Anti-Multiple Myeloma Activity of Nanobody-Based Anti-CD38 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells. An Na,Hou Yun Nan,Zhang Qiao Xia,Li Ting,Zhang Qiong Li,Fang Cheng,Chen Huan,Lee Hon Cheung,Zhao Yong Juan,Du Xin Molecular pharmaceutics Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-Ts) are a promising strategy for the treatment of many cancers, including multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological malignancy characterized by the high expression of CD38. To broaden the applications of using CD38 as a therapeutic target for the disease, we developed a new nanobody against CD38 and constructed a CD38-CAR that was composed of this nanobody as the targeting domain, and 4-1BB and CD3ζ as the costimulatory and activating domains, in a lentiviral vector. CD3 T cells from healthy individuals were transduced with the CD38-CAR at an efficiency higher than 60%, as determined by CD38-CAR expression using flow cytometry. The CD38-CAR-Ts proliferated efficiently and produced more inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, when activated. The CD38-CAR-Ts effectively lysed CD38 MM cell lines, including LP-1, RPMI 8226, OPM2, and MOLP8, and primary MM cells from multiple myeloma patients. The specificity was demonstrated by the fact that CD38-CAR-Ts showed little cytotoxicity on LP-1 cells with CD38 knocked out or on K562 cells, which do not express CD38. CD38-CAR-Ts appeared to have a very slight cytotoxicity against CD38 fractions of T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. In addition, the lysis of CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells did not completely inhibit the development of colony-forming units. In vivo, CD38-CAR-Ts inhibited tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice that were subcutaneously inoculated with RPMI 8226 cells. These results demonstrate that the CD38-CAR-Ts constructed with the anti-CD38 nanobody are a promising approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma. 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00584
    CAR-T "the living drugs", immune checkpoint inhibitors, and precision medicine: a new era of cancer therapy. Liu Delong Journal of hematology & oncology New advances in the design and manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, bispecific T cell engagers, and antibody-drug conjugates make the antibody-directed agents more powerful with less toxicities. Small molecule inhibitors are routinely used now as oral targeted agents for multiple cancers. The discoveries of PD1 and PD-L1 as negative immune checkpoints for T cells have led to the revolution of modern cancer immunotherapy. Multiple agents targeting PD1, PD-L1, or CTLA-4 are widely applied as immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) which alleviate the suppression of immune regulatory machineries and lead to immunoablation of once highly refractory cancers such as stage IV lung cancer. Tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel are the two approved CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell products. Several CAR-T cell platforms targeting B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) are under active clinical trials for refractory and/or relapsed multiple myeloma. Still more targets such as CLL-1, EGFR, NKG2D and mesothelin are being directed in CAR-T cell trials for leukemia and solid tumors. Increasing numbers of novel agents are being studied to target cancer-intrinsic oncogenic pathways as well as immune checkpoints. One such an example is targeting CD47 on macrophages which represents a "do-not-eat-me" immune checkpoint. Fueling the current excitement of cancer medicine includes also TCR- T cells, TCR-like antibodies, cancer vaccines and oncolytic viruses. 10.1186/s13045-019-0819-1
    Recent advances in engineered T cell therapies targeting B cell malignancies. Singh Nathan Discovery medicine Immunotherapy using engineered autologous T cells has been attempted for decades, but clinical trials have only recently demonstrated efficacy. The combination of enhanced manufacturing techniques, highly efficient engineering, appropriate target selection and synthetic receptors with potent T cell activating domains has led to the development of highly-active cellular therapy products. B-cell malignancies have served as the paradigmatic diseases to initially evaluate and subsequently hone engineered T cells targeting cancer. Two engineered receptors, transgenic T cell receptors (tTCRs) and chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), have been explored clinically at several different institutions. The most profound success has been in pediatric and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in which complete response rates after treatment with CD19-directed CAR T cells approach 90%. Success has been slightly less impressive in slower-growing diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and experience is much more limited in the plasma cell disease multiple myeloma. A great deal of investigation is underway to understand the differences in response rates observed, and enhance the efficacy of these therapies in B cell cancers. Here, we review landmark and recent clinical trials, as well as pre-clinical work that demonstrates significant promise in propelling this field further in the coming years.
    Clinical Cancer Advances 2018: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Heymach John,Krilov Lada,Alberg Anthony,Baxter Nancy,Chang Susan Marina,Corcoran Ryan B,Dale William,DeMichele Angela,Magid Diefenbach Catherine S,Dreicer Robert,Epstein Andrew S,Gillison Maura L,Graham David L,Jones Joshua,Ko Andrew H,Lopez Ana Maria,Maki Robert G,Rodriguez-Galindo Carlos,Schilsky Richard L,Sznol Mario,Westin Shannon Neville,Burstein Harold Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I remember when ASCO first conceived of publishing an annual report on the most transformative research occurring in cancer care. Thirteen reports later, the progress we have chronicled is remarkable, and this year is no different. The research featured in ASCO's Clinical Cancer Advances 2018 report underscores the impressive gains in our understanding of cancer and in our ability to tailor treatments to tumors' genetic makeup. The ASCO 2018 Advance of the Year, adoptive cell immunotherapy, allows clinicians to genetically reprogram patients' own immune cells to find and attack cancer cells throughout the body. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy-a type of adoptive cell immunotherapy-has led to remarkable results in young patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in adults with lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Researchers are also exploring this approach in other types of cancer. This advance would not be possible without robust federal investment in cancer research. The first clinical trial of CAR T-cell therapy in children with ALL was funded, in part, by grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and researchers at the NCI Center for Cancer Research were the first to report on possible CAR T-cell therapy for multiple myeloma. These discoveries follow decades of prior research on immunology and cancer biology, much of which was supported by federal dollars. In fact, many advances that are highlighted in the 2018 Clinical Cancer Advances report were made possible thanks to our nation's support for biomedical research. Funding from the US National Institutes of Health and the NCI helps researchers pursue critical patient care questions and addresses vital, unmet needs that private industry has little incentive to take on. Federally supported cancer research generates the biomedical innovations that fuel the development and availability of new and improved treatments for patients. We need sustained federal research investment to accelerate the discovery of the next generation of cancer treatments. Another major trend in this year's report is progress in precision medicine approaches to treat cancer. Although precision medicine offers promise to people with cancer and their families, that promise is only as good as our ability to make these treatments available to all patients. My presidential theme, "Delivering Discoveries: Expanding the Reach of Precision Medicine," focuses on tackling this formidable challenge so that new targeted therapies are accessible to anyone who faces a cancer diagnosis. By improving access to high-quality care, harnessing big data on patient outcomes from across the globe, and pursuing innovative clinical trials, I am optimistic that we will speed the delivery of these most promising treatments to more patients. Sincerely, Bruce E. Johnson, FASCO ASCO President, 2017 to 2018. 10.1200/JCO.2017.77.0446
    Geriatric Hematology Research presented at the 2018 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting: Young International Society of Geriatric Oncology Perspective Paper. Loh Kah Poh,Christofyllakis Konstantinos,Huang Li-Wen,Mims Alice Journal of geriatric oncology 10.1016/j.jgo.2019.01.006
    Teaming up for CAR-T cell therapy. Wäsch Ralph,Munder Markus,Marks Reinhard Haematologica 10.3324/haematol.2019.228676
    [Current Status and Challenges of CAR-T Immunotherapy in Hematologic Malignancies -Review]. Cheng Xin,Wang Ya-Jie,Feng Shuai,Wu Ya-Yun,Yang Tong-Hua,Lai Xun Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has gradually became a new trend in the treatment of refractory and relapsed hematologic malignancies by developing for 30 years. With the exciting development of genetic engineering, CAR-T technology has subjected to 4 generations of innovation. Structure of CAR-T started from a single signal molecule to 2 or more than 2 co-stimulatory molecules, and then coding the CAR gene or promoter. CAR-T can specifically recognize tumor antigens, and does not be restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC), thus making a breakthrough in clinical treatment. In this review, the history, structure and mechanism of action of CAR-T, as well as the current status and challenges of CAR-T immunotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and multiple myeloma are summarized. 10.7534/j.issn.1009-2137.2018.02.054
    Engineering strategies to overcome the current roadblocks in CAR T cell therapy. Rafiq Sarwish,Hackett Christopher S,Brentjens Renier J Nature reviews. Clinical oncology T cells genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have proven - and impressive - therapeutic activity in patients with certain subtypes of B cell leukaemia or lymphoma, with promising efficacy also demonstrated in patients with multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, various barriers restrict the efficacy and/or prevent the widespread use of CAR T cell therapies in these patients as well as in those with other cancers, particularly solid tumours. Key challenges relating to CAR T cells include severe toxicities, restricted trafficking to, infiltration into and activation within tumours, suboptimal persistence in vivo, antigen escape and heterogeneity, and manufacturing issues. The evolution of CAR designs beyond the conventional structures will be necessary to address these limitations and to expand the use of CAR T cells to a wider range of malignancies. Investigators are addressing the current obstacles with a wide range of engineering strategies in order to improve the safety, efficacy and applicability of this therapeutic modality. In this Review, we discuss the innovative designs of novel CAR T cell products that are being developed to increase and expand the clinical benefits of these treatments in patients with diverse cancers. 10.1038/s41571-019-0297-y
    Successful treatment of marrow failure after CARTs for myeloma by the infusion of cryopreserved stem cells. Yan Lingzhi,Shang Jingjing,Shi Xiaolan,Kang Huizhu,Liu Wei,Xu Nan,Liu Yong,Chen Guanghua,Kang Liqing,Gong Feiran,Tang Fang,Yu Lei,Wu Depei,Fu Chengcheng American journal of hematology 10.1002/ajh.25664
    Myeloma: next generation immunotherapy. Cohen Adam D Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program The course of multiple myeloma (MM) from initial diagnosis to a relapsed/refractory state is characterized by acquisition of drug resistance as well as progressive immunologic dysfunction. Despite this, however, a number of novel therapies that work in part or solely via immune stimulation are in development for MM, with promising early clinical results. Several new whole-cell or multiepitope vaccine approaches are demonstrating immunologic efficacy in smoldering MM or as posttherapy consolidation, with trials ongoing to see whether this translates into delayed progression or elimination of minimal residual disease. Programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) inhibition in combination with immunomodulatory drugs demonstrated excessive toxicity in randomized trials; however, antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 and other checkpoint molecules continue to be explored in combination with tumor-targeted antibodies and other T cell-directed therapies. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has emerged as the next big antigen target, with multiple BCMA-specific antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and T cell-directed bispecific antibodies/bispecific therapeutic engagers (BiTEs) entering the clinic. In initial trials, the ADC GSK2857916 and the BiTE AMG 420 have demonstrated high response rates in relapsed/refractory patients, with depth and durability of responses that may end up rivaling chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies. These agents have unique toxicities that require close monitoring, but they are moving forward in larger registration studies and in combination with standard MM agents. Additional ADCs and bispecific antibodies targeting BCMA and other surface antigens (eg, CD38, CD46, CD48, FcRH5, and G protein-coupled receptor, class C group 5 member D) are moving forward in phase 1 trials and may provide even more options for MM patients. 10.1182/hematology.2019000068
    CAR T-Cell Therapy in Hematologic Malignancies: A Voyage in Progress. Holstein Sarah A,Lunning Matthew A Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics The development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy for select hematological malignancies represents one of the most remarkable therapeutic advances in the past decade. Currently, CD19-targeted CAR T-cell therapy is approved for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, there is significant interest in the application of CAR T-cell therapy to other hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, where the current focus is on the development of B-cell maturation antigen-directed CAR T-cell therapy. Despite the successes achieved to date, there remain significant challenges associated with CAR T-cell therapy and substantial research efforts are underway to develop new targets and approaches. Here, we provide an overview of the rapidly evolving landscape of CAR T-cell therapy in hematological malignancies and look ahead at the advances that will shape the future of this field. 10.1002/cpt.1674
    The application of CAR-T cell therapy in hematological malignancies: advantages and challenges. Zhao Zijun,Chen Yu,Francisco Ngiambudulu M,Zhang Yuanqing,Wu Minhao Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T cell) therapy is a novel adoptive immunotherapy where T lymphocytes are engineered with synthetic receptors known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). The CAR-T cell is an effector T cell that recognizes and eliminates specific cancer cells, independent of major histocompatibility complex molecules. The whole procedure of CAR-T cell production is not well understood. The CAR-T cell has been used predominantly in the treatment of hematological malignancies, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Solid tumors including melanoma, breast cancer and sarcoma offer great promise in CAR-T cell research and development. CD19 CAR-T cell is most commonly used, and other targets, including CD20, CD30, CD38 and CD138 are being studied. Although this novel therapy is promising, there are several disadvantages. In this review we discuss the applications of CAR-T cells in different hematological malignancies, and pave a way for future improvement on the effectiveness and persistence of these adoptive cell therapies. 10.1016/j.apsb.2018.03.001
    Immunotherapies targeting CD38 in Multiple Myeloma. Atanackovic Djordje,Steinbach Mary,Radhakrishnan Sabarinath Venniyil,Luetkens Tim Oncoimmunology Recently, the monoclonal antibody daratumumab was approved as a single agent for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory Multiple Myeloma (MM). Daratumumab is an antibody targeting surface molecule CD38 on myeloma cells and the agent is already widely being used based on its good tolerability and proven efficacy. We believe, however, that the efficacy of this drug and other anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies can be further improved by combining it with other types of immunotherapies. Furthermore, surface molecule CD38 can be used as a target for immunotherapies other than just naked monoclonal antibodies. In this report, we review the expression pattern of CD38 among normal tissues and in different types of plasma cell dyscrasias including their progenitor cells, minimal residual disease, and circulating tumor cells. We summarize the physiological role of CD38 as well as its role in the pathophysiology of MM and we present the most recent clinical trials using CD38 as a target. In addition, we highlight possible combination immunotherapies incorporating anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies and we demonstrate alternative immunotherapeutic approaches targeting the same antigen such as CD38-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. 10.1080/2162402X.2016.1217374
    T-cell phenotypes associated with effective CAR T-cell therapy in postinduction vs relapsed multiple myeloma. Garfall Alfred L,Dancy Ehren K,Cohen Adam D,Hwang Wei-Ting,Fraietta Joseph A,Davis Megan M,Levine Bruce L,Siegel Don L,Stadtmauer Edward A,Vogl Dan T,Waxman Adam,Rapoport Aaron P,Milone Michael C,June Carl H,Melenhorst J Joseph Blood advances 10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000600
    SLAMF7-CAR T cells eliminate myeloma and confer selective fratricide of SLAMF7 normal lymphocytes. Gogishvili Tea,Danhof Sophia,Prommersberger Sabrina,Rydzek Julian,Schreder Martin,Brede Christian,Einsele Hermann,Hudecek Michael Blood SLAMF7 is under intense investigation as a target for immunotherapy in multiple myeloma. In this study, we redirected the specificity of T cells to SLAMF7 through expression of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) derived from the huLuc63 antibody (elotuzumab) and demonstrate that SLAMF7-CAR T cells prepared from patients and healthy donors confer potent antimyeloma reactivity. We confirmed uniform, high-level expression of SLAMF7 on malignant plasma cells in previously untreated and in relapsed/refractory (R/R) myeloma patients who had received previous treatment with proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs. Consequently, SLAMF7-CAR T cells conferred rapid cytolysis of previously untreated and R/R primary myeloma cells in vitro. In addition, a single administration of SLAMF7-CAR T cells led to resolution of medullary and extramedullary myeloma manifestations in a murine xenograft model in vivo. SLAMF7 is expressed on a fraction of normal lymphocytes, including subsets of natural killer (NK) cells, T cells, and B cells. After modification with the SLAMF7-CAR, both CD8 and CD4 T cells rapidly acquired and maintained a SLAMF7 phenotype and could be readily expanded to therapeutically relevant cell doses. We analyzed the recognition of normal lymphocytes by SLAMF7-CAR T cells and show that they induce selective fratricide of SLAMF7 NK cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, and B cells. Importantly, however, the fratricide conferred by SLAMF7-CAR T cells spares the SLAMF7 fraction in each cell subset and preserves functional lymphocytes, including virus-specific T cells. In aggregate, our data illustrate the potential use of SLAMF7-CAR T-cell therapy as an effective treatment against multiple myeloma and provide novel insights into the consequences of targeting SLAMF7 for the normal lymphocyte compartment. 10.1182/blood-2017-04-778423
    CAR-T Cells Based on Novel BCMA Monoclonal Antibody Block Multiple Myeloma Cell Growth. Berahovich Robert,Zhou Hua,Xu Shirley,Wei Yuehua,Guan Jasper,Guan Jian,Harto Hizkia,Fu Shuxiang,Yang Kaihuai,Zhu Shuying,Li Le,Wu Lijun,Golubovskaya Vita Cancers The cell-surface protein B cell maturation antigen (BCMA, CD269) has emerged as a promising target for CAR-T cell therapy for multiple myeloma. In order to create a novel BCMA CAR, we generated a new BCMA monoclonal antibody, clone 4C8A. This antibody exhibited strong and selective binding to human BCMA. BCMA CAR-T cells containing the 4C8A scFv were readily detected with recombinant BCMA protein by flow cytometry. The cells were cytolytic for RPMI8226, H929, and MM1S multiple myeloma cells and secreted high levels of IFN-γ in vitro. BCMA-dependent cytotoxicity and IFN-γ secretion were also observed in response to CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary)-BCMA cells but not to parental CHO cells. In a mouse subcutaneous tumor model, BCMA CAR-T cells significantly blocked RPMI8226 tumor formation. When BCMA CAR-T cells were given to mice with established RPMI8226 tumors, the tumors experienced significant shrinkage due to CAR-T cell activity and tumor cell apoptosis. The same effect was observed with 3 humanized BCMA-CAR-T cells in vivo. These data indicate that novel CAR-T cells utilizing the BCMA 4C8A scFv are effective against multiple myeloma and warrant future clinical development. 10.3390/cancers10090323
    Recent advances in CAR T-cell toxicity: Mechanisms, manifestations and management. Brudno Jennifer N,Kochenderfer James N Blood reviews Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy is an effective new treatment for hematologic malignancies. Two CAR T-cell products are now approved for clinical use by the U.S. FDA: tisagenlecleucel for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adult diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes (DLBCL), and axicabtagene ciloleucel for DLBCL. CAR T-cell therapies are being developed for multiple myeloma, and clear evidence of clinical activity has been generated. A barrier to widespread use of CAR T-cell therapy is toxicity, primarily cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and neurologic toxicity. Manifestations of CRS include fevers, hypotension, hypoxia, end organ dysfunction, cytopenias, coagulopathy, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Neurologic toxicities are diverse and include encephalopathy, cognitive defects, dysphasias, seizures, and cerebral edema. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of CRS and neurotoxicity is continually improving. Early and peak levels of certain cytokines, peak blood CAR T-cell levels, patient disease burden, conditioning chemotherapy, CAR T-cell dose, endothelial activation, and CAR design are all factors that may influence toxicity. Multiple grading systems for CAR T-cell toxicity are in use; a universal grading system is needed so that CAR T-cell products can be compared across studies. Guidelines for toxicity management vary among centers, but typically include supportive care, plus immunosuppression with tocilizumab or corticosteroids administered for severe toxicity. Gaining a better understanding of CAR T-cell toxicities and developing new therapies for these toxicities are active areas of laboratory research. Further clinical investigation of CAR T-cell toxicity is also needed. In this review, we present guidelines for management of CRS and CAR neurotoxicity. 10.1016/j.blre.2018.11.002
    CD38 as an immunotherapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Bonello Francesca,D'Agostino Mattia,Moscvin Maria,Cerrato Chiara,Boccadoro Mario,Gay Francesca Expert opinion on biological therapy INTRODUCTION:Multiple myeloma (MM) is a currently incurable hematologic tumor with heterogeneous clinical behavior and prognosis. During the last years, survival improved due to a better understanding of MM biology and the development of novel drugs, although it still remains unsatisfactory in many cases: new drugs and treatment strategies are needed. CD38 is uniformly expressed at high levels on MM cells and, to a lesser extent, on the surface of normal hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells, making this molecule an interesting target for immunotherapeutic approaches. AREAS COVERED:This review discusses the preclinical and clinical experience on different immunotherapeutic agents targeting CD38 in MM. EXPERT OPINION:Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting CD38 are currently changing the treatment scenario in MM, allowing physicians to reach unprecedented results, especially when anti-CD38 mAbs are used in combination with consolidated MM treatments. Other immunotherapies targeting CD38 - such as conjugated anti-CD38 mAbs, bispecific antibodies stimulating T cells to eliminate CD38+ MM cells, and CD38-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells - are interesting strategies, currently at earlier developmental stages. 10.1080/14712598.2018.1544240
    Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Multiple Myeloma: Where Are We Now? Htut Myo Current hematologic malignancy reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The treatment landscape for multiple myeloma has evolved rapidly with the availability of multiple new drugs; however, although patient survival has improved, the disease remains incurable. Multiple myeloma is characterized by the unregulated growth of malignant plasma cells accompanied by immune dysfunction as well as disrupted immune surveillance mechanisms. Here, we analyze clinical modalities, with a focus on monoclonal antibodies and adoptive cellular therapy that enhance patients' immune systems and overcome these defects. RECENT FINDINGS:Early clinical trials with PD-1 inhibitors were promising, but randomized phase III trials with immunomodulatory drugs showed increased toxicities. Monoclonal antibodies targeting surface antigens led to substantial clinical efficiency in relapsed myeloma. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for multiple myeloma represents a significant advance, as exciting and dramatic responses in early clinical trials have been seen. Immunotherapeutic approaches are promising and can augment or replace the current standard of care, with the potential to offer extended survival for myeloma patients. 10.1007/s11899-019-0492-z
    Management of cytokine release syndrome related to CAR-T cell therapy. Chen Hongli,Wang Fangxia,Zhang Pengyu,Zhang Yilin,Chen Yinxia,Fan Xiaohu,Cao Xingmei,Liu Jie,Yang Yun,Wang Baiyan,Lei Bo,Gu Liufang,Bai Ju,Wei Lili,Zhang Ruili,Zhuang Qiuchuan,Zhang Wanggang,Zhao Wanhong,He Aili Frontiers of medicine Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy is a novel cellular immunotherapy that is widely used to treat hematological malignancies, including acute leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Despite its remarkable clinical effects, this therapy has side effects that cannot be underestimated. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is one of the most clinically important and potentially life-threatening toxicities. This syndrome is a systemic immune storm that involves the mass cytokines releasing by activated immune cells. This phenomenon causes multisystem damages and sometimes even death. In this study, we reported the management of a patient with recurrent and refractory multiple myeloma and three patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who suffered CRS during CAR-T treatment. The early application of tocilizumab, an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, according to toxicity grading and clinical manifestation is recommended especially for patients who suffer continuous hyperpyrexia, hypotensive shock, acute respiratory failure, and whose CRS toxicities deteriorated rapidly. Moreover, low doses of dexamethasone (5-10 mg/day) were used for refractory CRS not responding to tocilizumab. The effective management of the toxicities associated with CRS will bring additional survival opportunities and improve the quality of life for patients with cancer. 10.1007/s11684-019-0714-8
    Novel targets and technologies for CAR-T cells in multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukemia. Prommersberger Sabrina,Jetani Hardikkumar,Danhof Sophia,Monjezi Razieh,Nerreter Thomas,Beckmann Julia,Einsele Herrmann,Hudecek Michael Current research in translational medicine 10.1016/j.retram.2018.03.006
    Cell-based immunotherapy approaches for multiple myeloma. Kriegsmann Katharina,Kriegsmann Mark,Cremer Martin,Schmitt Michael,Dreger Peter,Goldschmidt Hartmut,Müller-Tidow Carsten,Hundemer Michael British journal of cancer Despite the arrival of novel therapies, multiple myeloma (MM) remains incurable and new treatment options are needed. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are genetically modified T cells that express a CAR directed against specific tumour antigens. CAR T cells are able to kill target tumour cells and may result in long-lasting immune responses in vivo. The rapid development of CAR technologies has led to clinical trials in haematological cancers including MM, and CAR T cells might evolve into a standard treatment in the next few years. Only small patient cohorts with relapsed or refractory disease have so far been investigated, but promising preliminary results with high response rates have been  obtained in phase I clinical trials with B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD19, CD38 and κ-light-chain CAR T cells. Additional preclinical studies on CD38 and SLAMF7-CAR T cells in MM treatment yielded preclinical results that merit further investigation. Beyond the T cell approach, recent studies have focussed on CAR natural killer (NK) cells in order to increase the reactivity of these effector cells. Finally, to investigate the targeting of intracellular antigens, cellular therapies based on engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) are in development. In this review, we discuss results from preclinical and early-phase clinical trials testing the feasibility and safety of CAR T cell administration in MM, as well as early studies into approaches that utilise CAR NK cell and genetically modified TCRs. 10.1038/s41416-018-0346-9
    Quantification of B-cell maturation antigen, a target for novel chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy in Myeloma. Salem Dalia A,Maric Irina,Yuan Constance M,Liewehr David J,Venzon David J,Kochenderfer James,Stetler-Stevenson Maryalice Leukemia research B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is expressed by normal and malignant plasma cells and is targeted via anti-BCMA chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (BCMA CAR T-cell therapy) in plasma cell myeloma (PCM) patients. Surface BCMA expression is required for CAR T-cell binding and killing. We determined the incidence and intensity of expression of BCMA in bone marrow PCM cells using flow cytometry (FC) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PCM BCMA expression was assessed by FC in 70 patients and in 43 concurrent specimens by IHC. BCMA expression was detected in 94% of patients. FC could assess BCMA expression in all specimens and expression was quantifiable (QuantiBRITE system, BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) in 89% of cases. Expression was highly variable and could be numerically classified into dim, moderate or bright levels of expression. In the 43 specimens assessed successfully by both IHC and FC, FC showed higher positivity rate (97%) than IHC (72%), indicating that FC is more useful than IHC in detection of BCMA (p = 0.002; McNemar's test). We conclude that FC is more sensitive than IHC and can be used to objectively quantify BCMA expression by myeloma cells. IHC is primarily useful when there is significant infiltration of the bone marrow by myeloma and is less sensitive with low numbers of myeloma cells. Furthermore, the ability of FC to differentiate between normal and abnormal plasma cells and to quantify BCMA on these cells, makes it a useful and sensitive tool in screening patients for CAR T-cell therapy and for follow-up post therapy. 10.1016/j.leukres.2018.07.015
    Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy - assessment and management of toxicities. Neelapu Sattva S,Tummala Sudhakar,Kebriaei Partow,Wierda William,Gutierrez Cristina,Locke Frederick L,Komanduri Krishna V,Lin Yi,Jain Nitin,Daver Naval,Westin Jason,Gulbis Alison M,Loghin Monica E,de Groot John F,Adkins Sherry,Davis Suzanne E,Rezvani Katayoun,Hwu Patrick,Shpall Elizabeth J Nature reviews. Clinical oncology Immunotherapy using T cells genetically engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is rapidly emerging as a promising new treatment for haematological and non-haematological malignancies. CAR-T-cell therapy can induce rapid and durable clinical responses, but is associated with unique acute toxicities, which can be severe or even fatal. Cytokine-release syndrome (CRS), the most commonly observed toxicity, can range in severity from low-grade constitutional symptoms to a high-grade syndrome associated with life-threatening multiorgan dysfunction; rarely, severe CRS can evolve into fulminant haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Neurotoxicity, termed CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome (CRES), is the second most-common adverse event, and can occur concurrently with or after CRS. Intensive monitoring and prompt management of toxicities is essential to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with this potentially curative therapeutic approach; however, algorithms for accurate and consistent grading and management of the toxicities are lacking. To address this unmet need, we formed a CAR-T-cell-therapy-associated TOXicity (CARTOX) Working Group, comprising investigators from multiple institutions and medical disciplines who have experience in treating patients with various CAR-T-cell therapy products. Herein, we describe the multidisciplinary approach adopted at our institutions, and provide recommendations for monitoring, grading, and managing the acute toxicities that can occur in patients treated with CAR-T-cell therapy. 10.1038/nrclinonc.2017.148
    Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy for Multiple Myeloma. Hosen Naoki Cancers CD19 Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has been shown to be effective for B cell leukemia and lymphoma. Many researchers are now trying to develop CAR T cells for various types of cancer. For multiple myeloma (MM), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has been recently proved to be a promising target. However, cure of MM is still difficult, and several other targets, for example immunoglobulin kappa chain, SLAM Family Member 7 (SLAMF7), or G-protein coupled receptor family C group 5 member D (GPRC5D), are being tested as targets for CAR T cells. We also reported that the activated integrin β7 can serve as a specific target for CAR T cells against MM, and are preparing a clinical trial. In this review, we summarized current status of CAR T cell therapy for MM and discussed about the future perspectives. 10.3390/cancers11122024
    Review: Current clinical applications of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells. Geyer Mark B,Brentjens Renier J Cytotherapy The past several years have been marked by extraordinary advances in clinical applications of immunotherapy. In particular, adoptive cellular therapy utilizing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeted to CD19 has demonstrated substantial clinical efficacy in children and adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and durable clinical benefit in a smaller subset of patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Early-phase clinical trials are currently assessing CAR T-cell safety and efficacy in additional malignancies. Here, we discuss clinical results from the largest series to date investigating CD19-targeted CAR T cells in B-ALL, CLL, and B-NHL, including discussion of differences in CAR T-cell design and production and treatment approach, as well as clinical efficacy, nature of severe cytokine release syndrome and neurologic toxicities, and CAR T-cell expansion and persistence. We additionally review the current and forthcoming use of CAR T cells in multiple myeloma and several solid tumors and highlight challenges and opportunities afforded by the current state of CAR T-cell therapies, including strategies to overcome inhibitory aspects of the tumor microenvironment and enhance antitumor efficacy. 10.1016/j.jcyt.2016.07.003
    Rational design of a trimeric APRIL-based CAR-binding domain enables efficient targeting of multiple myeloma. Schmidts Andrea,Ormhøj Maria,Choi Bryan D,Taylor Allison O,Bouffard Amanda A,Scarfò Irene,Larson Rebecca C,Frigault Matthew J,Gallagher Kathleen,Castano Ana P,Riley Lauren S,Cabral Maria L,Boroughs Angela C,Velasco Cárdenas Rubí M-H,Schamel Wolfgang,Zhou Jing,Mackay Sean,Tai Yu-Tzu,Anderson Kenneth C,Maus Marcela V Blood advances Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells (CARTs) have shown tremendous potential for the treatment of certain B-cell malignancies, including patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Targeting the B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has produced the most promising results for CART therapy of MM to date, but not all remissions are sustained. Emergence of BCMA escape variants has been reported under the selective pressure of monospecific anti-BCMA CART treatment. Thus, there is a clinical need for continuous improvement of CART therapies for MM. Here, we show that a novel trimeric APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand)-based CAR efficiently targets both BCMA+ and BCMA- MM. Modeled after the natural ligand-receptor pair, APRIL-based CARs allow for bispecific targeting of the MM-associated antigens BCMA and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). However, natural ligands as CAR antigen-binding domains may require further engineering to promote optimal binding and multimerization to adequately trigger T-cell activation. We found that using a trimeric rather than a monomeric APRIL format as the antigen-binding domain enhanced binding to BCMA and TACI and CART activity against MM in vitro and in vivo. Dual-specific, trimeric APRIL-based CAR are a promising therapeutic approach for MM with potential for preventing and treating BCMA escape. 10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000703
    CAR T Cells with Enhanced Sensitivity to B Cell Maturation Antigen for the Targeting of B Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Multiple Myeloma. Bluhm Julia,Kieback Elisa,Marino Stephen F,Oden Felix,Westermann Jörg,Chmielewski Markus,Abken Hinrich,Uckert Wolfgang,Höpken Uta E,Rehm Armin Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy Autologous T cells genetically modified with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) redirected at CD19 have potent activity in the treatment of B cell leukemia and B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Immunotherapies to treat multiple myeloma (MM) targeted the B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), which is expressed in most cases of MM. We developed a humanized CAR with specificity for BCMA based on our previously generated anti-BCMA monoclonal antibody. The targeting single-chain variable fragment (scFv) domain exhibited a binding affinity in the low nanomolar range, conferring T cells with high functional avidity. Redirecting T cells by this CAR allowed us to explore BCMA as an alternative target for mature B-NHLs. We validated BCMA expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. BCMA CAR T cells triggered target cell lysis with an activation threshold in the range of 100 BCMA molecules, which allowed for an efficient eradication of B-NHL cells in vitro and in vivo. Our data corroborate BCMA is a suitable target in B cell tumors beyond MM, providing a novel therapeutic option for patients where BCMA is expressed at low abundance or where anti-CD19 immunotherapies have failed due to antigen loss. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2018.06.012
    Preclinical Evaluation of Allogeneic CAR T Cells Targeting BCMA for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma. Sommer Cesar,Boldajipour Bijan,Kuo Tracy C,Bentley Trevor,Sutton Janette,Chen Amy,Geng Tao,Dong Holly,Galetto Roman,Valton Julien,Pertel Thomas,Juillerat Alexandre,Gariboldi Annabelle,Pascua Edward,Brown Colleen,Chin Sherman M,Sai Tao,Ni Yajin,Duchateau Philippe,Smith Julianne,Rajpal Arvind,Van Blarcom Thomas,Chaparro-Riggers Javier,Sasu Barbra J Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy Clinical success of autologous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR Ts) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma suggests that CAR Ts may be a promising therapy for hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma. However, autologous CAR T therapies have limitations that may impact clinical use, including lengthy vein-to-vein time and manufacturing constraints. Allogeneic CAR T (AlloCAR T) therapies may overcome these innate limitations of autologous CAR T therapies. Unlike autologous cell therapies, AlloCAR T therapies employ healthy donor T cells that are isolated in a manufacturing facility, engineered to express CARs with specificity for a tumor-associated antigen, and modified using gene-editing technology to limit T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated immune responses. Here, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) gene editing of B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) CAR Ts was used to confer lymphodepletion resistance and reduced graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) potential. The safety profile of allogeneic BCMA CAR Ts was further enhanced by incorporating a CD20 mimotope-based intra-CAR off switch enabling effective CAR T elimination in the presence of rituximab. Allogeneic BCMA CAR Ts induced sustained antitumor responses in mice supplemented with human cytokines, and, most importantly, maintained their phenotype and potency after scale-up manufacturing. This novel off-the-shelf allogeneic BCMA CAR T product is a promising candidate for clinical evaluation. 10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.04.001
    [Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for hematological malignancies]. Nakazawa Yozo [Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology The adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified autologous T cells targeted at the B-cell antigen CD19 is highly effective in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies. In Japan, tisagenlecleucel has been approved in March 2019, whereas axicabtagene ciloleucel, lisocabtagene maraleucel, and TBI-1501 have been tested in clinical trials. In addition, allogeneic CD19 CAR T cells from family or third-party donors have been developed for treating B-cell malignancies. Moreover, CAR T-cell therapies for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T-cell leukemia, and multiple myeloma are still under development. Our group is currently preparing a phase I study on granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-targeted CAR T cells in pediatric and adult patients with AML. 10.11406/rinketsu.60.1351