherapy improves outcomes in patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD)-mutated AML. METHODS:In total, 183 patients who were newly diagnosed with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML between February 2001 and December 2017 were identified. Of these, 79 patients (43%) underwent intensive chemotherapy with the addition of sorafenib, and 104 (57%) received intensive chemotherapy alone. Propensity score matching identified 42 patients in each cohort. RESULTS:The overall response rate was 98% in the sorafenib cohort and 83% in the intensive chemotherapy cohort (P = .057). The median follow-up was 54 months. The median event-free survival was 35 months in the sorafenib cohort and 8 months in the intensive chemotherapy cohort (P = .019), and the median overall survival was 42 and 13 months, respectively (P = .026). With censoring at the time of allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the median event-free survival was 31 and 8 months in the sorafenib and intensive therapy cohorts, respectively (P = .031), and the median overall survival was not reached and 10 months, respectively (P = .001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models confirmed that treatment with sorafenib was a favorable prognostic factor (P = .009; hazard ratio, 0.558; 95% CI, 0.360-0.865). CONCLUSIONS:The addition of sorafenib improves survival in patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML regardless of whether they undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation. 10.1002/cncr.32387
    Discontinuation of sorafenib can lead to the emergence of FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. Kakiuchi Seiji,Yakushijin Kimikazu,Sakai Rina,Kawaguchi Koji,Higashime Ako,Kurata Keiji,Ichikawa Hiroya,Nagao Shigeki,Rikitake Junpei,Kiyota Naomi,Matsuoka Hiroshi,Minami Hironobu Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners A 69-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with unresectable papillary thyroid cancer was referred to our hospital. We initially treated her with sorafenib, but she subsequently developed erythema multiforme, which was suspected to be a drug rush due to sorafenib; therefore, sorafenib was discontinued. At the time of discontinuation, immature blast cells were detected in her peripheral blood. Approximately two weeks later, her skin rash improved substantially, but the proportion of blasts in the peripheral blood increased. We performed a bone marrow examination, and she was diagnosed with FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. FLT3-ITD expression is found in 20-25% of AML and is a known independent poor prognostic factor. To overcome the poor prognosis associated with FLT3-ITD, molecular drugs targeting FLT3-ITD are attracting much attention. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, also has an effect on FLT3-ITD. Although primary disease flares after tyrosine kinase inhibitor discontinuation have been reported, this is the first report to describe discontinuation of sorafenib treatment as a potential trigger of FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia in papillary thyroid cancer. 10.1177/1078155218816768
    Efficacy and Feasibility of Sorafenib as a Maintenance Agent After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Mutated Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Update. Battipaglia Giorgia,Massoud Radwan,Ahmed Syed Osman,Legrand Ollivier,El Cheikh Jean,Youniss Riad,Aljurf Mahmoud,Mohty Mohamad,Bazarbachi Ali Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia BACKGROUND:Patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutations have a very poor prognosis, despite use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and salvage treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We previously reported the safety and efficacy of sorafenib, an FLT3 inhibitor, as a maintenance agent after allo-HSCT in patients diagnosed with AML with FLT3 mutations. We provide an update on the 27 patients with FLT3-mutated AML in our original report, who received sorafenib as a single maintenance agent. RESULTS:Since our previous report, others have confirmed our reported significant overall survival and progression-free survival in patients who received sorafenib before and/or after allo-HSCT. In this update on the 27 patients with FLT3-mutated AML in our original report, we show persistence of the previously reported impressive long-term disease control. CONCLUSION:Our results, with longer follow-up than in our previous report, together with those of others, further support the use of sorafenib as a maintenance agent after allo-HSCT. 10.1016/j.clml.2019.04.004
    Sorafenib Therapy Is Associated with Improved Outcomes for FMS-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 Internal Tandem Duplication Acute Myeloid Leukemia Relapsing after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Xuan Li,Wang Yu,Chen Jia,Jiang Erlie,Gao Li,Wu Bingyi,Deng Lan,Liang Xinquan,Huang Fen,Fan Zhiping,Tang Xiaowen,Sun Jing,Zhang Xi,Han Mingzhe,Wu Depei,Huang Xiaojun,Liu Qifa Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation The optimal therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of sorafenib combined with other therapeutic strategies as salvage therapy for these patients. Eighty-three AML patients with FLT3-ITD relapsing after allo-HSCT were enrolled in this study. Fifty-three patients received salvage therapy containing sorafenib and 30 patients did not. Salvage therapy containing sorafenib was superior to that without sorafenib with respect to complete remission rates, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) (66.0% versus 30.0%, 46.8% versus 20.0%, and 44.9% versus 16.7%, respectively; P = .002, P = .003, and P = .001). Further subgroup analysis revealed that the OS and PFS of patients who received sorafenib combined with chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) were superior to those receiving other therapeutic regimens, including sorafenib combined with chemotherapy, chemotherapy followed by DLI, and monochemotherapy (P = .003, P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that salvage therapy including sorafenib was the only protective factor for longer OS (P = .035; hazard ratio [HR], .526); salvage therapy including sorafenib and DLI were the protective factors for longer PFS (P = .011, HR, .423; P = .019, HR, .508). Our data suggest that sorafenib therapy is associated with improved outcomes for FLT3-ITD AML relapsing after allo-HSCT, and whether sorafenib combined with chemotherapy followed by DLI reveals an optimal efficacy merits further study. 10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.04.018
    Haematopoietic cell transplantation with and without sorafenib maintenance for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission. Brunner Andrew M,Li Shuli,Fathi Amir T,Wadleigh Martha,Ho Vincent T,Collier Kerry,Connolly Christine,Ballen Karen K,Cutler Corey S,Dey Bimalangshu R,El-Jawahri Areej,Nikiforow Sarah,McAfee Steven L,Koreth John,Deangelo Daniel J,Alyea Edwin P,Antin Joseph H,Spitzer Thomas R,Stone Richard M,Soiffer Robert J,Chen Yi-Bin British journal of haematology We performed a retrospective study analysing the effect of sorafenib, an oral fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3)/multikinase inhibitor, as post-transplant maintenance in adult patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We identified consecutive patients with FLT3-ITD AML diagnosed between 2008 and 2014 who received haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission (CR1). Post-HCT initiation of sorafenib (yes/no) was evaluated as a time-varying covariate in the overall survival/progression-free survival (OS/PFS) analysis and we performed a landmark analysis of controls alive without relapse at the median date of sorafenib initiation. We identified 26 sorafenib patients and 55 controls. Median follow-up was 27·2 months post-HCT for sorafenib survivors, and 38·4 months for controls (P = 0·021). The median time to initiating sorafenib was 68 days post-HCT; 43 controls were alive without relapse at this cut-off. Sorafenib patients had improved 2-year OS in the d+68 landmark analysis (81% vs. 62%, P = 0·029). Sorafenib was associated with improved 2-year PFS (82% vs. 53%, P = 0·0081) and lower 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse (8·2% vs. 37·7%, P = 0·0077). In multivariate analysis, sorafenib significantly improved OS [Hazard ratio (HR) 0·26, P = 0·021] and PFS (HR 0·25, P = 0·016). There was no difference in 2-year non-relapse mortality (9·8% vs. 9·3%, P = 0·82) or 1-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (55·5% vs. 37·2%, P = 0·28). These findings suggest potential benefit of post-HCT sorafenib in FLT3-ITD AML, and support further evaluation of post-HCT FLT3 inhibition. 10.1111/bjh.14260
    Long-term survival of sorafenib-treated FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukaemia patients relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Metzelder S K,Schroeder T,Lübbert M,Ditschkowski M,Götze K,Scholl S,Meyer R G,Dreger P,Basara N,Fey M F,Salih H R,Finck A,Pabst T,Giagounidis A,Kobbe G,Wollmer E,Finke J,Neubauer A,Burchert A European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) BACKGROUND:Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD)-positive acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) has a dismal prognosis with limited therapeutic options. FLT3-ITD kinase inhibition is a reasonable but palliative experimental treatment alternative in this situation. Information on long-term outcome is not available. METHODS:We performed a long-term follow-up analysis of a previously reported cohort of 29 FLT3-ITD-positive AML patients, which were treated in relapse after allo-SCT with sorafenib monotherapy. FINDINGS:With a median follow-up of 7.5 years, 6 of 29 patients (21%) are still alive. Excluding one patient who received a second allo-SCT, five patients (17%) achieved sustained complete remissions with sorafenib. Four of these patients are in treatment-free remission for a median of 4.4 years. INTERPRETATION:Sorafenib may enable cure of a proportion of very poor risk FLT3-ITD-positive AML relapsing after allo-SCT. 10.1016/j.ejca.2017.09.016
    Sorafenib and omacetaxine mepesuccinate as a safe and effective treatment for acute myeloid leukemia carrying internal tandem duplication of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3. Zhang Chunxiao,Lam Stephen S Y,Leung Garret M K,Tsui Sze-Pui,Yang Ning,Ng Nelson K L,Ip Ho-Wan,Au Chun-Hang,Chan Tsun-Leung,Ma Edmond S K,Yip Sze-Fai,Lee Harold K K,Lau June S M,Luk Tsan-Hei,Li Wa,Kwong Yok-Lam,Leung Anskar Y H Cancer BACKGROUND:Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (OME) has antileukemic effects against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) carrying an internal tandem duplication of Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD). A phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to evaluate a combination treatment of sorafenib and omacetaxine mepesuccinate (SOME). METHODS:Relapsed or refractory (R/R) or newly diagnosed patients were treated with sorafenib (200-400 mg twice daily) and OME (2 mg daily) for 7 (first course) or 5 days (second course onward) every 21 days until disease progression or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The primary endpoint was composite complete remission, which was defined as complete remission (CR) plus complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Secondary endpoints were leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Thirty-nine R/R patients and 5 newly diagnosed patients were recruited. Among the R/R patients, 28 achieved CR or CRi. Two patients showed partial remission, and 9 patients did not respond. Among the 5 newly diagnosed patients, 4 achieved CR, and 1 achieved CRi. The median LFS and OS were 5.6 and 10.9 months, respectively. Prior Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitor exposure (P = .007), 2 or more inductions (P = .001), and coexisting IDH2 (P = .008) and RUNX1 mutations (P = .003) were associated with lower CR/CRi rates. HSCT consolidation and deep molecular responses (defined as an FLT3-ITD variant allelic frequency [VAF] ≤ 0.1% or a nucleophosmin 1 [NPM1] mutant VAF ≤ 0.01%) were associated with better OS and LFS. Prior FLT3 inhibitor exposure and 2 or more inductions were associated with inferior LFS. CONCLUSIONS:SOME was safe and effective for R/R and newly diagnosed FLT3-ITD AML. 10.1002/cncr.32534
    Addition of sorafenib versus placebo to standard therapy in patients aged 60 years or younger with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (SORAML): a multicentre, phase 2, randomised controlled trial. Röllig Christoph,Serve Hubert,Hüttmann Andreas,Noppeney Richard,Müller-Tidow Carsten,Krug Utz,Baldus Claudia D,Brandts Christian H,Kunzmann Volker,Einsele Hermann,Krämer Alwin,Schäfer-Eckart Kerstin,Neubauer Andreas,Burchert Andreas,Giagounidis Aristoteles,Krause Stefan W,Mackensen Andreas,Aulitzky Walter,Herbst Regina,Hänel Mathias,Kiani Alexander,Frickhofen Norbert,Kullmer Johannes,Kaiser Ulrich,Link Hartmut,Geer Thomas,Reichle Albert,Junghanß Christian,Repp Roland,Heits Frank,Dürk Heinz,Hase Jana,Klut Ina-Maria,Illmer Thomas,Bornhäuser Martin,Schaich Markus,Parmentier Stefani,Görner Martin,Thiede Christian,von Bonin Malte,Schetelig Johannes,Kramer Michael,Berdel Wolfgang E,Ehninger Gerhard, The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Preclinical data and results from non-randomised trials suggest that the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib might be an effective drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib versus placebo in addition to standard chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years or younger. METHODS:This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial was done at 25 sites in Germany. We enrolled patients aged 18-60 years with newly diagnosed, previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia who had a WHO clinical performance score 0-2, adequate renal and liver function, no cardiac comorbidities, and no recent trauma or operation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive two cycles of induction therapy with daunorubicin (60 mg/m(2) on days 3-5) plus cytarabine (100 mg/m(2) on days 1-7), followed by three cycles of high-dose cytarabine consolidation therapy (3 g/m(2) twice daily on days 1, 3, and 5) plus either sorafenib (400 mg twice daily) or placebo on days 10-19 of induction cycles 1 and 2, from day 8 of each consolidation, and as maintenance for 12 months. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation was scheduled for all intermediate-risk patients with a sibling donor and for all high-risk patients with a matched donor in first remission. Computer-generated randomisation was done in blocks. The primary endpoint was event-free survival, with an event defined as either primary treatment failure or relapse or death, assessed in all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. We report the final analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00893373, and the EU Clinical Trials Register (2008-004968-40). FINDINGS:Between March 27, 2009, and Nov 28, 2011, 276 patients were enrolled and randomised, of whom nine did not receive study medication. 267 patients were included in the primary analysis (placebo, n=133; sorafenib, n=134). With a median follow-up of 36 months (IQR 35·5-38·1), median event-free survival was 9 months (95% CI 4-15) in the placebo group versus 21 months (9-32) in the sorafenib group, corresponding to a 3-year event-free survival of 22% (95% CI 13-32) in the placebo group versus 40% (29-51) in the sorafenib group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·64, 95% CI; 0·45-0·91; p=0·013). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in both groups were fever (71 [53%] in the placebo group vs 73 [54%] in the sorafenib group), infections (55 [41%] vs 46 [34%]), pneumonia (21 [16%] vs 20 [14%]), and pain (13 [10%] vs 15 [11%]). Grade 3 or worse adverse events that were significantly more common in the sorafenib group than the placebo group were fever (relative risk [RR] 1·54, 95% CI 1·04-2·28), diarrhoea (RR 7·89, 2·94-25·2), bleeding (RR 3·75, 1·5-10·0), cardiac events (RR 3·46, 1·15-11·8), hand-foot-skin reaction (only in sorafenib group), and rash (RR 4·06, 1·25-15·7). INTERPRETATION:In patients with acute myeloid leukaemia aged 60 years or younger, the addition of sorafenib to standard chemotherapy has antileukaemic efficacy but also increased toxicity. Our findings suggest that kinase inhibitors could be a useful addition to curative treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia. Overall survival after long-term follow-up and strategies to reduce toxicity are needed to determine the future role of sorafenib in treatment of this disease. FUNDING:Bayer HealthCare. 10.1016/S1470-2045(15)00362-9
    Sorafenib maintenance in patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: an open-label, multicentre, randomised phase 3 trial. Xuan Li,Wang Yu,Huang Fen,Fan Zhiping,Xu Yajing,Sun Jing,Xu Na,Deng Lan,Li Xudong,Liang Xinquan,Luo Xiaodan,Shi Pengcheng,Liu Hui,Wang Zhixiang,Jiang Ling,Yu Chunzi,Zhou Xuan,Lin Ren,Chen Yan,Tu Sanfang,Huang Xiaojun,Liu Qifa The Lancet. Oncology BACKGROUND:Findings of retrospective studies suggest that sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation might reduce relapse in patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation in this population. METHODS:We did an open-label, randomised phase 3 trial at seven hospitals in China. Eligible patients (aged 18-60 years) had FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia, were undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, had composite complete remission before and after transplantation, and had haematopoietic recovery within 60 days post-transplantation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to sorafenib maintenance (400 mg orally twice daily) or non-maintenance (control) at 30-60 days post-transplantation. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks (block size four) and implemented through an interactive web-based randomisation system. The primary endpoint was the 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02474290; the trial is complete. FINDINGS:Between June 20, 2015, and July 21, 2018, 202 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sorafenib maintenance (n=100) or control (n=102). Median follow-up post-transplantation was 21·3 months (IQR 15·0-37·0). The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 7·0% (95% CI 3·1-13·1) in the sorafenib group and 24·5% (16·6-33·2) in the control group (hazard ratio 0·25, 95% CI 0·11-0·57; p=0·0010). Within 210 days post-transplantation, the most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were infections (25 [25%] of 100 patients in the sorafenib group vs 24 [24%] of 102 in the control group), acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD; 23 [23%] of 100 vs 21 [21%] of 102), chronic GVHD (18 [18%] of 99 vs 17 [17%] of 99), and haematological toxicity (15 [15%] of 100 vs seven [7%] of 102). There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION:Sorafenib maintenance post-transplantation can reduce relapse and is well tolerated in patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. This strategy could be a suitable therapeutic option for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30455-1