Using online learning in a traditional face-to-face environment.
Computers in nursing
A model for designing online learning was developed and implemented in a Registered Nurse-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing course using online and face-to-face methodologies. The combination of online and face-to-face learning modalities may help the student who is a novice Internet explorer or seasoned Web navigator by offering technological support as well as providing constant in-person feedback regarding course requirements. The face-to-face component facilitates a sense of community and peer support that sometimes is lacking in an entirely online course. During the 2 semesters this model was used, students expressed satisfaction with having the course facilitator/professor physically available for consultation and advisement. Evaluation of this online/on-site course is ongoing and uses computer-administered qualitative questionnaires, a facilitator-moderated focus group, and Likert-type course evaluations.
YouTube as a source of clinical skills education.
Duncan Ian,Yarwood-Ross Lee,Haigh Carol
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:YouTube may be viewed as a great 'time waster' but a significant amount of educative material can be found if the user is carefully selective. Interestingly, the growth of educational video on YouTube is closely associated to video viewership which increased from 22% to 38% between 2007 and 2009. OBJECTIVES:This paper describes the findings of a study undertaken to assess the quality of clinical skills videos available on the video sharing site YouTube. DESIGN:This study evaluated 100 YouTube sites, approximately 1500 min or 25 h worth of content across 10 common clinical skill related topics. METHODS:In consultation with novice practitioners, nurses in the first year of their university diploma programme, we identified ten common clinical skills that typically students would explore in more detail or would wish to revisit outside of the formal teaching environment. For each of these topics, we viewed each of the first 10 videos on the YouTube website. The videos were evaluated using a modification of the criteria outlined in Evaluation of Video Media Guideline. RESULTS:The topic with the biggest number of both postings and views was cardiopulmonary resuscitation and more specialist, nursing or health related topics such as managing a syringe driver or undertaking a pain assessment had less video content and lower numbers of viewers. Only one video out of the 100 analysed could be categorised as 'good' and that was the one in the Cannulation section. 60% of the CPR and venepuncture content was categorised as 'satisfactory'. CONCLUSIONS:There is a clear need for the quality of YouTube videos to be subjected to a rigorous evaluation. Lecturers should be more proactive in recommending suitable YouTube material as supplementary learning materials after appropriately checking for quality.
An integrated educational model for continuing nurse education.
Duff Beverley,Gardner Glenn,Osborne Sonya
Nurse education today
AIM:This paper reports on the development and evaluation of an integrated clinical learning model to inform ongoing education for surgical nurses. The research aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing a Respiratory Skills Update (ReSKU) education program, in the context of organisational utility, on improving surgical nurses' practice in the area of respiratory assessment. BACKGROUND:Continuous development and integration of technological innovations and research in the healthcare environment mandate the need for continuing education for nurses. Despite an increased worldwide emphasis on this, there is scant empirical evidence of program effectiveness. METHODS:A quasi experimental pre test, post test non-equivalent control group design evaluated the impact of the ReSKU program on surgical nurses' clinical practice. The 2008 study was conducted in a 400 bed regional referral public hospital and was consistent with contemporary educational approaches using multi-modal, interactive teaching strategies. FINDINGS:The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between groups regarding reported use of respiratory skills, three months after ReSKU program attendance. Between group data analysis indicated that the intervention group's reported beliefs and attitudes pertaining to subscale descriptors showed statistically significant differences in three of the six subscales. CONCLUSION:The construct of critical thinking in the clinical context, combined with clinical reasoning and purposeful reflection, was a powerful educational strategy to enhance competency and capability in clinicians.
Student-centered outcomes evaluation of the Clinical Immersion Program: five years later.
Diefenbeck Cynthia A,Hayes Evelyn R,Wade Gail H,Herrman Judith W
The Journal of nursing education
Curricular innovation is an ever-present element of nursing education. It is incumbent for nurse educators to evaluate their curricula and its outcomes to ensure quality nursing education. This article describes a comprehensive student-centered outcome evaluation of the Clinical Immersion Model. This model and the foundational components unique to the curricular design and the senior clinical immersion are described. Several methods of evaluation, including National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses pass rates, exit surveys, alumni surveys, and a senior nursing student focus group, are presented. Implications of this evaluation and future directions are explored to inform potential implementation and adaptation of this effective curriculum by other schools of nursing.
Re-introducing skills teaching to nurse education: an action research project.
Nurse education today
A skills teaching programme for first year nursing students is being developed as an action research project with the participation of lecturers, practitioners of three NHS trusts and first year students. All branches of nursing are equally represented. During the first part of the action research cycle the skills to be taught were decided upon using anonymous questionnaires and branch specific group interviews. The selected skills related to aspects of communication, observation, care planning and nursing activities as well as health care and information technology. The professional and personal development of students was also considered. All branches were able to agree on a common skills teaching programme. During this first part of the action research cycle concerns about the organizational possibility of teaching skills to an ever-increasing number of nursing students and the necessary participation of many lecturers were raised. Nevertheless, all participants emphasized the need to continue the project, requesting the development, implementation and evaluation of a new curriculum based on this research as soon as possible. This research demonstrates how small schools of nursing without the resources of large metropolitan-based medical schools and teaching hospitals can improve or design and implement skills teaching programmes for their students in a logical and research based fashion.
Preparing the nursing student for internship in a pre-registration nursing program: developing a problem based approach with the use of high fidelity simulation equipment.
Nevin M,Neill F,Mulkerrins J
Nurse education in practice
AIM:This paper aims to explore the development and evaluation results of a simulated skills package designed using a problem based learning approach with general nursing students. BACKGROUND:Internationally, the use of high fidelity simulated learning environments has escalated. This has occurred as a result of growing concerns relating to patient safety, patient litigation, lack of clinical opportunities for student nurses to gain experience and integration of new teaching methods into nursing curricula. There are however both proponents and opponents to the value of simulation and high fidelity simulation within nursing education. METHODS:This study was conducted in an Irish school of nursing. A simulated learning support package was developed by nurse educators and piloted with 134 third year nursing students. This was evaluated using a questionnaire in which 87 students responded. FINDINGS:Students generally found the simulation sessions realistic and useful in developing clinical skills, knowledge and confidence for clinical practice. However student issues regarding support with preparation for the session were highlighted. Also, the need for a more formalised structure for debriefing following the simulation sessions were identified. CONCLUSION:It is hoped that this paper will provide nurse educators with some guidance to aid future development of innovative and interactive teaching and learning strategies.
The contribution of distance education to health promotion in Chile.
Salinas Judith,Muñoz Carolina,Albagli Andrea,Araya Gloria,Vio Fernando
Health promotion international
The objective of this paper is to present the distance education's contribution to developing health promotion in Chile, through evaluation of a postgraduate certificate program for professionals, and a training course for nurse technicians working in primary healthcare, with an 8-month follow-up after program completion. The program methodology was participatory, interactive and reflective, with mentoring support, exercises, group work and discussions as well as content pertinent to the needs of practice. The evaluation was quali-quantitative with an analysis of the student profile, the implementation process, outcomes at the end of the training and impacts on workplace changes. The results showed a high rate of student approval (87 and 76%), good academic performance and a high level of satisfaction with the methodology and knowledge delivered. The participants' final projects were adapted to local work places realities and were implemented by 62.6% of technicians and 43% of professionals, in addition to changes in work practices that favor health promotion. The level of fulfillment of participants' expectations was very high and the most frequent barriers to implementing the final project were lack of time and personnel, along with minimal support from management and low prioritization of health promotion. This study shows the effectiveness of a distance training model for professionals and technicians that can reach the most remote parts of the country, where there is no access to presencial training, with an educational program centered on work activities and current health challenges.
Questioning skills of clinical facilitators supporting undergraduate nursing students.
Phillips Nicole M,Duke Maxine M,Weerasuriya Rona
Journal of clinical nursing
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To report on a study investigating questioning skills of clinical facilitators who support the learning of undergraduate nursing students. BACKGROUND:The ability to think critically is integral to decision-making and the provision of safe and quality patient care. Developing students' critical thinking skills is expected of those who supervise and facilitate student learning in the clinical setting. Models used to facilitate student learning in the clinical setting have changed over the years with clinicians having dual responsibility for patient care and facilitating student learning. Many of these nurses have no preparation for the educative role. This study adapted a comparative study conducted over fifteen years ago. DESIGN:Descriptive online survey including three acute care patient scenarios involving an undergraduate nursing student. Participants were required to identify the questions they would ask the student in relation to the scenario. METHODS:A total of 133 clinical facilitators including clinical teachers, clinical educators and preceptors from five large partner healthcare organisations of one Australian university participated. RESULTS:The majority of questions asked were knowledge questions, the lowest category in the cognitive domain requiring only simple recall of information. Facilitators who had undertaken an education-related course/workshop or formal qualification asked significantly more questions from the higher cognitive level. CONCLUSION:The study provides some evidence that nursing facilitators in the clinical setting ask students predominantly low-level questions. Further research is needed to identify strategies that develop the capacity of facilitators to ask higher level cognitive questions. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Clinical facilitators should undertake targeted education that focuses on how to frame questions for students that demand application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
Evaluation of virtual simulation in a master's-level nurse education certificate program.
Foronda Cynthia,Lippincott Christine,Gattamorta Karina
Computers, informatics, nursing : CIN
Master's-level, nurse education certificate students performed virtual clinical simulations as a portion of their clinical practicum. Virtual clinical simulation is an innovative pedagogy using avatars in Web-based platforms to provide simulated clinical experiences. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to evaluate nurse educator students' experience with virtual simulation and the effect of virtual simulation on confidence in teaching ability. Aggregated quantitative results yielded no significant change in confidence in teaching ability. Individually, some students indicated change of either increased or decreased confidence, whereas others exhibited no change in confidence after engaging in virtual simulation. Qualitative findings revealed a process of precursors of anxiety and frustration with technical difficulties followed by outcomes of appreciation and learning. Instructor support was a mediating factor to decrease anxiety and technical difficulties. This study served as a starting point regarding the application of a virtual world to teach the art of instruction. As the movement toward online education continues, educators should further explore use of virtual simulation to prepare nurse educators.
Facilitated Learning to Advance Geriatrics: Increasing the Capacity of Nurse Faculty to Teach Students About Caring for Older Adults.
Krichbaum Kathleen,Kaas Merrie J,Wyman Jean F,Van Son Catherine R
PURPOSE:The Facilitated Learning to Advance Geriatrics program (FLAG) was designed to increase the numbers of nurse faculty in prelicensure programs with basic knowledge about aging and teaching effectiveness to prepare students to provide safe, high quality care for older adults. METHODS:Using a framework to improve transfer of learning, FLAG was designed to include: (a) a workshop to increase basic knowledge of aging and common geriatric syndromes, and effective use of evidence-based teaching/learning strategies; (b) a year-long mentoring program to support application of workshop learning and leading change in participants' schools to ensure that geriatrics is a priority. Both formative and summative evaluation methods were used, and included self-assessment of objectives, program satisfaction, and teaching self-efficacy. RESULTS:FLAG achieved its overall purpose by enrolling 152 participants from 19 states including 23 faculty from associate degree programs and 102 from baccalaureate programs. Self-rated teaching effectiveness improved significantly from pre- to post-workshop each year. Achievement of learning objectives was rated highly as was satisfaction. Transfer of learning was evidenced by implementation of educational projects in home schools supported by mentoring. IMPLICATIONS:The FLAG program provided opportunities for nurse educators to learn to teach geriatrics more effectively and to transfer learning to their work environment. Future FLAG programs will be offered in a shortened format, incorporating online content and strategies, adding other health professionals to the audience with the same goal of increasing the knowledge and abilities of educators to prepare learners to provide competent care for older adults.
A Mixed-Methods, International, Multisite Study to Develop and Validate a Measure of Nurse-to-Physician Communication in Simulation.
Foronda Cynthia L,Alhusen Jeanne,Budhathoki Chakra,Lamb Mary,Tinsley Kim,MacWilliams Brent,Daniels Jessie,Baptiste Diana Lyn,Reese Kathie Kushto,Bauman Eric
Nursing education perspectives
AIM:This study examined the reliability and validity of the ISBAR Interprofessional Communication Rubric (IICR). BACKGROUND:Improving education regarding communication in health care is a global priority. Communication is difficult to measure and no evaluation rubrics were located that uniquely focused on nurse-to-physician communication in simulation. METHOD:This study used a mixed-methods design and included five sites. RESULTS:The IICR was determined reliable among nurse educator raters (r = 0.79). The scale was found valid as assessed by nurse and physician experts (content validity index = 0.92). When describing their experience of using the tool, nurse educator raters described three categories: overall acceptability of the tool, ease of use, and perceptions of the importance of communication skills for patient safety. CONCLUSION:Teaching and evaluating communication in simulation with a standardized rubric is a research area in need of further exploration and refinement.
Validity of transactional analysis and emotional intelligence in training nursing students.
Whitley-Hunter Brandi L
Journal of advances in medical education & professionalism
INTRODUCTION:Emotional intelligence (EI) is considered a critical component of a nurse's characteristic trait which is known as a significant predictor of a person's job performance and life success. Transactional Analysis (TA) plays a fundamental role in nurse-patient communication and managing emotions during difficult dialect with patients. The aim of this review is to discuss the framework of EI and TA, and how the combined theories can be utilized to further educate nurses and enhance the patient's experience. Exploring the idea of combining EI, TA, and other theories and adding these addendums to the nursing curriculum may advance the empathy and communication skills of nursing students. METHODS:The method used in this review is a literature search using databases, such as Medline, EBSCO, and Google Scholar, etc. to form a critical discussion of this area. Key words such as emotional intelligence, transactional analysis, nursing curriculum, and relating theoretical models were used to identify applicable documents. Four studies involving EI and TA were sampled. A combination of data collection tools, such as lecture series and intervention programs, were used to authenticate the results. Other instruments used were ego state questionnaires, empathy, and five point Likert scales. No study design or type of literature was excluded in healthcare to substantiate the application of EI and TA into the nursing curriculum. RESULTS:Sixteen nurses attended a six-week psycho-education program using communication and empathy scales, and patient satisfaction surveys to improve their empathetic and communication skills. The result of the mean communication score (177.8±20) increased to (198.8±15) after training (p=0.001). The empathy score increased from 25.7±7 to 32.6±6 (p=0.001). The overall result reflects that training can improve emergency nurse's communication and empathy skills. CONCLUSION:The data suggests there are under-researched theories with futuristic topics that have value to the nursing community. Suitable evaluation of these theories is vital to nursing education. Implementation and training for nursing students and existing nurses may help shift the culture of medical education ahead by creating a more educated and empathetic work environment.
The impact of an online learning platform about nursing education on enrolled nurse preceptor teaching capabilities: a pre-post-test evaluation.
Ryan Colleen,Young Louise,McAllister Margaret
BACKGROUND:Enrolled nurses (ENs) across Australia precept nursing students in the clinical field. Yet learning about the preceptoring role is not widely available to ENs. Educational innovation: EN's in this study participated in a professional development project that utilised the material of an online learning resource, originally designed to inspire clinical registered nurses (RNs), and RN teachers, to develop teaching innovations in their role. AIM:The aim of this paper is to report the results of a pre-post-test questionnaire designed to evaluate the impact of the professional development intervention. RESULTS:The analysis showed high scoring means with many items in the questionnaire statistically significant (p < .05, CI 95%). CONCLUSION:Results indicated positive differences in a number of teaching capabilities between pre- and post-test scores. This suggests ENs appreciate education that extends beyond clinical skills and that professional development should include the nursing education role.
Who Is the Preferred Tutor in Clinical Skills Training: Physicians, Nurses, or Peers?
Abay Ece Şükriye,Turan Sevgi,Odabaşı Orhan,Elçin Melih
Teaching and learning in medicine
Phenomenon: Clinical skills centers allow structured training of undergraduate medical students for the acquisition of clinical skills in a simulated environment. Physician, nurse, or peer tutors are employed for training in those centers. All tutors should have appropriate training about the methodology used in the clinical skills training. Many of the studies revealed the effectiveness of various types of tutors. The aim of our study was to evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical skills training, and their opinions about the differences in coaching skills among the physician, nurse, and peer tutors. APPROACH:This study was conducted with third-year students (467 students) in 2013-2014 academic year at Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine. Participation rate was 85 % (397 students). The students attended the suturing skill training in groups of 40 students. First, a faculty member from the Department of Medical Education delivered a video demonstration and conducted discussion. After the demonstration, the students were divided into groups of 5-6 students. A physician, nurse, or a peer tutor facilitated each group. The students were asked to complete the Coaching Skills Evaluation Form after the practicum session. It contained 13 criteria for assessing the coaching skills. Additionally, the form included a question for rating the student's satisfaction with the tutor. The performance of the tutors at each step was rated on a three-point scale. FINDINGS:Kruskal Wallis analysis was used to compare students' scores for their tutors. The students' satisfaction with tutors was high for all of the tutors. However, there was no difference between students' scores in suturing skill, and between physician, nurse, and peer tutors' coaching skills. Insights: In this study, we revealed that physician, nurse, and peer tutors were equally effective on the students' performances. They were also regarded as effective in their teaching role by students. But the most important point was that sufficient tutor training and preparation was crucial for the success of models.
Research into experiential learning in nurse education.
British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
This research is founded on an innovative pedagogical project as part of a higher education lecturer teaching qualification. This project involved redesigning the module 'advanced history taking and physical examination with clinical reasoning', a continuing professional development at a higher education institution. The author undertook an exploration of the literature, considering evidence on teaching styles and the way in which students learn and gain knowledge. The module was redesigned, impelemented and then evaluated by the student participants. Key themes in the evaluation centred on the experiential learning style and experiential teaching style. There are numerous internal and external factors that affect teaching, and student learning. Experiential learning has provided a successful teaching pedagogy when applied to clinical skill acquisition, and has positively benefited the module delivery and pass rate, suggesting it has embedded 'deep learning'. Student feedback was positive, and the redesigned module has had a positive impact on student engagement and the teacher-student interaction.
The use of the nominal group technique as an evaluative tool in the teaching and summative assessment of the inter-personal skills of student mental health nurses.
Perry Jonathan,Linsley Sue
Nurse education today
Nominal group technique is a semi-quantitative/qualitative evaluative methodology. It has been used in health care education for generating ideas to develop curricula and find solutions to problems in programme delivery. This paper aims to describe the use of nominal group technique and present the data from nominal group evaluations of a developing module which used novel approaches to the teaching and assessment of interpersonal skills. Evaluations took place over 3 years. Thirty-six students took part in annual groups. Analysis of the data produced the following themes based on items generated in the groups: role play, marking, course content, teaching style and user involvement. Findings indicate that students valued the role play, feedback from service users and emphasis on engagement and collaboration elements of the module. The areas which participants found difficult and desired change included anxiety during experiential practice, the "snap shot" nature of assessment and the use of specific interventions. Indications are also given regarding the impact of changes made by teaching staff over the 3 year evaluation period. The findings support themes within the existing literature on the teaching of interpersonal skills and may to some extent point the way toward best practice in this area. The paper discusses these findings and their implications for nurse education.
Collaborating on medication errors in nursing.
Marvanova Marketa,Henkel Paul J
The clinical teacher
BACKGROUND:Nurse educators are faced with changing roles and expanding responsibilities for medication administration and monitoring in pursuit of improved patient safety. The aims of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate clinical simulation experiences that included, along with nursing faculty members, a pharmacist educator for the teaching of preventable medication errors in undergraduate nursing education. METHODS:Four clinical simulation scenarios using high-fidelity patient simulators were developed focusing on select medication problems in nursing practice. Post-simulation evaluation of perceptions and experiences of undergraduate nursing students (n = 69) were assessed using a questionnaire of Likert-type items, including: (1) an evaluation of the simulation experience; and (2) self-reported perceived benefits for clinical ability and confidence in recognising, managing and reporting medication errors. RESULTS:Four hospital-based simulations on select preventable medication errors were piloted with 72 undergraduate nursing students. The majority of students (60.8-84.1%) evaluated the experience positively with regards to time pressure, type/severity of events, challenges, and benefits for critical thinking and decision making regarding patient safety and medication errors. Four clinical simulation scenarios using high-fidelity patient simulators were developed focusing on select medication problems DISCUSSION: The use of a pharmacy educator as a medication expert and member of the interprofessional health care teaching team in nursing education can be beneficial for training on medication safety, and on adverse effects, in a nursing programme in order to enhance nursing students' education.
Student evaluation of the impact of changes in teaching style on their learning: a mixed method longitudinal study.
Jones Susan,Gopalakrishnan Somasundari,Ameh Charles A,Faragher Brian,Sam Betty,Labicane Roderick R,Kanu Hossinatu,Dabo Fatmata,Mansary Makally,Kanu Rugiatu,van den Broek Nynke
Background:Maternal and Child Health Aides are the largest nursing cadre in Sierra Leone providing maternal and child health care at primary level. Poor healthcare infrastructure and persistent shortage of suitably qualified health care workers have contributed to high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. In 2012, 50% of the MCHAides cohort failed their final examination and the Government of Sierra Leone expressed concerns about the quality of teaching within the programmes. Lack of teaching resources and poor standards of teaching led to high failure rates in final examinations reducing the number of newly qualified nurses available for deployment. Methods:A mixed-methods approach using semi-structured observations of teaching sessions and completion of a questionnaire by students was used. Fourteen MCHAide Training Schools across all districts of Sierra Leone, 140 MCHAide tutors and 513 students were included in the study. In each school, teaching was observed by two researchers at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the tutor training programme. Students completed a questionnaire on the quality of teaching and learning in their school at the same time points. Results:A total of 513 students completed the questionnaire, 120 tutors took part in the training and 66 lessons across all schools were observed. There was a statistically significant ( < 0.05) improvement in mean student evaluation of teaching and learning in 12/19 areas tested at follow-up compared to baseline. Observation of 66 teaching sessions demonstrated an increase in the number of student-focused, interactive teaching methods used. Conclusion:Prior to the teaching and learning workshops there was little student-focused learning within the schools. Teaching was conducted predominantly using lectures even for practical sessions. Training tutors to move away from didactic teaching towards a more student-focused approach leads to increased student satisfaction with teaching and learning within the schools.
An innovation in curriculum content and delivery of cancer education within undergraduate nurse training in the UK. What impact does this have on the knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care?
Edwards Deborah,Anstey Sally,Kelly Daniel,Hopkinson Jane
European journal of oncology nursing : the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
PURPOSE:This was an evaluation of an innovation in curriculum content and delivery within undergraduate nursing education in the UK. Its purpose was to investigate the effect on knowledge, attitudes and confidence in delivering cancer care. METHODS:The study design was a pre-test post-test survey design with a comparison group. Participants were two cohorts of undergraduate nursing students (n(intervention) = 84, n(comparison) = 91). The intervention cohort were exposed to a new 3.5 day programme of cancer education, coproduced with patients, carers and health professionals, which focused on cancer as a life changing long-term condition. The comparison cohort had been exposed to a 2 day programme produced by a lecturer. RESULTS:Following exposure to the new model for the delivery of undergraduate nurse cancer education, the intervention cohort demonstrated good overall knowledge of the impact of cancer, more positive attitudes towards cancer treatment and more confidence in their ability to deliver cancer care. Attitudes were more positive and confidence in ability to support cancer patients at all stages of the cancer journey were greater than in the comparison group. Insights gained into the cancer patient and carer perspectives were highly valued. CONCLUSIONS:This study has found that a new model for the delivery of cancer education focusing on survivorship and delivered in partnership with patients, carers and clinicians, may improve knowledge, attitudes and confidence in the delivery of cancer care. Further work is now needed, using a more robust experimental design, to investigate the generalisability of the results to other education programs.
How mentoring education affects nurse mentors' competence in mentoring students during clinical practice - A quasi-experimental study'.
Tuomikoski Anna-Maria,Ruotsalainen Heidi,Mikkonen Kristina,Miettunen Jouko,Juvonen Sari,Sivonen Pirkko,Kääriäinen Maria
Scandinavian journal of caring sciences
BACKGROUND:Mentors need diverse competencies, sources of motivation and characteristics to successfully mentor nursing students and support students' learning processes. Effective mentoring education can benefit future nursing professionals, students' satisfaction and learning, as well as the general perception of the nursing profession. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to evaluate how an educational intervention affects nurse mentors' competence in mentoring nursing students during clinical practice. DESIGN:A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-tests was used. SETTINGS:Educational interventions were conducted in one university hospital and two central hospitals in Finland between 2013 and 2017. The intervention was conducted twice per year with a duration of 3 months for each group. The inclusion criteria for the participants were as follows: volunteer participation to mentor education employment at the university hospital or central hospitals in Northern Finland. METHODS:The intervention aimed to increase Registered Nurses' competence in mentoring nursing students. The education lasted 3 months and included online learning as well as three face-to-face teaching sessions. A total of 120 nurse mentors completed the Mentor Competence Instrument (MCI), which includes 10 subscales that describe various competence areas, before and after the education. RESULTS:Nurse mentors' mentoring competence increased across all mentoring competence areas after the educational intervention. More specifically, the participating nurses showed a statistically significant increase in their competence regarding knowledge of mentoring practices in the workplace, student-centred evaluation, identifying student needs, mentoring practices between mentor and student, supporting students' learning processes, goal orientation in mentoring and constructive feedback. CONCLUSIONS:On an international level, nurse mentors are not typically required to have completed mentoring education prior to the mentoring of nurse students. Since mentoring education increased nurses' competence at mentoring nursing students, we recommend that all nurse degree programs include mentoring education to prepare future nurses for the important future role in mentoring.
Unfolding case studies as a formative teaching methodology for novice nursing students.
Kaylor Sara K,Strickland Haley P
The Journal of nursing education
Nurse educators are challenged to incorporate evidence-based practice initiatives into content-laden curricula in a manner that supports learner-centered teaching environments. This article describes a technique for using unfolding case studies to include such initiatives in the teaching of novice nursing students, as opposed to summative evaluation of their knowledge. Modeled after Kolb's experiential learning theory, a framework for unfolding case studies is presented, which proposes that instead of faculty selecting scenarios for students, they should instead challenge students to directly and creatively develop their own. Small student groups used creative collaboration to create well-planned, complex case study scenarios that unfolded in surprising, realistic ways. This instructional method was met with positive student feedback; however, the authors suggest several recommendations for educators considering this approach. The authors found this framework to be a successful and effective strategy for undergraduate novice nursing students.
Perception of and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment among nursing students.
D'Souza Melba Sheila,Karkada Subrahmanya Nairy,Parahoo Kader,Venkatesaperumal Ramesh
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Clinical nursing education provides baccalaureate nursing students an opportunity to combine cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skills in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE:The aim of the paper is to assess the satisfaction with and effectiveness of the clinical learning environment among nursing students in Oman. DESIGN:A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:A convenience sample consisting of 310 undergraduate nursing students was selected in a public school of nursing in Oman. METHODS:Ethical approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee, College of Nursing in 2011. A standardized, structured, validated and reliable Clinical Learning Environment Supervision Teacher Evaluation instrument was used. Informed consent was obtained from all the students. Data was analyzed with ANOVA and structural equation modeling. RESULTS:Satisfaction with the clinical learning environment (CLE) sub-dimensions was highly significant and had a positive relationship with the total clinical learning environment. In the path model 35% of its total variance of satisfaction with CLE is accounted by leadership style, clinical nurse commitment (variance=28%), and patient relationships (R(2)=27%). Higher age, GPA and completion of a number of clinical courses were significant in the satisfaction with the CLE among these students. CONCLUSIONS:Nurse educators can improvise clinical learning placements focusing on leadership style, premises of learning and nursing care, nurse teacher, and supervision while integrating student, teacher and environmental factors. Hence the clinical learning environment is integral to students' learning and valuable in providing educational experiences. RELEVANCE TO PRACTICE:The CLE model provides information to nurse educators regarding best clinical practices for improving the CLE for BSN students.
Emergency nursing students' and nurse educators' perception of care delivery: A comparison study of self-assessment ratings.
Cross Rachel,Morphet Julia,Miller Charne
International emergency nursing
BACKGROUND:Postgraduate emergency nursing studies strengthen the emergency nursing workforce and contribute to specialist patient care. Formative and summative assessments in postgraduate study are important for student learning as they enable self-reflection and feedback. AIM:To compare formative and summative appraisal assessments between postgraduate emergency nursing students and nurse educators. METHOD:Retrospective review of assessments completed by postgraduate student and educator in the final multi-system complex subject of the postgraduate emergency nursing course during 2015. Data were extracted from university records. Data for the two appraisal periods were compared using chisquare test of independence. RESULTS:Data from 52 emergency nursing students and 16 educators were extracted. Significant differences were detected between most student and educator ratings for both assessment appraisals. The lowest self-ratings of independence for students and educators at the summative assessment were for the provision and coordination of patient care and critical analysis of research evidence. Educators did agree that students were performing independently on domains relating to legal, professional and ethical frameworks. CONCLUSION:Postgraduate emergency nursing study is important for the emergency nursing workforce. Examining student learning and educator assessment in this context enables a broader understanding of student learning and transition to emergency nursing speciality practice.
Key influences identified by first year undergraduate nursing students as impacting on the quality of clinical placement: A qualitative study.
Cooper John,Courtney-Pratt Helen,Fitzgerald Mary
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Despite the fact that high quality clinical placement is an integral component of pre-registration nursing education for the development of the future nursing workforce, the literature identifies an ongoing struggle to 'get it right'. OBJECTIVE:To examine qualitative data gathered through the Quality Clinical Placements Evaluation project to identify what pre-registration nursing students deemed helpful and not helpful influences on their first year Professional Experience Placement. DESIGN:A total of 553 first year undergraduate nursing students from 2010 to 2012 were enrolled in the programme and all were invited to complete a validated survey to measure the quality of their first clinical placement. A total of 361 completed surveys were returned. This paper examines the data provided through open-ended questions within the survey related to most helpful and least helpful aspects of their clinical experience. METHODS:An inductive analysis approach using NVIVO allowed inherent areas to emerge from the raw data forming three key themes that influenced the experience of students. RESULTS:Feeling welcomed, individual versus team attitudes, and student expectations of supervising ward nurses were the themes identified that were perceived by the student as important to the success of learning and the quality of the experience overall. CONCLUSION:The findings echo previous research into the student experience of clinical placement; however the focus regarding the need for students to have a quality relationship with the supervising nurse is an area that warrants further exploration. Furthermore, we argue that students should be purposely engaged in the tertiary sector and provided guidance and strategies related to forming and maintaining relationships with those that supervise their clinical placement, in order to ensure consistent positive experiences. The outcomes from this study suggest that a missing component is teaching undergraduates how to manage relationships in clinical settings.
Qualitative evaluation of a postgraduate course in mental health nursing.
Goodwin Val,McMaster Rose,Hyde Sandra,Appleby Meghan,Fletcher Therese
Nurse education in practice
This evaluation aimed to explore mental health nurses' experience of one postgraduate (PG) Mental Health Nursing course in Australia. It investigated students' recognition and acquisition of new skills to improve their clinical practice, thereby enhancing consumer and family outcomes. In addition, nurse educators were interviewed to ascertain their impression of the impact of course materials on nursing practice and nurses' confidence in the clinical field. An exploratory qualitative descriptive design was chosen, using semi structured in-depth interviews, to elicit participants' experience of the PG course at completion. Using thematic analysis, themes were extrapolated from the data through examination and reporting on the participant's reaction, learning, behaviour and result of behaviour. The main theme identified was a "new awareness of self" with a number of related sub-themes. The findings from the evaluation indicate that this course supports emerging practitioners to develop a strong professional mental health nursing identity, grounded in recovery oriented practice. The results of this evaluation will inform further development and improvement of postgraduate studies in mental health practice for practice development. Importantly, data indicate a high potential for graduates to lead by example in sharing new knowledge and optimising recovery oriented practice.
Using a serious game to complement CPR instruction in a nurse faculty.
Boada Imma,Rodriguez-Benitez Antonio,Garcia-Gonzalez Juan Manuel,Olivet Josep,Carreras Vicenç,Sbert Mateu
Computer methods and programs in biomedicine
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a first aid key survival technique used to stimulate breathing and keep blood flowing to the heart. Its effective administration can significantly increase the chances of survival for victims of cardiac arrest. LISSA is a serious game designed to complement CPR teaching and also to refresh CPR skills in an enjoyable way. The game presents an emergency situation in a 3D virtual environment and the player has to save the victim applying the CPR actions. In this paper, we describe LISSA and its evaluation in a population composed of 109 nursing undergraduate students enrolled in the Nursing degree of our university. To evaluate LISSA we performed a randomized controlled trial that compares the classical teaching methodology, composed of self-directed learning for theory plus laboratory sessions with a mannequin for practice, with the one that uses LISSA after self-directed learning for theory and before laboratory sessions with a mannequin. From our evaluation we observed that students using LISSA (Group 2 and 3) gave significantly better learning acquisition scores than those following traditional classes (Group 1). To evaluate the differences between students of these groups we performed a paired samples t-test between Group 1 and 2 (μ1=35, 67, μ2=47, 50 and p<0.05) and between students of Group 1 and 3 (μ1=35, 67, μ3=50, 58 and p<0.05). From these tests we observed that there are significant differences in both cases. We also evaluated student performance of main steps of CPR protocol. Students that use LISSA performed better than the ones that did not use it.
The construction and evaluation of new educational software for nursing diagnoses: a randomized controlled trial.
Sousa Vanessa E C,Lopes Marcos V O,Ferreira Gabriele L,Diniz Camila M,Froes Nathaly B M,Sobreira Bianca A
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Student nurses often have difficulties with diagnostic inferences. To achieve high accuracy nursing diagnoses, effective learning strategies are required. OBJECTIVE:To describe the construction and evaluation of new educational software called Wise Nurse, which was developed to increase the capacity of student nurses to identify nursing diagnoses (NDx) and to establish relationships between NDx, defining characteristics (DC), and related factors (RF). DESIGN:Randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Participants were 2nd to 4th year student nurses from an undergraduate program at a university in Brazil. Of the 47 recruited students, 37 completed the survey. METHODS:Students were randomly assigned to test the software (experimental group) and to solve printed clinical cases (comparison group). A pretest and post-test were applied before and after the experiment. Statistical analyses of the students' performance in the tests were conducted. The primary outcome was the students' progress in solving questions and clinical cases regarding NDx. The System Usability Scale was used to measure the software's ease of use. RESULTS:No significant difference was found between the experimental and comparison groups before and after the experiment. The average students' performance in identifying RF and NDx was higher than in identifying DC. The post-test score was higher than the pretest score in both groups (P=0.022). The usability score was good (average score 83.75, N=20). CONCLUSION:The use of Wise Nurse supported an improvement in student diagnostic reasoning equivalent to that of the traditional NDx training, but the software stands out as an innovative teaching tool.
Correlation between students' and trainers' evaluations while learning delegated surgical procedures: A prospective cohort study.
Maillot Cédric,Martellotto Sophie,Boukerrou Malik,Winer Arnaud
International journal of surgery (London, England)
BACKGROUND:The delegation of procedures within the medical competence to the nurses can increase the effectiveness of the healthcare provided. The objectives of the study are (1) to assess the quality of training courses for delegated surgical procedures through implementation for graduate scrub nursing ("students") (2) and to evaluate the correlation between the evaluation of this training carried out by students and the self-assessment conducted by the faculty ("trainers"). MATERIALS AND METHODS:We set up a 49-h training for five groups of 10 students from July 2016 to July 2017 in our tertiary academic hospital. The course consisted mostly in simulations based on the "Zwisch" model and focused on acquiring the control of the gesture as well as on the development of critical reasoning. An evaluation of the training by the students but also a self-assessment of trainers were prospectively collected using the SFDP26 questionnaire. RESULTS:52 active scrub nursing students and 21 trainers were included. 96% of students and 86% of trainers evaluated the training from "good" to "very good". Progress was observed for 41 (79%) of the students and 18 (86%) of the trainers, and 98% of students felt able to put their new skills into clinical practice after training. There was no difference between the total scores of students and teachers (p = 0.153). A statistically significant difference between the evaluations produced by the students and the self-evaluations produced by the trainers was observed for 8 of the 26 items of assessment. In case of inadequacy, the trainers' scores were always lower than those of the students. CONCLUSIONS:Training in performing delegated surgical procedures by mixed cognitive and motor gestures learning, based on the development of critical thinking and simulations seems to be effective, with a significant improvement in students' knowledge and skills. Expectations of students and trainers are well correlated.
Debate as a learning tool in an online environment.
DeClerk Leonie,LaBorde Pam,Smith-Olinde Laura
Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Debate offers an opportunity to increase student interaction and develop critical thinking and presentation skills. The investigators used an online debate during a first-semester Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) course. The purpose of this evaluation was to 1) evaluate the feasibility of conducting a live-streamed debate and 2) assess students' perceived gained skills. Student pairs were assigned to speak for or against a statement applicable to professional practice of a DNP-prepared nurse approximately 4 weeks before the scheduled debates. During the debate, each pair presented opening arguments, formulated and presented a rebuttal, and provided closing statements. The faculty debriefed immediately after each debate, and all 15 students completed an online instrument evaluating perceived critical thinking and presentation skills after the debate. Completing the live-stream online debate was feasible. Students had statistically significant increases in skills of applying literature to support a position, defending a position, and predicting and countering opposing arguments, self-assurance in delivering a professional presentation, and establishing and persuading the listener with credibility. Skills not demonstrating statistical improvement included selecting, analyzing, and evaluating literature and composing a clear and well-organized oral presentation. Live-stream online debate was a feasible and effective learning tool for DNP students exploring professional issues. Debate should be evaluated with other content such as health policy, ethics, and clinical management.
The development and validation of the Clinical Teaching Behavior Inventory (CTBI-23): Nurse preceptors' and new graduate nurses' perceptions of precepting.
Lee-Hsieh Jane,O'Brien Anthony,Liu Chieh-Yu,Cheng Su-Fen,Lee Yea-Wen,Kao Yu-Hsiu
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Few studies have examined the perceptions of clinical teaching behaviors among both nurse preceptors and preceptees. PURPOSES:To develop a Clinical Teaching Behavior Inventory (CTBI) for nurse preceptors' self-evaluation, and for new graduate nurse preceptee evaluation of preceptor clinical teaching behaviors and to test the validity and reliability of the CTBI. METHODS:This study used mixed research techniques in five phases. Phase I: based on a literature review, the researchers developed an instrument to measure clinical teaching behaviors. Phase II: 17 focus group interviews were conducted with 63 preceptors and 24 new graduate nurses from five hospitals across Taiwan. Clinical teaching behavior themes were extracted from the focus group data and integrated into the domains and items of the CTBI. Phase III: two rounds of an expert Delphi study were conducted to determine the content validity of the instrument. Phase IV: a total of 290 nurse preceptors and 260 new graduate nurses were recruited voluntarily in the same five hospitals in Taiwan. Of these, 521 completed questionnaires to test the construct validity of CTBI by using confirmatory factory analysis. Phase V: the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument were tested. RESULTS:CTBI consists of 23 items in six domains: (1) 'Committing to Teaching'; (2) 'Building a Learning Atmosphere'; (3) 'Using Appropriate Teaching Strategies'; (4) 'Guiding Inter-professional Communication'; (5) 'Providing Feedback and Evaluation'; and (6) 'Showing Concern and Support'. The confirmatory factor analysis yielded a good fit and reliable scores for the CTBI-23 model. CONCLUSIONS:The CTBI-23 is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying the clinical teaching behaviors of a preceptor as perceived by preceptors and new graduate preceptees. The CTBI-23 depicts clinical teaching behaviors of nurse preceptors in Taiwan.
Enhancing the effectiveness of the teaching and learning of core clinical skills.
Hilton Penelope A,Pollard Carol L
Nurse education in practice
Over the last decade there has been great deal of debate about pre-registration nursing students' lack of confidence and ability, in performing core clinical skills in the UK [P. Elliott, Locality based teaching, Senior Nurse 13 (2) (1993) 35-39; S. Jowett, I. Walton, S. Payne, Challenges and Change in Nurse Education - A Study of the Implementation of Project 2000 Slough: NFER, 1994; P. Hilton, Clinical Skills Laboratories: teaching practical skills, Nursing Standard 10 (37) (1996) 44-47; , Integrating theory and practice: Professional Letter from the Chief Nursing Officer for England London; , Making a difference. Strengthening the nursing, midwifery and health visiting contribution to health and health care, London.]. A variety of solutions have been suggested in attempting to address these perceived deficits. One such initiative within the University of Sheffield was the introduction of the Clinical Demonstrator role, whereby clinicians were seconded to the School of Nursing for a fixed period of time to provide additional support to neophyte students in the classroom, laboratory and clinical settings. An action research approach was adopted where ongoing evaluation influenced further developments [W. Carr, S. Kemmis, Becoming Critical: Education Knowledge and Action Research, Falmer Press, London, 1986]. Formal and informal evaluation was therefore undertaken throughout and this influenced the evolution of the role. The methods used included; questionnaires; reflective diaries; focus group interviews; and ongoing dialogue with lecturers, students, demonstrators, clinicians and trust representatives. Since the start of this 5 year project there have been 25 Demonstrators in post who have in total supported 10 pre-registration nursing student cohorts undertaking the Common Foundation Programme (N=1496). As the study progressed they also provided support to more senior Adult Branch students undertaking the final year of the course (N=76). The outcomes have been exceptionally positive, though a number of lessons have been learnt along the way. This paper outlines this innovative project and shares a number of broad conclusions that can be drawn from the study.
Assessment of an interprofessional online curriculum for palliative care communication training.
Wittenberg-Lyles Elaine,Goldsmith Joy,Ferrell Betty,Burchett Molly
Journal of palliative medicine
BACKGROUND:Curricular changes to palliative care communication training are needed in order to accommodate a variety of learners, especially in lieu of the projected national shortage of hospice and palliative medicine physicians and nurses. OBJECTIVE:This study assessed the utility of a palliative care communication curriculum offered through an online platform and also examined health care professionals' clinical communication experiences related to palliative care topics. DESIGN:Four of the seven modules of the COMFORT communication curriculum were made available online, and participant assessments and knowledge skills were measured. SETTING:Modules were completed and assessed by 177 participants, including 105 nurses, 25 physicians, and a category of 'other' disciplines totaling 47. MEASUREMENTS:Premodule surveys consisted of closed-ended items developed by the interdisciplinary research team. Postcurriculum evaluation and knowledge quizzes were used to assess program effectiveness. RESULTS:Among all participants, end-of-life care and recurrence of disease were considered the most challenging communication contexts and discussion about treatment options the least challenging. Mean responses to postcurriculum evaluation for all modules across nurse and physician participants was greater than 4 on a scale of 1 to 5. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies the COMFORT communication curriculum as an effective online curricular tool to teach multiple disciplines specific palliative care communication.
Nursing student and professor perceptions and assessments of the achievement of practicum competencies: A mixed method approach.
Fuentes-Pumarola Concepció,Ballester-Ferrando David,Gelabert-Vilella Sandra,Bosch-Farré Cristina,Malagón-Aguilera M Carme,Rascón-Hernán Carolina,Bonmatí-Tomàs Anna,Fernandez-Peña Rosario
Nurse education today
Within the context of the European Higher Education Area's requirement of competency-based assessments, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the Nursing Degree Practicum experience at the University of Girona (Spain) and ascertain student and faculty perceptions of the degree of competency achieved as a result of the practicum. This cross-sectional, descriptive, study combined quantitative analysis of a questionnaire and qualitative analysis of focus group comments. In the quantitative part of the study, 163 fourth-year nursing students completed the questionnaire; the qualitative analysis was derived from a focus group of 5 students and 5 professors. On the questionnaire, overall practicum evaluation was 8.39 on a 10-point Likert scale; scores evaluating the nurse mentor/instructor and nursing professor were 8.43 and 7.98, respectively. The geriatrics practicum experience received the lowest overall score (7.81), while the surgical practicum received the lowest score on the adequacy of knowledge acquired in the classroom in previous courses (5.54). The best scores were earned by the mental health and intensive/emergency care practicum experiences (a mean of 9.05 and 8.70, respectively). Students and professors in the focus group agreed that the practicum met the Nursing degree program's competency goals, highlighting practical activity as the best methodology to evaluate competencies. Participants highlighted the importance of reflective practice and the role of the nurse mentor/instructor in student learning, and indicated that it is essential for the university and the health care centers where students take practicum courses to maintain a strong relationship and good communication. Finally, feedback from the nurse mentor/instructor and Nursing professor was very important to students, both to motivate them and to help them learn.
Design and evaluation of an online teaching strategy in an undergraduate psychiatric nursing course.
Mahoney Jane S,Marfurt Stephanie,daCunha Miguel,Engebretson Joan
Archives of psychiatric nursing
Psychiatric nurse educators are challenged to prepare graduates in meeting the needs of individuals with a mental illness within an increasingly technology-based environment. This requires the development and evaluation of educational strategies that immerse students in web-based learning. This article presents an overview of a hybrid teaching design that includes classroom teaching and asynchronous threaded discussion in a teaching module in an undergraduate psychiatric nursing course. Evaluation of student preferences, advantages and disadvantages, and learning, as well as qualitative evaluation of students' description of critical thinking, supports the value of online teaching in psychiatric nursing education.
The effectiveness of a simulated scenario to teach nursing students how to perform a bed bath: A randomized clinical trial.
Miranda Renata Pinto Ribeiro,de Cássia Lopes Chaves Érika,Silva Lima Rogério,Braga Cristiane Giffoni,Simões Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro,Fava Silvana Maria Coelho Leite,Iunes Denise Hollanda
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. OBJECTIVES:This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. DESIGN:Randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING:Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. PARTICIPANTS:Nursing students (n=58). METHOD:The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. RESULTS:We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). CONCLUSION:The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process.
Standardized patient experiences: evaluation of clinical performance and nurse practitioner student satisfaction.
Ebbert Diane Whitaker,Connors Helen
Nursing education perspectives
Standardized Patients (people trained to accurately portray a specific patient) have been widely used by medical schools and, to a lesser degree, by schools of nursing as a method for evaluating clinical performance. These trained patients provide a viable method for teaching and evaluating nurse practitioner students as they progress through their educational programs toward clinical competency. Evaluation using Standardized Patient Experiences provides objective and valid information regarding students' synthesis of didactic information and abilities to apply knowledge in the clinical setting. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Standardized Patient Experiences across a curriculum for family nurse practitioner and adult geriatric nurse practitioner students. Students evaluated the experiences throughout the curriculum and overwhelmingly found them to be realistic, challenging, and of value to their programs of study.
Using student nurses as teachers in inquiry-based learning.
Morris David,Turnbull Patricia
Journal of advanced nursing
BACKGROUND:Traditionally, teaching in nurse education colleges and universities in the United Kingdom (UK) has relied substantially on didactic, large group, teacher-led approaches. Emerging literature identifies a shift towards student-centred learning in a variety of formats, such as problem- and enquiry-based learning. These approaches require students to take greater responsibility for both their own learning and that of others. Internationally, and in a number of academic educational disciplines, use of peer-assisted learning, supplemental instruction and peer tutoring as curriculum initiatives has aided improvement in student retention and academic performance. There is, however, a paucity of literature exploring the use of undergraduate student nurses as peer teachers. AIM:To explore the viability of using student nurses as teachers in an inquiry-based nursing curriculum and to ascertain the value students place on this teaching and learning method. METHOD:The first phase of the study involved observation of 'parallel resource sessions': teacher-led sessions that addressed a theoretical component of the curriculum. In the second phase, student feedback of these sessions to their peers was observed. This was followed by focus group interviews (with a total of 240 participants), which were analysed using thematic analysis. FINDINGS:The findings suggest that student nurses were uncomfortable with being used as teachers, often questioned the intrinsic worth of this approach as a developmental tool, and considered the responsibility for teaching the content of parallel resource sessions to lie with nurse educators. CONCLUSION:Nurse educators must continue to explore innovative approaches to improve both student nurses' experience and their fitness for practice. The strategy of using student nurses as teachers may be appropriate in some circumstances but requires further research, considerable support and continual evaluation.
A mixed methods evaluation of team-based learning for applied pathophysiology in undergraduate nursing education.
Branney Jonathan,Priego-Hernández Jacqueline
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:It is important for nurses to have a thorough understanding of the biosciences such as pathophysiology that underpin nursing care. These courses include content that can be difficult to learn. Team-based learning is emerging as a strategy for enhancing learning in nurse education due to the promotion of individual learning as well as learning in teams. OBJECTIVES:In this study we sought to evaluate the use of team-based learning in the teaching of applied pathophysiology to undergraduate student nurses. DESIGN:A mixed methods observational study. METHODS:In a year two, undergraduate nursing applied pathophysiology module circulatory shock was taught using Team-based Learning while all remaining topics were taught using traditional lectures. After the Team-based Learning intervention the students were invited to complete the Team-based Learning Student Assessment Instrument, which measures accountability, preference and satisfaction with Team-based Learning. Students were also invited to focus group discussions to gain a more thorough understanding of their experience with Team-based Learning. Exam scores for answers to questions based on Team-based Learning-taught material were compared with those from lecture-taught material. RESULTS:Of the 197 students enrolled on the module, 167 (85% response rate) returned the instrument, the results from which indicated a favourable experience with Team-based Learning. Most students reported higher accountability (93%) and satisfaction (92%) with Team-based Learning. Lectures that promoted active learning were viewed as an important feature of the university experience which may explain the 76% exhibiting a preference for Team-based Learning. Most students wanted to make a meaningful contribution so as not to let down their team and they saw a clear relevance between the Team-based Learning activities and their own experiences of teamwork in clinical practice. Exam scores on the question related to Team-based Learning-taught material were comparable to those related to lecture-taught material. CONCLUSIONS:Most students had a preference for, and reported higher accountability and satisfaction with Team-based Learning. Through contextualisation and teamwork, Team-based Learning appears to be a strategy that confers strong pedagogical benefits for teaching applied pathophysiology (bioscience) to student nurses.
Flipping the Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Teaching Innovation in Graduate Nursing Education.
Day Cristi,Barker Connie,Bell Eva,Sefcik Elizabeth,Flournoy Deborah
Objective evaluation of distance-based family nurse practitioner (FNP) students can be challenging. One FNP program piloted a teaching innovation, the video-enhanced objective structured clinical examination (VE-OSCE) or "flip" of the traditional face-to-face OSCE, to assess student clinical performance in a controlled online environment using a teleconferencing platform. This project sought to assess the VE-OSCE design, implementation, and ability to identify FNP student learning needs.
Online learning versus blended learning of clinical supervisee skills with pre-registration nursing students: A randomised controlled trial.
McCutcheon Karen,O'Halloran Peter,Lohan Maria
International journal of nursing studies
BACKGROUND:The World Health Organisation amongst others recognises the need for the introduction of clinical supervision education in health professional education as a central strategy for improving patient safety and patient care. Online and blended learning methods are growing exponentially in use in higher education and the systematic evaluation of these methods will aid understanding of how best to teach clinical supervision. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to test whether undergraduate nursing students who received clinical supervisee skills training via a blended learning approach would score higher in terms of motivation and attitudes towards clinical supervision, knowledge of clinical supervision and satisfaction of learning method, when compared to those students who received an online only teaching approach. DESIGN:A post-test-only randomised controlled trial. METHODS:Participants were a total of 122 pre-registration nurses enrolled at one United Kingdom university, randomly assigned to the online learning control group (n = 60) or the blended learning intervention group (n = 62). The blended learning intervention group participated in a face-to-face tutorial and the online clinical supervisee skills training app. The online learning control group participated in an online discussion forum and the same online clinical supervisee skills training app. The outcome measures were motivation and attitudes using the modified Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale, knowledge using a 10 point Multiple Choice Questionnaire and satisfaction using a university training evaluation tool. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-tests to compare the differences between the means of the control group and the intervention group. Thematic analysis was used to analyse responses to open-ended questions. RESULTS:All three of our study hypotheses were confirmed. Participants who received clinical supervisee skills training via a blended learning approach scored higher in terms of motivation and attitudes - mean (m) = 85.5, standard deviation (sd) = 9.78, number of participants (n) = 62 - compared to the online group (m = 79.5, sd = 9.69, n = 60) (p = .001). The blended learning group also scored higher in terms of knowledge (m = 4.2, sd = 1.43, n = 56) compared to the online group (m = 3.51, sd = 1.51, n = 57) (p = .015); and in terms of satisfaction (m = 30.89, sd = 6.54, n = 57) compared to the online group (m = 26.49, sd = 6.93, n = 55) (p = .001). Qualitative data supported results. CONCLUSION:Blended learning provides added pedagogical value when compared to online learning in terms of teaching undergraduate nurses clinical supervision skills. The evidence is timely given worldwide calls for expanding clinical skills supervision in undergraduate health professional education to improve quality of care and patient safety.
Snaps: Peer-to-peer and academic support in developing clinical skills excellence in under-graduate nursing students: An exploratory study.
Gray Sherree,Wheat Matthew,Christensen Martin,Craft Judy
Nurse education today
Peer to peer learning is not a new concept. It has proven to be a valuable approach to enhance deeper learning, improve critical thinking and problem solving. It has been used in the clinical environment, the classroom and the clinical skills laboratory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of student nurse assisted in practice sessions (SNAPS) with the addition of an experienced nursing academic. Using an eight item Likert scale questionnaire together with three open ended questions, this study found that having a nursing academic present in supporting the peer teachers helped improve confidence in practicing clinical skills and was an effective teaching approach to support student learning and by also providing a critical eye over the skills being practiced. Content analysis revealed to central themes - 'being and feeling supported' and 'feeling more able and competent at undertaking essential nursing skills. The results suggest that overall the nursing students found the SNAPS supportive in allowing the time and space to practice skills in an informal manner. The implications for practice could include an evaluation as to whether there is any effect on student success in the clinical placement environment after attending SNAPS sessions.
Evaluation of the Clinical Learning Environment in Respiratory Therapy Education: Student Perceptions.
Alghamdi Saeed M,Siraj Rayan A,Ari Arzu
BACKGROUND:Clinical facilities are essential components not only of health care delivery systems, but also of health care education programs. The clinical learning environment (CLE) is important in training the future health care workforce. Because respiratory therapy (RT) is a practice-based profession, it is essential to integrate clinical education into RT education. RT education programs face several issues with respect to the need for preparing a proper CLE in various clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of RT students on the CLE of clinical facilities affiliated with an RT program at an urban state university and to determine the impact of education level on student perception of the CLE of clinical facilities. METHODS:We used an exploratory research design to evaluate the essential aspects of a CLE in RT education. An adapted Clinical Learning Environment Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) evaluation scale was utilized to evaluate 34 RT students' perceptions of clinical facilities in RT education; 32 students participated in the survey, with a response rate of 94.1%. RESULTS:Responses included 2 groups of students: second-year undergraduates (68.8%), in which women accounted for 81% and men 19%, and graduate students (31.2%), in which women accounted for 60% and men 40%. Results obtained from the study indicated that both graduate and undergraduate RT students gave high median scores to the CLE, the supervisory relationship, and the role of clinical instructors. A statistically significant difference was obtained between the graduate and undergraduate students regarding multidimensional learning ( = .043). We found that the majority of students positively rated the CLE in RT education. CONCLUSIONS:Education level influenced students' perceptions of the CLE of clinical facilities. Overall, respiratory therapy students rated their CLE experiences as positive and they were satisfied with the clinical instructor and team model.
Addressing the psychosocial needs of patients: Challenges for nursing students.
Mersin Sevinç,Demiralp Meral,Öksüz Emine
Perspectives in psychiatric care
PURPOSE:To evaluate the ability of nursing students to determine the psychosocial needs of patients and identify the needs and problems encountered by nursing students. DESIGN AND METHODS:This study is a mixed method research. The nursing care plans of 40 nursing students that provided care to 129 patients with chronic medical diseases were examined retrospectively. Individual interviews were also conducted with five nursing students and six academicians. FINDINGS:It was determined that nursing students defined an average of 15.77 ± 11.55 physiological and an average of 3.05 ± 2.28 psychosocial nursing diagnoses for 129 patients. Data analysis of individual interviews revealed two main themes: (1) identifying psychosocial diagnoses: teaching difficulties and (2) identifying psychosocial diagnoses: learning difficulties. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:This can facilitate the learning process of each student to include physiological and a psychosocial care focus in their nursing care through discussions and evaluation with their mentors and instructors.
Evaluating the learning environment of nursing students: A multisite cross-sectional study.
Ramsbotham Joanne,Dinh Ha,Truong Hue,Huong Nguyen,Dang Thanh,Nguyen Chinh,Tran Duong,Bonner Ann
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Identifying students' experiences of the university and clinical learning environments informs quality improvement of courses. OBJECTIVES:To investigate undergraduate nursing students' perceptions of their education environment and the facilitators and barriers to learning, during university and clinical experiences. DESIGN:Multi-site cross-sectional survey. SETTING:Four universities in Vietnam. PARTICIPANTS:Undergraduate nursing students (n = 891). METHODS:Between May and August 2016, Vietnamese versions of the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (Nursing) and the modified Clinical Learning Environment Inventory measured students' perceptions of university and clinical environments respectively. Two additional open-ended questions elicited perceptions of facilitators and/or barriers to clinical learning. RESULTS:The university environment was rated as needing improvement and significant differences between universities and year of study detected. University environment mean scores were significantly higher in second year students compared with those in the third or fourth years of study. Active teaching and interpersonal relationships at university were rated positively. Overall, clinical environment scores were mid-range and second year students' mean scores were significantly higher than third or fourth years. Clinical placements greater than four weeks duration had significantly higher mean score than two week placements. CONCLUSIONS:Evaluation of university and clinical experiences assists with identifying potential areas of interruption to nursing students' transfer of learning. In both learning environments, Vietnamese students' experiences were similar to those experienced in Western countries in that interpersonal relationships with teachers and ward staff were key factors perceived to influence learning. A notable difference in this study was the hospital environment in Vietnam had features unique to this country that interrupted students' transfer of learning. Globally it is a priority for nurse educators to facilitate both on and off campus environments that promote students' learning. Assessing these environments is a useful strategy for quality improvement of courses.
Web-based multimedia courseware for emergency cardiac patient management simulations.
Ambrosiadou V,Compton T,Panchal T,Polovina S
Studies in health technology and informatics
This is a multidisciplinary inter-departmental/faculty project between the departments of computer science, electronic, communications and electrical engineering and nursing and paramedic sciences. The objective is to develop a web based multimedia front end to existing simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. It will be used firstly in the teaching of nurses. The University of Hertfordshire is the only University in Britain using simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria for nurse and paramedic science education and therefore this project will add the multimedia dimension in distributed courses over the web and will assess the improvement in the educational process. The use of network and multimedia technologies, provide interactive learning, immediate feedback to students' responses, individually tailored instructions, objective testing and entertaining delivery. The end product of this project will serve as interactive material to enhance experiential learning for nursing students using the simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. The emergency treatment simulations have been developed using VisSim and may be compiled as C code. The objective of the project is to provide a web based user friendly multimedia interface in order to demonstrate the way in which patients may be managed in critical situations by applying advanced technological equipment and drug administration. Then the user will be able to better appreciate the concepts involved by running the VisSim simulations. The evaluation group for the proposed software will be the Department of Nursing and Paramedic Sciences About 200 nurses use simulations every year for training purposes as part of their course requirements.
Progressive Assessment and Competency Evaluation Framework for Integrating Simulation in Nurse Practitioner Education.
Starkweather Angela,Sargent Lana,Nye Carla,Albrecht Tara,Cloutier Rachel,Foster Ashley
The journal for nurse practitioners : JNP
Competencies for nurse practitioner students have been published with the goal of preparing graduates who are ready to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex health care system. Standardized preclinical assessment of graduate-level competencies have been suggested as a means to optimize the student experience in clinical rotations and maximize the preceptor's time toward preparing students for the transition to independent practice. The main objectives of this study are to describe progressive assessment and competency evaluation as an integral framework for integration of simulation in graduate-level curriculum and present the feasibility and challenges to consider during implementation of Progressive Assessment and Competency Evaluation-directed simulations.
Autonomic Dysreflexia in the Peripartum Patient: A Multidisciplinary and Interprofessional Simulation Scenario.
Rao Purnima M,Garber Adam,Rajakumar Chandrew,Rousseau Genevieve,Dumitrascu George,Posner Glenn D
This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn) and anesthesiology. Consultation with a nurse educator maintained quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train ob/gyn and anesthesiology residents and nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting. Obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and nurses often work together in acute, high-stakes situations and this curriculum provides a safe environment to practice team-based management of such emergencies. Over an eight-year period, this curriculum has been executed in scenario couplets on a four-year cycle to allow ob/gyn and anesthesiology residents exposure to all scenarios during a five-year residency beginning in their second year. Prospective evaluation data has been positive. For example, over 90% of participants rated these simulations to be 5 out of 5 for "Was an effective use of my educational time" and "Will influence/enhance my future practice". In this scenario, participants must recognize and manage a parturient with spinal cord injury in active labour who develops autonomic dysreflexia. The fetal heart tracing becomes abnormal and the team must respond with urgent delivery. This scenario requires a mannequin for a pelvic exam and a pregnant abdomen. This simulation case includes a case template, critical actions checklist, debriefing guide, summary of key medical content, and an evaluation form for learners to provide feedback.
Umbilical Cord Prolapse in a Labouring Patient: A Multidisciplinary and Interprofessional Simulation Scenario.
Rajakumar Chandrew,Garber Adam,Rao Purnima M,Rousseau Genevieve,Dumitrascu George A,Posner Glenn D
This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and anesthesiology. Consultation from a nurse educator maintained quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents and nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting. Obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and nurses often work together in acute, high-stakes situations, and this curriculum provides a safe environment to practice team-based management of such emergencies. Over an eight-year period, this curriculum has been executed in scenario couplets on a four-year cycle to allow OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents exposure to all scenarios during a five-year residency beginning in their second year. Prospective evaluative data has been positive. For example, over 90% of participants rated these simulations to be 5 out of 5 with comments, such as "Was an effective use of my educational time" and "Will influence/enhance my future practice". In this scenario, participants must recognize and manage fetal distress resulting from umbilical cord prolapse in a labouring patient and respond with urgent operative delivery. This scenario requires adult and fetal mannequins with presenting umbilical cord for pelvic examination as well as equipment for fetal monitoring, general anesthetic, and emergency cesarean section. This simulation case includes a case template, critical actions checklist, debriefing guide, summary of key medical content, and an evaluation form for learners to provide feedback.
Postpartum Magnesium Sulfate Overdose: A Multidisciplinary and Interprofessional Simulation Scenario.
Garber Adam,Rao Purnima M,Rajakumar Chandrew,Dumitrascu George A,Rousseau Genevieve,Posner Glenn D
This case is one of an eight-case multidisciplinary curriculum designed and implemented at the University of Ottawa by simulation educators with specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) and anesthesiology. Consultation with a nurse educator maintained the quality and relevance of objectives for nursing participants. The curriculum was prepared to train OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents and labor and delivery nurses to hone crisis resource management skills and to recognize and manage rare/critical medical events in an obstetrical setting. Obstetricians, anesthesiologists, and nurses often work together in acute, high-stakes situations and this curriculum provides a safe environment to practice team-based management of such emergencies. Over an eight-year period, this curriculum has been executed in scenario couplets in a four-year cycle to allow OB/GYN and anesthesiology residents exposure to all scenarios during a five-year residency, beginning in their second year. Prospective evaluative data has been positive. For example, over 90% of participants rated these simulations to be 5 out of 5 for "Was an effective use of my educational time" and "Will influence/enhance my future practice." In this scenario, participants must evaluate and treat a postpartum preeclamptic woman who is being treated with magnesium sulfate for the purpose of seizure prophylaxis. The patient experiences magnesium sulfate toxicity and subsequent respiratory arrest. Any mannequin that can display vital signs can be used for this scenario. This simulation case includes a case template, critical actions checklist, debriefing guide, summary of key medical content, and an evaluation form for learners to provide feedback.
Implementation and testing of the OPT Model as a teaching strategy in an undergraduate psychiatric nursing course.
Bland Ann R,Rossen Eileen K,Bartlett Robin,Kautz Donald D,Carnevale Teresa,Benfield Susan
Nursing education perspectives
Teaching undergraduate nursing students to think critically and reason clinically is a challenge for nurse educators, yet these skills are essential for the professional nurse. The Outcome-Present State-Test (OPT) Model of Reflective Clinical Reasoning (Pesut & Herman, 1999) provides a framework for teaching clinical reasoning skills to nursing students. This article describes how the model can be used in clinical teaching of undergraduate students in psychiatric and mental health settings and presents some findings from an evaluation of the model. Strategies employed in the model implementation are described, along with the benefits and limitations of this teaching method in a psychiatric clinical setting.
Evaluation of the Outcome-Present State Test Model as a way to teach clinical reasoning.
Bartlett Robin,Bland Ann,Rossen Eileen,Kautz Donald,Benfield Susan,Carnevale Teresa
The Journal of nursing education
The Outcome-Present State Test (OPT) Model of Clinical Reasoning is a nursing process model designed to help students develop clinical reasoning skills. Although many nurse educators are using the OPT model as a teaching strategy, few are formally evaluating its use as a method. We used the OPT model as a teaching tool in an undergraduate psychiatric and mental health clinical nursing course and evaluated how quickly students became adept at using it. Most students mastered the use of the model; 29 of 43 students achieved the criterion score (a score greater than 65 on 3 or more models completed over 4 weeks). Not only did the students gain clinical reasoning skills, but they also used and learned more about the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Interventions Classification, and Nursing Outcomes Classification languages. Recommendations for future use of the model include adding client strengths and increasing focus on the quality of students' responses.
An online doctoral education course using problem-based learning.
Candela Lori,Carver Lara,Diaz Anne,Edmunds Johnna,Talusan Richard,Tarrant Theresa A
The Journal of nursing education
The number of doctoral nursing programs has greatly increased over the past several years. There has also been a shift toward delivering programs either partially or fully online. The literature lacks discussions about doctoral-level teaching methods in the online environment. This article describes the use of a semester-long problem-based learning activity in an online doctoral course focusing on nurse educator leadership. The Students-As-Faculty Experience created for this course features the use of a virtual nursing program in which students are cast as faculty members confronting issues via faculty meetings and sharing rotating roles as chairperson. Students were vested in the process by co-designing the course in terms of developing agenda items for the meetings and evaluation rubrics. Through playing the roles of faculty and chairperson, the students reported a distinct improvement in their leadership abilities and confidence at the end of the course.
Teaching anaesthesia induction to medical students: comparison between full-scale simulation and supervised teaching in the operating theatre.
Hallikainen Juhana,Väisänen Olli,Randell Tarja,Tarkkila Pekka,Rosenberg Per H,Niemi-Murola Leila
European journal of anaesthesiology
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching of general anaesthesia induction to medical students using either full-scale simulation or traditional supervised teaching with patients in the operating theatre. METHODS:Forty-six fourth year students attending their course in anaesthesiology were enrolled. The students were randomly assigned to two groups. The simulation group received training in the simulator. The traditional training group was supervised by a senior consultant anaesthetist. After the training sessions all students were tested in the simulator setting. The test was assessed using a 40-item evaluation list. RESULTS:Thirty-three per cent of students in the traditional group and 87% of the students in the simulation group passed the test. Statistically significant differences were: request of glycopyrrolate (P < 0.001), Sp(O2) monitoring (P < 0.001), used gloves when placing an intravenous cannula (P = 0.012), intubation attempt within 30 s (P < 0.04), anaesthesia gas set at MAC at least 1 (P < 0.04), instructed anaesthetic nurse to keep Sp(O2) at least 95% (P < 0.05), keep MAP at least 60 mmHg (P < 0.05), keep heart rate more than 50 beats per minute (P < 0.002), keep end-tidal p(CO2) 4-5.5 kPa (P < 0.002). CONCLUSION:The simulation group performed better in 25% of the tasks and similarly in the others compared with the traditional teaching group. With the same time and amount of teaching personnel we trained five or six students in the simulator compared with one student in the operating theatre. Further research will reveal whether these promising results with simulation may be applied more generally in anaesthesiology teaching to medical students.
The need for education on health related-quality of life.
Calvert Melanie J,Skelton John R
BMC medical education
BACKGROUND:Health-related quality of life is increasingly recognised as an important outcome measure that complements existing measures of clinical effectiveness. The education available on this subject for different healthcare professionals is varied. This article describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a Special Study Module on Health-Related Quality of Life for undergraduate medical students at the University of Birmingham. METHODS:The course involves 10 hours of "guided discovery learning" covering core concepts of Health-Related Quality of Life assessment including methodological considerations, use in clinical trials, routine practice and in health policy followed by self-directed learning. The taught components aim to provide students with the skills and knowledge to enable them to explore and evaluate the use of quality of life assessments in a particular patient group, or setting, through self-directed learning supported by tutorials. RESULTS:The use of case studies, recent publications and research, and discussion with a research oncology nurse in task-based learning appeared to provide students with a stimulating environment in which to develop their ideas and was reflected in the diverse range of subjects chosen by students for self-directed study and the positive feedback on the module. Course evaluation and student assessment suggests that quality of life education appears to integrate well within the medical curriculum and allows students to develop and utilise skills of time-management and independent, self-directed learning that can be applied in any context. CONCLUSION:We suggest that education and training initiatives in quality of life may improve the quality of studies, and help bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Resources for curriculum development on health-related quality of life have been developed by the International Society for Quality of Life Research and may prove a useful tool to educators interested in this area.
Podcasts and videostreaming: Useful tools to facilitate learning of pathophysiology in undergraduate nurse education?
McKinney Aidín A,Page Karen
Nurse education in practice
Nurses require an understanding of pathophysiological processes to support safe practice in the clinical area. A review of the literature indicates that nursing students have traditionally found this to be a challenging element of the course. The increasing availability of newer technology in higher education such as videostreaming and podcasting provides the opportunity to utilise a variety of approaches to cater for a wider range of learning styles. In view of this, lecturers developed multimedia resources to incorporate into a pathophysiology module. An evaluation of students' views on the use of ICT to facilitate understanding of pathophysiology was undertaken. The majority of students appeared to welcome the incorporation of alternative teaching approaches into the module. Interestingly despite the opportunities which technology offers to enhance learning many of the students also highlighted the importance of maintaining significant face-to-face contact with lecturers. This supports the findings of the literature which indicates that students find hybrid learning strategies that combine traditional teaching with more innovative methods particularly beneficial.
Advanced Cardiac Resuscitation Evaluation (ACRE): a randomised single-blind controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led advanced resuscitation training.
Hughes Thomas C,Jiwaji Zoeb,Lally Kamaldeep,Lloyd-Lavery Antonia,Lota Amrit,Dale Andrea,Janas Robert,Bulstrode Christopher Jk
Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine
BACKGROUND:Advanced resuscitation skills training is an important and enjoyable part of medical training, but requires small group instruction to ensure active participation of all students. Increases in student numbers have made this increasingly difficult to achieve. METHODS:A single-blind randomised controlled trial of peer-led vs. expert-led resuscitation training was performed using a group of sixth-year medical students as peer instructors. The expert instructors were a senior and a middle grade doctor, and a nurse who is an Advanced Life Support (ALS) Instructor.A power calculation showed that the trial would have a greater than 90% chance of rejecting the null hypothesis (that expert-led groups performed 20% better than peer-led groups) if that were the true situation. Secondary outcome measures were the proportion of High Pass grades in each groups and safety incidents.The peer instructors designed and delivered their own course material. To ensure safety, the peer-led groups used modified defibrillators that could deliver only low-energy shocks.Blinded assessment was conducted using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The checklist items were based on International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) guidelines using Ebel standard-setting methods that emphasised patient and staff safety and clinical effectiveness.The results were analysed using Exact methods, chi-squared and t-test. RESULTS:A total of 132 students were randomised: 58 into the expert-led group, 74 into the peer-led group. 57/58 (98%) of students from the expert-led group achieved a Pass compared to 72/74 (97%) from the peer-led group: Exact statistics confirmed that it was very unlikely (p = 0.0001) that the expert-led group was 20% better than the peer-led group.There were no safety incidents, and High Pass grades were achieved by 64 (49%) of students: 33/58 (57%) from the expert-led group, 31/74 (42%) from the peer-led group. Exact statistics showed that the difference of 15% meant that it was possible that the expert-led teaching was 20% better at generating students with High Passes. CONCLUSIONS:The key elements of advanced cardiac resuscitation can be safely and effectively taught to medical students in small groups by peer-instructors who have undergone basic medical education training.
Putting practice into teaching: an exploratory study of nursing undergraduates' interpersonal skills and the effects of using empirical data as a teaching and learning resource.
Journal of clinical nursing
AIM:To understand student nurse-patient interaction better and to assess the effectiveness of a teaching and learning resource consisting of tapes and transcriptions of actual nurse-patient interaction. DESIGN:Applied conversation analysis and analysis of semi-structured lecture evaluation forms. BACKGROUND:Little research discusses interpersonal skills (IPS) of student-nurses, even though policy initiatives and literature internationally promote patient-centred communication as being an indicator of high-quality healthcare. Literature also suggests that nursing education is often far removed from the realities which students experience during clinical practice. METHODS:Phase 1 of the study saw 10 student nurse-patient interactions audio recorded and transcribed and the data subjected to conversation analysis. Phase 2 saw tapes and transcripts of similar interactions used as a teaching resource with the same cohort of students (n = 48), student evaluations of the lecture were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. RESULTS:Phase 1 demonstrated that, in variance to 'best-practice' recommendations, student nurse-patient interactions were task-centred and bureaucratically organized. In phase 2, after listening to and reading a transcript of similar interaction, students were able to identify the limitations of undertaking such an approach with patients, strongly suggesting that classroom-based knowledge is not always easily transferred into clinical practice. This teaching approach was positively evaluated, with written evaluations emphasizing the effectiveness of bringing the realities of clinical practice into the classroom. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that students have difficulty in transferring the principles of 'good' communication from the classroom into their own interactions with patients. Students' written and spoken evaluations were reminiscent of the previous work performed in discussing the concept of a 'hidden curriculum' in professional training. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:The use of empirical data in the practice of IPS teaching is recommended as a means of closing the theory-practice gap. Student nurses and mentors need to consider the effect of the hidden curriculum on their IPS.
The evolution of simulation and its contribution to competency.
Decker Sharon,Sportsman Susan,Puetz Linda,Billings Lynda
Journal of continuing education in nursing
Nurse educators are challenged to implement teaching strategies that promote learners' clinical competency and critical-thinking skills. Additionally, these educators are asked to base their curriculum decisions, teaching practices, and evaluation methods on current research findings. Simulation offers a unique mode for experiential learning and evaluation, but the appropriate use of the spectrum of simulation typology requires strategic planning. Although simulation provides educators with new educational opportunities, the potential use of simulation in competency testing cannot be achieved until educators and researchers acquire the knowledge and skills needed to use this education strategy, develop realistic case scenarios, and design and validate standardized and reliable testing methods. Numerous pressures exist for clinical settings to document the competencies of their employees. Simulation could be used in the practice environment to promote and validate the clinical judgment and competency of nurses.
A clinical practice teaching and learning observatory: The use of videoconferencing to link theory to practice in nurse education.
Rush Brenda,Walsh Nicki J,Guy Colin J,Wharrad Heather J
Nurse education in practice
This paper discusses the implementation and evaluation of an innovative approach using videoconferencing to help student nurses to link theory to practice. A Clinical Practice Teaching and Learning Observatory (CP-TLO) was established to provide a synchronous learning opportunity for students in a university classroom observing and interacting with a specialist nurse, patients and carers in a diabetes clinic. Thirty eight students on a BSc/Diploma in Nursing course in the United Kingdom participated in the project which involved partnership working between lecturers, clinical and management staff, IT personnel and patients and their relatives. Student evaluations described the CP-TLO as an enjoyable and valuable learning experience. It is concluded that whilst the project focussed on nurse education and a diabetes clinic, videoconferencing between clinical placements and a classroom has the potential to strengthen links between theory and practice in other areas of nursing and health and social care professions.
Developing self-aware mindfulness to manage countertransference in the nurse-client relationship: an evaluation and developmental study.
Scheick Dawn M
Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Nursing students, and even the nurses they become, bring not only caring to their wounded clients but also at times their own unresolved personal stress. Especially without mindful awareness, projection of the nurse's unacknowledged emotional encumbrances (countertransference) threatens the effectiveness of the nurse-client relationship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Scheick's (2004) earlier instruction and use of a self-awareness development guide affected the self-control and sense of vibrant aliveness of students in a psychiatric nursing course, then use the information gained to develop a self-aware mindfulness template for managing countertransference in the nurse-client relationship. As gleaned from the literature, self-concept behaviors such as being fully vibrantly alive in the present moment, exercising self-control, and enacting self-awareness dovetail with qualities of mindfulness. Building on earlier findings pertinent to increasing self-awareness, this research used developmental mixed methodology to evaluate ex post facto data on the sense of vibrant full aliveness and self-control of 15 psychiatric nursing students who used a self-awareness development guide compared with seven final semester nursing students who lacked focused self-awareness instructional experiences. Both groups took Schutz's (1992) Element S: Self concept assessment. The quantitative research portion used inferential statistical analysis via the t test to evaluate student scores yielding information pertinent to the qualitative developmental part of the study. Formative and summative committees comprised of expert nursing and other psychologically oriented faculty then developed self-awareness and mindfully oriented teaching-learning tools that together formed a template highlighted by a mnemonic model termed STEDFAST. Although mitigated by the small sample and the use of intact groups, the experimental group, when exposed to self-awareness focused learning experiences, showed not only statistically significant changes in self-awareness, which had been determined in Scheick's (2004) earlier study, but also statistically significant changes in vibrant aliveness and self-control. The outcome that deliberate learning experiences using a self-awareness development model likely affected all three mindful behaviors prompted the expert formative and summative committees to specifically target self-awareness and mindfulness for the template. Students implementing the template anecdotally report increased self-aware mindfulness especially as they readily use the STEDFAST Self-Aware Mindfulness mnemonic portion in clinical encounters. The limitations of the study mandate that statistical assumptions be downplayed in favor of simply exploring data trends. Nevertheless, students using the template components describe growing in their ability to mindfully self-monitor toward better managing of not only countertransference in psychiatric nursing but also their own learning in other areas of nursing practice.
Strengthening PNP curricula in mental/behavioral health and evidence-based practice.
Melnyk Bernadette Mazurek,Hawkins-Walsh Elizabeth,Beauchesne Michelle,Brandt Patricia,Crowley Angela,Choi Myunghan,Greenburg Edward
Journal of pediatric health care : official publication of National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
INTRODUCTION:The incidence of mental health/behavioral and developmental problems in children and teens is escalating. However, many primary care providers report inadequate skills to accurately screen, identify, and manage these problems using an evidence-based approach to care. Additionally, educational programs that prepare pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) have been slow to incorporate this content into their curriculums. METHODS:The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate a strengthened curriculum in 20 PNP programs from across the United States that focused on: (a) health promotion strategies for optimal mental/behavioral health and developmental outcomes in children, and (b) screening and evidence-based interventions for these problems. An outcomes evaluation was conducted with faculty and graduating students from the participating programs along with faculty and students from 13 PNP programs who did not participate in the project. RESULTS:Participating schools varied in the speed at which components of the strengthened curriculum were incorporated into their programs. Over the course of the project, faculty from participating programs increased their own knowledge in the targeted areas and reported that their students were better prepared to assess and manage these problems using an evidence-based approach. Although reports of screening for certain problems were higher in the graduating students from the participating schools than the non-participating schools, the overall use of screening tools by students in clinical practice was low. DISCUSSION:There is a need for educational programs to strengthen their curricula and clinical experiences to prepare students to screen for, accurately identify, prevent, and provide early evidence-based interventions for children and teens with mental health/behavioral and developmental problems. This project can serve as a national model for curriculum change.
Teaching and learning with concept maps.
Neonatal network : NN
Concept maps are teaching and learning tools that incorporate visual and written representations of related information. Nurse educators can employ concept mapping in various situations to promote a deeper level of learning and to improve retention of information among their students. Concept mapping has been suggested as a tool to assist in planning nursing care and developing critical thinking skills, as well as for evaluation of course learning. Evidence indicates that concept maps provide a more authentic assessment of participants' knowledge, understanding, critical thinking, and ability to link concepts than do traditional tests.
Supporting enrolled nurse conversion--the impact of a compulsory bridging program.
Boelen Mary G,Kenny Amanda
Nurse education today
In Australia, unlike the UK, two levels of nursing registration have been retained. In developing a course for students to convert from level two to level one of the register, the need for bridging biological science was identified. The one-week course focused on learning strategies and familiarisation with resources in science and aimed to support students to make the transition to university level study. An evaluation of the program examined students' perception of confidence, changes in their learning skills, and the impact of the bridging program on ongoing performance in their degree. Using questionnaires, confidence levels in returning to study, confidence levels in the biological sciences, the initiation of study contacts and the overall impact of the bridging program on university transition were evaluated. Results indicated a 51% increase in overall return to study confidence levels and a 63% increase in confidence with the biological sciences. Students indicated that the bridging program assisted their coping by being exposed to a range of methods, styles and approaches and they had the opportunity to build study contacts. While our research has implications for conversion programs, there are wider implications for the transition of all mature age students to the university sector.
Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.
Simpson Elaine,Courtney Mary
International journal of nursing practice
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.
Ban happy sheets!--Understanding and using evaluation.
Nurse education today
Evaluating learning in the complex environments of health and education can be fraught with difficulties. Teaching sessions are customarily 'qualitatively' evaluated by participants filling in simple forms which indicate how they found a course--colloquially called 'happy sheets'. These forms place an emphasis on whether participants enjoyed their training rather than benefitted from it; and respondent's comments can focus more on the quality of the catering and whether they liked the facilitator rather than formally measuring educational effectiveness or what behaviours, skills or attitudes will be different as a result of the input. Part of an educator's role is to present a rationale for the value of their work, and to continuously review and improve it. An understanding of evaluation itself and an awareness of the politics and pressures that can be associated with the act of evaluating are vital to support the measurement of quality and the improvement of teaching. This article calls for an end to superficial measurements and for Educationalists to make evaluation a meaningful and integral part of their educational output. It also raises the importance of involving participants in the process of evaluation and making them aware of its potential worth and provides some practical suggestions for nurse educators.
Effectiveness of an educational video as an instrument to refresh and reinforce the learning of a nursing technique: a randomized controlled trial.
Salina Loris,Ruffinengo Carlo,Garrino Lorenza,Massariello Patrizia,Charrier Lorena,Martin Barbara,Favale Maria Santina,Dimonte Valerio
Perspectives on medical education
The Undergraduate Nursing Course has been using videos for the past year or so. Videos are used for many different purposes such as during lessons, nurse refresher courses, reinforcement, and sharing and comparison of knowledge with the professional and scientific community. The purpose of this study was to estimate the efficacy of the video (moving an uncooperative patient from the supine to the lateral position) as an instrument to refresh and reinforce nursing techniques. A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) design was chosen: both groups attended lessons in the classroom as well as in the laboratory; a month later while one group received written information as a refresher, the other group watched the video. Both groups were evaluated in a blinded fashion. A total of 223 students agreed to take part in the study. The difference observed between those who had seen the video and those who had read up on the technique turned out to be an average of 6.19 points in favour of the first (P < 0.05). The results of the RCT demonstrated that students who had seen the video were better able to apply the technique, resulting in a better performance. The video, therefore, represents an important tool to refresh and reinforce previous learning.
Development, implementation and initial evaluation of narrative virtual patients for use in vocational mental health nurse training.
Guise Veslemøy,Chambers Mary,Conradi Emily,Kavia Sheetal,Välimäki Maritta
Nurse education today
Simulation techniques such as virtual patients (VPs) are valuable tools for teaching and learning a range of clinical proficiencies. Compared with other forms of simulation, however, the reported use of VPs within nursing is limited. Descriptions of simple, low cost methods for the development of VP devices could help facilitate their wider implementation and use in nursing education and training. In order to encourage broader use of VP technologies within nursing, this paper aims to expand current knowledge of VP creation by reference to the development of two virtual mental health patients produced for a multilingual e-learning course for European mental health nurses. Focusing on narrative VPs, the paper provides a brief overview of various types and potential uses of VP techniques, along with central elements of good practice in VP development. The five phase development framework used in the creation of the two VPs is presented. Processes detailed include the design and construction of case scenarios and multimedia components, in addition to initial usability and validity testing. VPs like those described here are a relatively inexpensive way of integrating virtual simulation technology into nursing education, particularly within online, blended and/or cross-cultural learning environments.
[Students awareness of health teaching: evaluation of "health education" course and the occupational health nursing practice].
Horikawa Junko,Majima Yukie,Ishihara Itsuko
Journal of UOEH
The "health education" course is an important part of the baccalaureate curriculum in nursing. It is essential to teach students effective health education in a client oriented way. In order to improve the quality and content of this course, we extracted students descriptions from records of 44 students who had carried out group health education during nursing practice for the occupational health nursing course. We then analyzed students written sentences on their views concerning health teaching. After sentence analysis, we categorized these concepts into groups and titled them. The results of clarification of categories showed that the most common student awareness was in regard to technical and instructional skills, such as precise and suitable language selection for laymen, and utilization of teaching devices or mediums, during implementation of health teaching(43.6%). Secondly, assessment of health needs for a certain working population(10.3%), and effective teaching types such as instructional participant volunteers and full participation(9.2%) were deemed important. Thirdly, identification of the role of the occupational nurse(7.7%), and lastly the necessity of evaluation(2.3%) were considered necessary. Over all, in this study we found that students were most concerned about the instructional skills during the presentation of health education. Also, these results suggest that development of contents in the "health education" course to reinforce students assessment and evaluative abilities should be incorporated into the course. Furthermore, faculties who teach a "health education" course should provide a large variety of teaching materials and creative instructional methods for the students.
Clinical teleconferencing: bringing the patient to the classroom.
Gazarian Priscilla K,Pennington Mary
PROBLEM:The confidence to act on clinical judgment, ask for help, and juggle multiple competing priorities is best developed within a clinical setting. Traditional classroom learning, which is often static, does not support learning these skills or help new students learn how to "be" a nurse. Student nurses need frequent and repeated exposure to expert nurses and clinical environments. Traditional teaching methods may not be sufficient to meet these needs. METHOD:This project employs a strategy that supplies situated, context-driven learning with the aim of improving clinical reasoning by bringing real-world, real-time clinical scenarios into the classroom via audio conferencing. This classroom teaching strategy is based on the principles of learner-centered teaching, and the aim is to incorporate real-world clinical information into the classroom. Students are introduced to "real-time report" from special care areas as the basis for class activities and discussion. FINDINGS:Feedback on this model was sought through course evaluation data, focus groups with students, and participating nurses. NCLEX pass rate remained unchanged as a result of this teaching strategy. CONCLUSION:In this model, the classroom changes from being a physical place where knowledge is acquired to a place where knowledge is translated from and applied to practice.
A strategy for involving on-campus and distance students in a nursing research course.
Shuster George F,Learn Cheryl Demerth,Duncan Robert
Journal of continuing education in nursing
BACKGROUND:Teaching research at the undergraduate level can be a challenge. This is particularly true for distance education courses, in which students often feel isolated from each other and from faculty. Faculty teaching on-campus and distance education research courses designed a student research project and a method for bringing distance and on-campus students together to present their research findings. METHOD:By actively engaging students in the research process and providing an on-campus research day for the presentation of student posters (Year 1) and research papers (Year 2), course faculty were able to achieve their two goals of directly involving students in the nursing research process and creating a greater student sense of belonging within the college learning community. RESULTS:Statistical analysis of an evaluation survey among on-site and off-site registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing students indicated both groups ranked the Year 1 poster research day as good to very good. Students attending the Year 2 research day, where they presented papers, ranked the day as good. Statistical analysis indicated a significant difference between the two research days, with a clear student preference for posters. CONCLUSION:Students valued their active participation in the research process and the opportunity to get together and present their work. However, students clearly preferred a poster presentation format to presenting their findings as a research paper.
Nurse training with simulation: an innovative approach to teach complex microsurgery patient care.
Flurry Mitchell,Brooke Sebastian,Micholetti Brett,Natoli Noel,Moyer Kurtis,Mnich Stephanie,Potochny John
Annals of plastic surgery
Simulation has become an integral part of education at all levels within the medical field. The ability to allow personnel to practice and learn in a safe and controlled environment makes it a valuable tool for initial training and continued competence verification. An area of specific interest to the reconstructive microsurgeon is assurance that the nursing staff has adequate training and experience to provide optimum care for microsurgery patients. Plastic surgeons in institutions where few microsurgeries are performed face challenges teaching nurses how to care for these complex patients. Because no standard exists to educate microsurgery nurses, learning often happens by chance on-the-job encounters. Outcomes, therefore, may be affected by poor handoffs between inexperienced personnel. Our objective is to create a course that augments such random clinical experience and teaches the knowledge and skills necessary for successful microsurgery through simulated patient scenarios. Quality care reviews at our institution served as the foundation to develop an accredited nursing course providing clinical training for the care of microsurgery patients. The course combined lectures on microsurgery, pharmacology, and flap monitoring as well as simulated operating room, surgical intensive care unit, postanesthesia care unit, Trauma Bay, and Floor scenarios. Evaluation of participants included precourse examination, postcourse examination, and a 6-month follow-up. Average test scores were 72% precourse and 92% postcourse. Educational value, effectiveness of lectures and simulation, and overall course quality was rated very high or high by 86% of respondents; 0% respondents rated it as low. Six-month follow-up test score average was 88%. Learning to care for microsurgery patients should not be left to chance patient encounters on the job. Simulation provides a safe, reproducible, and controlled clinical experience. Our results show that simulation is a highly rated and effective way to teach nurses microsurgery patient care. Simulated patient care training should be considered to augment the clinical experience in hospitals where microsurgery is performed.
A progressive nurse practitioner student evaluation tool.
Pearson Tamera,Garrett Linda,Hossler Susan,McConnell Peggy,Walls Jennie
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
PURPOSE:To describe the process of designing a new progressive nurse practitioner student clinical evaluation tool based on competencies. DATA SOURCES:Selected research articles and professional organization published guidelines. CONCLUSIONS:Evaluation of nurse practitioner students' clinical performance is an important and often complex responsibility of faculty. The clinical evaluation tool should reflect the changing expectations associated with particular courses across the curriculum and be based on the competencies identified by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. Collaboration by faculty is the key to development of an accurate and useful clinical evaluation tool. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:The progressive nurse practitioner clinical evaluation tool presented here is the result of integrating specific clinical course outcomes and competencies recognized by key nurse practitioner associations.
Participation in clinical supervision (PACS): an evaluation of student nurse clinical supervision facilitated by mental health service users.
Maplethorpe Fran,Dixon Julie,Rush Brenda
Nurse education in practice
This paper discusses an innovative learning approach in which people having experience of mental health services facilitated humanistic clinical supervision with groups of student nurses in the classroom. A four-day course of preparation for the role of supervisor is described and the results of subsequent clinical supervision sessions are analysed. Seven service users who had previous experience of teaching students in the classroom and fifty students on a Diploma/BSc in mental health nursing course participated in the project, which was evaluated through focus groups. The results indicated that the service user supervisors appreciated the skills they had gained on the course and felt that they were more appropriate than lecturers to facilitate clinical supervision sessions. Some students expressed initial uncertainty about the appropriateness of service users as supervisors but as changes to the pedagogical process of supervision were made and the supervisors gained more experience and confidence, students expressed greater satisfaction. The authors conclude that clinical supervision facilitated by service users who have preparation and continual support can add considerable value to the learning experience of student nurses.
Evaluation of an online continuing education program from the perspective of new graduate nurses.
Karaman Selcuk,Kucuk Sevda,Aydemir Melike
Nurse education today
The aim of this study is to evaluate the online continuing education program from the perspectives of new graduate nurses. An evaluation framework includes five factors (program and course structure, course materials, technology, support services and assessment). In this study, descriptive research methods were used. Participants of the study included 2.365 registered nurses enrolled in the first online nursing bachelor completion degree program in the country. Data were collected by survey. The findings indicated that students were mostly satisfied with this program. The results of this study suggest that well designed asynchronous online education methods can be effective and appropriate for registered nurses. However, the provision of effective support and technological infrastructure is as vital as the quality of teaching for online learners.
Evaluation of graduate nursing students' information literacy self-efficacy and applied skills.
Robertson D Susie,Felicilda-Reynaldo Rhea Faye D
The Journal of nursing education
Maintaining evidence-based nursing practice requires information literacy (IL) skills that should be established prior to completing an undergraduate nursing degree. Based on Bandura's social cognitive theory, this cross-sectional descriptive correlational study assessed the perceived and applied IL skills of graduate nursing students from two family nurse practitioner (FNP) programs in the midwestern United States. Results showed that although the 26 newly admitted FNP students demonstrated a high level of confidence in their IL skills, the students did not perform well in the actual IL skills test. According to Bandura, the students' confidence in their IL knowledge should allow students to be engaged in course activities requiring IL skills. Nurse educators teaching in undergraduate or graduate programs are in key positions to incorporate IL experiences into class activities to allow for skill assessment and further practice. Further research is needed on nursing students' IL self-efficacy and performance.
Clarifying, affirming, and preserving the nurse in nurse practitioner education and practice.
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
PURPOSE:This work responds to the need for maintaining an ethic of care in the face of increased demands for cost effectiveness and efficiency. Findings are presented from a qualitative study describing how nurse practitioner (NP) faculty teach NP students about holistic nursing dimensions of NP practice. DATA RESOURCES:Data collection consisted of face to face or telephone interviews with 24 experienced NP faculty members teaching in 22 NP programs across the country. Data were analyzed using the interpretive phenomenological approach. Aspects of scientific merit were addressed through reviewing transcripts for accuracy, consensual validation sessions, and member checking. CONCLUSIONS:The most common approaches used for teaching holistic nursing dimensions of NP practice were role modeling and sharing narratives of actual cases. Other approaches included: incorporation of holistic complementary diagnoses along with medical diagnoses into assessments, use of case scenarios and standardized patients, a rite of passage ceremony, and an entire narrative curriculum. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:NP faculty advocate incorporating a holistic mind-body-spirit perspective into assessment and intervention and broadening the diagnostic process to include complementary components of nursing and medicine. Findings have implications for teaching/learning, curriculum planning, and evaluation as NP programs transition from the master's to the doctoral level.
Evaluation of an art in health care elective module--a nurse education initiative.
McCabe Catherine,Neill Freda,Granville Gary,Grace Sheila
Nurse education in practice
BACKGROUND:International literature suggests that nurse educators perceive a value in the arts and literature as a teaching strategy in helping nurses express a personal philosophy of nursing, teaching spirituality and non-verbal communication. PURPOSE OF STUDY:The purpose of this study was to evaluate nursing students experiences of undertaking an interdisciplinary 'Art in Health' elective. STUDY DESIGN:The formative evaluation approach was based on the reflective practice model that encourages students (n = 60) to evaluate their own learning experience. FINDINGS:88% of nursing students valued the experience of learning with students from other disciplines or colleges. 63% commented on how they enjoyed the creative aspect of studio work and the element of diversity in brought to nursing. 63% indicated that the module gave them a greater insight into the presence of art in health care contexts and felt that they gained a deeper understanding of how art can help people in hospital. CONCLUSION:The module presents an innovative model of interdisciplinary curriculum development which appears to facilitate students in viewing patients from a more holistic perspective. As an education experience this module appears to have the potential to help students develop skills in working collaboratively with other health care and non health care disciplines.
Is LabTutor a helpful component of the blended learning approach to biosciences?
Swift Amelia,Efstathiou Nikolaos,Lameu Paula
Journal of clinical nursing
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the use of LabTutor (a physiological data capture and e-learning package) in bioscience education for student nurses. BACKGROUND:Knowledge of biosciences is important for nurses the world over, who have to monitor and assess their patient's clinical condition, and interpret that information to determine the most appropriate course of action. Nursing students have long been known to find acquiring useable bioscience knowledge challenging. Blended learning strategies are common in bioscience teaching to address the difficulties students have. Student nurses have a preference for hands-on learning, small group sessions and are helped by close juxtaposition of theory and practice. DESIGN:An evaluation of a new teaching method using in-classroom voluntary questionnaire. METHODS:A structured survey instrument including statements and visual analogue response format and open questions was given to students who participated in Labtutor sessions. The students provided feedback in about the equipment, the learning and the session itself. RESULTS:First year (n = 93) and third year (n = 36) students completed the evaluation forms. The majority of students were confident about the equipment and using it to learn although a few felt anxious about computer-based learning. They all found the equipment helpful as part of their bioscience education and they all enjoyed the sessions. CONCLUSION:This equipment provides a helpful way to encourage guided independent learning through practice and discovery and because each session is case study based and the relationship of the data to the patient is made clear. Our students helped to evaluate our initial use of LabTutor and found the sessions enjoyable and helpful. LabTutor provides an effective learning tool as part of a blended learning strategy for biosciences teaching. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Improving bioscience knowledge will lead to a greater understanding of pathophysiology, treatments and interventions and monitoring.
Evaluating clinical simulation.
Cummings Cynthia L
PROBLEM:This article reviews the findings of a year-long process of evaluation by faculty involved in clinical simulation. The process involved only one faculty reviewer, and the findings demonstrated various deficiencies present in students' performance of selected clinical scenarios. METHODS:A simulation rubric and set clinical scenarios were developed in order to evaluate students' performance. The student's performance was graded and was made part of the senior student's final clinical course grade. The students were required to conduct a clinical simulation activity, as if they were the nurse caring for the patient. They performed a complete assessment, basic interventions, and interdisciplinary communication, along with computerized documentation. FINDINGS:The findings showed deficits in the areas of medication administration, patient assessment, and communication. CONCLUSION:As a result, the faculty has looked at ways to improve these areas and to more fully incorporate simulation activities into the nursing curriculum.
Advancing student nurse knowledge of the biomedical sciences: A mixed methods study.
Craft Judy,Christensen Martin,Bakon Shannon,Wirihana Lisa
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:Nursing students' ability to learn, integrate and apply bioscience knowledge to their clinical practice remains a concern. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the implementation, influence, and student perspective of a team-teaching workshop to integrate bioscience theory with clinical nursing practice. DESIGN:The team-teaching workshop was offered prior to commencement of the university semester as a refresher course at an Australian university. This study employed a sequential explanatory mixed methods design incorporating both quantitative and qualitative items. METHODS:An evaluation survey with quantitative and qualitative items and a focus group were employed. The qualitative data were analysed using a thematic approach. The quantitative data was combined with the emergent themes in the qualitative data. PARTICIPANTS:Participants were final year nursing students. Nine students attended the workshop. All students completed the evaluation (N=9) and 44.4% (N=4) attended the focus group. RESULTS:The results revealed six themes: (1) lectures are an inadequate teaching strategy for bioscience; (2) teaching strategies which incorporate active learning engage students; (3) the team-teaching workshop provides an effective learning environment; (4) the workshop content should be expanded; (5) pharmacology should relate to bioscience, and bioscience should relate to nursing; and (6) team-teaching was effective in integrating pharmacology with bioscience, and then translating this into nursing practice. Students had felt there was disjointedness between pharmacology and bioscience, and between bioscience and nursing care within their undergraduate studies. The workshop that was based on team-teaching bridged those gaps, utilised active learning strategies and provided an effective learning environment. CONCLUSION:Team-teaching that employs active learning strategies is an effective approach to assist nursing students to integrate bioscience knowledge into their nursing practice.
Advance Care Planning and Shared Decision-Making: An Interprofessional Role-Playing Workshop for Medical and Nursing Students.
Grey Carl,Constantine Lori,Baugh Gina M,Lindenberger Elizabeth
MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources
Introduction:Advance care planning (ACP) is an essential discussion between a health care provider and a patient about their future care during serious illness. In clinical practice, high-quality ACP may be addressed with an interprofessional approach. Role-playing is an ideal method to practice both ACP and shared decision-making before having these conversations with patients. Methods:This asynchronous role-playing workshop is prefaced with two prerecorded 25-minute videos for faculty and student preparation with one introducing ACP concepts, and one depicting a patient-physician ACP discussion. During the 2-hour workshop, students complete four role-play ACP scenarios with the following roles: patient, family member, nurse, nurse practitioner, and physician. Students rotate through different roles guided by scripts, and have a fact sheet for each scenario detailing prognostic information for disease processes. The role-play works optimally with three nursing students, three medical students, and one faculty facilitator per group. Facilitators are provided with a timeline, a guide for debriefing, and an evaluation rubric. Results:The survey data from 85 students spread over four course offerings were summarized. When asked both if learning objectives were met, and to reflect on the clinical relevance, teaching effectiveness, and the overall workshop experience, most participants reported a to rating. Discussion:This role-play activity allows students to practice ACP and shared decision-making, both with patient and family presence, and in premeeting rounds with the health care team. ACP exposure during student training helps trainees recognize the impact of high-quality interprofessional conversations on the care patients want and ultimately receive.
Improving nurse practitioners' competence with genetics: Effectiveness of an online course.
Whitt Karen J,Macri Charles,O'Brien Travis J,Wright Stephanie
Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an online genetics course for improving nurse practitioners' knowledge, competence, and comfort with genetic principles and their application to clinical practice. DATA SOURCES:A genetics knowledge test and survey were administered to 232 nurse practitioner students, between 2011 and 2013, before and after completing a 15-week online genetics course taught by a multidisciplinary team of instructors at a private east coast U.S. university. The 65-item survey allowed participants to rate competence regarding genetic principles, diseases, and terminology, as well as comfort performing various clinical tasks related to genetics. The 21-item knowledge test contained multiple choice questions regarding core competencies in genetics. Paired t-tests were used to compare mean pre- and postscores. CONCLUSIONS:Participants significantly increased postcourse knowledge (p < .001) and comfort with genetic core competencies and clinical skills related to genetics (p < .001). This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an online genetics course for increasing nurse practitioners' knowledge, competence, and confidence with genetics and identifies specific topics educators should consider when designing curricula for nurse practitioners. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Findings from this study can improve genetics education for nurse practitioners, which will in turn improve patient health.
Evaluating student learning outcomes in oral health knowledge and skills.
Lewis Adrienne,Edwards Suzanne,Whiting Glenda,Donnelly Frank
Journal of clinical nursing
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:To evaluate whether a set of oral health resources designed for workforce training was relevant for students undertaking an entry-level nursing or aged care qualification. BACKGROUND:Oral health is one of the most neglected aspects of nursing care experienced by older people. Despite efforts to improve aged care worker oral health knowledge and skills, one-off training and rapid staff turnover have hindered the success of workplace programmes. Inadequate oral health content in entry-level nursing and aged care qualifications has perpetuated this. DESIGN:Kirkpatrick's training and evaluation model was used to evaluate the resources developed by a project called Building Better Oral Health Communities. Students used them as prescribed study materials and completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires. Educators were interviewed to obtain their feedback. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Qualitative data were collated according to relevance to learning, presentation style and interest. RESULTS:Evaluation showed high levels of student and educator satisfaction. Student learning outcomes demonstrated consistently positive attitudes and significant self-reported improvements in oral health knowledge and skills. Irrespective of course type, students gained similar levels of oral health knowledge and skills following use of the resources. CONCLUSION:Nurses and care workers must be able to provide consistent standards of oral health care as a fundamental part of caring for patients. Validated as an effective learning and teaching package, it is recommended that these resources be used to strengthen the oral health content of entry-level nursing and aged care qualifications. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE:Building the oral health capacity of nurses and care workers is one way of reversing oral health neglect and improving the quality of care provided to older people.
Education for nurses working in cardiovascular care: a European survey.
European journal of cardiovascular nursing : journal of the Working Group on Cardiovascular Nursing of the European Society of Cardiology
BACKGROUND:Nurses represent the largest sector of the workforce caring for people with cardiovascular disease in Europe. Little is known about the post-registration education provided to nurses working within this specialty. The aim of this descriptive cross sectional survey was to describe the structure, content, teaching, learning, assessment and evaluation methods used in post-registration cardiovascular nurse education programmes in Europe. METHOD:A 24-item researcher generated electronic questionnaire was sent to nurse representatives from 23 European countries. Items included questions about cardiovascular registered nurse education programmes. RESULTS:Forty-nine respondents from 17 European countries completed questionnaires. Respondents were typically female (74%) and educated at Masters (50%) or doctoral (39%) level. Fifty-one percent of the cardiovascular nursing education programmes were offered by universities either at bachelor or masters level. The most frequently reported programme content included cardiac arrhythmias (93%), heart failure (85%) and ischaemic heart disease (83%). The most common teaching mode was face-to-face lectures (85%) and/or seminars (77%). A variety of assessment methods were used with an exam or knowledge test being the most frequent. Programme evaluation was typically conducted through student feedback (95%). CONCLUSION:There is variability in the content, teaching, learning and evaluation methods in post-registration cardiovascular nurse education programmes in Europe. Cardiovascular nurse education would be strengthened with a stronger focus upon content that reflects current health challenges faced in Europe. A broader view of cardiovascular disease to include stroke and peripheral vascular disease is recommended with greater emphasis on prevention, rehabilitation and the impact of health inequalities.
Determining the opinions of the first-year nursing students about clinical practice and clinical educators.
Kol Emine,İnce Serpil
Nurse education in practice
The clinical experience prepares nursing students to become competent and professional practitioners. The evaluation of the clinical learning environment is important to determine if the clinical experience and clinical instructor provide essential learning opportunities as well as a supportive environment. This study aimed to determine the opinions of first-year nursing students about their instructors and clinical practice in the clinical education setting. The sample of the study consists of 227 students from Akdeniz University Nursing Faculty enrolled in the 'Nursing Basics' course. The mean age of the students was 19.30 ± 0.83, and 74% of the students stated that they were satisfied with clinical practice. During clinical applications, 70.8% of the students were guided by one nurse and one educator while 20.4% and 8.8% were accompanied with only an educator and only a nurse, respectively. A review of the opinions of the students about their educators revealed that they held positive opinions about the educators in terms of adequate theoretical knowledge (74.1%), openness to dialogue (67.9%), encouraging students to do research (62.7%), giving support to students during clinical practice (61.6%), and appreciating the positive behaviours of students (61.7%). In conclusion, it was determined that, although the students regarded the educators as competent in terms of theoretical knowledge and skill and successful in motivating, orienting, and encouraging the students, they viewed inaccessibility of educators as the leading problem.
Simulation in undergraduate paediatric nursing curriculum: Evaluation of a complex 'ward for a day' education program.
Gamble Andree S
Nurse education in practice
Simulation in health education has been shown to increase confidence, psychomotor and professional skills, and thus positively impact on student preparedness for clinical placement. It is recognised as a valuable tool to expose and engage students in realistic patient care encounters without the potential to cause patient harm. Although inherent challenges exist in the development and implementation of simulation, variability in clinical placement time, availability and quality dictates the need to provide students with learning opportunities they may otherwise not experience. With this, and a myriad of other issues providing the impetus for improved clinical preparation, 28 final semester undergraduate nursing students in a paediatric nursing course were involved in an extended multi-scenario simulated clinical shift prior to clinical placement. The simulation focussed on a complex ward experience, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate a variety of psychomotor skills, decision making, leadership, team work and other professional attributes integral for successful transition into the clinical arena. Evaluation data were collected at 3 intermittent points; post-simulation, post clinical placement, and 3 months after commencing employment as a Registered Nurse. Quantitative and qualitative analysis suggested positive impacts on critical nursing concepts and psychomotor skills resulted for participants in both clinical placement and beyond into the first months of employment.
The applicability of community of inquiry framework to online nursing education: A cross-sectional study.
Smadi Omar,Parker Steve,Gillham David,Müller Amanda
Nurse education in practice
The Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has the potential to contribute to online education by addressing the nexus of pedagogy, technology, and learners' needs. However, there has been limited investigation of the application of CoI to Australian online tertiary education, with the awareness of CoI amongst Australian nurse educators being unknown. This paper reports on a project which used an online survey to investigate the level of awareness of the CoI framework and its applicability to the design of online and blended courses in Australian higher education nursing schools. Most respondents ranked the core concepts of the CoI framework as applicable for nursing education, but only 20% of the participants were familiar with the CoI framework before they participated in the survey. While nearly 90% of the participants viewed instructional design and a theoretical framework as essential for building an online course, 70% of respondents indicated that they did not use an explicit theoretical framework to guide the design or the evaluation of their nursing teaching and learning. These results provide the impetus for further investigation of factors influencing the development of online nurse education including the specific consideration of CoI frameworks.
Developing research competence to support evidence-based practice.
Burke Lora E,Schlenk Elizabeth A,Sereika Susan M,Cohen Susan M,Happ Mary Beth,Dorman Janice S
Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
This article describes one step in the process that was undertaken to prepare for the introduction of evidence-based practice (EBP) into the curriculum across the Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Master of Science in Nursing, and Doctor of Philosophy programs, as well as the programs that were under development, Clinical Nurse Leader and Doctor of Nursing Practice, at the University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing. Expected research competencies were identified for each level or academic year within each program. Based on these competencies, recommendations on how to modify the curriculum into one that would support students' acquisition and development of the skills necessary to be successful in matriculating through an EBP curriculum were developed. Evaluation mechanisms for the achievement of these competencies vary across the academic programs and will include performance on capstone projects, comprehensive examinations, and program milestones for doctoral students. The establishment of evidence-based competencies provided a foundation for the development of new teaching approaches and the curricular revisions across the three academic programs. Thus, the University of Pittsburgh model of educating for EBP is based on a sequential layering of research competencies throughout the curriculum.
Evidence-Based Teaching Practice in Nursing Education: Faculty Perspectives and Practices.
Kalb Kathleen A,O'Conner-Von Susan K,Brockway Christine,Rierson Cindy L,Sendelbach Sue
Nursing education perspectives
PURPOSE:This national online study was conducted to describe nursing faculty perspectives and practices about evidence-based teaching practice (EBTP). BACKGROUND:Professional standards for nurse educator practice stress the importance of EBTP; however, the use of evidence by faculty in curriculum design, evaluation and educational measurement, and program development has not been reported. METHOD:Nurse administrators of accredited nursing programs in the United States (N = 1,586) were emailed information about the study, including the research consent form and anonymous survey link, and invited to forward information to nursing faculty. RESULTS:Respondents (551 faculty and nurse administrators) described the importance of EBTP in nursing education, used multiple sources of evidence in their faculty responsibilities, and identified factors that influence their ability to use EBTP. CONCLUSION:EBTP in nursing education requires sustained institutional, administrative, and collegial support to promote faculty effectiveness and student learning.
An online education approach to population health in a global society.
Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.)
BACKGROUND:Health professions education content must keep pace with the ever-evolving and changing health care system. Population-based health care is advocated as a way to improve health outcomes, particularly in a technologically advanced health system like the United States. At the same time, global health knowledge is increasingly valued in health professions education, including nursing. AIMS:This article describes the design and implementation of an online population health course with a global viewpoint intended to accommodate the need for improved knowledge and skill application for graduate nurses. Attention was also given to faculty efficiency during the process of design and implementation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This population-global health course was piloted in a renovated master's curriculum for two semesters. Administering a Course Improvement Survey after initial course offerings assisted faculty to assess and target essential course changes. Data were collected from 106 registered nurse graduate students. RESULTS:Population and global health course objectives were met and students identified areas for course enhancement. Students (90%-94%) reported achieving increased knowledge of population health and global health. DISCUSSION:Like other creative works, the first rendition of a course requires pedagogical adjustments and editing. Formal student input, when built into the design and implementation of a course can assist faculty to be efficient when crafting essential course changes for subsequent semesters. Data from the survey showed that major population and global subject matter was being grasped by students, the data also revealed that tweaking specific online strategies like making all course content mobile would enhance the course. CONCLUSION:The course development process and course improvement evaluation for this Population Health in a Global Society course proved valuable in the education of nurses, and helped maintain faculty work efficiency.
From a Medical Problem to a Health Experience: How Nursing Students Think in Clinical Situations.
Boyer Louise,Tardif Jacques,Lefebvre Hélène
The Journal of nursing education
BACKGROUND:Nursing clinical judgment (NCJ) is a core competency that must be developed in nursing education. The objective of this study is to explore the development of NCJ among undergraduate nursing students, according to teachers and preceptors. METHOD:The collaborative group, composed of three educators, three nurse preceptors, and one researcher, analyzed six situations in which students in the program were assessed for NCJ. RESULTS:Key learnings and development indicators were identified for each of the three levels of NCJ development. Reasoning process, type of relationships with patients and their families, perception of the nursing role, and reflection are parameters of NCJ that exert a mutual influence and evolve from one level to the next. CONCLUSION:Knowing this evolution can help educators to plan the curriculum, select effective teaching methods, and provide feedback that will support NCJ development. For students, these developmental markers support self-evaluation with a view to self-regulation.
Immersive simulated reality scenarios for enhancing students' experience of people with learning disabilities across all fields of nurse education.
Saunder Lorna,Berridge Emma-Jane
Nurse education in practice
Poor preparation of nurses, regarding learning disabilities can have devastating consequences. High-profile reports and the Nursing and Midwifery Council requirements led this University to introduce Shareville into the undergraduate and postgraduate nursing curriculum. Shareville is a virtual environment developed at Birmingham City University, in which student nurses learn from realistic, problem-based scenarios featuring people with learning disabilities. Following the implementation of the resource an evaluation of both staff and student experience was undertaken. Students reported that problem-based scenarios were sufficiently real and immersive. Scenarios presented previously unanticipated considerations, offering new insights, and giving students the opportunity to practise decision-making in challenging scenarios before encountering them in practice. The interface and the quality of the graphics were criticised, but, this did not interfere with learning. Nine lecturers were interviewed, they generally felt positively towards the resource and identified strengths in terms of blended learning and collaborative teaching. The evaluation contributes to understandings of learning via simulated reality, and identifies process issues that will inform the development of further resources and their roll-out locally, and may guide other education providers in developing and implementing resources of this nature. There was significant parity between lecturers' expectations of students' experience of Shareville.
Rural Community Case Management Experience for Bachelor of Science in Nursing Students: A Focus Group Evaluation.
Weierbach Florence M,Stanton Marietta P
The Journal of nursing education
BACKGROUND:This presentation concerns the evaluation of an additional clinical experience in case management for senior baccalaureate students. During their final leadership course, nursing students can elect to do an additional 80-hour precepted clinical experience focusing on case management in primary care clinics. As part of that experience, they rotate through seven nurse-managed rural primary health clinics in Tennessee. METHOD:As part of the evaluation process, students and preceptors were asked to review the experiences that students had participating in the clinical. RESULTS:For the most part, students were highly satisfied with the case management experience and thought it provided an additional skill set for them as they were completing their final year in nursing school and preparing to enter the nursing workforce as graduates of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing program. CONCLUSION:A community case management clinical opportunity in primary care allows a community experience for students that provides them with an opportunity to witness an RN practicing to the full scope of the license. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(9):557-560.].
Nursing and midwifery students' perception of learning enablers and gains in the first semester of their BSc programmes: A cross sectional study.
Redmond Catherine,Davies Carmel,Halligan Phil,Joye Regina,Carroll Lorraine,Frawley Timothy
Nurse education today
BACKGROUND:The student experience in the first year of university is fundamental to successful adaption to the higher education environment and shapes student engagement with their chosen degree. Students' feedback on this experience is essential when designing or reviewing curricula. OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study was to explore students' perceptions of their learning gains to identify factors that support student learning and identify elements that need improvement if specific learning needs are to be met. DESIGN:A cross sectional descriptive study. SETTING:A large urban university in Ireland that provides undergraduate nursing and midwifery degree programmes. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:The study was conducted using the Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG) questionnaire. This instrument consists of a series of closed questions which explore perceived student gains in skills, cognitions and attitudes. The questionnaire was adapted for a semester rather than a module evaluation. The tool also includes a series of open questions inviting students to comment in each section. RESULTS:Students (n = 206) positively evaluated teaching and learning approaches used. The greatest enablers of learning were clinical skills laboratory small group teaching and support followed by online learning materials and multiple choice formative assessment questions. They reported gains in knowledge, generic skills development and an increase in confidence and enthusiasm for their chosen career. CONCLUSION:The feedback gained in this study provides valuable knowledge about the elements that support nursing and midwifery students learning and highlights areas that require attention. This is particularly useful for faculty who are involved in curriculum review and enhancement and in student engagement and retention.
NLN Core Competencies for Nurse Educators: Are They Present in the Course Descriptions of Academic Nurse Educator Programs?
Fitzgerald Ann,McNelis Angela M,Billings Diane M
Nursing education perspectives
AIM:As an initial approach to determining representation of the NLN Core Competencies for Nurse Educators in Master's of Science in Nursing Education and Post-Master's Certificate programs, the study identified the presence of the competencies in course descriptions. BACKGROUND:The competencies are the gold standard to ensure academic nurse educators have the knowledge and skill to teach, assist learners, develop curricula, and implement effective evaluation methods. METHOD:A descriptive design that applied web scraping techniques was used to collect data from school web pages, including course descriptions, credit hours, practica information, distance accessibility, and Certified Nurse Educator exam preparation. RESULTS:Four competencies were well represented (≥85 percent), and four competencies were poorly represented (<50 percent) in a sample of 529 schools. CONCLUSION:Programs should review courses and course descriptions for inclusion of all competency areas that prepare nurse educators and make revisions to address poorly represented competencies.
Evaluation of an Interprofessional Oral Health Assessment Activity in Advanced Practice Nursing Education.
Estes Krista R,Callanan Deidre,Rai Nayanjot,Plunkett Katie,Brunson Diane,Tiwari Tamanna
Journal of dental education
The curriculum for nurse practitioner (NP) students often overlooks the assessment of the oral cavity. In recognition of this, the HEENT (head, eyes, ears, nose, and throat) assessment was expanded to HEENOT (head, ears, eyes, nose, oral, and throat) through integration of an interprofessional educational (IPE) activity developed for University of Colorado NP and dental students. The aim of this study was to assess NP students' perceptions of an IPE activity in which dental faculty and students taught NP students how to conduct an oral exam, recognize oral health pathology, and apply fluoride varnish. Afterwards, the NP students completed an evaluation survey focusing on their thoughts, comfort level, organization, and understanding of the activity. This IPE activity was repeated over four semesters from 2014 to 2017, and significant differences among the semesters were compared. All NP students in the four semesters participated in the activity and the survey: semester one N=25, semester two N=31, semester three N=43, and semester four N=25. In all semesters, NP students reported feeling more confident conducting oral health exams after completion of the IPE activity. Semester four students agreed more with the idea of interprofessional collaboration (OR: 0.103) and receiving educational information not learned elsewhere in the curriculum (OR: 0.134) compared to semester one students. Higher odds for the session being well organized and conducted in a suitable time were found for semester four compared to semester two (OR: 0.217). These comparisons reflect improvement in teaching methodologies over the four semesters and an overall increased confidence for NP students in performing an oral health assessment.
Using seminars as a teaching method in undergraduate nurse education.
British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
This article explores the use of seminars as a teaching method in undergraduate nurse education. Using the backdrop of a year 1 learning unit, grounded in the 6Cs, entitled person-centred practice, the format of the seminars is described in detail. It argues that engaging in a variety of student-centred activities helps students to become informed, self-motivated and curious learners. It identifies that using seminars as a teaching method helps to ensure that students understand and learn what they need to know by using a variety of learning approaches to support them in their personal and academic growth. These include discussion, groupwork, independent learning, the use of technology and building self-confidence, problem-solving approaches and reflection techniques. While being mindful of the higher order skills required to develop and manage seminars, the author uses the concept of constructive alignment to demonstrate development of the seminar approach from curriculum design, teaching, learning, assessment and evaluation.
A hybrid course for the RN-to-baccalaureate curriculum: patient-centered care and quality.
Johnson Linda,Smith Charlene M
Teaching RN-to-baccalaureate nursing students to incorporate patient-centered care and quality concepts into the practice environment presents challenges and opportunities for nurse educators. The authors describe development, deployment, and evaluation of an RN-to-baccalaureate hybrid course focused on patient-centered care and quality improvement. Course teaching strategies and evaluation of student learning and the efficacy of using a hybrid instructional design are discussed.
A teaching mentorship program to facilitate excellence in teaching and learning.
Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
The impact of decreasing faculty numbers on the nursing shortage has been well documented. Mentoring is recognized as the most significant way to grow and nurture nurse educators. The purpose of this article was to describe the Teaching Mentorship Program within the College of Nursing Department of Biobehavioral Health Science at a Midwestern state university. The program activities are designed to facilitate new faculty members' transition from the role of nurse clinician to the role of nurse educator, to support the implementation of evidence-based teaching practices, and to encourage the development of teaching scholarship. Outcomes of the program include retention of new faculty, improved student satisfaction with the quality of instruction, and increased teaching scholarship activities. The program demonstrates the three hallmarks of an effective mentoring program. First, the program is supported by an institutional culture that values mentoring and provides it with an organizational home. Second, the Associate Department Head and primary mentor has been an educator for 37 years with expertise in curriculum development, program evaluation, and teaching methodologies. Third, because the associate department head's principle role is to implement the program and serve as the primary mentor, her commitment is to provide flexible, timely access to faculty.
Systematic Preparation for Teaching in a Nursing Doctor of Philosophy Program.
Fiedler Ruth,Degenhardt Marguerite,Engstrom Janet L
Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Lack of preparation for the faculty role, particularly for teaching, has long been an area of concern in graduate nursing education. This article describes a systematic approach to preparing students in a doctor of philosophy (PhD) program for their future roles as nurse educators. All PhD students at Rush University are required to take a nursing education course that contains four modules: the teacher, learner, and learning environment; the basics of curriculum and course design; evaluation of the learner, course, program, and institution; and the new faculty member. Students also complete a practicum in the course. Students are interviewed before the course begins and complete a self-assessment of their teaching experiences. Based on their learning needs, students are enrolled in the course for variable credit. The course has received excellent evaluations since its inception. The success of this course demonstrates that an education course can be an essential component of the nursing PhD curriculum.
The power of nursing: An innovative course in values clarification and self-discovery.
Day Lisa,Ziehm Scott R,Jessup Martha A,Amedro Pattie,Dawson-Rose Carol,Derouin Anne,Kennedy Betsy Babb,Manahan Sally,Parish Abby Luck,Remen Rachel Naomi
Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
Teaching for a practice is more than the dissemination of knowledge and information to the learner. Professional nursing education requires teachers to facilitate students' self-reflection and awareness and assimilation of core professional and personal values in order for the new nurse to anchor and internalize these values as part of a professional identity. To achieve this, nursing educators recognize the importance of learning opportunities centered in the affective domain and the importance of teaching for professional formation that supports nursing students' commitment to the values of their chosen community of practice. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a learning innovation for pre-RN students. The Power of Nursing: Embracing the Healer's Art, a five-session, 15-hour discovery model course that uses guided reflection and personal sharing is described, as are course outcomes for 68 students from four nursing schools in the U.S. Overall students' reports were strongly favorable and the learning experience was valued and identified as unique within the nursing curriculum.
Use of a Virtual Learning Platform for Distance-Based Simulation in an Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Curriculum.
Carman Margaret,Xu Shu,Rushton Sharron,Smallheer Benjamin A,Williams Denise,Amarasekara Sathya,Oermann Marilyn H
Dimensions of critical care nursing : DCCN
BACKGROUND:Acute care nurse practitioner (ACNP) programs that use high-fidelity simulation as a teaching tool need to consider innovative strategies to provide distance-based students with learning experiences that are comparable to those in a simulation laboratory. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this article is to describe the use of virtual simulations in a distance-based ACNP program and student performance in the simulations. METHOD:Virtual simulations using iSimulate were integrated into the ACNP course to promote the translation of content into a clinical context and enable students to develop their knowledge and decision-making skills. With these simulations, students worked as a team, even though they were at different sites from each other and from the faculty, to manage care of an acutely ill patient. RESULTS:The students were assigned to simulation groups of 4 students each. One week before the simulation, they reviewed past medical records. The virtual simulation sessions were recorded and then evaluated. The evaluation tools assessed 8 areas of performance and included key behaviors in each of these areas to be performed by students in the simulation. More than 80% of the student groups performed the key behaviors. DISCUSSION:Virtual simulations provide a learning platform that allows live interaction between students and faculty, at a distance, and application of content to clinical situations. With simulation, learners have an opportunity to practice assessment and decision-making in emergency and high-risk situations. Simulations not only are valuable for student learning but also provide a nonthreatening environment for staff to practice, receive feedback on their skills, and improve their confidence.
Teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students: Design, development, and usability evaluation of a serious game.
Johnsen Hege Mari,Fossum Mariann,Vivekananda-Schmidt Pirashanthie,Fruhling Ann,Slettebø Åshild
International journal of medical informatics
BACKGROUND:Serious games (SGs) are a type of simulation technology that may provide nursing students with the opportunity to practice their clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in a safe and authentic environment. Despite the growing number of SGs developed for healthcare professionals, few SGs are video based or address the domain of home health care. AIMS:This paper aims to describe the design, development, and usability evaluation of a video based SG for teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students who care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in home healthcare settings. METHODS:A prototype SG was developed. A unified framework of usability called TURF (Task, User, Representation, and Function) and SG theory were employed to ensure a user-centered design. The educational content was based on the clinical decision-making model, Bloom's taxonomy, and a Bachelor of Nursing curriculum. A purposeful sample of six participants evaluated the SG prototype in a usability laboratory. Cognitive walkthrough evaluations, a questionnaire, and individual interviews were used for the usability evaluation. The data were analyzed using qualitative deductive content analysis based on the TURF framework elements and related usability heuristics. RESULTS:The SG was perceived as being realistic, clinically relevant, and at an adequate level of complexity for the intended users. Usability issues regarding functionality and the user-computer interface design were identified. However, the SG was perceived as being easy to learn, and participants suggested that the SG could serve as a supplement to traditional training in laboratory and clinical settings. CONCLUSIONS:Using video based scenarios with an authentic COPD patient and a home healthcare registered nurse as actors contributed to increased realism. Using different theoretical approaches in the SG design was considered an advantage of the design process. The SG was perceived as being useful, usable, and satisfying. The achievement of the desired functionality and the minimization of user-computer interface issues emphasize the importance of conducting a usability evaluation during the SG development process.