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    The gasdermins, a protein family executing cell death and inflammation. Broz Petr,Pelegrín Pablo,Shao Feng Nature reviews. Immunology The gasdermins are a family of recently identified pore-forming effector proteins that cause membrane permeabilization and pyroptosis, a lytic pro-inflammatory type of cell death. Gasdermins contain a cytotoxic N-terminal domain and a C-terminal repressor domain connected by a flexible linker. Proteolytic cleavage between these two domains releases the intramolecular inhibition on the cytotoxic domain, allowing it to insert into cell membranes and form large oligomeric pores, which disrupts ion homeostasis and induces cell death. Gasdermin-induced pyroptosis plays a prominent role in many hereditary diseases and (auto)inflammatory disorders as well as in cancer. In this Review, we discuss recent developments in gasdermin research with a focus on mechanisms that control gasdermin activation, pore formation and functional consequences of gasdermin-induced membrane permeabilization. 10.1038/s41577-019-0228-2
    NLRP1 inflammasome activation induces pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Masters Seth L,Gerlic Motti,Metcalf Donald,Preston Simon,Pellegrini Marc,O'Donnell Joanne A,McArthur Kate,Baldwin Tracey M,Chevrier Stephane,Nowell Cameron J,Cengia Louise H,Henley Katya J,Collinge Janelle E,Kastner Daniel L,Feigenbaum Lionel,Hilton Douglas J,Alexander Warren S,Kile Benjamin T,Croker Ben A Immunity Cytopenias are key prognostic indicators of life-threatening infection, contributing to immunosuppression and mortality. Here we define a role for Caspase-1-dependent death, known as pyroptosis, in infection-induced cytopenias by studying inflammasome activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells. The NLRP1a inflammasome is expressed in hematopoietic progenitor cells and its activation triggers their pyroptotic death. Active NLRP1a induced a lethal systemic inflammatory disease that was driven by Caspase-1 and IL-1β but was independent of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and ameliorated by IL-18. Surprisingly, in the absence of IL-1β-driven inflammation, active NLRP1a triggered pyroptosis of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting in leukopenia at steady state. During periods of hematopoietic stress induced by chemotherapy or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, active NLRP1a caused prolonged cytopenia, bone marrow hypoplasia, and immunosuppression. Conversely, NLRP1-deficient mice showed enhanced recovery from chemotherapy and LCMV infection, demonstrating that NLRP1 acts as a cellular sentinel to alert Caspase-1 to hematopoietic and infectious stress. 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.08.027
    SERPINB1-mediated checkpoint of inflammatory caspase activation. Choi Youn Jung,Kim Stephanie,Choi Younho,Nielsen Travis B,Yan Jun,Lu Alvin,Ruan Jianbin,Lee Hye-Ra,Wu Hao,Spellberg Brad,Jung Jae U Nature immunology Inflammatory caspases (caspase-1, caspase-4, caspase-5 and caspase-11 (caspase-1/-4/-5/-11)) mediate host defense against microbial infections, processing pro-inflammatory cytokines and triggering pyroptosis. However, precise checkpoints are required to prevent their unsolicited activation. Here we report that serpin family B member 1 (SERPINB1) limited the activity of those caspases by suppressing their caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) oligomerization and enzymatic activation. While the reactive center loop of SERPINB1 inhibits neutrophil serine proteases, its carboxy-terminal CARD-binding motif restrained the activation of pro-caspase-1/-4/-5/-11. Consequently, knockdown or deletion of SERPINB1 prompted spontaneous activation of caspase-1/-4/-5/-11, release of the cytokine IL-1β and pyroptosis, inducing elevated inflammation after non-hygienic co-housing with pet-store mice and enhanced sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide- or Acinetobacter baumannii-induced endotoxemia. Our results reveal that SERPINB1 acts as a vital gatekeeper of inflammation by restraining neutrophil serine proteases and inflammatory caspases in a genetically and functionally separable manner. 10.1038/s41590-018-0303-z
    Caspase-1 initiates apoptosis in the absence of gasdermin D. Tsuchiya Kohsuke,Nakajima Shinsuke,Hosojima Shoko,Thi Nguyen Dinh,Hattori Tsuyoshi,Manh Le Thuong,Hori Osamu,Mahib Mamunur Rashid,Yamaguchi Yoshifumi,Miura Masayuki,Kinoshita Takeshi,Kushiyama Hiroko,Sakurai Mayumi,Shiroishi Toshihiko,Suda Takashi Nature communications Caspase-1 activated in inflammasomes triggers a programmed necrosis called pyroptosis, which is mediated by gasdermin D (GSDMD). However, GSDMD-deficient cells are still susceptible to caspase-1-mediated cell death. Therefore, here, we investigate the mechanism of caspase-1-initiated cell death in GSDMD-deficient cells. Inflammasome stimuli induce apoptosis accompanied by caspase-3 activation in GSDMD-deficient macrophages, which largely relies on caspase-1. Chemical dimerization of caspase-1 induces pyroptosis in GSDMD-sufficient cells, but apoptosis in GSDMD-deficient cells. Caspase-1-induced apoptosis involves the Bid-caspase-9-caspase-3 axis, which can be followed by GSDME-dependent secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. However, Bid ablation does not completely abolish the cell death, suggesting the existence of an additional mechanism. Furthermore, cortical neurons and mast cells exhibit little or low GSDMD expression and undergo apoptosis after oxygen glucose deprivation and nigericin stimulation, respectively, in a caspase-1- and Bid-dependent manner. This study clarifies the molecular mechanism and biological roles of caspase-1-induced apoptosis in GSDMD-low/null cell types. 10.1038/s41467-019-09753-2
    Pore-forming activity and structural autoinhibition of the gasdermin family. Ding Jingjin,Wang Kun,Liu Wang,She Yang,Sun Qi,Shi Jianjin,Sun Hanzi,Wang Da-Cheng,Shao Feng Nature Inflammatory caspases cleave the gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein to trigger pyroptosis, a lytic form of cell death that is crucial for immune defences and diseases. GSDMD contains a functionally important gasdermin-N domain that is shared in the gasdermin family. The functional mechanism of action of gasdermin proteins is unknown. Here we show that the gasdermin-N domains of the gasdermin proteins GSDMD, GSDMA3 and GSDMA can bind membrane lipids, phosphoinositides and cardiolipin, and exhibit membrane-disrupting cytotoxicity in mammalian cells and artificially transformed bacteria. Gasdermin-N moved to the plasma membrane during pyroptosis. Purified gasdermin-N efficiently lysed phosphoinositide/cardiolipin-containing liposomes and formed pores on membranes made of artificial or natural phospholipid mixtures. Most gasdermin pores had an inner diameter of 10–14 nm and contained 16 symmetric protomers. The crystal structure of GSDMA3 showed an autoinhibited two-domain architecture that is conserved in the gasdermin family. Structure-guided mutagenesis demonstrated that the liposome-leakage and pore-forming activities of the gasdermin-N domain are required for pyroptosis. These findings reveal the mechanism for pyroptosis and provide insights into the roles of the gasdermin family in necrosis, immunity and diseases. 10.1038/nature18590
    Cytosolic Recognition of Microbes and Pathogens: Inflammasomes in Action. Hayward Jenni A,Mathur Anukriti,Ngo Chinh,Man Si Ming Microbiology and molecular biology reviews : MMBR Infection is a dynamic biological process underpinned by a complex interplay between the pathogen and the host. Microbes from all domains of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan parasites, have the capacity to cause infection. Infection is sensed by the host, which often leads to activation of the inflammasome, a cytosolic macromolecular signaling platform that mediates the release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and cleavage of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D, leading to pyroptosis. Host-mediated sensing of the infection occurs when pathogens inject or carry pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) into the cytoplasm or induce damage that causes cytosolic liberation of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the host cell. Recognition of PAMPs and DAMPs by inflammasome sensors, including NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, NAIP, AIM2, and Pyrin, initiates a cascade of events that culminate in inflammation and cell death. However, pathogens can deploy virulence factors capable of minimizing or evading host detection. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of microbe-induced activation of the inflammasome and the functional consequences of inflammasome activation in infectious diseases. We also explore the microbial strategies used in the evasion of inflammasome sensing at the host-microbe interaction interface. 10.1128/MMBR.00015-18
    Caspase-1 Inflammasome Activation Mediates Homocysteine-Induced Pyrop-Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells. Xi Hang,Zhang Yuling,Xu Yanjie,Yang William Y,Jiang Xiaohua,Sha Xiaojin,Cheng Xiaoshu,Wang Jingfeng,Qin Xuebin,Yu Jun,Ji Yong,Yang Xiaofeng,Wang Hong Circulation research RATIONALE:Endothelial injury is an initial mechanism mediating cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE:Here, we investigated the effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on programed cell death in endothelial cells (EC). METHODS AND RESULTS:We established a novel flow-cytometric gating method to define pyrotosis (Annexin V(-)/Propidium iodide(+)). In cultured human EC, we found that: (1) homocysteine and lipopolysaccharide individually and synergistically induced inflammatory pyroptotic and noninflammatory apoptotic cell death; (2) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide induced caspase-1 activation before caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activations; (3) caspase-1/caspase-3 inhibitors rescued homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide-induced pyroptosis/apoptosis, but caspase-8/caspase-9 inhibitors had differential rescue effect; (4) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide-induced nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, and leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) protein caused NLRP3-containing inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation, and interleukin (IL)-1β cleavage/activation; (5) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species, (6) intracellular oxidative gradient determined cell death destiny as intermediate intracellular reactive oxygen species levels are associated with pyroptosis, whereas high reactive oxygen species corresponded to apoptosis; (7) homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and cytochrome-c release, and increased B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio which were attenuated by antioxidants and caspase-1 inhibitor; and (8) antioxidants extracellular superoxide dismutase and catalase prevented homocysteine/lipopolysaccharide -induced caspase-1 activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and pyroptosis/apoptosis. In cystathionine β-synthase-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice, severe hyperhomocysteinemia-induced caspase-1 activation in isolated lung EC and caspase-1 expression in aortic endothelium, and elevated aortic caspase-1, caspase-9 protein/activity and B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio in Cbs(-/-) aorta and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Finally, homocysteine-induced DNA fragmentation was reversed in caspase-1(-/-) EC. Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced aortic endothelial dysfunction was rescued in caspase-1(-/-) and NLRP3(-/-) mice. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperhomocysteinemia preferentially induces EC pyroptosis via caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation leading to endothelial dysfunction. We termed caspase-1 responsive pyroptosis and apoptosis as pyrop-apoptosis. 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308501
    Cell Survival and Cytokine Release after Inflammasome Activation Is Regulated by the Toll-IL-1R Protein SARM. Carty Michael,Kearney Jay,Shanahan Katharine A,Hams Emily,Sugisawa Ryoichi,Connolly Dympna,Doran Ciara G,Muñoz-Wolf Natalia,Gürtler Claudia,Fitzgerald Katherine A,Lavelle Ed C,Fallon Padraic G,Bowie Andrew G Immunity Assembly of inflammasomes after infection or injury leads to the release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and to pyroptosis. After inflammasome activation, cells either pyroptose or enter a hyperactivated state defined by IL-1β secretion without cell death, but what controls these different outcomes is unknown. Here, we show that removal of the Toll-IL-1R protein SARM from macrophages uncouples inflammasome-dependent cytokine release and pyroptosis, whereby cells displayed increased IL-1β production but reduced pyroptosis. Correspondingly, increasing SARM in cells caused less IL-1β release and more pyroptosis. SARM suppressed IL-1β by directly restraining the NLRP3 inflammasome and, hence, caspase-1 activation. Consistent with a role for SARM in pyroptosis, Sarm1 mice were protected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated sepsis. Pyroptosis-inducing, but not hyperactivating, NLRP3 stimulants caused SARM-dependent mitochondrial depolarization. Thus, SARM-dependent mitochondrial depolarization distinguishes NLRP3 activators that cause pyroptosis from those that do not, and SARM modulation represents a cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate cell fate after inflammasome activation. 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.04.005
    Mutant BRAF and MEK Inhibitors Regulate the Tumor Immune Microenvironment via Pyroptosis. Erkes Dan A,Cai Weijia,Sanchez Ileine M,Purwin Timothy J,Rogers Corey,Field Conroy O,Berger Adam C,Hartsough Edward J,Rodeck Ulrich,Alnemri Emad S,Aplin Andrew E Cancer discovery Combinations of BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi + MEKi) are FDA-approved to treat -mutant melanoma. Efficacy of BRAFi + MEKi associates with cancer cell death and alterations in the tumor immune microenvironment; however, the links are poorly understood. We show that BRAFi + MEKi caused durable melanoma regression in an immune-mediated manner. BRAFi + MEKi treatment promoted cleavage of gasdermin E (GSDME) and release of HMGB1, markers of pyroptotic cell death. GSDME-deficient melanoma showed defective HMGB1 release, reduced tumor-associated T cell and activated dendritic cell infiltrates in response to BRAFi + MEKi, and more frequent tumor regrowth after drug removal. Importantly, BRAFi + MEKi-resistant disease lacked pyroptosis markers and showed decreased intratumoral T-cell infiltration but was sensitive to pyroptosis-inducing chemotherapy. These data implicate BRAFi + MEKi-induced pyroptosis in antitumor immune responses and highlight new therapeutic strategies for resistant melanoma. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeted inhibitors and immune checkpoint agents have advanced the care of patients with melanoma; however, detailed knowledge of the intersection between these two research areas is lacking. We describe a molecular mechanism of targeted inhibitor regulation of an immune-stimulatory form of cell death and provide a proof-of-principle salvage therapy concept for inhibitor-resistant melanoma... 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-0672
    Plasma membrane changes during programmed cell deaths. Zhang Yingying,Chen Xin,Gueydan Cyril,Han Jiahuai Cell research Ruptured and intact plasma membranes are classically considered as hallmarks of necrotic and apoptotic cell death, respectively. As such, apoptosis is usually considered a non-inflammatory process while necrosis triggers inflammation. Recent studies on necroptosis and pyroptosis, two types of programmed necrosis, revealed that plasma membrane rupture is mediated by MLKL channels during necroptosis but depends on non-selective gasdermin D (GSDMD) pores during pyroptosis. Importantly, the morphology of dying cells executed by MLKL channels can be distinguished from that executed by GSDMD pores. Interestingly, it was found recently that secondary necrosis of apoptotic cells, a previously believed non-regulated form of cell lysis that occurs after apoptosis, can be programmed and executed by plasma membrane pore formation like that of pyroptosis. In addition, pyroptosis is associated with pyroptotic bodies, which have some similarities to apoptotic bodies. Therefore, different cell death programs induce distinctive reshuffling processes of the plasma membrane. Given the fact that the nature of released intracellular contents plays a crucial role in dying/dead cell-induced immunogenicity, not only membrane rupture or integrity but also the nature of plasma membrane breakdown would determine the fate of a cell as well as its ability to elicit an immune response. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the field of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, with an emphasis on the mechanisms underlying plasma membrane changes observed on dying cells and their implication in cell death-elicited immunogenicity. 10.1038/cr.2017.133
    Fiery Cell Death: Pyroptosis in the Central Nervous System. McKenzie Brienne A,Dixit Vishva M,Power Christopher Trends in neurosciences Pyroptosis ('fiery death') is an inflammatory type of regulated cell death (RCD), which occurs downstream of inflammasome activation. Pyroptosis is mediated directly by the recently identified family of pore-forming proteins known as gasdermins, the best characterized of which is gasdermin D (GSDMD). Recent investigations implicate pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological diseases. In this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms that drive pyroptosis, evidence for pyroptosis within the CNS, and emerging therapeutic strategies for its inhibition in the context of neurological disease. 10.1016/j.tins.2019.11.005
    Caspase-8 is the molecular switch for apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis. Fritsch Melanie,Günther Saskia D,Schwarzer Robin,Albert Marie-Christine,Schorn Fabian,Werthenbach J Paul,Schiffmann Lars M,Stair Neil,Stocks Hannah,Seeger Jens M,Lamkanfi Mohamed,Krönke Martin,Pasparakis Manolis,Kashkar Hamid Nature Caspase-8 is the initiator caspase of extrinsic apoptosis and inhibits necroptosis mediated by RIPK3 and MLKL. Accordingly, caspase-8 deficiency in mice causes embryonic lethality, which can be rescued by deletion of either Ripk3 or Mlkl. Here we show that the expression of enzymatically inactive CASP8(C362S) causes embryonic lethality in mice by inducing necroptosis and pyroptosis. Similar to Casp8 mice, Casp8 mouse embryos died after endothelial cell necroptosis leading to cardiovascular defects. MLKL deficiency rescued the cardiovascular phenotype but unexpectedly caused perinatal lethality in Casp8 mice, indicating that CASP8(C362S) causes necroptosis-independent death at later stages of embryonic development. Specific loss of the catalytic activity of caspase-8 in intestinal epithelial cells induced intestinal inflammation similar to intestinal epithelial cell-specific Casp8 knockout mice. Inhibition of necroptosis by additional deletion of Mlkl severely aggravated intestinal inflammation and caused premature lethality in Mlkl knockout mice with specific loss of caspase-8 catalytic activity in intestinal epithelial cells. Expression of CASP8(C362S) triggered the formation of ASC specks, activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β. Both embryonic lethality and premature death were completely rescued in Casp8MlklAsc or Casp8MlklCasp1 mice, indicating that the activation of the inflammasome promotes CASP8(C362S)-mediated tissue pathology when necroptosis is blocked. Therefore, caspase-8 represents the molecular switch that controls apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, and prevents tissue damage during embryonic development and adulthood. 10.1038/s41586-019-1770-6
    Pyroptosis: An inflammatory link between NAFLD and NASH with potential therapeutic implications. Beier Juliane I,Banales Jesus M Journal of hepatology 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.01.017
    Inflammasomes Coordinate Pyroptosis and Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity to Clear Infection by a Ubiquitous Environmental Bacterium. Maltez Vivien I,Tubbs Alan L,Cook Kevin D,Aachoui Youssef,Falcone E Liana,Holland Steven M,Whitmire Jason K,Miao Edward A Immunity Defective neutrophils in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cause susceptibility to extracellular and intracellular infections. Microbes must first be ejected from intracellular niches to expose them to neutrophil attack, so we hypothesized that inflammasomes detect certain CGD pathogens upstream of neutrophil killing. Here, we identified one such ubiquitous environmental bacterium, Chromobacterium violaceum, whose extreme virulence was fully counteracted by the NLRC4 inflammasome. Caspase-1 protected via two parallel pathways that eliminated intracellular replication niches. Pyroptosis was the primary bacterial clearance mechanism in the spleen, but both pyroptosis and interleukin-18 (IL-18)-driven natural killer (NK) cell responses were required for liver defense. NK cells cleared hepatocyte replication niches via perforin-dependent cytotoxicity, whereas interferon-γ was not required. These insights suggested a therapeutic approach: exogenous IL-18 restored perforin-dependent cytotoxicity during infection by the inflammasome-evasive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, inflammasomes can trigger complementary programmed cell death mechanisms, directing sterilizing immunity against intracellular bacterial pathogens. 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.10.010
    cAMP metabolism controls caspase-11 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in sepsis. Chen Ruochan,Zeng Ling,Zhu Shan,Liu Jiao,Zeh Herbert J,Kroemer Guido,Wang Haichao,Billiar Timothy R,Jiang Jianxin,Tang Daolin,Kang Rui Science advances The ability of cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to activate caspase-11-dependent nonclassical inflammasome is intricately controlled to avoid excessive inflammatory responses. However, very little is known about the regulatory role of various metabolic pathways in the control of caspase-11 activation. Here, we demonstrate that l-adrenaline can act on receptor ADRA2B to inhibit the activation of the caspase-11 inflammasome by cytosolic LPS or infection in macrophages. l-adrenaline-induced cAMP production via the enzyme ADCY4 promotes protein kinase A (PKA) activation, which then blocks the caspase-11-mediated proteolytic maturation of interleukin-1β, gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage, and consequent DAMP release. Inhibition of PDE8A-mediated cAMP hydrolysis limits caspase-11 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in macrophages. Consequently, pharmacological modulation of the ADRA2B-ADCY4-PDE8A-PKA axis, knockout of ( ), or inactivation ( ) similarly protects against LPS-induced lethality in poly(I:C)-primed mice. Our results provide previously unidentified mechanistic insight into immune regulation by cAMP and represent a proof of concept that immunometabolism constitutes a potential therapeutic target in sepsis. 10.1126/sciadv.aav5562
    Pyroptosis as a Regulated Form of Necrosis: PI+/Annexin V-/High Caspase 1/Low Caspase 9 Activity in Cells = Pyroptosis? Abe Jun-Ichi,Morrell Craig Circulation research 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308699
    Alcohol dysregulates miR-148a in hepatocytes through FoxO1, facilitating pyroptosis via TXNIP overexpression. Heo Mi Jeong,Kim Tae Hyun,You Jueng Soo,Blaya Delia,Sancho-Bru Pau,Kim Sang Geon Gut OBJECTIVE:Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of death among chronic liver diseases. However, its pathogenesis has not been completely established. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key contributors to liver diseases progression. This study investigated hepatocyte-abundant miRNAs dysregulated by ALD, its impact on hepatocyte injury and the underlying basis. DESIGN:Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) human and animal liver samples and hepatocytes were used to assess miR-148a levels. Pre-miR-148a was delivered specifically to hepatocytes in vivo using lentivirus. Immunoblottings, luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays were carried out in cell models. RESULTS:The miRNA profile and PCR analyses enabled us to find substantial decrease of miR-148a in the liver of patients with AH. In mice subjected to Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet or binge alcohol drinking, miR-148a levels were also markedly reduced. In cultured hepatocytes and mouse livers, alcohol exposure inhibited forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) expression, which correlated with miR-148a levels and significantly decreased in human AH specimens. FoxO1 was identified as a transcription factor for transactivation. MiR-148a directly inhibited thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression. Consequently, treatment of hepatocytes with ethanol resulted in TXNIP overexpression, activating NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis. These events were reversed by miR-148a mimic or TXNIP small-interfering RNA transfection. Hepatocyte-specific delivery of miR-148a to mice abrogated alcohol-induced TXNIP overexpression and inflammasome activation, attenuating liver injury. CONCLUSION:Alcohol decreases miR-148a expression in hepatocytes through FoxO1, facilitating TXNIP overexpression and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which induces hepatocyte pyroptosis. Our findings provide information on novel targets for reducing incidence and progression of ALD. 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315123
    Pyroptosis: Caspase-11 Unlocks the Gates of Death. de Gassart Aude,Martinon Fabio Immunity How inflammatory caspases trigger pyroptotic cell death is mostly unexplained. In this issue of Immunity, Núñez and colleagues report that caspase-11 cleaves the transmembrane channel pannexin-1, causing an efflux of cellular ATP that promotes a P2X7 receptor-dependent pyroptosis. 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.10.024
    Inflammasome-activated gasdermin D causes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores. Liu Xing,Zhang Zhibin,Ruan Jianbin,Pan Youdong,Magupalli Venkat Giri,Wu Hao,Lieberman Judy Nature Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Cleavage removes the C-terminal fragment (GSDMD-CT), which is thought to fold back on GSDMD-NT to inhibit its activation. However, how GSDMD-NT causes cell death is unknown. Here we show that GSDMD-NT oligomerizes in membranes to form pores that are visible by electron microscopy. GSDMD-NT binds to phosphatidylinositol phosphates and phosphatidylserine (restricted to the cell membrane inner leaflet) and cardiolipin (present in the inner and outer leaflets of bacterial membranes). Mutation of four evolutionarily conserved basic residues blocks GSDMD-NT oligomerization, membrane binding, pore formation and pyroptosis. Because of its lipid-binding preferences, GSDMD-NT kills from within the cell, but does not harm neighbouring mammalian cells when it is released during pyroptosis. GSDMD-NT also kills cell-free bacteria in vitro and may have a direct bactericidal effect within the cytosol of host cells, but the importance of direct bacterial killing in controlling in vivo infection remains to be determined. 10.1038/nature18629
    Emerging Activators and Regulators of Inflammasomes and Pyroptosis. Xue Yansong,Enosi Tuipulotu Daniel,Tan Wei Hong,Kay Callum,Man Si Ming Trends in immunology The inflammasome is a cytosolic immune signaling complex that induces inflammation and pyroptosis. Inflammasome complexes respond to a variety of pathogens, as well as danger or homeostasis-altering signals; they can play critical roles in the development of autoinflammatory conditions and cancer. Studies have now provided additional insights into the activation mechanisms and regulation of established inflammasome complexes, including NLRP1b, NLRP3, NOD-like receptor family apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)-NLRC4, absent in melanoma (AIM)2, caspase-11, and pyrin. New activators and regulators of emerging NLRP6 and NLRP9b inflammasome complexes have also been described. We highlight the latest progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing inflammasome activation and pyroptosis, including the discovery of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD). We also discuss the importance of inflammasome activators and regulators in health and disease. 10.1016/j.it.2019.09.005
    Pyroptosis by caspase11/4-gasdermin-D pathway in alcoholic hepatitis in mice and patients. Khanova Elena,Wu Raymond,Wang Wen,Yan Rui,Chen Yibu,French Samuel W,Llorente Cristina,Pan Stephanie Q,Yang Qihong,Li Yuchang,Lazaro Raul,Ansong Charles,Smith Richard D,Bataller Ramon,Morgan Timothy,Schnabl Bernd,Tsukamoto Hidekazu Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) continues to be a disease with high mortality and no efficacious medical treatment. Although severe AH is presented as acute on chronic liver failure, what underlies this transition from chronic alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) to AH is largely unknown. To address this question, unbiased RNA sequencing and proteomic analyses were performed on livers of the recently developed AH mouse model, which exhibits the shift to AH from chronic ASH upon weekly alcohol binge, and these results are compared to gene expression profiling data from AH patients. This cross-analysis has identified Casp11 (CASP4 in humans) as a commonly up-regulated gene known to be involved in the noncanonical inflammasome pathway. Immunoblotting confirms CASP11/4 activation in AH mice and patients, but not in chronic ASH mice and healthy human livers. Gasdermin-D (GSDMD), which induces pyroptosis (lytic cell death caused by bacterial infection) downstream of CASP11/4 activation, is also activated in AH livers in mice and patients. CASP11 deficiency reduces GSDMD activation, bacterial load in the liver, and severity of AH in the mouse model. Conversely, the deficiency of interleukin-18, the key antimicrobial cytokine, aggravates hepatic bacterial load, GSDMD activation, and AH. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific expression of constitutively active GSDMD worsens hepatocellular lytic death and polymorphonuclear leukocyte inflammation. CONCLUSION:These results implicate pyroptosis induced by the CASP11/4-GSDMD pathway in the pathogenesis of AH. (Hepatology 2018;67:1737-1753). 10.1002/hep.29645
    Caspase-11-mediated endothelial pyroptosis underlies endotoxemia-induced lung injury. Cheng Kwong Tai,Xiong Shiqin,Ye Zhiming,Hong Zhigang,Di Anke,Tsang Kit Man,Gao Xiaopei,An Shejuan,Mittal Manish,Vogel Stephen M,Miao Edward A,Rehman Jalees,Malik Asrar B The Journal of clinical investigation Acute lung injury is a leading cause of death in bacterial sepsis due to the wholesale destruction of the lung endothelial barrier, which results in protein-rich lung edema, influx of proinflammatory leukocytes, and intractable hypoxemia. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death that is triggered by inflammatory caspases, but little is known about its role in EC death and acute lung injury. Here, we show that systemic exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes severe endothelial pyroptosis that is mediated by the inflammatory caspases, human caspases 4/5 in human ECs, or the murine homolog caspase-11 in mice in vivo. In caspase-11-deficient mice, BM transplantation with WT hematopoietic cells did not abrogate endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury, indicating a central role for nonhematopoietic caspase-11 in endotoxemia. Additionally, conditional deletion of caspase-11 in ECs reduced endotoxemia-induced lung edema, neutrophil accumulation, and death. These results establish the requisite role of endothelial pyroptosis in endotoxemic tissue injury and suggest that endothelial inflammatory caspases are an important therapeutic target for acute lung injury. 10.1172/JCI94495
    Recent Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Pyroptosis and Gasdermin Family Functions. Aglietti Robin A,Dueber Erin C Trends in immunology Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of cell death that not only protects multicellular organisms from invading pathogenic bacteria and microbial infections, but can also lead to sepsis and lethal septic shock if overactivated. Here, we present an overview of recent developments within the pyroptosis field, beginning with the discovery of Gasdermin D (GSDMD) as a substrate of caspase-1 and caspase-11 upon detection of cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cleavage releases the N-terminal domain of GSDMD, causing it to form cytotoxic pores in the plasma membrane of cells. We further discuss the implications for the rest of the gasdermin (GSDM) family, which are emerging as mediators of programmed cell death in a variety of processes that regulate cellular differentiation and proliferation. 10.1016/j.it.2017.01.003
    ESCRT-dependent membrane repair negatively regulates pyroptosis downstream of GSDMD activation. Rühl Sebastian,Shkarina Kateryna,Demarco Benjamin,Heilig Rosalie,Santos José Carlos,Broz Petr Science (New York, N.Y.) Pyroptosis is a lytic form of cell death that is induced by inflammatory caspases upon activation of the canonical or noncanonical inflammasome pathways. These caspases cleave gasdermin D (GSDMD) to generate an N-terminal GSDMD fragment, which executes pyroptosis by forming membrane pores. We found that calcium influx through GSDMD pores serves as a signal for cells to initiate membrane repair by recruiting the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to damaged membrane areas, such as the plasma membrane. Inhibition of the ESCRT-III machinery strongly enhances pyroptosis and interleukin-1β release in both human and murine cells after canonical or noncanonical inflammasome activation. These results not only attribute an anti-inflammatory role to membrane repair by the ESCRT-III system but also provide insight into general cellular survival mechanisms during pyroptosis. 10.1126/science.aar7607
    Caspase-11 Requires the Pannexin-1 Channel and the Purinergic P2X7 Pore to Mediate Pyroptosis and Endotoxic Shock. Yang Dahai,He Yuan,Muñoz-Planillo Raul,Liu Qin,Núñez Gabriel Immunity The noncanonical inflammasome induced by intracellular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis, which is critical for induction of endotoxic shock in mice. However, the signaling pathway downstream of caspase-11 is unknown. We found that cytosolic LPS stimulation induced caspase-11-dependent cleavage of the pannexin-1 channel followed up by ATP release, which in turn activated the purinergic P2X7 receptor to mediate cytotoxicity. In the absence of P2X7 or pannexin-1, pyroptosis induced by cytosolic LPS was abrogated. Cleavage of pannexin-1 required the catalytic activity of caspase-11 and was essential for ATP release and P2X7-mediated pyroptosis. Priming the caspase-11 pathway in vivo with LPS or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) agonist resulted in high mortality in wild-type mice after secondary LPS challenge, but not in Casp11(-/-), Panx1(-/-), or P2x7(-/-) mice. These results reveal a critical role for pannexin-1 and P2X7 downstream of caspase-11 for pyroptosis and susceptibility to sepsis induced by the noncanonical inflammasome. 10.1016/j.immuni.2015.10.009
    Inflammasome Activation Triggers Blood Clotting and Host Death through Pyroptosis. Wu Congqing,Lu Wei,Zhang Yan,Zhang Guoying,Shi Xuyan,Hisada Yohei,Grover Steven P,Zhang Xinyi,Li Lan,Xiang Binggang,Shi Jumei,Li Xiang-An,Daugherty Alan,Smyth Susan S,Kirchhofer Daniel,Shiroishi Toshihiko,Shao Feng,Mackman Nigel,Wei Yinan,Li Zhenyu Immunity Inflammasome activation and subsequent pyroptosis are critical defense mechanisms against microbes. However, overactivation of inflammasome leads to death of the host. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanism of pyroptosis following inflammasome activation, how pyroptotic cell death drives pathogenesis, eventually leading to death of the host, is unknown. Here, we identified inflammasome activation as a trigger for blood clotting through pyroptosis. We have shown that canonical inflammasome activation by the conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) rod proteins from Gram-negative bacteria or noncanonical inflammasome activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced systemic blood clotting and massive thrombosis in tissues. Following inflammasome activation, pyroptotic macrophages released tissue factor (TF), an essential initiator of coagulation cascades. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TF abolishes inflammasome-mediated blood clotting and protects against death. Our data reveal that blood clotting is the major cause of host death following inflammasome activation and demonstrate that inflammasome bridges inflammation with thrombosis. 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.04.003
    Gasdermin D is an executor of pyroptosis and required for interleukin-1β secretion. He Wan-ting,Wan Haoqiang,Hu Lichen,Chen Pengda,Wang Xin,Huang Zhe,Yang Zhang-Hua,Zhong Chuan-Qi,Han Jiahuai Cell research Inflammasome is an intracellular signaling complex of the innate immune system. Activation of inflammasomes promotes the secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 and triggers pyroptosis. Caspase-1 and -11 (or -4/5 in human) in the canonical and non-canonical inflammasome pathways, respectively, are crucial for inflammasome-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we report that gasdermin D (GSDMD) is another crucial component of inflammasomes. We discovered the presence of GSDMD protein in nigericin-induced NLRP3 inflammasomes by a quantitative mass spectrometry-based analysis. Gene deletion of GSDMD demonstrated that GSDMD is required for pyroptosis and for the secretion but not proteolytic maturation of IL-1β in both canonical and non-canonical inflammasome responses. It was known that GSDMD is a substrate of caspase-1 and we showed its cleavage at the predicted site during inflammasome activation and that this cleavage was required for pyroptosis and IL-1β secretion. Expression of the N-terminal proteolytic fragment of GSDMD can trigger cell death and N-terminal modification such as tagging with Flag sequence disrupted the function of GSDMD. We also found that pro-caspase-1 is capable of processing GSDMD and ASC is not essential for GSDMD to function. Further analyses of LPS plus nigericin- or Salmonella typhimurium-treated macrophage cell lines and primary cells showed that apoptosis became apparent in Gsdmd(-/-) cells, indicating a suppression of apoptosis by pyroptosis. The induction of apoptosis required NLRP3 or other inflammasome receptors and ASC, and caspase-1 may partially contribute to the activation of apoptotic caspases in Gsdmd(-/-) cells. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of pyroptosis and reveal an unexpected interplay between apoptosis and pyroptosis. 10.1038/cr.2015.139
    DPP8 and DPP9 inhibition induces pro-caspase-1-dependent monocyte and macrophage pyroptosis. Okondo Marian C,Johnson Darren C,Sridharan Ramya,Go Eun Bin,Chui Ashley J,Wang Mitchell S,Poplawski Sarah E,Wu Wengen,Liu Yuxin,Lai Jack H,Sanford David G,Arciprete Michael O,Golub Todd R,Bachovchin William W,Bachovchin Daniel A Nature chemical biology Val-boroPro (Talabostat, PT-100), a nonselective inhibitor of post-proline cleaving serine proteases, stimulates mammalian immune systems through an unknown mechanism of action. Despite this lack of mechanistic understanding, Val-boroPro has attracted substantial interest as a potential anticancer agent, reaching phase 3 trials in humans. Here we show that Val-boroPro stimulates the immune system by triggering a proinflammatory form of cell death in monocytes and macrophages known as pyroptosis. We demonstrate that the inhibition of two serine proteases, DPP8 and DPP9, activates the pro-protein form of caspase-1 independent of the inflammasome adaptor ASC. Activated pro-caspase-1 does not efficiently process itself or IL-1β but does cleave and activate gasdermin D to induce pyroptosis. Mice lacking caspase-1 do not show immune stimulation after treatment with Val-boroPro. Our data identify what is to our knowledge the first small molecule that induces pyroptosis and reveals a new checkpoint that controls the activation of the innate immune system. 10.1038/nchembio.2229
    Pyroptosis is driven by non-selective gasdermin-D pore and its morphology is different from MLKL channel-mediated necroptosis. Chen Xin,He Wan-Ting,Hu Lichen,Li Jingxian,Fang Yuan,Wang Xin,Xu Xiaozheng,Wang Zhuo,Huang Kai,Han Jiahuai Cell research Necroptosis and pyroptosis are two forms of programmed cell death with a common feature of plasma membrane rupture. Here we studied the morphology and mechanism of pyroptosis in comparison with necroptosis. Different from necroptosis, pyroptosis undergoes membrane blebbing and produces apoptotic body-like cell protrusions (termed pyroptotic bodies) prior to plasma membrane rupture. The rupture in necroptosis is explosion-like, whereas in pyroptosis it leads to flattening of cells. It is known that the execution of necroptosis is mediated by mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) oligomers in the plasma membrane, whereas gasdermin-D (GSDMD) mediates pyroptosis after its cleavage by caspase-1 or caspase-11. We show that N-terminal fragment of GSDMD (GSDMD-N) generated by caspase cleavage also forms oligomer and migrates to the plasma membrane to kill cells. Both MLKL and GSDMD-N are lipophilic and the N-terminal sequences of both proteins are important for their oligomerization and plasma membrane translocation. Unlike MLKL which forms channels on the plasma membrane that induces influx of selected ions which osmotically swell the cells to burst, GSDMD-N forms non-selective pores and does not rely on increased osmolarity to disrupt cells. Our study reveals the pore-forming activity of GSDMD and channel-forming activity of MLKL determine different ways of plasma membrane rupture in pyroptosis and necroptosis. 10.1038/cr.2016.100
    Gasdermins: Effectors of Pyroptosis. Kovacs Stephen B,Miao Edward A Trends in cell biology Pyroptosis is a form of lytic programmed cell death initiated by inflammasomes, which detect cytosolic contamination or perturbation. This drives activation of caspase-1 or caspase-11/4/5, which cleave gasdermin D, separating its N-terminal pore-forming domain (PFD) from the C-terminal repressor domain (RD). The PFD oligomerizes to form large pores in the membrane that drive swelling and membrane rupture. Gasdermin D is one of six (in humans) gasdermin family members; several other gasdermins have also been shown to form pores that cause pyroptosis after cleavage to activate their PFDs. One of these, gasdermin E, is activated by caspase-3 cleavage. We review our current understanding of pyroptosis as well as current knowledge of the gasdermin family. 10.1016/j.tcb.2017.05.005
    Epigenetics-Based Tumor Cells Pyroptosis for Enhancing the Immunological Effect of Chemotherapeutic Nanocarriers. Fan Jin-Xuan,Deng Rong-Hui,Wang He,Liu Xin-Hua,Wang Xia-Nan,Qin Ran,Jin Xin,Lei Tian-Run,Zheng Diwei,Zhou Pang-Hu,Sun Yunxia,Zhang Xian-Zheng Nano letters Pyroptosis is a lytic and inflammatory form of programmed cell death and could be induced by chemotherapy drugs via caspase-3 mediation. However, the key protein gasdermin E (GSDME, translated by the gene) during the caspase-3-mediated pyroptosis process is absent in most tumor cells because of the hypermethylation of (deafness autosomal dominant 5) gene. Here, we develop a strategy of combining decitabine (DAC) with chemotherapy nanodrugs to trigger pyroptosis of tumor cells by epigenetics, further enhancing the immunological effect of chemotherapy. DAC is pre-performed with specific tumor-bearing mice for demethylation of the gene in tumor cells. Subsequently, a commonly used tumor-targeting nanoliposome loaded with cisplatin (LipoDDP) is used to administrate drugs for activating the caspase-3 pathway in tumor cells and trigger pyroptosis. Experiments demonstrate that the reversal of GSDME silencing in tumor cells is achieved and facilitates the occurrence of pyroptosis. According to the anti-tumor activities, anti-metastasis results, and inhibition of recurrence, this pyroptosis-based chemotherapy strategy enhances immunological effects of chemotherapy and also provides an important insight into tumor immunotherapy. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b03245
    Gasdermin D plays a key role as a pyroptosis executor of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in humans and mice. Xu Bing,Jiang Mingzuo,Chu Yi,Wang Weijie,Chen Di,Li Xiaowei,Zhang Zhao,Zhang Di,Fan Daiming,Nie Yongzhan,Shao Feng,Wu Kaichun,Liang Jie Journal of hepatology BACKGROUND & AIMS:Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-executed programmed necrosis is involved in inflammation and controls interleukin (IL)-1β release. However, the role of GSDMD in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We investigated the role of GSDMD in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. METHODS:Human liver tissues from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and control individuals were obtained to evaluate GSDMD expression. Gsdmd knockout (Gsdmd) mice, obese db/db mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) or control diet to induce steatohepatitis. The Gsdmd and WT mice were also used in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD model. In addition, Alb-Cre mice were administered an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector that expressed the gasdermin-N domain (AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N) and were fed with either MCD or control diet for 10 days. RESULTS:GSDMD and its pyroptosis-inducing fragment GSDMD-N were upregulated in liver tissues of human NAFLD/NASH. Importantly, hepatic GSDMD-N protein levels were significantly higher in human NASH and correlated with the NAFLD activity score and fibrosis. GSDMD-N remained a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH. MCD-fed Gsdmd mice exhibit decreased severity of steatosis and inflammation compared with WT littermates. GSDMD was associated with the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 [CCL2]) and persistent activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Gsdmd mice showed lower steatosis, mainly because of reduced expression of the lipogenic gene Srebp1c (Srebf1) and upregulated expression of lipolytic genes, including Pparα, Aco [Klk15], Lcad [Acadl], Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14. Alb-Cre mice administered with AAV9-FLEX-GSDMD-N showed significantly aggravated steatohepatitis when fed with MCD diet. CONCLUSION:As an executor of pyroptosis, GSDMD plays a key role in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis, by controlling cytokine secretion, NF-ĸB activation, and lipogenesis. LAY SUMMARY:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become one of the most feared chronic liver diseases, because it is the most rapidly growing indication for adult liver transplantation and a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms involved in the transformation of simple steatosis to steatohepatitis remain unclear. Herein, we show that gasdermin D driven pyroptosis is prominent in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and gasdermin-N domain remains a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of NASH. Gasdermin D plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NASH by regulating lipogenesis, the inflammatory response, and the NF-ĸB signaling pathway, revealing potential treatment targets for NASH in humans. 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.11.040
    Melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis through inhibiting NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue. Liu Zhenjiang,Gan Lu,Xu Yatao,Luo Dan,Ren Qian,Wu Song,Sun Chao Journal of pineal research Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory form of cell death that is associated with pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases. Melatonin is substantially reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting inflammasome activation. However, the effects of melatonin on inflammasome-induced pyroptosis in adipocytes remain elusive. Here, we demonstrated that melatonin alleviated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome formation in mice adipose tissue. The NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis was also inhibited by melatonin in adipocytes. Further analysis revealed that gasdermin D (GSDMD), the key executioner of pyroptosis, was the target for melatonin inhibition of adipocyte pyroptosis. Importantly, we determined that nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal was required for the GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis in adipocytes. We also confirmed that melatonin alleviated adipocyte pyroptosis by transcriptional suppression of GSDMD. Moreover, GSDMD physically interacted with interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and subsequently formed a complex to promote adipocyte pyroptosis. Melatonin also attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pyroptosis, which was induced by LPS or obesity. In summary, our results demonstrate that melatonin alleviates inflammasome-induced pyroptosis by blocking NF-κB/GSDMD signal in mice adipose tissue. Our data reveal a novel function of melatonin on adipocyte pyroptosis, suggesting a new potential therapy for melatonin to prevent and treat obesity caused systemic inflammatory response. 10.1111/jpi.12414
    Lipid Peroxidation Drives Gasdermin D-Mediated Pyroptosis in Lethal Polymicrobial Sepsis. Kang Rui,Zeng Ling,Zhu Shan,Xie Yangchun,Liu Jiao,Wen Qirong,Cao Lizhi,Xie Min,Ran Qitao,Kroemer Guido,Wang Haichao,Billiar Timothy R,Jiang Jianxin,Tang Daolin Cell host & microbe Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by pathogen infection and associated with pyroptosis. Pyroptosis occurs upon activation of proinflammatory caspases and their subsequent cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), resulting in GSDMD N-terminal fragments that form membrane pores to induce cell lysis. Here, we show that antioxidant defense enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, negatively regulate macrophage pyroptosis, and septic lethality in mice. Conditional Gpx4 knockout in myeloid lineage cells increases lipid peroxidation-dependent caspase-11 activation and GSDMD cleavage. The resultant N-terminal GSDMD fragments then trigger macrophage pyroptotic cell death in a phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCG1)-dependent fashion. Administration of the antioxidant vitamin E that reduces lipid peroxidation, chemical inhibition of PLCG1, or genetic Caspase-11 deletion or Gsdmd inactivation prevents polymicrobial sepsis in Gpx4 mice. Collectively, this study suggests that lipid peroxidation drives GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis and hence constitutes a potential therapeutic target for lethal infection. 10.1016/j.chom.2018.05.009
    Pyroptosis: Gasdermin-Mediated Programmed Necrotic Cell Death. Shi Jianjin,Gao Wenqing,Shao Feng Trends in biochemical sciences Pyroptosis was long regarded as caspase-1-mediated monocyte death in response to certain bacterial insults. Caspase-1 is activated upon various infectious and immunological challenges through different inflammasomes. The discovery of caspase-11/4/5 function in sensing intracellular lipopolysaccharide expands the spectrum of pyroptosis mediators and also reveals that pyroptosis is not cell type specific. Recent studies identified the pyroptosis executioner, gasdermin D (GSDMD), a substrate of both caspase-1 and caspase-11/4/5. GSDMD represents a large gasdermin family bearing a novel membrane pore-forming activity. Thus, pyroptosis is redefined as gasdermin-mediated programmed necrosis. Gasdermins are associated with various genetic diseases, but their cellular function and mechanism of activation (except for GSDMD) are unknown. The gasdermin family suggests a new area of research on pyroptosis function in immunity, disease, and beyond. 10.1016/j.tibs.2016.10.004
    Melatonin prevents endothelial cell pyroptosis via regulation of long noncoding RNA MEG3/miR-223/NLRP3 axis. Zhang Yong,Liu Xin,Bai Xue,Lin Yuan,Li Zhange,Fu Jiangbo,Li Mingqi,Zhao Tong,Yang Huan,Xu Ranchen,Li Jiamin,Ju Jin,Cai Benzhi,Xu Chaoqian,Yang Baofeng Journal of pineal research Atherosclerosis (AS) is an inflammatory disease linked to endothelial dysfunction. Melatonin is reported to possess substantial anti-inflammatory properties, which has proven to be effective in AS. Emerging literature suggests that pyroptosis plays a critical role during AS progression. However, whether pyroptosis contributes to endothelial dysfunction and the underlying molecular mechanisms remained unexploited. This study was designed to investigate the antipyroptotic effects of melatonin in atherosclerotic endothelium and to elucidate the potential mechanisms. In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-treated ApoE mice were used as an atherosclerotic animal model. We found intragastric administration of melatonin for 12 weeks markedly reduced the atherosclerotic plaque in aorta. Meanwhile, melatonin also attenuated the expression of pyroptosis-related genes, including NLRP3, ASC, cleaved caspase1, NF-κB/GSDMD, GSDMD N-termini, IL-1β, and IL-18 in aortic endothelium of melatonin-treated animals. Consistent antipyroptotic effects were also observed in ox-LDL-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). We found that lncRNA MEG3 enhanced pyroptosis in HAECs. Moreover, MEG3 acted as an endogenous sponge by sequence complementarity to suppress the function of miR-223 and to increase NLRP3 expression and enhance endothelial cell pyroptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-223 blocked the antipyroptotic actions of melatonin in ox-LDL-treated HAECs. Together, our results suggest that melatonin prevents endothelial cell pyroptosis via MEG3/miR-223/NLRP3 axis in atherosclerosis, and therefore, melatonin replacement might be considered a new strategy for protecting endothelium against pyroptosis, thereby for the treatment of atherosclerosis associated with pyroptosis. 10.1111/jpi.12449