GAS5/miR-21 Axis as a Potential Target to Rescue ZCL-082-Induced Autophagy of Female Germline Stem Cells In Vitro.
Li Bo,Hu Xiaopeng,Yang Yanzhou,Zhu Mingyan,Zhang Jiong,Wang Yanrong,Pei Xiuying,Zhou Huchen,Wu Ji
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
Several studies have recently revealed the regulatory mechanisms underlying female germline stem cell (FGSC) differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, but other biological processes such as autophagy and its mechanism in FGSCs are largely unclear. The use of small chemical compounds may be a good approach to further investigate the process and mechanism of autophagy in FGSC development. In this study, we used ZCL-082, a derivative of benzoxaboroles, to treat FGSCs. Using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays, we found that ZCL-082 could significantly reduce the viability, proliferation, and number of FGSCs in vitro. Moreover, western blotting revealed that the expression of light chain 3 beta 2 (LC3B-II) in FGSCs was significantly increased after treatment with ZCL-082 for 3 and 6 h. Meanwhile, the expression of sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1) was significantly decreased. These results suggested that ZCL-082 can induce autophagy of FGSCs in vitro. Regarding the molecular mechanism, ZCL-082 could significantly reduce the expression of growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) long non-coding RNA, which could directly bind to microRNA-21a (miR-21a) and negatively regulate each other in FGSCs. Knockdown of GAS5 induced the autophagy of FGSCs, while GAS5 overexpression inhibited the autophagy of FGSCs in vitro and rescued FGSC autophagy induced by ZCL-082. Additionally, overexpression of miR-21a significantly enhanced LC3B-II protein expression while significantly reducing the expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and SQSTM1 protein in FGSCs compared with control cells. The inhibition of miR-21a significantly reduced the basal or ZCL-082-induced upregulated expression of LC3B-II, and it significantly enhanced the expression of PDCD4 while downregulating the basal or ZCL-082-induced expression of SQSTM1 in FGSCs. Furthermore, the overexpression of GAS5 enhanced the protein expression of PDCD4, but knockdown of GAS5 reduced the protein expression of PDCD4. Taken together, these results suggested that ZCL-082 induced autophagy through GAS5 functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) sponge for miR-21a in FGSCs. It also suggested that the GAS5/miR-21a axis may be a potential therapeutic target for premature ovarian failure in the clinic.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Bio Organ for Treatment of Female Infertility.
Esfandyari Sahar,Chugh Rishi Man,Park Hang-Soo,Hobeika Elie,Ulin Mara,Al-Hendy Ayman
Female infertility is a global medical condition that can be caused by various disorders of the reproductive system, including premature ovarian failure (POF), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, Asherman syndrome, and preeclampsia. It affects the quality of life of both patients and couples. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received increasing attention as a potential cell-based therapy, with several advantages over other cell sources, including greater abundance, fewer ethical considerations, and high capacity for self-renewal and differentiation. Clinical researchers have examined the therapeutic use of MSCs in female infertility. In this review, we discuss recent studies on the use of MSCs in various reproductive disorders that lead to infertility. We also describe the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and exosomal miRNAs in controlling MSC gene expression and driving MSC therapeutic outcomes. The clinical application of MSCs holds great promise for the treatment of infertility or ovarian insufficiency, and to improve reproductive health for a significant number of women worldwide.
The Importance of Small Non-Coding RNAs in Human Reproduction: A Review Article.
Kamalidehghan Behnam,Habibi Mohsen,Afjeh Sara S,Shoai Maryam,Alidoost Saeideh,Almasi Ghale Rouzbeh,Eshghifar Nahal,Pouresmaeili Farkhondeh
The application of clinical genetics
Background:MicroRNAs (miRNA) play a key role in the regulation of gene expression through the translational suppression and control of post-transcriptional modifications. Aim:Previous studies demonstrated that miRNAs conduct the pathways involved in human reproduction including maintenance of primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogenesis, oocyte maturation, folliculogenesis and corpus luteum function. The association of miRNA expression with infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure (POF), and repeated implantation failure (RIF) was previously revealed. Furthermore, there are evidences of the importance of miRNAs in embryonic development and implantation. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and miRNAs play an important role in the post-transcriptional regulatory processes of germ cells. Indeed, the investigation of small RNAs including miRNAs and piRNAs increase our understanding of the mechanisms involved in fertility. In this review, the current knowledge of microRNAs in embryogenesis and fertility is discussed. Conclusion:Further research is necessary to provide new insights into the application of small RNAs in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches to infertility.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and function in the mammalian reproductive Tract.
Chow R,Wessels J M,Foster W G
Human reproduction update
BACKGROUND:Neurotrophins of the nerve growth factor family are soluble polypeptides that are best known for their role in nerve growth, survival and differentiation in the central nervous system. A growing body of literature shows that neurotrophins and their receptors are also expressed throughout the reproductive tract. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:Neurotrophins are key regulatory proteins in reproductive physiology during development and throughout adult life. Of the neurotrophins, the literature describing the expression and function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, neurotrophin receptor kinase-2 (NTRK2), has been expanding rapidly. We therefore conducted a systematic inductive qualitative review of the literature to better define the role of the BDNF in the reproductive tract. We postulate that BDNF and NTRK2 are central regulatory proteins throughout the reproductive system. SEARCH METHODS:An electronic search of Medline (PubMed) and Web of Science for articles relating to BDNF and the reproductive system was carried out between January 2018 and February 2019. OUTCOMES:In the ovary, BDNF expression and levels have been linked with follicle organisation during ovarian development, follicle recruitment and growth and oocyte maturation. In the endometrium, BDNF is involved in cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In contrast, literature describing the role of BDNF in other reproductive tissues is sparse and BDNF-NTRK2 signalling in the male reproductive tract has been largely overlooked. Whilst estradiol appears to be the primary regulator of BDNF expression, we also identified reports describing binding sites for glucocorticoid and myocyte enhancer factor-2, a calcium-response element through activation of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transporter protein-4 (ARNT) response elements in promoter regions of the BDNF gene. Expression is also regulated by multiple microRNAs and post-translational processing of precursor proteins and intracellular shuttling. BDNF-NTRK2 signalling is modulated through tissue specific receptor expression of either the full-length or truncated NTRK2 receptor; however, the functional importance remains to be elucidated. Dysregulation of BDNF expression and circulating concentrations have been implicated in several reproductive disorders including premature ovarian failure, endometriosis, pre-eclampsia, intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) and several reproductive cancers. WIDER IMPLICATIONS:We conclude that BDNF and its receptors are key regulatory proteins central to gonadal development, ovarian regulation and uterine physiology, as well as embryo and placenta development. Furthermore, dysregulation of BDNF-NTRK2 in reproductive diseases suggests their potential role as candidate clinical markers of disease and potential therapeutic targets.
Mir-290-295 deficiency in mice results in partially penetrant embryonic lethality and germ cell defects.
Medeiros Lea A,Dennis Lucas M,Gill Mark E,Houbaviy Hristo,Markoulaki Styliani,Fu Dongdong,White Amy C,Kirak Oktay,Sharp Phillip A,Page David C,Jaenisch Rudolf
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mir-290 through mir-295 (mir-290-295) is a mammalian-specific microRNA (miRNA) cluster that, in mice, is expressed specifically in early embryos and embryonic germ cells. Here, we show that mir-290-295 plays important roles in embryonic development as indicated by the partially penetrant lethality of mutant embryos. In addition, we show that in surviving mir-290-295-deficient embryos, female but not male fertility is compromised. This impairment in fertility arises from a defect in migrating primordial germ cells and occurs equally in male and female mutant animals. Male mir-290-295(-/-) mice, due to the extended proliferative lifespan of their germ cells, are able to recover from this initial germ cell loss and are fertile. Female mir-290-295(-/-) mice are unable to recover and are sterile, due to premature ovarian failure.
miR-23a and miR-27a promote human granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting SMAD5.
Nie Mingyue,Yu Song,Peng Sha,Fang Ying,Wang Hongmei,Yang Xiaokui
Biology of reproduction
In mammals, follicular atresia can be partially triggered by granulosa cell apoptosis. However, very little is known about the functions of miRNAs in granulosa cell apoptosis. We previously reported that hsa-mir-23a (miR-23a) and hsa-mir-27a (miR-27a) were highly expressed in the plasma of patients with premature ovarian failure, but the action of these two miRNAs in follicular development was unclear. In this study, we explored the roles of miR-23a and miR-27a in the granulosa cells of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer. Using Hoechst staining, we found that miR-23a and miR-27a promoted apoptosis in human granulosa cells. In addition, the Western blotting results suggested that the miR-23a/miR-27a-mediated apoptosis occurred via the FasL-Fas pathway. Based on the results of a luciferase-reporter assay and quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses, we found that SMAD5 is a target gene of both miR-23a and miR-27a. Furthermore, knocking down SMAD5 expression increased the rate of apoptosis, as well as the levels of Fas, FasL, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-3 protein. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-23a and miR-27a target SMAD5 and regulate apoptosis in human granulosa cells via the FasL-Fas pathway. These findings provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying granulosa cell apoptosis, which could potentially be used for future clinical applications.
Non-coding RNA in Ovarian Development and Disease.
Fitzgerald J Browning,George Jitu,Christenson Lane K
Advances in experimental medicine and biology
The ovary's primary function is to produce the mature female gamete, the oocyte that, following fertilization, can develop into an embryo, implant within the uterus and ultimately allow the mother's genetic material to be passed along to subsequent generations. In addition to supporting the generation of the oocyte, the ovary and specific ephemeral tissues within it, follicles and corpora lutea, produce steroids that regulate all aspects of the reproductive system, including the hypothalamic/pituitary axis, the reproductive tract (uterus, oviduct, cervix), secondary sex characteristics all of which are also essential for pregnancy and subsequent nurturing of the offspring. To accomplish these critical roles, ovarian development and function are tightly regulated by a number of exogenous (hypothalamic/pituitary) and endogenous (intraovarian) hormones. Within ovarian cells, intricate signalling cascades and transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulatory networks respond to these hormonal influences to provide the exquisite control over all of the temporal and spatial events that must be synchronized to allow this organ to successfully complete its function. This book chapter will focus specifically on the role of non-coding RNAs, their identification and described functional roles within the ovary with respect to normal function and their possible involvement in diseases, which involve the ovary.
The miR-449b polymorphism, rs10061133 A>G, is associated with premature ovarian insufficiency.
Pan Hong,Chen Beili,Wang Jing,Wang Xi,Hu Ping,Wu Shinan,Liu Yunyun,Xu Zuying,Zhang Wei,Wang Binbin,Cao Yunxia
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVE:To determine if the miR-449b polymorphism, rs10061133 A>G, is associated with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) pathogenesis. METHODS:From January 2011 to December 2014, a total of 148 individuals with POI and 225 age-matched controls were collected from the Center for Reproductive Medicine, 1st Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University (Hefei, China). Genotyping of miR-449b rs1006113 was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-based mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Rs10061133 A>G is a highly conserved SNP locus in the mature area of miR-449b. Association analysis shows that the rs10061133 AA genotype is a risk factor for POI. CONCLUSIONS:Our study provides the first evidence that the miR-449b rs10061133 AA genotype is associated with POI risk.
Molecular Genetics of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency.
Jiao Xue,Ke Hanni,Qin Yingying,Chen Zi-Jiang
Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is highly heterogeneous in genetic etiology. Yet identifying causative genes has been challenging with candidate gene approaches. Recent approaches using next generation sequencing (NGS), especially whole exome sequencing (WES), in large POI pedigrees have identified new causatives and proposed relevant candidates, mainly enriched in DNA damage repair, homologous recombination, and meiosis. In the near future, NGS or whole genome sequencing will help better define genes involved in intricate regulatory networks. The research into miRNA and age at menopause represents an emerging field that will help unveil the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of POI. Shedding light on the genetic architecture is important in interpreting pathogenesis of POI, and will facilitate risk prediction for POI.
MicroRNA-181a suppresses mouse granulosa cell proliferation by targeting activin receptor IIA.
Zhang Qun,Sun Haixiang,Jiang Yue,Ding Lijun,Wu Shaogen,Fang Ting,Yan Guijun,Hu Yali
Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, promotes the growth of preantral follicles and the proliferation of granulosa cells. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs in activin-mediated granulosa cell proliferation. Here, we reported a dose- and time-dependent suppression of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) expression by activin A in mouse granulosa cells (mGC). Overexpression of miR-181a in mGC suppressed activin receptor IIA (acvr2a) expression by binding to its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), resulting in down-regulation of cyclin D2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, leading to inhibition of the cellular proliferation, while overexpression of acvr2a attenuated the suppressive effect of miR-181a on mGC proliferation. Consistent with the inhibition of acvr2a expression, miR-181a prevented the phosphorylation of the activin intracellular signal transducer, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2 (Smad2), leading to the inactivation of activin signaling pathway. Interestingly, we found that miR-181a expression decreased in ovaries of mice at age of 8, 12, and 21 days, as compared with that in ovaries of 3-day old mice, and its level was reduced in preantral and antral follicles of mice compared with that in primary ones. Moreover, the level of miR-181a in the blood of patients with premature ovarian failure was significantly increased compared with that in normal females. This study identifies an interplay between miR-181a and acvr2a, and reveals an important role of miR-181a in regulating granulosa cell proliferation and ovarian follicle development.
Answer to Controversy: miR-10a Replacement Approaches Do Not Offer Protection against Chemotherapy-Induced Gonadotoxicity in Mouse Model.
Alexandri Chrysanthi,Stratopoulou Christina-Anna,Demeestere Isabelle
International journal of molecular sciences
It is well known that chemotherapeutic agents may lead to premature ovarian failure and infertility. Therefore, fertility preservation is highly recommended for female cancer survivors. Despite the currently available techniques, new, non-invasive methods need to be developed to protect the ovarian follicles during oncological treatments. MicroRNAs can be effective tools in this field, as they alter their expression during chemotherapy exposure, and hence they can be useful to minimize the off-target toxicity. Previously, we identified several miRNAs with an important role in newborn mouse ovaries exposed to chemotherapy; among them, the miR-10a was one of the most downregulated miRNAs. Given the controversial role of miR-10a in the ovarian function, we decided to investigate its implication in chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity. The downregulated levels of miR-10a were restored by a liposome system conjugated with a mimic miR-10a, and the overexpressed miR-10a prevented the upregulation of the targeted gene, phosphatase and tensin homolog (). The apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) Assay and expression quantification, while histological studies were also performed to evaluate the follicle count and development. Our results showed that the miR-10a replacement could not protect the ovaries from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, whereas the targeting of may affect the follicle activation via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. Consequently, the application of miR-10a in fertility preservation is not recommended, and the role of miR-10a needs to be further elucidated.
The Role of microRNAs in Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Health and Disease.
Tu Jiajie,Cheung Albert Hoi-Hung,Chan Clement Leung-Kwok,Chan Wai-Yee
Frontiers in endocrinology
The granulosa cell (GC) is a critical somatic component of the ovary. It is essential for follicle development by supporting the developing oocyte, proliferating and producing sex steroids and disparate growth factors. Knowledge of the GC's function in normal ovarian development and function, and reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF), is largely acquired through clinical studies and preclinical animal models. Recently, microRNAs have been recognized to play important regulatory roles in GC pathophysiology. Here, we examine the recent findings on the role of miRNAs in the GC, including four related signaling pathways (Transforming growth factor-β pathway, Follicle-stimulating hormones pathway, hormone-related miRNAs, Apoptosis-related pathways) and relevant diseases. Therefore, miRNAs appear to be important regulators of GC function in both physiological and pathological conditions. We suggest that targeting specific microRNAs is a potential therapeutic option for treating ovary-related diseases, such as PCOS, POF, and GCT.
Downregulation of microRNA‑146a inhibits ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis by simultaneously targeting interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6.
Chen Xi,Xie Mingxuan,Liu Da,Shi Ke
Molecular medicine reports
Premature ovarian failure (POF), an ovarian disorder of multifactorial origin, is defined as the occurrence of amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism and hypoestrogenism in females <40 years old. Apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells is important in POF and understanding the regulatory mechanism underlying ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis may be beneficial for the management of POF. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRs) have a regulatory function in oocyte maturation and ovarian follicular development. In the present study, the expression of miR‑146a in plasma and ovarian granulosa cells obtained from patients with POF, its effect on the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells and the possible underlying mechanisms were examined. The present study demonstrated that compared with the control groups, the expression of miR‑146a in the plasma and in ovarian granulosa cells of patients with POF was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, it was found that miR‑146a simultaneously targeted interleukin‑1 receptor‑associated kinase (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor‑associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which regulated the activity of nuclear factor‑κB and IκBα. In addition, the results demonstrated that inhibition of the caspase cascade by caspase inhibitors attenuated the effects of miR‑146a on ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that miR‑146a has an important promoting effect on the apoptosis of granulosa cells by targeting IRAK1 and TRAF6 via the caspase cascade pathway. These results may be useful for the management of POF.
Exosomal miR-10a derived from amniotic fluid stem cells preserves ovarian follicles after chemotherapy.
Xiao Guan-Yu,Cheng Chun-Chun,Chiang Yih-Shien,Cheng Winston Teng-Kuei,Liu I-Hsuan,Wu Shinn-Chih
Chemotherapy (CTx)-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in woman remains clinically irreversible. Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) have shown the potential to treat CTx-induced POF; however, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we demonstrate that AFSC-derived exosomes recapitulate the anti-apoptotic effect of AFSCs on CTx-damaged granulosa cells (GCs), which are vital for the growth of ovarian follicles. AFSC-derived exosomes prevent ovarian follicular atresia in CTx-treated mice via the delivery of microRNAs in which both miR-146a and miR-10a are highly enriched and their potential target genes are critical to apoptosis. The down-regulation of these two miRNAs in AFSC-derived exosomes attenuates the anti-apoptotic effect on CTx-damaged GCs in vitro. Further, the administration of these miRNAs recapitulates the effects both in vitro and in vivo, in which miR-10a contributes a dominant influence. Our findings illustrate that miR-10a has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of POF.
MicroRNA-133b stimulates ovarian estradiol synthesis by targeting Foxl2.
Dai Anyi,Sun Haixiang,Fang Ting,Zhang Qun,Wu Shaogen,Jiang Yue,Ding Lijun,Yan Guijun,Hu Yali
Forkhead L2 (Foxl2) is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells and participates in steroidogenesis by transcriptionally regulating target genes such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and CYP19A1. In this study, a direct link between microRNA-133b (miR-133b) and Foxl2-mediated estradiol release in granulosa cells was established. miR-133b was involved in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced estrogen production. Luciferase assays confirmed that miR-133b was bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of Foxl2 mRNA. Consistent with this finding, miR-133b overexpression reduced the Foxl2 levels. Furthermore, miR-133b inhibited Foxl2 binding to the StAR and CYP19A1 promoter sequences. These results demonstrate that miR-133b down-regulates Foxl2 expression in granulosa cells by directly targeting the 3'UTR, thus inhibiting the Foxl2-mediated transcriptional repression of StAR and CYP19A1to promote estradiol production.
Overexpression of miR-21 in stem cells improves ovarian structure and function in rats with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by targeting PDCD4 and PTEN to inhibit granulosa cell apoptosis.
Fu Xiafei,He Yuanli,Wang Xuefeng,Peng Dongxian,Chen Xiaoying,Li Xinran,Wang Qing
Stem cell research & therapy
BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe complication affecting tumor patients at a childbearing age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can partially restore the ovarian structure and function damaged by chemotherapy. miR-21 is a microRNA that can regulate cell apoptosis. This study discusses the repair effect and mechanism of MSCs overexpressing miR-21 on chemotherapy-induced POF. METHODS:Rat MSCs and granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated in vitro. MSCs were transfected with miR-21 lentiviral vector (LV-miR-21) to obtain MSCs stably expressing miR-21 (miR-21-MSCs). The microenvironment of an ovary receiving chemotherapy was mimicked by adding phosphamide mustard (PM) into the cellular culture medium. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 were detected in MSCs. Apoptosis was induced by adding PM into the culture medium for GCs, which were cocultured with miR-21-MSCs. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were detected. The chemotherapy-induced POF model was built into rats by intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide injection. miR-21-MSCs were transplanted into the bilateral ovary. The rats were sacrificed at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the last injection. The ovarian weights, follicle count, estrous cycle, and sex hormone levels (estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were detected. Apoptosis of GCs was determined by TUNEL assay. The miR-21 and mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were determined. RESULTS:The apoptosis decreased in MSCs transfected with miR-21. The mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 was downregulated. GCs cocultured with miR-21-MSCs showed a decreased apoptosis, an upregulation of miR-21, and a downregulation of PTEN and PDCD4. Following the injection of miR-21-MSCs, the ovarian weight and follicle counts increased; E levels increased while FSH levels decreased, with less severe apoptosis of GCs. The miR-21 expression in the ovaries was upregulated, while the mRNA expression and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were downregulated. CONCLUSIONS:Overexpression of miR-21 in MSCs promoted efficacy against chemotherapy-induced POF and its improvement of the repair effect was related to the inhibition of GC apoptosis by targeting PTEN and PDCD4.
miR-644-5p carried by bone mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes targets regulation of p53 to inhibit ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis.
Sun Bo,Ma Yujia,Wang Fang,Hu Linli,Sun Yingpu
Stem cell research & therapy
BACKGROUND:This article aims to reveal the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived exosomes on premature ovarian failure (POF). METHODS:Exosomes were collected from BMSCs and were used to treat cisplatin-induced POF mouse models. Pathological changes of ovarian tissue were detected by using HE staining and by Western blot that detected the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. In cisplatin-induced primary granulosa cell injury, exosomes were co-cultured with the granulosa cells. The apoptosis or viability of granulosa cells was analyzed by flow cytometry or MTT, respectively. In Target scan and microT-CDS databases, an intersection of miRNAs targeting to p53 was found. The expressions of miRNAs in BMSC-derived exosomes were detected by qRT-PCR. Besides, miR-664-5p targeted to p53 of cells was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS:BMSC-derived exosomes improved the follicular morphology of POF mice and inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related protein. By co-culture of exosomes and primary granulosa cells, BMSC-derived exosomes repressed cisplatin-induced granulosa cells apoptosis and increased cells viability, while these effects were abrogated after the exosome-containing RNA was degraded by RNase. By Target scan, microT-CDS and qRT-PCR, miR-664-5p was regarded as the dominated RNA in BMSC-derived exosomes. By dual-luciferase reporter assay, miR-664-5p negatively regulated p53 luciferase activity. After shRNA interfering miR-664-5p of BMSC, BMSC-derived exosomes exerted no protective effect on cisplatin-induced granulosa cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION:Our results indicated that miR-644-5p carried by BMSC-derived exosomes inhibited the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cell by targeting p53 of cells, suggesting that miR-644-5p had the potential to treat POF and restore ovarian function.
MicroRNAs in ovarian function and disorders.
Li Ying,Fang Ying,Liu Ying,Yang Xiaokui
Journal of ovarian research
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small, noncoding single-stranded RNA molecules approximately 22 nucleotides in length. miRNAs are involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of various important cellular physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and hormone biosynthesis and secretion. Ovarian follicles are the key functional units of female reproduction, and the development of these follicles is a complex and precise process accompanied by oocyte maturation as well as surrounding granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation. Numerous miRNAs expressed in the ovary regulate ovarian follicle growth, atresia, ovulation and steroidogenesis and play an important role in ovarian disorders. This review considers recent advances in the identification of miRNAs involved in the regulation of ovarian function as well as the possible influence of miRNAs on ovarian-derived disorders, such as ovarian cancer, polycystic ovarian syndrome and premature ovarian failure. An improved understanding of the regulation of ovarian function by miRNAs may shed light on new strategies for ovarian biology and ovarian disorders.
MicroRNA-132 promotes estradiol synthesis in ovarian granulosa cells via translational repression of Nurr1.
Wu Shaogen,Sun Haixiang,Zhang Qun,Jiang Yue,Fang Ting,Cui Isabelle,Yan Guijun,Hu Yali
Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
BACKGROUND:Estrogen synthesis is an important function of the mammalian ovary. Estrogen plays important roles in many biological processes, including follicular development, oocyte maturation and endometrial proliferation, and dysfunctions in estrogen synthesis contribute to the development of polycystic ovary syndrome and premature ovarian failure. Classical signaling cascades triggered by follicle-stimulating hormone induce estrogen synthesis via the upregulation of Cyp19a1 in granulosa cells (GCs). This study aimed to determine the effect of microRNA-132 (miR-132) on estradiol synthesis in GCs. METHODS:Primary mouse GCs were collected from ovaries of 21-day-old immature ICR mice through follicle puncture. GCs were cultured and treated with the stable cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog 8-Br-cAMP or transfected with miR-132 mimics, Nurr1-specific small interfering RNA oligonucleotides and Flag-Nurr1 plasmids. Concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in culture medium were determined by an automated chemiluminescence-based assay. Quantitative real time PCR and western blot were performed to identify the effect of miR-132 on Cyp19a1, Cyp11a1 and an orphan nuclear receptor-Nurr1 expression in GCs. Direct suppression of Nurr1 via its 3'-untranslated region by miR-132 were further verified using luciferase reporter assays. RESULTS:The expression level of miR-132 in cultured mouse GCs was significantly elevated during 48 h of treatment with 8-Br-cAMP. The synthesis of estradiol increased after the overexpression of miR-132 in mouse GCs. The real-time PCR results demonstrated that miR-132 induced the expression of Cyp19a1 significantly. Nurr1, an orphan nuclear receptor that suppresses Cyp19a1 expression, was found to be a direct target of miR-132. Nurr1 was suppressed by miR-132, as indicated by a luciferase assay and Western blotting. The knockdown of Nurr1 primarily elevated the synthesis of estradiol and partially attenuated the miR-132-induced estradiol elevation, and the ectopic expression of Flag-Nurr1 abrogated the stimulatory effect of miR-132 on estradiol synthesis in mouse GCs. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that miR-132 is involved in the cAMP signaling pathway and promotes estradiol synthesis via the translational repression of Nurr1 in ovarian GCs.
Human Amniotic Epithelial Cell-Derived Exosomes Restore Ovarian Function by Transferring MicroRNAs against Apoptosis.
Zhang Qiuwan,Sun Junyan,Huang Yating,Bu Shixia,Guo Ying,Gu Tingting,Li Boning,Wang Chunhui,Lai Dongmei
Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is one of the most common complications among female patients with tumors treated with chemotherapy and requires advanced treatment strategies. Human amniotic epithelial cell (hAEC)-based therapy mediates tissue regeneration in a variety of diseases, and increasing evidence suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of hAECs mainly depends on paracrine action. This study aimed to identify exosomes derived from hAECs and explored the therapeutic potential in ovaries damaged by chemotherapy and the underlying molecular mechanism. hAEC-derived exosomes exhibited a cup- or sphere-shaped morphology with a mean diameter of 100 nm and were positive for Alix, CD63, and CD9. hAEC exosomes increased the number of follicles and improved ovarian function in POF mice. During the early stage of transplantation, hAEC exosomes significantly inhibited granulosa cell apoptosis, protected the ovarian vasculature from damage, and were involved in maintaining the number of primordial follicles in the injured ovaries. Enriched microRNAs (miRNAs) existed in hAEC exosomes, and target genes were enriched in phosphatidylinositol signaling and apoptosis pathways. Studies in vitro demonstrated that hAEC exosomes inhibited chemotherapy-induced granulosa cell apoptosis via transferring functional miRNAs, such as miR-1246. Our findings demonstrate that hAEC-derived exosomes have the potential to restore ovarian function in chemotherapy-induced POF mice by transferring miRNAs.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomal miR-144-5p improves rat ovarian function after chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure by targeting PTEN.
Yang Meiling,Lin Li,Sha Chunli,Li Taoqiong,Zhao Dan,Wei Hong,Chen Qi,Liu Yueqin,Chen Xiaofang,Xu Wenlin,Li Yuefeng,Zhu Xiaolan
Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in women is currently clinically irreversible. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cellular therapeutic strategy for POF. However, the underlying mechanism governing the efficacy of BMSCs in treating POF has not been determined. In this study, we show that BMSC and BMSC-derived exosome transplantation can significantly recover the estrus cycle, increase the number of basal and sinus follicles in POF rats, increase estradiol (E) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, and reduce follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in the serum. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BMSC-derived exosomes prevent ovarian follicular atresia in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-treated rats via the delivery of miR-144-5p, which can be transferred to cocultured CTX-damaged granulosa cells (GCs) to decrease GC apoptosis. A functional assay revealed that overexpression of miR-144-5p in BMSCs showed efficacy against CTX-induced POF, and the improvement in the repair was related to the inhibition of GC apoptosis by targeting PTEN. The opposite effect was exhibited when miR-144-5p was inhibited. Taken together, our experimental results provide new information regarding the potential of using exosomal miR-144-5p to treat ovarian failure.
Genetics of premature ovarian failure.
Bilgin Ekrem M,Kovanci Ertug
Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:To provide an overview on the genetic basis of premature ovarian failure (POF) with specific attention to recently published molecular genetic studies. RECENT FINDINGS:POF is an insidious cause of female infertility. Despite enormous efforts to understand the genetic pathogenesis, we know almost nothing but Turner syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. The era of genome-wide association studies opened a new window into the understanding of the complex, polygenic nature of ovarian failure by identifying several candidate regions. Most of the genes in these regions are waiting for confirmation in isolated POF cohorts. Recently, molecular evidence on the regulatory role of small noncoding RNAs in folliculogenesis and oocyte development began to emerge. The association between certain microRNA polymorphisms and POF has been reported. SUMMARY:Although there exist numerous candidate genes in the literature, a few of them have comprehensive and consistent molecular workup that showed strong genotype/phenotype association.
Association of miR-146aC>G, miR-196a2T>C, and miR-499A>G polymorphisms with risk of premature ovarian failure in Korean women.
Rah HyungChul,Jeon Young Joo,Shim Sung Han,Cha Sun Hee,Choi Dong Hee,Kwon Hwang,Kim Ji Hyang,Shin Ji Eun,Kim Nam Keun
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.)
We investigated whether microRNA (miRNA) polymorphisms (miR-146aC>G, miR-196a2T>C, and miR-499A>G) confer risk of premature ovarian failure (POF) in Korean women. DNA samples from 136 patients with POF and 234 controls were genotyped for the 3 miRNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The miR-146aCG/miR-196a2TC combined genotype was less frequent in patients than in controls (P < .05), conferring less susceptibility. Using haplotype-based multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis, the C-C-A and G-T-A inferred haplotypes (miR-146a/miR-196a2/miR-499) were less frequent in patients, suggesting protective effects (P < .05 for each), whereas the C-T-A and G-C-A haplotypes were more frequent in patients (P < .05 for each). The C-T and G-C haplotypes (miR-146a/miR-196a2) were more frequent in patients, whereas the C-C and G-T haplotypes were less frequent in patients (P < .05 for each). However, none of the 3 miRNA polymorphisms alone was associated with POF risk. Our findings suggest that putative gene-gene interaction between miR-146 and miR-196a2 may be involved in POF development.
MicroRNA-125a-5p induces mouse granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.
Wang Chaojun,Li Donghua,Zhang Suyun,Xing Yan,Gao Yingchun,Wu Jie
Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
OBJECTIVE:Premature ovarian failure, a reproductive dysfunction characterized by follicle loss leads to premature menopause. Apoptosis of granulosa cells may be responsible for the associated follicle depletion. MicroRNAs are expressed abundantly in granulosa cells and play an important role in follicular atresia. Evidence suggests that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in follicle growth and female fertility. METHODS:We incubated cultured mouse granulosa cells (mGCs) with increasing doses of cisplatin (CP) for varying periods. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and protein expression of cleaved caspase-3. Western blot analysis was used to assess STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 after mGCs were transfected with a microRNA-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) mimic and a miR-125a-5p inhibitor, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to determine the relationship between miR-125a-5p and STAT3. RESULTS:CP reduced mGC viability, progesterone levels, and estradiol levels. miR-125a-5p was up-regulated in CP-treated mGCs, whereas STAT3 was down-regulated. Increased apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 were observed in mGCs transfected with a miR-125a-5p mimic or STAT3 interference fragment. Protein expression of STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 was up-regulated or down-regulated when transfected with a miR-125a-5p inhibitor or miR-125a-5p mimic, respectively. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-125a-5p targets the 3' untranslated region of STAT3. CONCLUSIONS:Overexpression of miR-125a-5p promotes mGC apoptosis by targeting STAT3. Our findings imply the important role of miR-125a-5p in the pathogenesis of premature ovarian failure.
Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs in premature ovarian failure patients and the potential regulatory function of mir-23a in granulosa cell apoptosis.
Yang Xiaokui,Zhou Ying,Peng Sha,Wu Liang,Lin Hai-Yan,Wang Shuyu,Wang Hongmei
Reproduction (Cambridge, England)
Recent studies implicate the regulatory function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in oocyte maturation and ovarian follicular development. Differentially expressed miRNAs are found in the plasma of premature ovarian failure (POF) patients and normal cycling women. In this study, miRNA-regulated signaling pathways and related genes were described using Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. The effect of mir-23a on granulosa cell apoptosis was also studied by examining the protein expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and caspase-3, followed by subsequent counting of apoptotic cells after Hoechst 33258 staining. Both GO analysis and pathway analysis suggested that many signaling pathways, including the AKT signaling pathway, steroid hormone receptor signaling pathways, and others, were regulated by this group of differentially expressed miRNAs. A decrease in XIAP expression (mRNA and protein level) and caspase-3 protein levels and an increase in cleaved caspase-3 protein were observed in human ovarian granulosa cells transfected with pre-mir-23a, along with an increased occurrence of apoptosis. In conclusion, differentially expressed miRNAs in the plasma of POF patients may have regulatory effects on proliferation and apoptosis of granulosa cells by affecting different signaling pathways. Mir-23a may play important roles in regulating apoptosis via decreasing XIAP expression in human ovarian granulosa cells.
Induction of miR-15a expression by tripterygium glycosides caused premature ovarian failure by suppressing the Hippo-YAP/TAZ signaling effector Lats1.
Ai Ai,Xiong Ying,Wu Beiling,Lin Jiajia,Huang Yongyi,Cao Yilin,Liu Te
Tripterygium glycosides (TGs) are chemotherapeutic drugs and immunosuppressant agents for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. We have previously reported that TGs induces premature ovarian failure (POF) by inducing cytotoxicity in ovarian granulosa cells (OGCs). Hence, we report that TGs suppress the expression of the Hippo-YAP/TAZ pathway in murine OGCs in vitro and in vivo. We found that the expressions of miR-181b, miR-15a, and miR-30d, were elevated significantly in the POF. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-15a targets Lats1 through a miR-15a binding site in the Lats1 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-15a in mOGCs not only inhibited proliferation and growth of mOGCs, but also induced aging of mOGCs. Western blot and qPCR analysis indicated that miR-15a suppresses the expression of the Hippo-YAP/TAZ pathway in mOGCs. When the exogenous miR-15a was expressed on mouse OGCs, it could elevate the cytotoxicity effect of TG on mOGCs. We conclude that tripterygium glycosides promote cytotoxicity, senescence, and apoptosis in ovarian granulosa cells by inducing endogenous miR-15a expression and inhibiting the Hippo-YAP/TAZ pathway.
miR-15b induces premature ovarian failure in mice via inhibition of α-Klotho expression in ovarian granulosa cells.
Liu Te,Liu Yan,Huang Yongyi,Chen Jiulin,Yu Zhihua,Chen Chuan,Lai Lingyun
Free radical biology & medicine
A thorough understanding of epigenetics regulatory mechanisms of premature ovarian failure (POF) is still lacking. Here, we found that cyclophosphamide induced significantly decrease in α-Klotho (Kl) expression in mouse ovarian granulosa cells (mOGCs), suggesting that cyclophosphamide inhibited Kl expression. Cyclophosphamide also significantly accelerated ageing and led to a decline in the pregnancy rate of C. elegans. We subsequently noted that the pathological condition exhibited by Kl mice was similar to that observed in cyclophosphamide-induced POF mice. Furthermore, the mOGCs in both types of mice showed significant signs of oxidative stress damage, including decreased SOD and ATP, increased ROS levels. Detailed analyses revealed that the decreased Kl expression led to the reduced expression of autophagy-related proteins in mOGCs, which resulted in decreased autophagy activity. Finally, we found that cyclophosphamide attenuated the autophagy function of mOGCs via upregulating microRNA-15b expression, which silenced the endogenous Kl mRNA expression and stimulated the activity of the downstream TGFβ1/Smad pathway. Therefore, we demonstrated that Kl was one of the key inhibitory factors in the development of POF. It elucidated the underlying epigenetic regulatory mechanism, whereby cyclophosphamide-dependent microRNA-15b inhibited Kl expression, leading to the reduced ability of mOGCs to induce autophagy and ROS scavenging, ultimately causing POF.
MicroRNA-22-3p is down-regulated in the plasma of Han Chinese patients with premature ovarian failure.
Dang Yujie,Zhao Shidou,Qin Yingying,Han Ting,Li Weiping,Chen Zi-Jiang
Fertility and sterility
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether plasma microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed between women with and without premature ovarian failure (POF), and to uncover the association of miRNAs with risk of POF. DESIGN:Microarray with real-time polymerase chain reaction validation. SETTING:University hospital. PATIENT(S):A total of 140 individuals with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 140 age- and body mass index-matched control subjects of Han Chinese ancestry. INTERVENTION(S):None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Relative miRNA expression levels in plasma of POF and control group. RESULT(S):Fifty-one differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by chip-based discovery stage between ten patients with POF and ten control subjects, among which nine miRNAs (let-7b-5p, let-7c, miR-15b-5p, miR-22-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR-23b-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-151a-5p, and miR-151b) were selected and validated. The relative expression level of miR-22-3p was significantly down-regulated in POF compared with control subjects. MiR-22-3p yielded a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area of 0.668 (95% confidence interval 0.602-0.733) in discriminating POF from controls. In addition, logistic binary regression analysis and linear regression analysis showed the miR-22-3p to be a protective factor for POF (odds ratio 0.766, 95% CI 0.643-0.912) and negatively associated with serum FSH. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis indicated that the target function of miR-22-3p was involved in apoptosis, endocytosis, and tumorigenesis. CONCLUSION(S):Mir-22-3p showed a lower expression level in POF and was modestly effective in distinguishing POF from control subjects. The decreased expression of miR-22-3p in plasma of POF may reflect the diminished ovarian reserve and be a consequence of the pathologic process of POF.