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    Association between prophylactic hydration volume and risk of contrast-induced nephropathy after emergent percutaneous coronary intervention. Cui Tongtao,Zhao Jianbin,Bei Weijie,Li Hualong,Tan Ning,Wu Dengxuan,Wang Kun,Guo Xiaosheng,Liu Yuanhui,Duan Chongyang,Chen Shiqun,Lin Kaiyang,Liu Yong Cardiology journal BACKGROUND:Intravenous hydration during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) significantly reduces the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), but there are no well-defined protocols regard¬ing the optimal hydration volume (HV) required to prevent CIN following emergent PCI. Therefore, this study investigates the association between the intravenous HV and CIN after emergent PCI. METHODS:711 patients were prospectively recruited who had underwent emergent PCI with hydration at routine speed and the relationship was investigated between HV or HV to weight ratio (HV/W) and the CIN risk, which was defined as a ≥ 25% or ≥ 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine levels from baseline within 48-72 h of exposure to the contrast. RESULTS:The overall CIN incidence was 24.7%. Patients in the higher HV quartiles had elevated CIN rates. Multivariate analysis showed that higher HV/W ratios were not associated with a decreased risk (using the HV) of CIN, but they were associated with an increased risk (using the HV/W) of CIN (Q4 vs. Q1: adjusted odds ratio 1.99; 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.74; p = 0.034). A higher HV/W ratio was not significantly associated with a reduced risk of long-term death (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The data suggests that a higher total HV is not associated with a decreased CIN risk or beneficial long-term prognoses, and that excessive HV may increase the risk of CIN after emergent PCI. 10.5603/CJ.a2017.0048
    Hydration Marker Diagnostic Accuracy to Identify Mild Intracellular and Extracellular Dehydration. Owen Julian A,Fortes Matthew B,Ur Rahman Saeed,Jibani Mahdi,Walsh Neil P,Oliver Samuel J International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism Identifying mild dehydration (≤2% of body mass) is important to prevent the negative effects of more severe dehydration on human health and performance. It is unknown whether a single hydration marker can identify both mild intracellular dehydration (ID) and extracellular dehydration (ED) with adequate diagnostic accuracy (≥0.7 receiver-operating characteristic-area under the curve [ROC-AUC]). Thus, in 15 young healthy men, the authors determined the diagnostic accuracy of 15 hydration markers after three randomized 48-hr trials; euhydration (water 36 ml·kg-1·day-1), ID caused by exercise and 48 hr of fluid restriction (water 2 ml·kg-1·day-1), and ED caused by a 4-hr diuretic-induced diuresis begun at 44 hr (Furosemide 0.65 mg/kg). Body mass was maintained on euhydration, and dehydration was mild on ID and ED (1.9% [0.5%] and 2.0% [0.3%] of body mass, respectively). Urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, saliva flow rate, saliva osmolality, heart rate variability, and dry mouth identified ID (ROC-AUC; range 0.70-0.99), and postural heart rate change identified ED (ROC-AUC 0.82). Thirst 0-9 scale (ROC-AUC 0.97 and 0.78 for ID and ED) and urine osmolality (ROC-AUC 0.99 and 0.81 for ID and ED) identified both dehydration types. However, only the thirst 0-9 scale had a common dehydration threshold (≥4; sensitivity and specificity of 100%; 87% and 71%, 87% for ID and ED). In conclusion, using a common dehydration threshold ≥4, the thirst 0-9 scale identified mild intracellular and ED with adequate diagnostic accuracy. In young healthy adults', thirst 0-9 scale is a valid and practical dehydration screening tool. 10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0022
    Orange pomace fibre increases a composite scoring of subjective ratings of hunger and fullness in healthy adults. Dong Honglin,Sargent Laura J,Chatzidiakou Yianna,Saunders Caroline,Harkness Laura,Bordenave Nicolas,Rowland Ian,Spencer Jeremy P E,Lovegrove Julie A Appetite Dietary fibre has been shown to increase subjective satiating ratings. However data from human trials has produced mixed results, possibly due to different types of fibre which have diverse physicochemical properties and gastrointestinal transit behaviour. The aim of study 1 was to investigate whether orange juice (OJ) with 5.5 g of added orange pomace fibre (OPF) was as satiating as whole orange (WO, chopped and blended to a puree/liquid) compared with OJ. Study 2 was to evaluate the dose-dependent satiating effect of OPF delivered in an orange-flavoured beverage. Both studies were randomized, controlled, double blind, cross over in design with 4 intervention arms in study 1 including OJ, OPF, WO, and water, and 3 arms in study 2: orange-flavoured beverage with low (2.5 g) and high (5.5 g) dose of OPF (LD-OPF and HD-OPF), and orange-flavoured beverage without fibre (Control). Volunteers were asked to response to 8 questions relating to hunger, fullness, desire to eat, thirst and discomfort by visual analogue scale (VAS) for each question. Differences were detected in least squares mean estimates of composite satiety scores and each individual question with statistical modelling to adjust for differences in baseline scores. Addition of 5.5 g OPF either to OJ or to orange-flavoured beverage significantly increased the composite satiety scores compared with OJ (P < 0.0001) or Control (P < 0.0001), and the effect was comparative to WO. LD-OPF showed some satiating effect (less desire to eat) compared with Control (P = 0.038), though less effective than HD-OPF (P = 0.043). In conclusion, the addition of OPF to OJ was as effective at increasing satiety as WO consumption compared with OJ; and there was a trend of dose-dependent effect of OPF on satiety compared with the control. 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.118
    Effects of changes in water intake on mood of high and low drinkers. Pross Nathalie,Demazières Agnès,Girard Nicolas,Barnouin Romain,Metzger Déborah,Klein Alexis,Perrier Erica,Guelinckx Isabelle PloS one OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effects of a change in water intake on mood and sensation in 22 habitual high-volume (HIGH; 2-4 L/d) and 30 low-volume (LOW; <1.2 L/d) drinkers who were asked to respectively decrease and increase their daily water intake. METHOD:During baseline HIGH consumed 2.5 L and LOW 1 L of water/day. During 3 controlled intervention days HIGH's water intake was restricted to 1 L/day whereas LOW's was increased to 2.5 L water/day. Several mood scales (Bond & Lader Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Profile of Mood States, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Thirst & Emotional VAS) were administered at different time points during the study. ANOVA including intervention, time point and intervention by time point as fixed effects on mean values (i.e.; baseline data vs. mean of 3 intervention days) for each mood scale was performed. RESULTS:At baseline HIGH and LOW were comparable in mood state, except for thirst scores (estimate = 17.16, p<0.001) and POMS depression-dejection scores (estimate = 0.55, p<0.05) which were both higher in the HIGH vs. LOW. In HIGH the restricted water intake resulted in a significant increase in thirst (p<0.001) and a decrease in contentedness (p<0.05), calmness (p<0.01), positive emotions (p<0.05) and vigor/activity (p<0.001). In LOW, increased water consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue/inertia (p<0.001), confusion/bewilderment (p = 0.05) and thirst (p<0.001) and a trend to lower sleepiness (p = 0.07) compared to baseline. CONCLUSION:Increasing water intake has beneficial effects in LOW, especially sleep/wake feelings, whereas decreasing water intake has detrimental effects on HIGH's mood. These deleterious effects in HIGH were observed in some sleep/wake moods as well as calmness, satisfaction and positive emotions. 10.1371/journal.pone.0094754
    Adequacy of Daily Fluid Intake Volume Can Be Identified From Urinary Frequency and Perceived Thirst in Healthy Adults. Tucker Matthew A,Caldwell Aaron R,Ganio Matthew S Journal of the American College of Nutrition Achieving and maintaining an optimal level of hydration has significant implications for both acute and chronic health, yet many hydration assessments are not feasible for the general public. Urinary frequency (UF) is a reliable method to self-assess hydration status in healthy individuals, and thirst can provide additional sensory information on adequacy of daily fluid intake volume (DFI). However, threshold values for these indices to detect optimal hydration have not been determined. In this study, we sought to determine threshold values for 24-hour UF and perceived thirst that could accurately distinguish between optimal and suboptimal hydration states. Thirty-two healthy adults (age 22 ± 3 years, body mass index 24.9 ± 4.1 kg/m) collected urine over 24 hours on four separate occasions, where UF was recorded as well as thirst at each void using a numbered perceptual scale. Using urine osmolality as the criterion standard, all samples were either classified as representing an optimal (≤500 mOsm·kg) or suboptimal hydration status (>500 mOsm·kg). A 24-hour UF ≤6 was able to detect suboptimal hydration with good accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] 0.815) and a 24-hour average perceived thirst rating > 3 ("a little thirsty") could detect it with reasonable accuracy (AUC 0.725). In addition, a UF ≤4 had a considerably higher positive likelihood ratio to detect suboptimal hydration versus a UF ≤6 (9.03 versus 2.18, respectively). These analyses suggest that individuals with a 24-hour UF ≤6 or perceiving themselves to be, on average, "a little thirsty" throughout the day are likely to be suboptimally hydrated and thus underconsuming an adequate DFI. 10.1080/07315724.2019.1639566
    Safety and Feasibility of Early Oral Hydration in the Postanesthesia Care Unit After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective, Randomized, and Controlled Study. Wu Menghang,Yang Lei,Zeng Xiaoqi,Wang Ting,Jia Anna,Zuo Yunxia,Yin Xiaorong Journal of perianesthesia nursing : official journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses PURPOSE:To assess the safety and feasibility of early oral hydration (EOH) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN:Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. METHODS:Patients were randomly assigned to the EOH group or the conventional oral hydration (COH) group. Outcomes were the incidence of nausea and vomiting, thirst scale, incidence of oropharyngeal discomfort, and patient satisfaction. FINDINGS:Compared with the COH group, the EOH group had lower incidence of nausea before and after the first drink in the ward (P < .05); lower incidence of vomiting before and after the first drink in the ward (P < .05); lower thirst scale when patients were transferred out of the PACU (P < .05) and at 6 hours postoperatively (P < .05); and greater patient satisfaction on postoperative day 1 (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Early oral hydration in the PACU following laparoscopic cholecystectomy was safe and well-tolerated. 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.06.093
    The effect of preparative solid food status on the occurrence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms in enhanced CT examination: prospective observational study. Li Xue,Liu Heng,Zhao Li,Liu Junling,Cai Li,Zhang Letian,Liu Lei,Zhang Weiguo The British journal of radiology OBJECTIVE::To evaluate the correlation between preparative solid food status and the incidence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms in contrast-enhanced CT examination, and to provide direction for standardizing the preparative dietary policies. METHODS::Patients who underwent routine enhanced CT examination at our hospital between June 2015 and June 2017 (110,836 cases) were enrolled and allocated into solid food fasting group (51,807 cases) and solid food non-fasting group (59,029 cases). Fluids ingestion was not restricted for any case. The differences in the incidence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms between the two groups of patients with various basic data were compared. The risk factors for the occurrence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms were analyzed. RESULTS::The total incidence of nausea and vomiting was extremely low (0.071%), and no aspiration developed. There was no significant difference in the incidence of nausea and vomiting between the two groups in all respects (p > 0.05). The incidence of nausea and vomiting in patients with an iodine adverse drug reaction (ADR) history was higher than those with other ADR history (p = 0.008) and those without ADR history (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION::The occurrence of nausea and vomiting has no correlation with the preparative solid food status. Unless compulsory in clinical needs and constraints and gastrointestinal examination, solid food fasting is not a must in other examinations. Particular attention should be paid to the patients with an iodine ADR history in an effort to prevent possible ADRs. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE::The correlation between preparative solid food status and the incidence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms in contrast-enhanced CT examination were comprehensively analyzed in a large-scale population. 10.1259/bjr.20180198
    Hydration Influence on the Autonomic Recovery of the Coronary Diseases Patient: Geometric Indices Analysis. França da Silva Anne Kastelianne,Santos Lorena Altafin,Laurino Maria Júlia Lopez,Vanzella Laís Manata,Ribeiro Felipe,Rozan Gustavo Bochini,Vanderlei Luiz Carlos Marques Research quarterly for exercise and sport : To evaluate the recovery period of autonomic modulation, through geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV), on coronary artery disease (CAD) patients submitted to a cardiovascular rehabilitation session (CR), associated with hydration. : Thirty male participants of a CR program, diagnosed with CAD were submitted to the control (CP) and hydration protocol (HP) characterized by a CR session. Only during HP were the participants given 8 equal portions of water. The water amount was determined through the hydric loss measured at the CP. During the protocols, the heart rate was measured beat-by-beat at rest (5-10 minutes[M1]) and at recovery (0-5 minutes [M2], 5-10 minutes [M3], 15-20 minutes [M4], 25-30 minutes [M5], 40-45 minutes [M6], 55-60 minutes [M7]) for the HRV analysis, performed by the geometric indices: TINN, RRTRI, SD1, SD2 and SD1/SD2 ratio. : Statistically significant differences were observed between the protocols (SD1,  = 0.022), moments (TINN,  = 0.001; SD1,  = 0.019; SD2,  = 0.001; SD1/SD2,  = 0.001) and moments vs. protocol interaction (SD1,  = 0.019). The SD1 index pointed to acceleration of parasympathetic recovery in the first minutes after exercising (HP recovery after M3 [86.07 ± 32.31%] vs. CP recovery after M5[86.43 ± 24.56]) and increase in global variability (TINN-HP remained increased in longer, until M5 (M1 83.10 ± 55.76 ms to M5 116.82 ± 67.54 ms) vs. CP that remained increased for a short time, until M2 (M1 77.93 ± 68.56 ms to M2 134.82 ± 56.08 ms). : In CAD patients, hydration promoted a more efficient recovery on parasympathetic autonomic modulation and increased the global HRV in the recovery period. 10.1080/02701367.2020.1818672
    [Treatment of "hydration therapy" for acute paraquat poisoning]. Cheng Youlin,Feng Enmin,Liu Guangzeng,Tan Zhihua,Wang Hailing,Li Jianlin,Wei Dong,Li Lin,Wang Haishi Zhonghua wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue OBJECTIVE:To explore the clinical value of "hydration therapy" in the treatment of severe acute paraquat poisoning (APP). METHODS:A prospective historical control observation was conducted. Fifty-eight patients with severe APP admitted to Shouguang People's Hospital Affiliated to Weifang Medical College from February 2014 to June 2019 were enrolled. Twenty-six patients admitted before May 10th, 2016 were enrolled in the standard treatment group. After being admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) from the department of emergency, patients in the standard treatment group were immediately given standard treatment such as repeated gastric lavage, catharsis, adsorption of poison by activated carbon or montmorillonite powder, drug treatment and blood purification. From May 10th, 2016, 32 patients were enrolled in the intensive treatment group. On the basis of standard treatment, "hydration therapy" was carried out, that was, 0.9% NaCl and/or 5% glucose injection were used for continuous intravenous infusion throughout the day, so as to ensure that the total amount of fluid infusion per day reached 200 mL/kg within 48-72 hours after ICU admission. At the same time, furosemide was used to strengthen diuresis to ensure the balance of water and electrolyte. If heart failure or acute pulmonary interstitial edema occurred during the treatment, "hydration therapy" should be stopped immediately. Six months after treatment, all patients were followed up. The patients with normal activity, no complaints of discomfort and no damage of heart, lung, liver, kidney and other organs were regarded as cured. The therapeutic effect of "hydration therapy" was evaluated. RESULTS:There was no significant difference in gender, age, dosage or time from taking poison to ICU between the two groups. In the intensive treatment group, 32 patients did not appear heart failure during continuous rehydration treatment. Follow-up after 6 months showed that the overall cure rate in the intensive treatment group was significantly higher than that in the standard treatment group [59.4% (19/32) vs. 19.2% (5/26), P < 0.05]. In the 6-month follow-up, there was no significant difference in age or time from taking poison to ICU between the two groups, but the dosage in the intensive treatment group was significantly higher than that in the standard treatment group (mL: 54.06±26.03 vs. 23.00±4.47, P < 0.05). After 6 months of follow-up, chest CT showed that the lesions of pulmonary fibrosis of cured patients in both group gradually reduced with time, not completely progressive and irreversible. CONCLUSIONS:"Hydration therapy" with intensive diuresis can significantly improve the rescue success rate of patients with severe APP. 10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200506-00362
    [The total fluids intake, volume of urine and hydration status among young adults from Hebei Province in spring]. Zhang J F,Zhang N,He H R,Cai H,Yan X Y,Guo X H,Li Y B,Zhang M,Ma G S Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] To investigate the total fluids intake, volume of urine and hydration status among college students from Hebei Province in spring. In March 2017, the subjects were recruited in a college in Baoding, Hebei Province. 156 students completed the investigation. Total drinking fluids was assessed by 7-day 24-hour fluid intake questionnaire, with a quantitative tool. The water from food was assessed by the duplicate portion method. The urine samples of 24-hour was collected for 3 consecutive days, and the volume, osmolality, pH and specific gravity of urine were measured. Hydration status was grouped to three types according to the urine osmolality (mOsm/kg), namely, optimal hydration (urine osmolality ≤500), middle hydration (500< urine osmolality ≥800) and dehydration (urine osmolality >800), and the differences among subjects in different genders and hydration statuses were compared. The age of all subjects was (19.8±1.1) years old, including 80 male students. The median amounts of total fluids intake, total drinking fluids, water from food and urine volume were 2 324, 1 135, 1 174 and 1 279 ml/d, respectively. The volume of urine among males was 1 272 ml/d, which was not significantly different from that of females (1 304 ml/d) (0.05). The osmolality and specific gravity of urine among males were 688 mOsm/kg and 1.017, which were higher than those of females (493 mOsm/kg, 1.014) (0.05). But the pH of males was 6.6±0.3, which was lower than that of females (6.7±0.3) (0.05). Only 37.2% (=58) of college students were in optimal hydration status. The median of the amount of total drinking fluids among subjects in optimal hydration status was 301, 448 ml/d higher than that in middle hydration status and dehydration, respectively (0.05). The proportion of females in optimal hydration status was 51.3% (39), which was higher than that of males 23.8% (19) (0.05). Large proportion of college students in Hebei had lower total drinking fluids than the recommended intake of China, and the volume of urine was equal to the amount of total drinking fluids among the college students. Only 37.2% of college students were in optimal hydration status, and the proportion of female college students in optimal hydration status was larger than that of males. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2019.04.005
    Comparison of Rapid Hydration and Standard Hydration Prior to Ifosfamide Administration in Pediatric Patients: A Safety and Efficacy Study. Eaton Aubrie,Egelund Tosha,Ng John The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics : JPPT : the official journal of PPAG OBJECTIVES:Adequate hydration status prior to chemotherapy initiation prevents nephrotoxicity in patients receiving potentially nephrotoxic regimens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time to initiation of ifosfamide administration between patients receiving standard 6-hour pre-hydration versus 1-hour rapid pre-hydration. METHODS:A retrospective study was conducted to determine the primary endpoint of time to ifosfamide administration. Patients 1 to 21 years of age who received ifosfamide with standard 6-hour pre-hydration (125 mL/m/hr for 6 hours) between September 2017 and January 2018 or 1-hour rapid pre-hydration (750 mL/m/hr for 1 hour) between September 2018 and March 2019 were included. Secondary endpoints included the incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis, incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), urine specific gravity, amount of time that ifosfamide was delayed from the originally scheduled administration time, the number of times ifosfamide was delayed greater than 4 hours from the originally scheduled administration time, and length of stay. RESULTS:A total of 128 patients were included; 68 patients received standard 6-hour pre-hydration and 60 patients received 1-hour rapid pre-hydration prior to ifosfamide administration. Time to ifosfamide administration was reduced from an average of 9.3 hours to 2.4 hours (p < 0.0001). There was no incidence of hemorrhagic cystitis or AKI in either group. CONCLUSIONS:The 1-hour rapid pre-hydration protocol significantly reduced the time to ifosfamide administration without an increase in adverse effects. 10.5863/1551-6776-25.3.246
    The place of hydration using intravenous fluid in patients at risk of developing contrast-associated nephropathy. Liu Shuang,Shan Xin-Gang,Zhang Xiao-Jie British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005) There has been a significant rise in the incidence of contrast-associated nephropathy caused by administration of contrast media during cardiac interventions. This is one of the major complications of percutaneous coronary interventions, which may proceed to acute renal failure. Risk factors, including pre-existing renal dysfunction, older age and use of high osmolar contrast media, predispose patients to the development of contrast-associated nephropathy. Different risk-reduction strategies have been used to prevent contrast-associated nephropathy, including use of low osmolar contrast media, N-acetylcysteine, alkalisation of tubular fluid with intravenous sodium bicarbonate, and oral and intravenous hydration with isotonic solution. Hydration using intravenous saline is one of the main treatments used to prevent the development of nephropathy in patients receiving contrast media during cardiac interventions. Prehydration, before administering contrast media, seems to be crucial. The results of studies of the relative efficacy of sodium bicarbonate and/or N-acetylcysteine in reducing the development of contrast-associated nephropathy are not consistent and any beneficial effects may depend on the pre-existing state of the kidney. This review discusses hydration of patients who are at risk of developing contrast-associated nephropathy using intravenous fluid. 10.12968/hmed.2020.0394
    Prevention of postcontrast acute kidney injury after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty by inducing RenalGuard controlled furosemide forced diuresis with matched hydration: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Bolt Lars J J,Sigterman Tim Anton,Krasznai Atilla G,Sikkink Cees-Jan J M,Schurink Geert-Willem H,Bouwman Lee Hans BMJ open INTRODUCTION:Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is often complicated due to postcontrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) in patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hydration therapy is the cornerstone in the prevention of PC-AKI. Furosemide forced diuresis with matched hydration using the RenalGuard system enables a steady balance between diuresis and hydration. A randomised controlled trial will be performed in order to investigate whether furosemide forced diuresis with matched hydration in combination with the RenalGuard system decreases incidence of PC-AKI in patients with CKD receiving a PTA of the lower extremities. Furthermore, we will investigate whether sampling of urine biomarkers 4 hours after intervention can detect PC-AKI in an earlier stage compared with the golden standard, serum creatinine 48-72 hours postintervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A single-centre randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Patients >18 years in need of a PTA of the lower extremities and diagnosed with CKD will be randomly assigned to receive either standard of care prehydration and posthydration or furosemide forced diuresis with matched hydration periprocedural using the RenalGuard system. Four hours postintervention, a urine sample will be collected of all participating patients. Serum creatinine will be sampled within 10 days prior to intervention as well as 1, 3 and 30 days postintervention. The primary endpoint is incidence of PC-AKI post-PTA. Secondary endpoint is the rise of urine biomarkers 4 hours postintervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Study protocol is approved by the research ethics committee and institutional review board (reference number 16 T-201 and NL59809.096.16). Study results will be disseminated by oral presentation at conferences and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. It is anticipated that study results will offer a solution to contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with CKD receiving a PTA of the lower extremities. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NTR6236; Pre-results. EUDRACT NUMBER:2016-005072-10. 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021842
    Oral post-hydration after primary PCI for STEMI. Häner Jonas Dominik,Räber Lorenz Annals of translational medicine 10.21037/atm.2019.08.27
    The Association of Hydration Status with Physical Signs, Symptoms and Survival in Advanced Cancer-The Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) Technology to Evaluate Fluid Volume in Palliative Care: An Observational Study. Nwosu Amara Callistus,Mayland Catriona R,Mason Stephen,Cox Trevor F,Varro Andrea,Ellershaw John PloS one BACKGROUND:Hydration in advanced cancer is a controversial area; however, current hydration assessments methods are poorly developed. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is an accurate hydration tool; however its application in advanced cancer has not been explored. This study used BIVA to evaluate hydration status in advanced cancer to examine the association of fluid status with symptoms, physical signs, renal biochemical measures and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An observational study of 90 adults with advanced cancer receiving care in a UK specialist palliative care inpatient unit was conducted. Hydration status was assessed using BIVA in addition to assessments of symptoms, physical signs, performance status, renal biochemical measures, oral fluid intake and medications. The association of clinical variables with hydration was evaluated using regression analysis. A survival analysis was conducted to examine the influence of hydration status and renal failure. RESULTS:The hydration status of participants was normal in 43 (47.8%), 'more hydrated' in 37 (41.1%) and 'less hydrated' in 10 (11.1%). Lower hydration was associated with increased symptom intensity (Beta = -0.29, p = 0.04) and higher scores for physical signs associated with dehydration (Beta = 10.94, p = 0.02). Higher hydration was associated with oedema (Beta = 2.55, p<0.001). Median survival was statistically significantly shorter in 'less hydrated' patients (44 vs. 68 days; p = 0.049) and in pre-renal failure (44 vs. 100 days; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS:In advanced cancer, hydration status was associated with clinical signs and symptoms. Hydration status and pre-renal failure were independent predictors of survival. Further studies can establish the utility of BIVA as a standardised hydration assessment tool and explore its potential research application, in order to inform the clinical management of fluid balance in patients with advanced cancer. 10.1371/journal.pone.0163114
    Oral versus intravenous hydration and renal function in diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Wróbel Wojciech,Sinkiewicz Władysław,Gordon Marcin,Woźniak-Wiśniewska Anita Kardiologia polska BACKGROUND:Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious complication of percutenous coronary interventions (PCI). Proper hydration reduces the risk of PCI. Wheter oral hydration is as effective as intravenous one has not been well established. AIM:To determine the effects of oral hydration with mineral water versus intravenous hydration with isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl) on renal function in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography and angioplasty. METHODS:The study included 102 patients (age 67 ± 7.8 years, 44 female/58 male). Eligible patients (group 1 - 52 pts) were hydrated intravenously (1 mL/kg/h) 6 hours before and during 12 hours following PCI with isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl). Fifty patients (group 2) were randomised to receive oral mineral water (1 mL/kg/h) 6-12 hours before and during 12 hours following angiography or angioplasty. All patients during the procedure received contrast medium ioversol. Primary endpoint of the study was the evaluation of renal function before and 72 hours after contrast medium administration. RESULTS:Baseline creatinine clearance was 70.3 ± 21.22 mL/min in group 1 and 78.69 ± 19.92 mL/min in group 2 (NS). The mean volume of contrast medium was 101.1 ± 36.7 mL in group 1 and 110.4 ± 45.3 mL in group 2 (NS). At 72 hours after the procedure, creatinine clearance was 65.3 ± 23.39 mL/min in group 1 and 73.5 ± 21.94 mL/min in group 2 (NS). CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates that the oral hydration with mineral water and intravenous hydration with 0.9% NaCl have similar effects on renal function in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography and angioplasty.
    Safety of a rapid outpatient hydration protocol for patients with renal impairment requiring intravenous iodinated contrast media for CT. Wee Nicole Kessa,Tiong Siew Ching,Lee Chau Hung,H'ng Martin Weng Chin Singapore medical journal INTRODUCTION:Patients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast media (IOCM) for CT are predisposed to contrast-induced nephropathy. Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor, and hydration is the mainstay of prevention. While inpatients can undergo intravenous hydration, there is a knowledge deficit regarding regimens for outpatients. We employed a rapid outpatient hydration protocol to reduce postponement of scan appointments for patients with suboptimal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS:From June 2015, we amended our CT preparation protocol to mandate rapid hydration (oral, intravenous or both) for patients with an eGFR of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients receiving this hydration protocol from June to November 2015 were followed up for one month to monitor any admissions for fluid overload, and up to one year to determine the long-term effect on eGFR. RESULTS:226 outpatients received the hydration protocol, which correlated with a 95% reduction in postponement of imaging appointments. No complications of fluid overload from hydration were encountered. There was a significant association between age and decrease in eGFR, but this was not significant when stratified by drop in eGFR category. No statistical significance was found between decrease in eGFR and gender or race. Higher baseline eGFR was less likely to be associated with decrease in eGFR after imaging. Type of hydration was not related to a drop in eGFR category for patients with eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSION:We defined a shorter hydration regimen that is safe to use in the outpatient setting. 10.11622/smedj.2020078
    Hydration: Intravenous and Oral: Approaches, Principals, and Differing Regimens: Is It What Goes in or What Comes Out That Is Important? Solomon Richard Interventional cardiology clinics The literature (in English) was accessed to review the evidence that administration of fluids is protective of contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI). The evidence was evaluated with the intent of understanding mechanisms of protection. Prospective randomized trials comparing oral versus intravenous fluid, sodium chloride versus no intravenous fluid, sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride, and forced matched hydration versus intravenous sodium chloride provided the data. In general, the more fluid administered, the lower the incidence of CA-AKI. However, understanding the mechanism of this beneficial effect suggests that it is the urine output that most directly affects the incidence of CA-AKI. 10.1016/j.iccl.2020.02.009
    Efficacy of oral supplemental hydration for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in rats. Matsunami Tamaki,Hino Kazuo,Dosho Rie,Miyatake Sho,Ebisu Goro,Kuwatsuru Ryohei Japanese journal of radiology PURPOSE:To compare oral rehydration solution (ORS) with saline infusion for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (310-360 g) received intravenous indomethacin (10 mg/kg), N -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg), and iohexol (10 mL/kg) to induce acute contrast-induced renal injury (CIN group); control rats received saline only. For hydration, rats received either continuous infusion (20 mL/kg/h) of saline or three oral doses (20 mL/kg each) of ORS. Acute renal injury was evaluated by assaying urine collected for 24 h beginning 2 h before the contrast injection, evaluating blood taken 22 h after the contrast injection, and examining the kidneys histopathologically. RESULTS:Hydration with saline prevented only the contrast-induced increase in plasma creatinine, whereas ORS prevented deleterious changes in plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine clearance as well as in urinary protein, albumin, and N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase concentrations. Histopathologic changes noted in the CIN group were diminished in both saline and ORS groups. CONCLUSION:Both intravenous saline administration and oral hydration with ORS decreased the severity of CIN. Hydration with ORS was comparable to intravenous saline infusion in preventing CIN-associated abnormalities. 10.1007/s11604-017-0620-4
    Systematic oral hydration with water is similar to parenteral hydration for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: an updated meta-analysis of randomised clinical data. Agarwal Shiv Kumar,Mohareb Sameh,Patel Achint,Yacoub Rabi,DiNicolantonio James J,Konstantinidis Ioannis,Pathak Ambarish,Fnu Shailesh,Annapureddy Narender,Simoes Priya K,Kamat Sunil,El-Hayek Georges,Prasad Ravi,Kumbala Damodar,Nascimento Rhanderson M,Reilly John P,Nadkarni Girish N,Benjo Alexandre M Open heart BACKGROUND:Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third most common cause of hospital-acquired kidney injury and is related to increased long-term morbidity and mortality. Adequate intravenous (IV) hydration has been demonstrated to lessen its occurrence. Oral (PO) hydration with water is inexpensive and readily available but its role for CIN prevention is yet to be determined. METHODS:PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched until April 2015 and studies were selected using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. All randomised clinical trials with head-to-head comparison between PO and IV hydration were included. RESULTS:A total of 5 studies with 477 patients were included in the analysis, 255 of those receiving PO water. The incidence of CIN was statistically similar in the IV and PO arms (7.7% and 8.2%, respectively; relative risk 0.97; 95% CI 0.36 to 2.94; p=0.95). The incidence of CIN was statistically similar in the IV and PO arms in patients with chronic kidney disease and with normal renal function. Rise in creatinine at 48-72 h was lower in the PO hydration group compared with IV hydration (pooled standard mean difference 0.04; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; p<0.001; I(2)=62%). CONCLUSIONS:Our meta-analysis shows that systematic PO hydration with water is at least as effective as IV hydration with saline to prevent CIN. PO hydration is cheaper and more easily administered than IV hydration, thus making it more attractive and just as effective. 10.1136/openhrt-2015-000317
    Clinical assessments and care interventions to promote oral hydration amongst older patients: a narrative systematic review. Oates Lloyd L,Price Christopher I BMC nursing BACKGROUND:Older patients in hospital may be unable to maintain hydration by drinking, leading to intravenous fluid replacement, complications and a longer length of stay. We undertook a systematic review to describe clinical assessment tools which identify patients at risk of insufficient oral fluid intake and the impact of simple interventions to promote drinking, in hospital and care home settings. METHOD:MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases and two internet search engines (Google and Google Scholar) were examined. Articles were included when the main focus was use of a hydration/dehydration risk assessment in an adult population with/without a care intervention to promote oral hydration in hospitals or care homes. Reviews which used findings to develop new assessments were also included. Single case reports, laboratory results only, single technology assessments or non-oral fluid replacement in patients who were already dehydrated were excluded. Interventions where nutritional intake was the primary focus with a hydration component were also excluded. Identified articles were screened for relevance and quality before a narrative synthesis. No statistical analysis was planned. RESULTS:From 3973 citations, 23 articles were included. Rather than prevention of poor oral intake, most focused upon identification of patients already in negative fluid balance using information from the history, patient inspection and urinalysis. Nine formal hydration assessments were identified, five of which had an accompanying intervention/ care protocol, and there were no RCT or large observational studies. Interventions to provide extra opportunities to drink such as prompts, preference elicitation and routine beverage carts appeared to support hydration maintenance, further research is required. Despite a lack of knowledge of fluid requirements and dehydration risk factors amongst staff, there was no strong evidence that increasing awareness alone would be beneficial for patients. CONCLUSION:Despite descriptions of features associated with dehydration, there is insufficient evidence to recommend a specific clinical assessment which could identify older persons at risk of poor oral fluid intake; however there is evidence to support simple care interventions which promote drinking particularly for individuals with cognitive impairment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014015178. 10.1186/s12912-016-0195-x
    [Preventive approach of oral care for comfort and hydration]. Chabanolle Catherine Revue de l'infirmiere The risk of deterioration of oral health is increased in the palliative phase of a disease due to the drying out of the oral mucosa by the treatments. Weakened, the patient drinks and eats little, or not at all. Caregivers therefore need to take over the patient's oral care to ensure hygiene and comfort. As a preventive approach, providing mouth care for hydratation and comfort associated with oral hygiene are essentials. 10.1016/j.revinf.2018.10.029
    Oral rehydration solution (OS-1) as a substitute of intravenous hydration after cisplatin administration in patients with lung cancer: a prospective multicenter trial. Horinouchi Hidehito,Kubota Kaoru,Miyanaga Akihiko,Nakamichi Shinji,Seike Masahiro,Gemma Akihiko,Yamane Yuki,Kurimoto Futoshi,Sakai Hiroshi,Kanda Shintaro,Fujiwara Yutaka,Nokihara Hiroshi,Yamamoto Noboru,Tamura Tomohide,Ohe Yuichiro ESMO open Background:The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral hydration as a substitute for intravenous hydration after cisplatin (CDDP) administration. Methods:The major eligibility criteria included patients with lung cancer, indications for a CDDP-based regimen at a dose of 60 mg/m or higher, an age of between 20 and 74 years and adequate renal function. Antiemetic prophylaxis consisted of an appropriate dose of palonosetron, aprepitant, dexamethasone and magnesium sulfate (8 mEq). Five hundred millilitres of commercially available oral hydration solution (OS-1: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Tokushima, Japan) was used as a substitute for intravenous posthydration. The planned sample size was 46 to reject a proportion of 70% under an expectation of 88% with a power of 90% and an alpha error of 5%. Results:Between May and November 2013, 31 men and 15 women with a median (range) age of 65 (33-74) years were enrolled from three institutions. Of these, five received adjuvant chemotherapy, 17 received definitive chemoradiotherapy and 24 received chemotherapy for advanced diseases. The median (range) number of chemotherapy cycles was 4 (1-5). After the first cycle of CDDP administration, none of the patients experienced a creatinine elevation of grade 2 or higher, thereby meeting the primary endpoint. Of the 46 patients, 45 (97.8%, 95% CI 88.2 to 99.9) completed the CDDP-based chemotherapy without grade 2 or higher renal dysfunction. Conclusion:Oral hydration can be used as a safe and convenient substitute for intravenous posthydration for CDDP administration at the standard dose. Trial registration number:UMIN000010201. 10.1136/esmoopen-2017-000288
    Effectiveness of oral hydration in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary angiography or intervention: a pairwise and network meta-analysis. Zhang Weidai,Zhang Jiawei,Yang Baojun,Wu Kefei,Lin Hanfei,Wang Yanping,Zhou Lihong,Wang Huatao,Zeng Chujuan,Chen Xiao,Wang Zhixing,Zhu Junxing,Songming Chen Coronary artery disease BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of oral hydration in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients undergoing coronary angiography or intervention has not been well established. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of oral hydration compared with intravenous hydration and other frequently used hydration strategies. METHODS:PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials were searched from inception to 8 October 2017. To be eligible for analysis, studies had to evaluate the relative efficacy of different prophylactic hydration strategies. We selected and assessed the studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria and carried out a pairwise and network meta-analysis using RevMan5.2 and Aggregate Data Drug Information System 1.16.8 software. RESULTS:A total of four studies (538 participants) were included in our pairwise meta-analysis and 1754 participants from eight studies with four frequently used hydration strategies were included in a network meta-analysis. Pairwise meta-analysis indicated that oral hydration was as effective as intravenous hydration for the prevention of CI-AKI (5.88 vs. 8.43%; odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.36-1.47; P>0.05), with no significant heterogeneity between studies. Network meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the prevention of CI-AKI. However, the rank probability plot suggested that oral plus intravenous hydration had a higher probability (51%) of being the best strategy, followed by diuretic plus intravenous hydration (39%) and oral hydration alone (10%). Intravenous hydration alone was the strategy with the highest probability (70%) of being the worst hydration strategy. CONCLUSION:Our study shows that oral hydration is not inferior to intravenous hydration for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients with normal or mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction undergoing coronary angiography or intervention. 10.1097/MCA.0000000000000607
    B-type natriuretic peptide and risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a substudy from the HORIZONS-AMI trial. Jarai Rudolf,Dangas George,Huber Kurt,Xu Ke,Brodie Bruce R,Witzenbichler Bernhard,Metzger D Christopher,Radke Peter W,Yu Jennifer,Claessen Bimmer E,Genereux Philippe,Mehran Roxana,Stone Gregg W Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions BACKGROUND:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. However, identification of patients at risk for CI-AKI is challenging. Using a large contemporary randomized trial database of patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, we therefore sought to examine whether admission B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels predict the development of CI-AKI. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 979 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients enrolled in the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI) trial had BNP levels measured in the emergency room prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention as part of the study protocol. CI-AKI was defined as a relative increase in serum creatinine of ≥25%, or an absolute increase of ≥0.5 mg/dL, occurring within 48 hours after contrast administration. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association of admission BNP with development of CI-AKI. CI-AKI occurred in 131 patients (13.3%). Baseline BNP was a significant univariable correlate of CI-AKI (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.51; P=0.0001). After multivariable adjustment for clinical, laboratory, and angiographic variables, BNP remained a significant independent predictor of CI-AKI (1.29 [1.10, 1.51]; P<0.001). Significant net reclassification improvement was achieved by addition of BNP to the current clinical risk prediction model (net reclassification improvement=0.177; P<0.001) and to the Mehran Risk Score (net reclassification improvement=0.100; P=0.015). CONCLUSIONS:Measurement of serum BNP at hospital admission may help identify patients who are at risk for developing CI-AKI after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00433966. 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.112.972356
    Prevention Strategies for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy. Bass Eric B Annals of internal medicine 10.7326/L16-0097
    Strategies for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Weisbord Steven D,Palevsky Paul M Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The intravascular administration of iodinated contrast media for diagnostic imaging is a common cause of acute kidney injury and a leading cause of iatrogenic renal disease. The purpose of this review is to describe the principal risk factors for contrast-induced acute kidney injury and to summarize recent data describing the efficacy of various preventive interventions for this condition. RECENT FINDINGS:Whereas earlier studies suggested that certain low-osmolal contrast agents including iohexol and ioxaglate are more nephrotoxic than iso-osmolal iodixanol, recent clinical trials and meta-analyses comparing other low-osmolal contrast agents with iodixanol have found little difference in risk. The provision of prophylactic renal replacement therapy does not ameliorate the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, and likely poses undue risk. Despite some research supporting a benefit of atrial natriuretic peptide, statins, and prostaglandin analogs, additional data from large, adequately powered studies are needed before these agents can be recommended. N-Acetylcysteine and isotonic intravenous bicarbonate have been investigated intensely, yet the data on these interventions are conflicting due to methodological limitations in past studies. SUMMARY:Prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury involves the identification of high-risk patients, consideration of alternative imaging procedures that do not involve the administration of iodinated contrast, and integration of the cumulative data available on preventive interventions in high-risk patients. 10.1097/MNH.0b013e32833d42e3
    Antibiotic Dosing in Patients With Acute Kidney Injury: "Enough But Not Too Much". Lewis Susan J,Mueller Bruce A Journal of intensive care medicine Increasing evidence suggests that antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) often does not achieve pharmacodynamic goals, and the continued high mortality rate due to infectious causes appears to confirm these findings. Although there are compelling reasons why clinicians should use more aggressive antibiotic dosing, particularly in patients receiving aggressive renal replacement therapies, concerns for toxicity associated with higher doses are real. The presence of multisystem organ failure and polypharmacy predispose these patients to drug toxicity. This article examines the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of critical illness, AKI, and renal replacement therapy and describes potential solutions to help clinicians give "enough but not too much" in these very complicated patients. 10.1177/0885066614555490
    Quality Measures in Acute Kidney Injury Management. Shen Bo,Xu Jiarui,Wang Yimei,Jiang Wuhua,Zhang Zhen,Yu Jiawei,Zou Jianzhou,Teng Jie,Ding Xiaoqiang Contributions to nephrology Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in clinical practice and associated with increased risk for death and major morbidity. Although some meaningful clinical guidelines were published, the quality of AKI healthcare remains suboptimal. Some AKI quality improvement methods, such as guidelines-based training programs, the referral from nephrology, and electronic data system have been found to be potentially beneficial, but further validation is required. Quality measures (QMs) for structure, process, and outcome of AKI care need to be further developed, evaluated, and implemented to ensure utmost quality of AKI care. However, many unknowns remain in this field. Some commonly used QMs like mortality are still difficult to realize in AKI quality control because of the heterogeneity in AKI practice. More evidence is needed to improve the AKI quality control system. These are challenges that will need to be addressed in the future. 10.1159/000484964
    The role of an electronic alert system to detect acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients: DETECT-H Project. Labrador Gómez Pedro Jesús,González Sanchidrián Silvia,Labrador Gómez Jorge,Gómez-Martino Arroyo Juan Ramón,Jiménez Herrero María Carmen,Polanco Candelario Santiago José Abraham,Marín Álvarez Jesús Pedro,Gallego Domínguez Sandra,Davin Carrero Elena,Sánchez Montalbán José María,Castellano Cerviño Inés,Rosner Mitchell H,Ronco Claudio Nefrologia BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with higher mortality and length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients. To improve outcomes, an electronic detection system could be a useful tool for early diagnosis. METHODS:A fully automated real-time system for detecting decreased glomerular filtration rate in adult patients was developed in our hospital, DETECT-H project. AKI was established according to KDIGO guidelines. RESULTS:In six months, 1241 alerts from 11,022 admissions were issued. Overall incidence of AKI was 7.7%. Highest AKI stage reached was: stage 1 (49.8%), 2 (24.5%) and 3 (25.8%), in-hospital mortality was 10.9%, 22.7%, 33.9% respectively and 57.1% in AKI requiring dialysis; mortality in stable CKD was 4.3%. Median LOS was 8 days versus 5 days for all patients. AKI was associated with a mortality of 3.18 (95% CI 1.80-5.59) and a LOS 1.52 (1.11-2.08) times as high as that for admissions without AKI. Multivariate analysis indicated that a LOS higher than 8 days was associated with AKI. Previous CKD was noted in 31.9% and AKI in 45.3% at discharge. As compared to the use of the detect system, only one third of CKD patients and half of AKI episodes were identified. CONCLUSIONS:CKD and in-hospital AKI are under-recognized entities. Mortality and LOS are increased in-hospital patients with renal dysfunction. AKI severity was associated with higher mortality and LOS. An automated electronic detection system for identifying renal dysfunction would be a useful tool to improve renal outcomes. 10.1016/j.nefro.2018.08.011
    Did KDIGO guidelines on acute kidney injury improve patient outcome? Lameire Norbert,Vanmassenhove Jill,Lewington Andrew Intensive care medicine 10.1007/s00134-017-4740-1
    Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: an Update. Chalikias George,Drosos Ioannis,Tziakas Dimitrios N Cardiovascular drugs and therapy Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a common complication of intravascular administration of contrast media used in coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention and other diagnostic and interventional procedures. This review article aims at summarizing the published literature regarding the prevention of CI-AKI, by focusing on available high-quality meta-analyses addressing this matter. Apart from adequate hydration, a number of pharmacologic agents have been proposed as potential candidates to be included in the routine preparation, prior to the patient's arrival in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Among them, statins and N-acetylcysteine appear to be the most extensively studied ones. Throughout this article we present the available data on CI-AKI prevention and provide a critical clinical appraisal, as well as a summary of currently available guidelines. 10.1007/s10557-016-6683-0
    Oral hydration for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in elective radiological procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cheungpasitporn Wisit,Thongprayoon Charat,Brabec Brady A,Edmonds Peter J,O'Corragain Oisin A,Erickson Stephen B North American journal of medical sciences BACKGROUND:The reports on efficacy of oral hydration treatment for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in elective radiological procedures and cardiac catheterization remain controversial. AIMS:The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the use of oral hydration regimen for prevention of CIAKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Comprehensive literature searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of outpatient oral hydration treatment was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Systematic Reviews, and clinicaltrials.gov from inception until July 4(th), 2014. Primary outcome was the incidence of CIAKI. RESULTS:Six prospective RCTs were included in our analysis. Of 513patients undergoing elective procedures with contrast exposures,45 patients (8.8%) had CIAKI. Of 241 patients with oral hydration regimen, 23 (9.5%) developed CIAKI. Of 272 patients with intravenous (IV) fluid regimen, 22 (8.1%) had CIAKI. Study populations in all included studies had relatively normal kidney function to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3. There was no significant increased risk of CIAKI in oral fluid regimen group compared toIV fluid regimen group (RR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.38-2.31). CONCLUSIONS:According to our analysis,there is no evidence that oral fluid regimen is associated with more risk of CIAKI in patients undergoing elective procedures with contrast exposures compared to IV fluid regimen. This finding suggests that the oral fluid regimen might be considered as a possible outpatient treatment option for CIAKI prevention in patients with normal to moderately reduced kidney function. 10.4103/1947-2714.147977
    Acute kidney injury: Intravenous hydration for the prevention of CIAKI. Briguori Carlo,Signoriello Giuseppe Nature reviews. Nephrology 10.1038/nrneph.2017.41
    Bioimpedance-Guided Hydration for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Kidney Injury: The HYDRA Study. Maioli Mauro,Toso Anna,Leoncini Mario,Musilli Nicola,Grippo Gabriele,Ronco Claudio,McCullough Peter A,Bellandi Francesco Journal of the American College of Cardiology BACKGROUND:Intravascular volume expansion plays a major role in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Recommended standard amounts of fluid infusion before procedures do not produce homogeneous responses in subjects with different initial hydration status. OBJECTIVES:The goal of this study was to compare the effect of standard and double intravenous (IV) infusion volumes in patients with low body fluid level, assessed by using bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA), on the incidence of CI-AKI after elective coronary angiographic procedures. METHODS:A total of 303 patients with low BIVA level on admission were randomized to receive standard volume saline (1 ml/kg/h for 12 h before and after the procedure) or double volume saline (2 ml/kg/h). Patients (n = 715) with an optimal BIVA level received standard volume saline and were included in a prospective registry. The saline infusion was halved in all patients with an ejection fraction <40%. BIVA was repeated immediately before the angiographic procedure in all patients. CI-AKI was defined as an increase in levels of cystatin C ≥10% above baseline at 24 h after contrast administration. RESULTS:The incidence of CI-AKI was significantly lower (11.5% vs. 22.3%; p = 0.015) in patients receiving double volume saline than in those receiving standard volume saline, respectively. Before the angiographic procedure, 50% of the double volume patients achieved the optimal BIVA level compared with only 27.7% in the standard group (p = 0.0001). The findings were consistent in all the pre-specified subgroups excluding patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (p for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Evaluation of BIVA levels on admission in patients with stable coronary artery disease allows adjustment of intravascular volume expansion, resulting in lower CI-AKI occurrence after angiographic procedures. (Personalized Versus Standard Hydration for Prevention of CI-AKI: A Randomized Trial With Bioimpedance Analysis; NCT02225431). 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.04.022
    Haemodynamic-guided fluid administration for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: the POSEIDON randomised controlled trial. Brar Somjot S,Aharonian Vicken,Mansukhani Prakash,Moore Naing,Shen Albert Y-J,Jorgensen Michael,Dua Aman,Short Lindsay,Kane Kevin Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:The administration of intravenous fluid remains the cornerstone treatment for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. However, no well-defined protocols exist to guide fluid administration in this treatment. We aimed to establish the efficacy of a new fluid protocol to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. METHODS:In this randomised, parallel-group, comparator-controlled, single-blind phase 3 trial, we assessed the efficacy of a new fluid protocol based on the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. The primary outcome was the occurrence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury, which was defined as a greater than 25% or greater than 0·5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine concentration. Between Oct 10, 2010, and July 17, 2012, 396 patients aged 18 years or older undergoing cardiac catheterisation with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2) or less and one or more of several risk factors (diabetes mellitus, history of congestive heart failure, hypertension, or age older than 75 years) were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided volume expansion (n=196) or the control group (n=200) who received a standard fluid administration protocol. Four computer-generated concealed randomisation schedules, each with permuted block sizes of 4, were used for randomisation, and participants were allocated to the next sequential randomisation number by sealed opaque envelopes. Patients and laboratory personnel were masked to treatment assignment, but the physicians who did the procedures were not masked. Both groups received intravenous 0·9% sodium chloride at 3 mL/kg for 1 h before cardiac catheterisation. Analyses were by intention to treat. Adverse events were assessed at 30 days and 6 months and all such events were classified by staff who were masked to treatment assignment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01218828. FINDINGS:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury occurred less frequently in patients in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided group (6·7% [12/178]) than in the control group (16·3% [28/172]; relative risk 0·41, 95% CI 0·22-0·79; p=0·005). Hydration treatment was terminated prematurely because of shortness of breath in three patients in each group. INTERPRETATION:Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided fluid administration seems to be safe and effective in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation. FUNDING:Kaiser Permanente Southern California regional research committee grant. 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60689-9
    Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury With the RenalGuard System in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: The PROTECT-TAVI Trial (PROphylactic effecT of furosEmide-induCed diuresis with matched isotonic intravenous hydraTion in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation). Rihal Charanjit S,Kashani Kianoush B JACC. Cardiovascular interventions 10.1016/j.jcin.2015.08.007
    Oral hydration: does it have a role in prevention of angiography-associated acute kidney injury? Solomon Richard,Lahoud Rony Coronary artery disease 10.1097/MCA.0000000000000615
    Preventive Strategies for Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Procedures: Evidence From a Hierarchical Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of 124 Trials and 28 240 Patients. Giacoppo Daniele,Gargiulo Giuseppe,Buccheri Sergio,Aruta Patrizia,Byrne Robert A,Cassese Salvatore,Dangas George,Kastrati Adnan,Mehran Roxana,Tamburino Corrado,Capodanno Davide Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions BACKGROUND:The effectiveness of currently available effective preventive strategies for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a matter of debate. METHODS AND RESULTS:We performed a Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis of 124 trials (28 240 patients) comparing a total of 10 strategies: saline, statin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO), NAC+NaHCO, ascorbic acid, xanthine, dopaminergic agent, peripheral ischemic preconditioning, and natriuretic peptide. Compared with saline, the risk of CIAKI was reduced by using statin (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.26-0.67), xanthine (OR, 0.32; 95% CrI, 0.17-0.57), ischemic preconditioning (OR, 0.48; 95% CrI, 0.26-0.87), NAC+NaHCO (OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.33-0.76), NAC (OR, 0.68; 95% CrI, 0.55-0.84), and NaHCO (OR, 0.66; 95% CrI, 0.47-0.90). The benefit of statin therapy was consistent across multiple sensitivity analyses, whereas the efficacy of all the other strategies was questioned by restricting the analysis to high-quality trials. Overall, high heterogeneity was observed for comparisons involving xanthine and ischemic preconditioning, although the impact of NAC and xanthine was probably influenced by publication bias/small-study effect. Hydration alone was the least effective preventive strategy for CIAKI. Meta-regressions did not reveal significant associations with baseline creatinine and contrast volume. In patients with diabetes mellitus, no strategy was found to reduce the incidence of CIAKI. CONCLUSIONS:In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures, statin administration is associated with a marked and consistent reduction in the risk of CIAKI compared with saline. Although xanthine, NAC, NaHCO, NAC+NaHCO, ischemic preconditioning, and natriuretic peptide may have nephroprotective effects, these results were not consistent across multiple sensitivity analyses. 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004383
    Prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury: is simple oral hydration similar to intravenous? A systematic review of the evidence. Hiremath Swapnil,Akbari Ayub,Shabana Wael,Fergusson Dean A,Knoll Greg A PloS one BACKGROUND:Pre-procedural intravenous fluid administration is an effective prophylaxis measure for contrast-induced acute kidney injury. For logistical ease, the oral route is an alternative to the intravenous. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the oral to the intravenous route in prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury. STUDY DESIGN:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials with a stratified analysis and metaregression. Databases included MEDLINE (1950 to November 23 2011), EMBASE (1947 to week 47 2011), Cochrane CENTRAL (3(rd) quarter 2011). Two reviewers identified relevant trials and abstracted data. SETTINGS AND POPULATION: Trials including patients undergoing a contrast enhanced procedure. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised controlled trial; adult (>18 years) population; comparison of oral versus intravenous volume expansion. INTERVENTION:Oral route of volume expansion compared to the intravenous route. OUTCOMES:Any measure of acute kidney injury, need for renal replacement therapy, hospitalization and death. RESULTS:Six trials including 513 patients met inclusion criteria. The summary odds ratio was 1.19 (95% CI 0.46, 3.10, p = 0.73) suggesting no difference between the two routes of volume expansion. There was significant heterogeneity (Cochran's Q = 11.65, p = 0.04; I(2) = 57). In the stratified analysis, inclusion of the five studies with a prespecified oral volume expansion protocol resulted in a shift towards oral volume expansion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.37, 1.50, p = 0.42) and also resolved the heterogeneity (Q = 3.19, P = 0.53; I(2) = 0). LIMITATIONS:Small number of studies identified; lack of hard clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION:The oral route may be as effective as the intravenous route for volume expansion for contrast-induced acute kidney injury prevention. Adequately powered trials with hard endpoints should be done given the potential advantages of oral (e.g. reduced patient burden and cost) over intravenous volume expansion. 10.1371/journal.pone.0060009
    Reducing Acute Kidney Injury Due to Contrast Material: How Nurses Can Improve Patient Safety. Lambert Peggy,Chaisson Kristine,Horton Susan,Petrin Carmen,Marshall Emily,Bowden Sue,Scott Lynn,Conley Sheila,Stender Janette,Kent Gertrude,Hopkins Ellen,Smith Brian,Nicholson Anita,Roy Nancy,Homsted Brenda,Downs Cindy,Ross Cathy S,Brown Jeremiah, Critical care nurse BACKGROUND:Acute kidney injury due to contrast material occurs in 3% to 15% of the 2 million cardiac catheterizations done in the United States each year. OBJECTIVE:To reduce acute kidney injury due to contrast material after cardiovascular interventional procedures. METHODS:Nurse leaders in the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group, a 10-center quality improvement consortium in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, formed a nursing task force to reduce acute kidney injury due to contrast material after cardiovascular interventional procedures. Data were prospectively collected January 1, 2007, through June 30, 2012, on consecutive nonemergent patients (n = 20 147) undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. RESULTS:Compared with baseline rates, adjusted rates of acute kidney injury among the 10 centers were significantly reduced by 21% and by 28% in patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m. Key qualitative system factors associated with improvement included use of multidisciplinary teams, standardized fluid orders, use of an intravenous fluid bolus, patient education about oral hydration, and limiting the volume of contrast material. CONCLUSIONS:Standardization of evidence-based best practices in nursing care may reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury due to contrast material. 10.4037/ccn2017178
    The Incidence and the Prognostic Impact of Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients: Current Preventive Strategies. Kaltsas Evangelos,Chalikias George,Tziakas Dimitrios Cardiovascular drugs and therapy Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications during hospitalization in various clinical settings. The goal of this review was to assess the incidence of AKI in acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), how this incidence is affected by the diverse definitions, and if there is variability in the reported rates over recent years. Additionally, we sought to appraise the impact of AKI on short- and long-term prognosis of these patients. Finally, we report on the current preventive measures as they are suggested in the current guidelines of various societies, we comment on the evidence that support them, and we review the literature for other proposed therapeutic strategies, which either failed to prove their efficacy or they are not adequately confirmed yet. Due to the heterogeneity in AKI definition and in the population studied of the published data, the incidence of AKI ranged from 5.2 to 59%. A recent meta-analysis reported a median value of 15.8%. All studies assessing AKI-related prognosis in AMI patients suggested that presence of AKI has detrimental effect on patients prognosis, raising mortality two- to threefold not only during the 30 first days but also during the first year after the acute event. Various treatment modalities have been proposed for prevention of AKI in AMI patients; however, the majority of them failed to prove their efficacy in the clinical trial arena. Hydration, use of iso- or low-osmolar agents at the lowest possible dose during coronary interventions, and use of statins have been proposed among others. Nonetheless, the prevalence of AKI after an AMI still remains high today and therefore it is crucial for the practicing physician to be aware of its presence and for the scientific community to identify novel measures for a more efficacious prevention. 10.1007/s10557-017-6766-6
    Efficacy of oral hydration in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in patients undergoing coronary angiography or intervention. Akyuz Sukru,Karaca Mehmet,Kemaloglu Oz Tugba,Altay Servet,Gungor Baris,Yaylak Baris,Yazici Selcuk,Ozden Kivilcim,Karakus Gultekin,Cam Nese Nephron. Clinical practice BACKGROUND:Efficacy of intravenous (IV) volume expansion in preventing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is well known. However, the role of oral hydration has not been well established. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of oral hydration in preventing CI-AKI. METHODS:We prospectively randomized 225 patients undergoing coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention in either oral hydration or IV hydration groups. Patients who have at least one of the high-risk factors for developing CI-AKI (advanced age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, anemia, hyperuricemia, a history of cardiac failure or systolic dysfunction) were included in the study. All patients had normal renal function or stage 1-2 chronic kidney disease. Patients in the oral hydration group were encouraged to drink unrestricted amounts of fluids freely whereas isotonic saline infusion was performed by the standard protocol in the IV hydration group. RESULTS:CI-AKI occurred in 8/116 patients (6.9%) in the oral hydration group and 8/109 patients (7.3%) in the IV hydration group (p = 0.89). There was also no statistically significant difference between the two groups when different CI-AKI definitions were taken into account. CONCLUSION:Oral hydration is as effective as IV hydration in preventing CI-AKI in patients with normal kidney function or stage 1-2 chronic kidney disease, and who also have at least one of the other high-risk factors for developing CI-AKI. 10.1159/000365090
    Avoiding the emergence of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in acute coronary syndrome: routine hydration treatment. Arslan Sukru,Yildiz Ahmet,Dalgic Yalcin,Batit Servet,Kilicarslan Onur,Ser Ozgur Selim,Dalgic Sadiye Nur,Kocas Cuneyt,Abaci Okay Coronary artery disease BACKGROUND:Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have about a three-fold risk for developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury(CI-AKI). Investigating studies on routine hydration therapy have frequently included patients with stable coronary artery disease and high risk of CI-AKI [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min]. However, data on routine hydration treatment in non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients with eGFR ≥60 ml/min are insufficient. We aimed to investigate the association between routine hydration therapy and CI-AKI development in NSTEMI patients at low risk for nephropathy. METHODS AND RESULTS:We randomly assigned a total of 401 NSTEMI patients to two groups: the routine hydration group (198 patients) and the nonhydration group (control group) (203 patients). Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline (1 ml/kg/h, 0.9% sodium chloride) was given for 3-12 h before and 24 h after contrast exposure to the hydration group. CI-AKI was defined as the increase in serum creatinine values 0.5 mg/dl or 25% between 48 and 72 h after the invasive procedures. In our study, the incidence of CI-AKI development in the routine hydration group (7.1%) was significantly lower than in the nonhydration group (14.1%) (P: 0.02). This study revealed that older age, amount of contrast media, and routine hydration were independent risk factors for developing CI-AKI (P < 0.01, P: 0.04, P < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION:We found that preprocedural and postprocedural intravenous hydration therapy reduces the development of CI-AKI in patients with NSTEMI at low risk for CI-AKI. We suggest administering routine hydration therapy in all ACS patients regardless of eGFR values. 10.1097/MCA.0000000000000966
    Comparison of Intravenous and Oral Hydration in the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Low-Risk Patients: A Randomized Trial. Martin-Moreno Paloma L,Varo Nerea,Martínez-Ansó Eduardo,Martin-Calvo Nerea,Sayón-Orea Carmen,Bilbao Jose I,Garcia-Fernandez Nuria Nephron AIMS:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a common cause of renal failure. We evaluated the effectiveness of oral sodium citrate versus intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate for CI-AKI prophylaxis as well as their influence on kidney injury biomarkers. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A randomized, controlled, single-center study including 130 hospitalized patients (62.3% men), who were randomized to receive sodium bicarbonate (1/6 men, 3 ml/kg/h for 1 h; n = 43), oral sodium citrate (75 ml/10 kg divided into 4 doses; n = 43) or nonspecific hydration (n = 44) before contrast administration, was conducted. Serum creatinine and kidney injury biomarkers (cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-8, F2-isoprostanes and cardiotrophin-1 [CT-1]) were assessed. RESULTS:Incidence of CI-AKI was 9.2% with no differences found between hydration groups: 7.0% in sodium bicarbonate group, 11.6% in oral sodium citrate group and 9.1% in the nonspecific hydration group. Urinary creatinine and urinary CT-1/creatinine ratio decreased 4 h after contrast infusion (p < 0.001), but none of the biomarkers assessed were affected by the treatments. CONCLUSIONS:There were no differences in hydration with oral sodium citrate and IV sodium bicarbonate for the prophylaxis of CI-AKI. Therefore, oral hydration represents a safe, inexpensive and practical method for preventing CI-AKI in low-risk patients. No effect on biomarkers for kidney injury could be demonstrated. 10.1159/000438907
    The association between post-procedural oral hydration and risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury among ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Song Feier,Sun Guoli,Liu Jin,Chen Ji-Yan,He Yibo,Chen Shiqun,Chen Guanzhong,Tan Ning,Liu Yong, Annals of translational medicine Background:Oral hydration with water may be inexpensive and effective in the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), but its efficacy among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unknown. Methods:This was a prospective, single-center, observational study. We consecutively enrolled 308 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. All patients drank unrestricted amounts of fluids freely, whose volume was recorded until 24 hours following primary PCI. Oral hydration volume/weight ratios (OHV/W) were calculated. Adequate oral hydration was defined as a ratio over 12 mL/kg within 24 hours after primary PCI. The primary outcome measure was CI-AKI, defined as a 25% or 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine from baseline during the first 48-72 hours post-procedure. The association between adequate post-procedural oral hydration and CI-AKI was assessed using multivariable logistic analysis. Results:Post-procedural prophylactic oral hydration was implemented in 90.91% (280/308) of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. There were no differences in the sex, age, weight, index blood pressure, LVEF, anemia, diabetes mellitus, contrast volume used during the coronary procedures between groups (P>0.05). The incidence of CI-AKI was much higher in the inadequate oral hydration group (<12 mL/kg) than the adequate group (≥12 mL/kg) (53.57% . 21.79%, P=0.0002). Multivariate logistic regression showed adequate oral hydration (≥12 mL/kg) was the independent protective factor associated with CI-AKI (OR =0.349, 95% CI: 0.147-0.828, P=0.0170), after adjusting confounders, including age, female gender, baseline serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus, use of diuretics, congestive heart failure and intravenous hydration volume. Conclusions:Our study determined the association of post-procedural adequate oral hydration on CI-AKI following primary PCI, which was a potential strategy for CI-AKI prevention among patients with STEMI at very high risk. 10.21037/atm.2019.06.05
    Safe Hydration to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Worsening Heart Failure in Patients with Renal Insufficiency and Heart Failure Undergoing Coronary Angiography or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Bei Wei-Jie,Wang Kun,Li Hua-Long,Guo Xiao-Sheng,Guo Wei,Abuduaini Tuerxunjiang,Chen Shi-Qun,Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful,Chen Peng-Yuan,Chen Ji-Yan,Liu Yong,Tan Ning International heart journal An optimal hydration volume (HV) that prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with renal insufficiency and heart failure (HF) at a high risk of worsening HF (WHF) has not been determined. We aimed to determine a safe HV that prevents CI-AKI and WHF following coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with renal insufficiency and HF. We recruited 1,307 patients with renal insufficiency and HF and investigated the relationships between the peri-procedural HV/weight (HV/W) ratio, and the risks of CI-AKI and WHF following CAG or PCI. Higher HV/W quartiles were associated with higher CI-AKI rates (Q1: 6.2%, Q2: 9.1%, Q3: 12.5%, and Q4: 18.7%; P < 0.001) and a greater likelihood of WHF (Q1: 2.2%, Q2: 2.7%, Q3: 4.9%, and Q4: 11.7%; P < 0.001). The multivariate analyses indicated that excessively high HV/W ratios were associated with moderately increased risks of CI-AKI (Q4 versus Q1: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-4.00) and WHF (Q4 versus Q1: adjusted OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.21-7.88). The multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that a higher HV/W ratio was associated with significantly increased long-term mortality (Q2 versus Q1: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.36; Q3 versus Q1: adjusted HR 2.85; Q4 versus Q1: adjusted HR 2.94; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, an excessively high HV/W might be associated with a moderately increased risk of CI-AKI, WHF, and long-term mortality in patients with renal insufficiency and HF. 10.1536/ihj.17-066
    Efficacy of post-procedural oral hydration volume on risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury following primary percutaneous coronary intervention: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Song Feier,Sun Guoli,Liu Jin,Chen Ji-Yan,He Yibo,Liu Liwei,Liu Yong, Trials BACKGROUND:Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) contributes toward unfavorable clinical outcomes. Oral hydration with water is inexpensive and it may be effective in the prevention of CI-AKI, but its efficacy among patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unknown. METHODS/DESIGN:Our study is a secondary analysis on the database from the ATTEMPT study. We enrolled ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI. Eligible patients received peri-procedural aggressive (left ventricular end-diastolic pressure-guided) or routine (≤ 500 mL) intravenous hydration with an isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl) with randomization. The primary endpoint was CI-AKI, defined as a > 25% or 0.5 mg/dL increase in serum creatinine from baseline during the first 48-72 h post-procedurally. All patients drank unrestricted amounts of fluids freely, the volume of which was recorded until 24 h following primary PCI. Oral hydration volume/weight (OHV/W) ratios were calculated. The association between post-procedural oral hydration (quartiles) and CI-AKI was assessed using multivariable analysis controlling for confounders, including intravenous hydration strategies. DISCUSSION:Our study determined the effects of post-procedural oral hydration on CI-AKI following primary PCI, which is a potential strategy for CI-AKI prevention among patients with STEMI at very high risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02067195 . Registered on 21 February 2014. 10.1186/s13063-019-3413-5
    Excessively High Hydration Volume May Not Be Associated With Decreased Risk of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Renal Insufficiency. Liu Yong,Li Hualong,Chen Shiqun,Chen Jiyan,Tan Ning,Zhou Yingling,Liu Yuanhui,Ye Piao,Ran Peng,Duan Chongyang,Chen Pingyan Journal of the American Heart Association BACKGROUND:No well-defined protocols currently exist regarding the optimal rate and duration of normal saline administration to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with renal insufficiency. METHODS AND RESULTS:Hydration volume ratios (hydration volume/weight; HV/W) were calculated in 1406 patients with renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], <90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with routine speed hydration (1 or 0.5 mL/kg per hour). We investigated the relationship between hydration volume, risk of CI-AKI (increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL or 25% within 48-72 hours), and prognosis. Mean follow-up duration was 2.85±0.88 years. Individuals with higher HV/W were more likely to develop CI-AKI (quartiles: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4: 4.3%, 6.6%, 10.9%, and 15.0%, respectively; P<0.001). After adjusting 12 confounders, including age, sex, eGFR, anemia, emergent PCI, diabetes mellitus, chronic heart failure, diuretics, contrast volume, lesions, smoking status, and number of stents, multivariate analysis showed that a higher HV/W ratio was not associated with a decreased CI-AKI risk (Q2 vs Q1: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.13; Q3 vs Q1: adjusted OR, 1.51; Q4 vs Q1: adjusted OR, 1.87; all P>0.05) and even increased CI-AKI risk (HV/W >25 mL/kg: adjusted OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.24-3.59; P=0.006). Additionally, higher HV/W was significantly associated with an increased risk of death (Q4 vs Q1: adjusted hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.20-9.88; P=0.022). CONCLUSIONS:Excessively high hydration volume at routine speed might be associated with increased risk of CI-AKI and death post-PCI in patients with renal insufficiency. 10.1161/JAHA.115.003171
    Post-contrast acute kidney injury. Part 2: risk stratification, role of hydration and other prophylactic measures, patients taking metformin and chronic dialysis patients : Recommendations for updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines. van der Molen Aart J,Reimer Peter,Dekkers Ilona A,Bongartz Georg,Bellin Marie-France,Bertolotto Michele,Clement Olivier,Heinz-Peer Gertraud,Stacul Fulvio,Webb Judith A W,Thomsen Henrik S European radiology OBJECTIVES:The Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) has updated its 2011 guidelines on the prevention of post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI). The results of the literature review and the recommendations based on it, which were used to prepare the new guidelines, are presented in two papers. AREAS COVERED IN PART 2: Topics reviewed include stratification of PC-AKI risk, the need to withdraw nephrotoxic medication, PC-AKI prophylaxis with hydration or drugs, the use of metformin in diabetic patients receiving contrast medium and the need to alter dialysis schedules in patients receiving contrast medium. KEY POINTS:• In CKD, hydration reduces the PC-AKI risk • Intravenous normal saline and intravenous sodium bicarbonate provide equally effective prophylaxis • No drugs have been consistently shown to reduce the risk of PC-AKI • Stop metformin from the time of contrast medium administration if eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m • Dialysis schedules need not change when intravascular contrast medium is given. 10.1007/s00330-017-5247-4
    Safe Hydration Volume to Prevent Contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury and Worsening Heart Failure in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction After Cardiac Catheterization. Bei Wei-Jie,Wang Kun,Li Hua-Long,Lin Kai-Yang,Guo Xiao-Sheng,Chen Shi-Qun,Liu Yong,Yi Shi-Xin,Luo De-Mou,Chen Ji-Yan,Tan Ning Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology Few studies have investigated the efficacy and safety of hydration to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) and worsening heart failure (WHF) after cardiac catheterization in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; HF and EF ≥50%) patients. We recruited 1206 patients with HFpEF undergoing cardiac catheterization with periprocedural hydration volume/weight (HV/W) ratio data and investigated the relationship between hydration volumes and risk of CI-AKI and WHF. Incidence of CI-AKI was not significantly reduced in individuals with higher HV/W [quartile (Q) 1, Q2, Q3, and Q4: 9.7%, 10.2%, 12.7%, and 12.2%, respectively; P = 0.219]. Multivariate analysis indicated that higher HV/W ratios were not associated with decreased CI-AKI risks [Q2 vs. Q1: odds ratio (OR), 0.95; Q3 vs. Q1: OR, 1.07; Q4 vs. Q1: OR, 0.92; all P > 0.05]. According to multivariate analysis, higher HV/W significantly increased the WHF risk (Q4 vs. Q1: adjusted OR, 8.13 and 95% confidence interval, 1.03-64.02; P = 0.047). CI-AKI and WHF were associated with a significantly increased risk of long-term mortality (mean follow-up, 2.33 years). For HFpEF patients, an excessively high hydration volume might not be associated with lower risk of CI-AKI but may increase the risk of postprocedure WHF. 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000502
    Safe limits of contrast vary with hydration volume for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy after coronary angiography among patients with a relatively low risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. Liu Yong,Chen Ji-Yan,Tan Ning,Zhou Ying-Ling,Yu Dan-Qing,Chen Zhu-Jun,He Yi-Ting,Liu Yuan-Hui,Luo Jian-Fang,Huang Wen-Hui,Li Guang,He Peng-Cheng,Yang Jun-Qing,Xie Nian-Jin,Liu Xiao-Qi,Yang Da-Hao,Huang Shui-Jin,Piao-Ye ,Li Hua-Long,Ran Peng,Duan Chong-Yang,Chen Ping-Yan Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions BACKGROUND:Few studies have investigated the safe limits of contrast to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) based on hydration data. We aimed to investigate the relative safe maximum contrast volume adjusted for hydration volume in a population with a relatively low risk of CIN. METHODS AND RESULTS:The ratios of contrast volume-to-creatinine clearance (V/CrCl) and hydration volume to body weight (HV/W) were determined in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis based on the maximum Youden index was used to identify the optimal cutoff for V/CrCl in all patients and in HV/W subgroups. Eighty-six of 3273 (2.6%) patients with mean CrCl 71.89±27.02 mL/min developed CIN. Receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis indicated that a V/CrCl ratio of 2.44 was a fair discriminator for CIN in all patients (sensitivity, 73.3%; specificity, 70.4%). After adjustment for other confounders, V/CrCl >2.44 continued to be significantly associated with CIN (adjusted odds ratio, 4.12; P<0.001) and the risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.62; P<0.001). The mean HV/W was 12.18±7.40. We divided the patients into 2 groups (HV/W ≤12 and >12 mL/kg). The best cutoff value for V/CrCl was 1.87 (sensitivity, 67.9%; specificity, 64.4%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.24; P=0.011) in the insufficient hydration subgroup (HV/W, ≤12 mL/kg; CIN, 1.32%) and 2.93 (sensitivity, 69.0%; specificity, 65.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.04; P=0.004) in the sufficient hydration subgroup (HV/W, >12 mL/kg; CIN, 5.00%). CONCLUSIONS:The V/CrCl ratio adjusted for HV/W may be a more reliable predictor of CIN and even long-term outcomes after cardiac catheterization. We also found a higher best cutoff value for V/CrCl to predict CIN in patients with a relatively sufficient hydration status, which may be beneficial during decision-making about contrast dose limits in relatively low-risk patients with different hydration statuses. 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.114.001859