The occurrence of riboflavin kinase and FAD synthetase ensures FAD synthesis in tobacco mitochondria and maintenance of cellular redox status.
Giancaspero Teresa A,Locato Vittoria,de Pinto Maria C,De Gara Laura,Barile Maria
The FEBS journal
Intact mitochondria isolated from Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow 2 (TBY-2) cells can take up riboflavin via carrier-mediated systems that operate at different concentration ranges and have different uptake efficiencies. Once inside mitochondria, riboflavin is converted into catalytically active cofactors, FMN and FAD, due to the existence of a mitochondrial riboflavin kinase (EC 18.104.22.168) and an FAD synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124). Newly synthesized FAD can be exported from intact mitochondria via a putative FAD exporter. The dependence of FMN synthesis rate on riboflavin concentration shows saturation kinetics with a sigmoidal shape (S(0.5), V(max) and Hill coefficient values 0.32+/-0.12 microm, 1.4 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) protein and 3.1, respectively). The FAD-forming enzymes are both activated by MgCl(2), and reside in two distinct monofunctional enzymes, which can be physically separated in mitochondrial soluble and membrane-enriched fractions, respectively.
Root tip-dependent, active riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.
Higa Ataru,Miyamoto Erika,ur Rahman Laiq,Kitamura Yoshie
Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB
Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots with/without an exogenous gene (11 clones) were established by inoculation of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. All clones cultured under iron-deficient condition secreted riboflavin from the root tips into the culture medium and the productivity depended on the number and size of root tips among the clones. A decline of pH was observed before riboflavin production and root development. By studying effects of proton-pump inhibitors, medium acidification with external organic acid, and riboflavin addition upon pH change and riboflavin productivity, we indicate that riboflavin efflux is not directly connected to active pH reduction, and more significantly active riboflavin secretion occurs as a response to an internal requirement in H. albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.
The photosensitive phs1 mutant is impaired in the riboflavin biogenesis pathway.
Ouyang Min,Ma Jinfang,Zou Meijuan,Guo Jinkui,Wang Liyuan,Lu Congming,Zhang Lixin
Journal of plant physiology
A photosensitive (phs1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and characterized. The PHS1 gene was cloned using a map-based approach. The gene was found to encode a protein containing a deaminase-reductase domain that is involved in the riboflavin pathway. The phenotype and growth of the phs1 mutant were comparable to that of the wild-type when the plants were grown under low light conditions. When the light intensity was increased, the mutant was characterized by stunted growth and bleached leaves as well as a decrease in FNR activity. The NADPH levels declined, whereas the NADP(+) levels increased, leading to a decrease in the NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. The mutant suffered from severe photooxidative damage with an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and a drastic reduction in the levels of chlorophyll and photosynthetic proteins. Supplementing the mutant with exogenous FAD rescued the photosensitive phenotype, even under increasing light intensity. The riboflavin pathway therefore plays an important role in protecting plants from photooxidative damage.
Deficiency in riboflavin biosynthesis affects tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis tissue.
Hedtke Boris,Alawady Ali,Albacete Alfonso,Kobayashi Koichi,Melzer Michael,Roitsch Thomas,Masuda Tatsuru,Grimm Bernhard
Plant molecular biology
Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis is controlled by multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Etiolated T-DNA insertion mutants were screened for red fluorescence as result of elevated levels of protochlorophyllide and four red fluorescent in the dark (rfd) mutants were isolated and identified. rfd3 and rfd4 belong to the group of photomorphogenic cop/det/fus mutants. rfd1 and rfd2 had genetic lesions in RIBA1 and FLU encoding the dual-functional protein GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase and a negative regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, respectively. RIBA1 catalyses the initial reaction of the metabolic pathway of riboflavin biosynthesis and rfd1 contains reduced contents of riboflavin and the flavo-coenzymes FMN and FAD. Transcriptome analysis of rfd1 revealed up-regulated genes encoding nucleus-localized factors involved in cytokinin signalling and numerous down-regulated LEA genes as well as an auxin-inducible GH3 gene. Alteration of cytokinin metabolism of rfd1was confirmed by elevated contents of active forms of cytokinin and stimulated expression of an ARR6::GUS reporter construct. An etiolated quadruple ckx (cytokinin oxidase) mutant with impaired cytokinin degradation as well as different knockout mutants for the negative AUX/IAA regulators shy2-101 (iaa3), axr2-1 (iaa7) and slr-1 (iaa14) showed also excessive protochlorophyllide accumulation. The transcript levels of CHLH and HEMA1 encoding Mg chelatase and glutamyl-tRNA reductase were increased in rfd1 and the AUX/IAA loss-of-function mutants. It is proposed that reduced riboflavin synthesis impairs the activity of the flavin-containing cytokinin oxidase, increases cytokinin contents and de-represses synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid of tetrapyrrole metabolism in darkness. As result of the mutant analyses, the antagonistic cytokinin and auxin signalling is required for a balanced tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in the dark.
Riboflavin induces resistance in rice against Rhizoctonia solani via jasmonate-mediated priming of phenylpropanoid pathway.
Taheri Parissa,Tarighi Saeed
Journal of plant physiology
Vitamins are plant growth regulators and activators of defense responses against pathogens. The cytomolecular mechanisms involved in the induction of resistance by chemicals especially vitamins on monocotyledonous plants are largely unknown. Here, we show that riboflavin, which acts as a defense activator in rice against economically important sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani, primed the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) as a key gene in octadecanoid pathway, and enhanced lignification. Exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) application on rice induces resistance against R. solani in a manner similar to riboflavin. Application of jasmonate-deficient rice mutant hebiba and using a LOX inhibitor revealed the main role of octadecanoid pathway in riboflavin-induced resistance (IR). In riboflavin-treated inoculated plants, upregulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) expression, as a major marker of phenylpropanoid pathway, was detected downstream of LOX upregulation. Co-application of riboflavin and 5, 8, 11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) on rice leaves revealed no upregulation of PAL and no priming in lignification. Furthermore, lower levels of PAL transcripts and lignin were detected in hebiba compared with control. These findings indicate the role of octadecanoid pathway in the induction of phenylpropanoid metabolism leading to lignification as a novel mechanism of riboflavin-IR in Oryza sativa-R. solani pathosystem.
Riboflavin Phototransformation on the Changes of Antioxidant Capacities in Phenolic Compounds.
Song Juhee,Seol Nam Gyu,Kim Mi-Ja,Lee JaeHwan
Journal of food science
Eight phenolic compounds including: p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trolox, quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol were treated with riboflavin (RF) photosensitization and in vitro antioxidant capacities of the mixtures were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2' azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Mixtures containing p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid under RF photosensitization showed increases in ferric ion reducing ability and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, whereas mixtures of other compounds had decreases in both radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Hydroxycoumaric acid and conjugated hydroxycoumaric and coumaric acids were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized p-coumaric acid, whereas dimmers of vanillic acid were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized vanillic acid. RF photosensitization may be a useful method to enhance antioxidant properties like ferric ion reducing abilities of some selected phenolic compounds.
Riboflavin-induced priming for pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Zhang Shujian,Yang Xue,Sun Maowu,Sun Feng,Deng Sheng,Dong Hansong
Journal of integrative plant biology
Riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H(2)O(2) burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H(2)O(2) burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.
A survey on basal resistance and riboflavin-induced defense responses of sugar beet against Rhizoctonia solani.
Taheri Parissa,Tarighi Saeed
Journal of plant physiology
We examined basal defense responses and cytomolecular aspects of riboflavin-induced resistance (IR) in sugar beet-Rhizoctonia solani pathsystem by investigating H(2)O(2) burst, phenolics accumulation and analyzing the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (cprx1) genes. Riboflavin was capable of priming plant defense responses via timely induction of H(2)O(2) production and phenolics accumulation. A correlation was found between induction of resistance by riboflavin and upregulation of PAL and cprx1 which are involved in phenylpropanoid signaling and phenolics metabolism. Application of peroxidase and PAL inhibitors suppressed not only basal resistance, but also riboflavin-IR of sugar beet to the pathogen. Treatment of the leaves with each inhibitor alone or together with riboflavin reduced phenolics accumulation which was correlated with higher level of disease progress. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of rapid H(2)O(2) accumulation, phenylpropanoid pathway and phenolics metabolism in basal defense and riboflavin-IR of sugar beet against R. solani.
Down-regulation of free riboflavin content induces hydrogen peroxide and a pathogen defense in Arabidopsis.
Deng Benliang,Deng Sheng,Sun Feng,Zhang Shujian,Dong Hansong
Plant molecular biology
Riboflavin mediates many bioprocesses associated with the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), a cellular signal that regulates defense responses in plants. Although plants can synthesize riboflavin, the levels vary widely in different organs and during different stages of development, indicating that changes in riboflavin levels may have physiological effects. Here, we show that changing riboflavin content affects H₂O₂ accumulation and a pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana. Leaf content of free riboflavin was modulated by ectopic expression of the turtle gene encoding riboflavin-binding protein (RfBP). The RfBP-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana (REAT) plants produced the RfBP protein that possessed riboflavin-binding activity. Compared with the wild-type plant, several tested REAT lines had >70% less flavins of free form. This change accompanied an elevation in the level of H₂O₂ and an enhancement of plant resistance to a bacterial pathogen. All the observed REAT characters were eliminated due to RfBP silencing (RfBPi) under REAT background. When an H₂O₂ scavenger was applied, H₂O₂ level declined in all the plants, and REAT no longer exhibited the phenotype of resistance enhancement. However, treatment with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor diminished H₂O₂ content and pathogen defense in wild-type and RfBPi but not in REAT. Our results suggest that the intrinsic down-regulation of free flavins is responsible for NADPH oxidase-independent H₂O₂ accumulation and the pathogen defense.
Vitamin B (riboflavin) increases drought tolerance of Agaricus bisporus.
Guhr Alexander,Horn Marcus A,Weig Alfons R
Drought is a stressor for many soil-inhabiting organisms. Although plants have been extensively investigated for drought-adaptive mechanisms, little information is available for fungi. Antioxidants are especially relevant, since desiccation is accompanied by an excessive intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Riboflavin (vitamin B) is one antioxidant regulating drought tolerance in plants. A similar function may exist in fungi. Here, we examined the respiratory and transcriptional responses of Agaricus bisporus to drought and the impact of riboflavin. Mesocosm experiments with four groups were established: hyphae were treated with or without 50 µM riboflavin under drought or no drought conditions. Drought increased riboflavin content in hyphae about 5 times with, but also without, addition of riboflavin. Without addition of riboflavin, fungal respiration decreased by more than 50% at water potentials of about -20 MPa. With addition of riboflavin, respiration remained about 2-3 times higher. The transcriptional responses to only drought or only riboflavin strongly overlapped and were mainly based on factors regulating transcription and translation. This was even stronger in combined treatments. Riboflavin induced protective mechanisms in drought-stressed hyphae. Most pronounced was the methylglyoxal (cytotoxic by-product of glycolysis) detoxifying of lactoylglutathione lyase. Thus, our data suggest a stress-priming function and a role of riboflavin in drought responses of A. bisporus.
Riboflavin accumulation and characterization of cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase and riboflavin synthase in bitter melon (Momordica charantia).
Tuan Pham Anh,Kim Jae Kwang,Lee Sanghyun,Chae Soo Cheon,Park Sang Un
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the universal precursor of the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide--cofactors that are essential for the activity of a wide variety of metabolic enzymes in animals, plants, and microbes. Using the RACE PCR approach, cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (McLS) and riboflavin synthase (McRS), which catalyze the last two steps in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, were cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia), a popular vegetable crop in Asia. Amino acid sequence alignments indicated that McLS and McRS share high sequence identity with other orthologous genes and carry an N-terminal extension, which is reported to be a plastid-targeting sequence. Organ expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT PCR showed that McLS and McRS were constitutively expressed in M. charantia, with the strongest expression levels observed during the last stage of fruit ripening (stage 6). This correlated with the highest level of riboflavin content, which was detected during ripening stage 6 by HPLC analysis. McLS and McRS were highly expressed in the young leaves and flowers, whereas roots exhibited the highest accumulation of riboflavin. The cloning and characterization of McLS and McRS from M. charantia may aid the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crops.
Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.
González-Santamaría Rosario,Ruiz-González Rubén,Nonell Santi,Garde-Cerdán Teresa,Pérez-Álvarez Eva P
Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) mediated defence induction against bacterial leaf blight: probing through chlorophyll a fluorescence induction O-J-I-P transients.
,Swain Harekrushna,Ray Anuprita,Mohapatra Pradipta K,Sarkar Ramani K,Mukherjee Arup K
Functional plant biology : FPB
Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is a serious threat for rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The pathogen mainly damages the leaf chlorophyllous tissue, resulting in poor photosynthesis and causing up to 50% reductions in grain yield. In the present work, we have compared the structural and functional ability of the chloroplast of three varieties of rice with different degrees of susceptibility (TN1, highly susceptible; IR-20, moderately resistant; DV-85, resistant to BLB) treated with riboflavin (1 and 2mM) and infected with BLB, with chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool. As indicated by the chlorophyll fluorescence technique, the disease progress curve and yield data, riboflavin acted as an effective vitamin for inducing resistance against BLB. Plants treated with riboflavin showed improved PSII activity, more chlorophyll content and higher yield than the diseased plants.
Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Nie Shengjun,Xu Huilian
As a resistance elicitor, riboflavin (vitamin B2) protects plants against a wide range of pathogens. At molecular biological levels, it is important to elucidate the signaling pathways underlying the disease resistance induced by riboflavin. Here, riboflavin was tested to induce resistance against virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis. Results showed that riboflavin induced disease resistance based on MAPK-dependent priming for the expression of PR1 gene. Riboflavin induced transient expression of PR1 gene. However, following Pst DC3000 inoculation, riboflavin potentiated stronger PR1 gene transcription. Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin. Upon infection by Pst DC3000, these two enzymes were more strongly activated. The elevated activation of both MPK3 and MPK6 was responsible for enhanced defense gene expression and resistance after riboflavin treatment. Moreover, riboflavin significantly reduced the transcript levels of MPK3 and MPK6 by application of AsA and BAPTA, an H2O2 scavenger and a calcium (Ca2+) scavenger, respectively. In conclusion, MPK3 and MPK6 were responsible for riboflavin-induced resistance, and played an important role in H2O2- and Ca2+-related signaling pathways, and this study could provide a new insight into the mechanistic study of riboflavin-induced defense responses.
Transcriptional Analysis of the Early Ripening of 'Kyoho' Grape in Response to the Treatment of Riboflavin.
Wang Zhen-Guang,Guo Li-Li,Ji Xiao-Ru,Yu Yi-He,Zhang Guo-Hai,Guo Da-Long
Previous study has demonstrated that the riboflavin treatment promoted the early ripening of the 'Kyoho' grape berry. However, the molecular mechanism causing this was unclear. In order to reveal the regulation mechanism of riboflavin treatment on grape berry development and ripening, the different berry developmental stages of the 'Kyoho' berry treated with 0.5 mmol/L of riboflavin was sampled for transcriptome profiling. RNA-seq revealed that 1526 and 430 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, for the comparisons of the treatment to the control. TCseq analysis showed that the expression patterns of most of the genes were similar between the treatment and the control, except for some genes that were related to the chlorophyll metabolism, photosynthesis-antenna proteins, and photosynthesis, which were revealed by the enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The differentially expressed genes and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) analysis identified some significantly differentially expressed genes and some hub genes, including up-regulation of the photosynthesis-related and growth and development-related ; and down-regulation of the oxidative stress-related and berry softening-related and . The results suggested that the riboflavin treatment resulted in the variations of the expression levels of these genes, and then led to the early ripening of the 'Kyoho' berry.
Riboflavin applications to grapevine leaves and berries blue-light post-harvest treatments modifies grape anthocyanins and amino acids contents.
Pérez-Álvarez E P,Ruiz-González R,Nonell S,Garde-Cerdán T
Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.)
Light is an energy source and key environmental factor for plants. Out of the different light wavelengths, blue-light is one of the most relevant spectral regions because of its relation to anthocyanins biosynthesis. Among the compounds present in grapes, anthocyanins determine their main organoleptic and healthy properties; while a minimum concentration of ammonium and amino acids is necessary for a desirable development of the alcoholic fermentation. Moreover, amino acids are precursors of several volatile compounds synthetized during the fermentation. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of riboflavin (vitamin B2) applications, at harvest and one week later,to grapevine leaves in combination with post-harvest blue-light irradiation on Tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) grape anthocyanins and amino acidscomposition. The combination of blue-light irradiation and two riboflavin doses as well as theseindividual factors affected both grape anthocyanins and amino acidsconcentrations. After one week of storage, anthocyanins concentration diminished when clusters were irradiated with blue-light; while for amino acids content, the trend to increase or decrease is dependent on the riboflavin dose applied in vines and the storage time.
Vitamin B biosynthesis in plants.
The vitamin B complex comprises water-soluble enzyme cofactors and their derivatives that are essential contributors to diverse metabolic processes in plants as well as in animals and microorganisms. Seven vitamins form this complex: B1 (thiamin (1)), B2 (riboflavin (2)), B3 (niacin (3)), B5 (pantothenic acid (4)), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal (5), and pyridoxamine), B8 (biotin (6)), and B9 (folate (7)). All seven B vitamins are required in the human diet for proper nutrition because humans lack enzymes to synthesize these compounds de novo. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge of vitamin B biosynthesis in plants.
The chemical and biological versatility of riboflavin.
Biochemical Society transactions
Since their discovery and chemical characterization in the 1930s, flavins have been recognized as being capable of both one- and two-electron transfer processes, and as playing a pivotal role in coupling the two-electron oxidation of most organic substrates to the one-electron transfers of the respiratory chain. In addition, they are now known as versatile compounds that can function as electrophiles and nucleophiles, with covalent intermediates of flavin and substrate frequently being involved in catalysis. Flavins are thought to contribute to oxidative stress through their ability to produce superoxide, but at the same time flavins are frequently involved in the reduction of hydroperoxides, products of oxygen-derived radical reactions. Flavoproteins play an important role in soil detoxification processes via the hydroxylation of many aromatic compounds, and a simple flavoprotein in liver microsomes catalyses many reactions similar to those carried out by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Flavins are involved in the production of light in bioluminescent bacteria, and are intimately connected with light-initiated reactions such as plant phototropism and nucleic acid repair processes. Recent reports also link them to programmed cell death. The chemical versatility of flavoproteins is clearly controlled by specific interactions with the proteins with which they are bound. One of the main thrusts of current research is to try to define the nature of these interactions, and to understand in chemical terms the various steps involved in catalysis by flavoprotein enzymes.
Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.
Boubakri Hatem,Gargouri Mahmoud,Mliki Ahmed,Brini Faiçal,Chong Julie,Jbara Moez
MAIN CONCLUSION:This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.
Priming plant resistance by activation of redox-sensitive genes.
Free radical biology & medicine
Priming by natural compounds is an interesting alternative for sustainable agriculture, which also contributes to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with stress tolerance. Although hosts and stress types eventually determine the mode of action of plant-priming agents, it highlights that many of them act on redox signalling. These include vitamins thiamine, riboflavin and quercetin; organic acids like pipecolic, azelaic and hexanoic; volatile organic compounds such as methyl jasmonate; cell wall components like chitosans and oligogalacturonides; HO, etc. This review provides data on how priming inducers promote stronger and faster responses to stress by modulating the oxidative environment, and interacting with signalling pathways mediated by salycilic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene. The histone modifications involved in priming that affect the transcription of defence-related genes are also discussed. Despite the evolutionary distance between plants and animals, and the fact that the plant innate immunity takes place in each plant cell, they show many similarities in the molecular mechanisms that underlie pathogen perception and further signalling to activate defence responses. This review highlights the similarities between priming through redox signalling in plants and in mammalian cells. The strategies used by pathogens to manipulate the host´s recognition and the further activation of defences also show similarities in both kingdoms. Moreover, phytochemicals like sulforaphane and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid prime both plant and mammalian responses by activating redox-sensitive genes. Hence research data into the priming of plant defences can provide additional information and a new viewpoint for priming mammalian defence, and vice versa.
Regulatory mechanisms of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation and their role in plant immunity.
Yoshioka Hirofumi,Mase Keisuke,Yoshioka Miki,Kobayashi Michie,Asai Shuta
Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry
Rapid production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, such as programmed cell death, development, cell elongation and hormonal signaling, in plants. Much attention has been paid to the regulation of plant innate immunity by these signal molecules. Recent studies provide evidence that an NADPH oxidase, respiratory burst oxidase homolog, is responsible for pathogen-responsive ROS burst. However, we still do not know about NO-producing enzymes, except for nitrate reductase, although many studies suggest the existence of NO synthase-like activity responsible for NO burst in plants. Here, we introduce regulatory mechanisms of NO and ROS bursts by mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, calcium-dependent protein kinase or riboflavin and its derivatives, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and we discuss the roles of the bursts in defense responses against plant pathogens.
Riboflavin in Human Health: A Review of Current Evidences.
Saedisomeolia Ahmad,Ashoori Marziyeh
Advances in food and nutrition research
Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin, which was initially isolated from milk. There are two coenzyme forms of riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, in which riboflavin plays important roles in the enzymatic reactions. Riboflavin is found in a wide variety of animal and plant foods. Meat and dairy products are the major contributors of riboflavin dietary intake. In this chapter, the latest evidence on the relationship between riboflavin status and specific health risks will be reviewed. Also, some of the mechanisms by which riboflavin exerts its roles will be discussed. The evidence accrued suggests that riboflavin is an antioxidant nutrient which may prevent lipid peroxidation and reperfusion oxidative injury. Moreover, riboflavin deficiency may increase the risk of some cancers. Riboflavin may also exert a neuroprotective effects in some neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson disease, migraine, and multiple sclerosis) through its role in some pathways that are hypothesized to be impaired in neurological disorders such as antioxidation, myelin formation, mitochondrial function, and iron metabolism.
Rhizosphere ecology of lumichrome and riboflavin, two bacterial signal molecules eliciting developmental changes in plants.
Dakora Felix D,Matiru Viviene N,Kanu Alfred S
Frontiers in plant science
Lumichrome and riboflavin are novel molecules from rhizobial exudates that stimulate plant growth. Reported studies have revealed major developmental changes elicited by lumichrome at very low nanomolar concentrations (5 nM) in plants, which include early initiation of trifoliate leaves, expansion of unifoliate and trifoliate leaves, increased stem elongation and leaf area, and consequently greater biomass accumulation in monocots and dicots. But higher lumichrome concentration (50 nM) depressed root development and reduced growth of unifoliate and second trifoliate leaves. While the mechanisms remain unknown, it is possible that lumichrome released by rhizobia induced the biosynthesis of classical phytohormones that caused the observed developmental changes in plants. We also showed in earlier studies that applying either 10 nM lumichrome, 10 nM ABA, or 10 ml of infective rhizobial cells (0.2 OD600) to roots of monocots and dicots for 44 h produced identical effects, which included decreased stomatal conductance and leaf transpiration in Bambara groundnut, soybean, and maize, increased stomatal conductance and transpiration in cowpea and lupin, and elevated root respiration in maize (19% by rhizobia and 20% by lumichrome). Greater extracellular exudation of lumichrome, riboflavin and indole acetic acid by N2-fixing rhizobia over non-fixing bacteria is perceived to be an indication of their role as symbiotic signals. This is evidenced by the increased concentration of lumichrome and riboflavin in the xylem sap of cowpea and soybean plants inoculated with infective rhizobia. In fact, greater xylem concentration of lumichrome in soybean and its correspondingly increased accumulation in leaves was found to result in dramatic developmental changes than in cowpea. Furthermore, lumichrome and riboflavin secreted by soil rhizobia are also known to function as (i) ecological cues for sensing environmental stress, (ii) growth factors for microbes, plants, and humans, (iii) signals for stomatal functioning in land plants, and (iv) protectants/elicitors of plant defense. The fact that exogenous application of ABA to plant roots caused the same effect as lumichrome on leaf stomatal functioning suggests molecular cross-talk in plant response to environmental stimuli.