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    Systematic review and case report: Intracranial complications of pediatric sinusitis. Patel Neha A,Garber David,Hu Shirley,Kamat Ameet International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology CONTEXT:Intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis are rare in the post-antibiotic era. However, due to potentially devastating outcomes, prompt recognition and management are essential. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to perform the first systematic review of the intracranial complications of rhinosinusitis in order to better characterize their clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment, and report a case of frontal lobe empyema secondary to pediatric frontoethmoid sinusitis. DATA SOURCES:Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION:Full-text, peer-reviewed journal publications from 1947 to January 1, 2015 in English; focus on intracranial complications of sinusitis; pediatric patients (<18 years of age); studies including data on diagnostic workup and treatment. DATA EXTRACTION:Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS:Sixteen studies involving 180 patients were included. An overwhelming majority of patients were young adolescent males (70%). The most common intracranial complications were subdural empyema (49%), epidural abscess (36%), cerebral abscess (21%), and meningitis (10%). Patients most often presented with nonspecific symptoms such as headache, fever, nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis when intracranial complications were suspected. Typical treatment included surgical incision and drainage, often involving joint neurosurgical and otolaryngological procedures, combined with a long course of antibiotics. The morbidity rate was 27%, and the mortality rate was 3.3%. LIMITATIONS:All studies were retrospective chart reviews, case series or case reports. CONCLUSIONS:A review of the currently available literature shows that with a high degree of suspicion, multidisciplinary cooperation and aggressive treatment, favorable outcomes are attainable. The most effective surgical treatment for intracranial complications remains unclear and should be investigated further. 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.05.009
    An unusual surgical indication for cerebral tuberculosis: status dystonicus. Case report. Franzini Andrea,Franzini Angelo,Levi Vincenzo,Cordella Roberto,Messina Giuseppe Acta neurochirurgica Actual indications for surgery in tuberculosis are limited to obtaining a diagnosis, acquiring tissue for culture studies, treating hydrocephalus, aspiring a brain abscess, and reducing intracranial pressure in patients with multiple tuberculomas. Tuberculosis-related movement disorders are usually treated pharmacologically. We report on a child affected by post-tubercular generalized dystonia, who progressed to status dystonicus (SD) and underwent stereotactic bilateral pallidotomy. After surgery, SD resolved, and drugs were rapidly tapered. The successful reversal of SD and the motor improvement observed in our patient demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and clinical efficacy of pallidotomy in post-tuberculous-meningoencephalitis dystonia and SD. 10.1007/s00701-018-3561-5
    Fungal and Parasitic CNS Infections. Singhi Pratibha,Saini Arushi Gahlot Indian journal of pediatrics Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis. Fungal central nervous system infections should be suspected in any child with subacute to chronic febrile encephalopathy or meningitis with or without raised intracranial pressure, seizures, orbital pain and/or sero-sanguinous nasal discharge. Diagnosis is corroborated by cerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and PCR, special stains, serological tests and neuroimaging. Management of fungal central nervous system infections include specific antifungal therapy and supportive measures for associated problems, management of underlying predisposing condition and surgical intervention in cases with localized disease, abscess or presence of simultaneous foreign body such as intracranial shunts. In addition to the fungi, several parasitic infections can cause central nervous system infections in children. Of these, authors briefly discuss cerebral malaria, and amebic meningo-encephalitis. 10.1007/s12098-017-2487-x
    Twelve-year-old girl with intracranial epidural abscess and sphenoiditis. Seto Toshiyuki,Takesada Hiroharu,Matsushita Naoki,Ishibashi Kenichi,Tsuyuguchi Naohiro,Shimono Taro,Hikita Norikatsu,Hattori Taeka,Tanaka Katsuji,Shintaku Haruo Brain & development We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with an intracranial epidural abscess and sphenoiditis. Although she had no history of sinusitis, she developed acute severe headache, fever, and vomiting. Emergent CT and MRI showed a spherical space-occupying lesion of diameter 3 cm in the right cranial fossa with rim enhancement. The lesion was thought to be an epidural abscess adjacent to the right sphenoiditis. On the basis of the MRI findings, we performed emergent surgery to drain the abscess and sinusitis because of severe and rapidly worsening headaches. The patient showed great improvement the day after the operation. Intravenous antibiotics were administered for 8 days. She has completely recovered, with neither sequelae nor recurrence at 7 months after the operation. We believe that this report will be a useful reference for cases of acute onset headache and may be helpful in diagnosis and treatment decisions for severe sinusitis-related intracranial abscess in childhood. 10.1016/j.braindev.2013.06.001
    A proposal for a tailored protocol for focal suppurative infection of the central nervous system: analysis of an institutional experience in pediatric patients. Udayakumaran Suhas,Joseph Ticini Neurosurgical focus OBJECTIVE:The incidence of focal suppurative infections (FSIs) of the brain has significantly decreased owing to the better health and fundamental conditions of the population on the one hand and earlier detection and the availability of more potent antibiotics on the other. Interestingly, the antibiotic protocols have not been well defined in terms of duration despite a prompter diagnosis, definitive management of the etiology, and the advent of various higher-generation antibiotics. In this study, the authors evaluated the current treatment protocol. Their aim was to optimize management protocols for FSIs of the central nervous system based on clinical parameters. METHODS:The study was a retrospective analysis of all children who had undergone surgical management for an FSI at the Division of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kochi, Kerala, in the period from January 2001 to February 2018. In addition to demographic characteristics, the details of culture reports and antibiotic regimens were collected. The response to treatment was compared to changes in the infective profile (C-reactive protein) and imaging. Instances of reaspiration were compared with clinical signs, imaging findings, and infective profiles. Treatment response was separated into two groups: responders within or at 2 weeks and responders beyond 2 weeks. The clinical characteristics of these two groups were compared. RESULTS:Forty-eight children were treated in the study period. Nineteen patients benefited from the 2-week (short-term) protocol of intravenous antibiotics. Twenty-nine patients required more than 2 weeks (approximately 4 weeks; long-term protocol) for resolution. Of those requiring more than 2 weeks, 69% had cardiogenic etiology. All patients were followed up with a minimum of 3 weeks of oral antibiotics. In a comparative analysis between short-term and long-term responders, only etiology was significantly different. None of the patients who had the short-term protocol had a recurrence. CONCLUSIONS:A shorter antibiotic protocol can be used successfully in carefully selected patients who are surgically treated and followed up. It is clear that the 2-week intravenous antibiotic protocol is more suitable for immunocompetent patients who have a noncardiogenic etiology. 10.3171/2019.5.FOCUS19277
    Central nervous system aspergillosis resembling haemorrhagic brain infarct in a paediatric leukaemia patient. Tan Ronald M R,Ganau Mario,Jeelani N U Owase,Tahir Zubair,Mankad Kshitij,Kachramanoglou Carolina,Prabhakar Prab,Goulden Nicholas,Samarasinghe Sujith British journal of haematology 10.1111/bjh.14161
    Chronic granulomatous disease presenting with salmonella brain abscesses. Finocchi Andrea,Claps Alessia,Serafinelli Jessica,Salfa Irene,Longo Daniela,Di Matteo Gigliola,Aiuti Alessandro,Rossi Paolo The Pediatric infectious disease journal Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by phagocytic cell defect. We describe the case of 43-month-old boy with chronic granulomatous disease presenting with Salmonella spp brain abscesses, together with a review of the 13 cases reported in the literature. 10.1097/INF.0000000000000270
    Extradural abscess secondary to Salmonella enteritidis in a child following fronto-orbital facial advancement and remodeling surgery. Millward Christopher Paul,McMullan Nicola Kate,Vaiude Partha,da Rosa Sandra Perez,Riordan Andrew,Burn Sasha Clare,Sinha Ajay,Duncan Christian The Journal of craniofacial surgery Intracranial infections caused by Salmonella are rare. We describe the first case of a child undergoing craniofacial surgery for trigonocephaly and subsequently developing an extradural abscess secondary to likely community-acquired Salmonella enteritidis. He underwent surgical washout but returned to theater for a further 2, alongside a prolonged course of intravenous ciprofloxacin. We observed extensive anterior skull bone loss at 78 days postoperatively. At 1 year 11 months, extensive anterior skull bone remodeling had taken place, and the child is currently well. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000000643
    Multiple Brain Abscesses Due to Aspergillus Fumigatus in a Patient With Liver Cirrhosis: A Case Report. Tang Hung-Jen,Liu Wei-Lun,Chang Tsung Chain,Li Ming-Chi,Ko Wen-Chien,Wu Chi-Jung,Chuang Yin-Ching,Lai Chih-Cheng Medicine Invasive cerebral aspergillosis always developed in immunocompromised host. Early diagnosis may save life in this critical condition; however, it is difficult to reach. Herein, we presented an unusual case of invasive cerebral aspergillosis in a cirrhotic patient. A 47-year-old man presented with progressive deterioration of consciousness for three days. The patient had a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class C. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain showed multi-focal parenchymal lesions, which was consistent with multiple brain abscesses. The diagnosis of invasive cerebral aspergillosis was made by molecular based laboratory methods including Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay and oligonucleotide array. Despite treatment with the antifungal agent, Amphotericin B, the patient died at the ninth day of hospitalization. Our findings suggest that liver cirrhosis can be one of risk factors of invasive cerebral aspergillosis, and support the diagnosing usefulness of MRI, Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay, and oligonucleotide array. 10.1097/MD.0000000000002813
    Brain Abscesses Due to Aspergillus nidulans Infection During Induction Chemotherapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Sadarangani Manish,Harvey Melissa,McDonald Allison,Speert David P,Dix David Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology We present the case of a 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with cerebral abscesses due to Aspergillus nidulans infection on day 28 of induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He responded well to treatment with voriconazole and caspofungin, making a full recovery. There are very few cases of invasive aspergillosis reported in children during induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia and A. nidulans is rare in the absence of chronic granulomatous disease. 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000351
    Central Nervous System Actinomycosis-A Clinicoradiologic and Histopathologic Analysis. Ravindra Niveditha,Sadashiva Nishanth,Mahadevan Anita,Bhat Dhananjay I,Saini Jitender World neurosurgery INTRODUCTION:Actinomycosis is an uncommon chronic suppurative infection that rarely affects the central nervous system (CNS). It is caused by filamentous Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that is a normal commensal but causes suppurative and granulomatous inflammation after disruption of anatomical barriers. We report the largest series of 17 histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis and review clinical, imaging, and histopathologic features. METHODS:All histologically confirmed cases of CNS actinomycosis diagnosed between January 2010 and June 2016 were retrieved from the neuropathology records. The demographic profile, clinical, radiologic, microbiologic, and histologic features, treatment, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS:Seventeen cases were histopathologically diagnosed to have CNS actinomycosis. Nine of these were primarily admitted and managed in our institute, whereas the remaining 8 were referred to us for histopathologic diagnosis. Mean age at presentation was 31.4 years, with male predilection (3.25:1). Mean duration of symptoms was 2.95 months. Systemic symptoms were noted in 5 patients, although no systemic focus was detectable. Pachymeningitis was most common type (9; 52.94%), and chronic abscess was identified in 7. History of previous surgery for osteomyelitis was forthcoming in 3. All patients underwent surgical excision/aspiration of the lesions. Histologically, lesions revealed characteristic suppurative granulomatous response with giant cells and actinomycotic colonies were detected within necrotic centers. Cultures failed to grow Actinomyces in all. Follow-up data were available in 9 patients managed in our institute, and all had good outcomes at the median follow-up period of 32 months after antibiotic treatment for mean period of 8.4weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Histopathology remains the cornerstone for diagnosis of actinomycosis as on culture confirmation is very rare. 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.04.205
    Twist drill aspiration of pyogenic brain abscesses: our experience in 103 cases. Singh Ishwar,Rohilla Seema,Kumawat Manjulata Journal of neurological surgery. Part A, Central European neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Intracranial abscesses remain a significant health care problem in developing countries. Though potentially curable, brain abscess remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The effective treatment of intracranial abscess remains controversial. Various surgical procedures like drainage, aspiration, and excision have been advocated for the management of brain abscess with variable results. Aspiration is a rapid and safe procedure, especially with use of stereotactic techniques, intraoperative ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scan guidance. However, these are not readily available everywhere. OBJECTIVE:To assess the outcome in pyogenic brain abscesses treated by twist drill aspiration (a bedside procedure) in which point of aspiration is marked with the help of three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed CT images. METHODS:From September 2007 to September 2011, a total of 103 cases of brain abscesses over 2.5 cm in size were treated by twist drill aspiration. The point of aspiration was marked with the help of 3D reconstructed CT images using fixed bony landmarks as reference, and exact measurement were taken with the help of biopsy software. RESULTS:In the present study, 103 cases of superficial brain abscesses were treated via twist drill aspiration. Out of these, 98 patients had a single abscess and five had multiple abscesses. Out of the 103 patients, 86 (83.4%) showed good recovery, 9 (8.7%) had moderate disability, 3 (2.9%) had severe disability, and 5 (4.8%) expired. CONCLUSION:Twist drill aspiration is a rapid, safe, and very effective lifesaving procedure in the underdeveloped world where stereotaxy is not readily available. 10.1055/s-0033-1342933
    Management of a transcranial abscess secondary to interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 deficiency. Pidgeon Thomas Edward,Ahmad Fateh,Hackett Scott,Rodrigues Desiderio,Nishikawa Hiroshi The Journal of craniofacial surgery Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency that predisposes to opportunistic pyogenic infections in affected patients. The presentation can be variable, and the microbiological and immunologic management of this condition has been documented; however, the atypical nature of its presentation calls for a different approach in its surgical management. This is the first reported case of transcranial progression of a soft tissue abscess in a patient with IRAK-4 deficiency, with an emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach to treat infection at an extremely vulnerable anatomic site. 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001184
    Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System. Suthar Renu,Sankhyan Naveen Indian journal of pediatrics Bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The spectrum of bacterial infection of CNS includes; focal or multifocal infections like brain abscesses or subdural empyema; or more generalized or diffuse infections like pyogenic meningitis or ventriculitis. Focal and generalized infections may co-exist in an individual patient. Prompt and adequate antibiotic therapy and occasionally neurosurgical interventions are the cornerstone of effective management. The recent emergence of several multidrug-resistant bacteria poses a threat to the effective management of bacterial CNS infections. Several adjunctive anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective therapies are being tried, however; none has made a remarkable impact on the outcome. Consequently, bacterial CNS infections in children still remain a challenge to manage. In this review, authors discuss the current updates on the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of bacterial infections of the CNS in children (post-neonatal age group). 10.1007/s12098-017-2477-z
    Pediatric intracranial abscesses. Bonfield Christopher M,Sharma Julia,Dobson Simon The Journal of infection Intracranial infections in children are a relatively rare, but potentially severe condition. Because of the potential for rapid deterioration, timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary. These infections are categorized based on their intracranial location: epidural abscess, subdural empyema, and brain abscess. They largely arise from direct extension of adjacent infection, hematogenous seeding, or trauma. Clinical presentations of intracranial infections also vary. However, common signs and symptoms include headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, focal neurologic deficits, and seizures. In general, MRI demonstrates a peripherally enhancing lesion with high signal on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Bacterial isolates vary, but most commonly are a single pathogen. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary team approach including such modalities as antibiotic therapy and surgical drainage. When possible, open surgical evacuation of the abscess is preferred, however, in cases of deep-seated lesions, or in unstable patients, aspiration has also been performed with good results. 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.04.012
    Bacillus cereus Cerebral Abscess During Induction Chemotherapy for Childhood Acute Leukemia. Dabscheck Gabriel,Silverman Lewis,Ullrich Nicole J Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology A 5-year-old boy with standard-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic anemia developed fever during induction chemotherapy. The patient had no neurological symptoms. Blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus and neuroimaging studies demonstrated a cerebral abscess. Imaging changes resolved after completion of antibiotics. Bacillus cereus bacteremia is increasingly implicated as the cause of life-threatening infections, including cerebral abscesses, in compromised patients. Positive blood cultures for this organism should prompt neuroimaging and consideration of cerebrospinal fluid sampling, as well as catheter removal. Given the worse outcome with central nervous system involvement, there is a need for increased awareness and early diagnosis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000413
    Delayed diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 in a 10-year-old boy with presentation of failure to thrive and cerebral abscess. Su Hui-Yuan,Su Yu-Feng,Liu Yi-Ching,Dai Zen-Kong The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences 10.1002/kjm2.12054
    Pituitary abscess in an adolescent girl: a case report and review of the literature. Zegarra-Linares Ricardo,Moltz Kathleen C,Abdel-Haq Nahed Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with a history of recurrent bitemporal headaches for the last 2 months. In the prior few days, she complained of neck pain, emesis, phonophobia and photophobia, but no fever. Additional symptoms included polydipsia, polyuria and weight gain in the last year. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated a cystic sellar and suprasellar mass with peripheral enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid studies showed pleocytosis. Serum hormone levels were consistent with panhypopituitarism. Transnasal sphenoidotomy was performed, and 2 mL of purulent material was drained, confirming the diagnosis of pituitary abscess. The patient completed 6 weeks of parenteral antibiotics. She improved but continued to require home hormonal replacement therapy. A repeated MRI 3 months later showed abscess resolution. In addition to tumors, pituitary abscess should be considered in children who present with headache and panhypopituitarism, particularly in those who present with signs of meningeal inflammation. Prolonged parenteral antibiotics and surgical drainage are effective. 10.1515/jpem-2014-0112
    Diagnostic challenges in otogenic brain abscesses. Lildal Tina Kissow,Korsholm Jakob,Ovesen Therese Danish medical journal INTRODUCTION:Otogenic brain abscess (OBA) is a rare complication to otitis media, but one with a potentially devastating outcome. Early diagnosis of OBA is crucial for successful treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of OBA in a Danish population and to describe its clinical manifestation, management and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS:A total of 93 patients were retrospectively enrolled by diagnosis codes for brain abscess from 1999 to 2010. Records were reviewed to register age, symptoms, clinical findings, co-morbidity, imaging, microbiology and treatment. RESULTS:Seven were found to have had an otogenic focus of infection. The incidence of OBA was 1/million, and the mean age was 43 years, ranging from ten to 81 years. Five patients had acute otitis media and two had infectious cholesteatoma. Four had previously suffered a head trauma. The young patients presented with symptoms indicative of meningitis and the elderly patients with symptoms resembling a stroke. None of the patients were treated with antibiotics before admission to hospital. No mortalities occurred, but three had sequelae in the form of hearing loss and/or neurological impairment. CONCLUSION:The OBAs manifested with symptoms mimicking meningitis in young patients and stroke in elderly patients. Absence of fever does not rule out OBA; and regardless of any present ear symptoms, an ear, nose and throat examination should be performed without delay to locate the focus of infection and to facilitate targeted treatment. FUNDING:not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION:not relevant.
    Bacillus cereus bacteremia and multiple brain abscesses during acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy. Hansford Jordan R,Phillips Marianne,Cole Catherine,Francis Joshua,Blyth Christopher C,Gottardo Nicholas G Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy. 10.1097/MPH.0b013e31828e5455
    MR Navigation and Tractography-Assisted Transcranial Neuroendoscopic Aspiration of Pediatric Thalamic Abscess. Ozgural Onur,Al-Beyati Eyyub S M,Kahilogullari Gokmen Pediatric neurosurgery AIM:Management of thalamic abscess is being considered as a contentious issue in neurosurgery. Regarding these lesions, besides removing the abscess, the most minimal morbidity is targeted during surgery and planning. MATERIAL AND METHOD:A 5-year-old female presented with the symptoms of altered consciousness and left hemiparesis. Her medical history pointed out that she was being followed up for a congenital cardiac anomaly consisting of transposition of the great arteries and a ventricular septal defect. A cranial MRI revealed 2 masses with peripheral contrast enhancement in the right frontal and thalamic regions. She was operated immediately and the right frontal mass, compatible with abscess, was totally excised with frontal mini craniotomy. The patient was hospitalized and followed up under intensive parenteral antibiotics. Control cranial imaging revealed progression in the size of the thalamic abscess, which was corroborative with the increased left hemiparesis. MR tractography was obtained and the patient underwent MR navigation and tractography combined neuronavigation-assisted transcranial neuroendoscopic aspiration of the thalamic abscess. RESULTS:The patient was stable in the early and late postoperative periods and her hemiparesis showed a dramatic recovery with no additional neurological deficits. CONCLUSION:Neuronavigation is considered as one of the techniques that aid the neurosurgeon to augment the success of surgery and minimize the morbidity, especially in critically localized lesions, i.e., eloquent areas. Combining MR navigation with MR tractography images and using them during neuronavigation to assist endoscopic procedures may decrease the surgical morbidity as much as possible. 10.1159/000501914
    Prevalence of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in patients operated for cerebral abscess: a retrospective cohort analysis. Larsen L,Marker C R,Kjeldsen A D,Poulsen F R European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology It is well described that patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) have an increased risk of cerebral abscess (CA). However, as both CA and HHT are rare, the proportion of patients with CA who are diagnosed with HHT has not been previously described. A retrospective study was carried out of all patients treated surgically for CA between January 1995 and September 2014 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Odense University Hospital. The cases were then cross-referenced with the Danish HHT database. Eighty patients aged 5-79 years were included. The incidence of CA was 0.33/100,000/year. Two patients (2.5%) were registered as having HHT. Bacterial pathogens were identified in 70% of all cases, most frequently streptococci species (46.3%). The most common predisposing condition was odontogenic infection (20%), followed by post-operative infection (13.8%) and post-trauma (6.3%). Patients undergoing a full diagnostic program to determine predisposing conditions causing CA increased over the 20-year period from 11.8% to 65.2%. The 3-month and 1-year mortality rates were 7.5% and 11.25%, respectively. There is an overrepresentation of HHT patients in a cohort of patients with CA, and HHT should be investigated as the cause of the CA if no other apparent cause can be identified. 10.1007/s10096-017-3023-7
    Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant. Thiagarajan Srinivasan,Krishnamurthy Sriram,Raghavan Renitha,Mahadevan Subramanian,Madhugiri Venkatesh S,Sistla Sujatha Paediatrics and international child health Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite. 10.1179/2046905515Y.0000000020
    Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophialophora bantiana in a French Guianese child. Miossec C,Jacob S,Peipoch L,Brard M,Jolivet E,Hochedez P,Hamlat A,Desbois N Journal de mycologie medicale We report a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis, a fungal brain infection due to a dark (dematiaceous) fungi in a 6-year-old French Guyanese boy. The child presented fever and drowsiness due to several paraventricular brain abscesses. Neurological surgeries were performed to reduce intracranial hypertension and to obtain abscess biopsies. Mycological cultures of intraoperative samples led to the diagnosis of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophialophora bantiana. The patient neurological status deteriorated and remained critical after several weeks of combination antifungal therapy with voriconazole 8mg/kg/day, liposomal amphotericin B 10mg/kg/day and flucytosine 200mg/kg/day. A complete surgical resection was not possible because of multiple small abscesses. A multidisciplinary ethical staff decided on home medical care with palliative ventriculoperitoneal shunt, nasogastric feeding and analgesics. One year later, the patient's neurological condition had improved and cerebral lesions had regressed, while he had not received any antifungal treatment but only traditional medicines. Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis are rare diseases affecting immunocompromised but also apparently non-immunocompromised patients, as in this case. A complete surgical resection is not always possible and mortality rates are high in spite of treatments with a combination of antifungals. The diagnosis may be difficult because of these dematiaceous fungi's slowly growing and their potential pathogenicity for laboratory staff. 10.1016/j.mycmed.2019.100918
    Simultaneous treatment of intracranial complications of paranasal sinusitis. Szyfter Witold,Bartochowska Anna,Borucki Łukasz,Maciejewski Adrian,Kruk-Zagajewska Aleksandra European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery PURPOSE:The objective of this study was to analyse 51 patients with intracranial complications of sinusitis treated in the Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngeal Oncology at Poznań University of Medical Sciences from 1964 to 2016. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Males made up a significant portion of study participants at 70.5%. Treatment included simultaneous removal of inflammatory focal points in the paranasal sinuses and drainage of cerebral and epidural abscesses and subdural empyemas under the control of neuronavigation preceded by the implementation of broad-spectrum antibiotics continuously for 4 weeks. Seventy-three intracranial complications were found among 51 patients. Of the 51 patients, 25 had frontal lobe abscesses (including multiple abscesses). Other complications included the following: 16 epidural abscesses, 9 subdural empyemas, 15 meningitis cases, 3 intracerebral abscesses, 3 sinus thrombosis cases and 2 patients with cerebritis. Co-occurrence of these complications worsened the state of the patient and increased the duration of treatment. Patients with frontal lobe abscesses had a better prognosis and less pronounced neurological symptoms in recent years versus earlier treatment approaches. CONCLUSIONS:Simultaneous treatment of intracranial complications of sinusitis is an effective treatment method that has minimal burden for the patient. From 1964 to 1978, three deaths (17%) were reported among patients with these complications. Since 1978, no deaths were reported in the clinic. 10.1007/s00405-018-4932-5
    Intracranial abscesses over the last four decades; changes in aetiology, diagnostics, treatment and outcome. Laulajainen-Hongisto Anu,Lempinen Laura,Färkkilä Esa,Saat Riste,Markkola Antti,Leskinen Kimmo,Blomstedt Göran,Aarnisalo Antti A,Jero Jussi Infectious diseases (London, England) Background The development of modern medicine has resulted in changes in the predisposing conditions, clinical picture, treatment and results of treatment of intracranial abscesses. This study sought to evaluate these changes in a hospital district. Methods A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of all patients treated due to intracranial abscesses at a tertiary referral centre, between 1970-2012. Results The total number of intracranial abscesses was 166. The incidence of intracranial abscesses was 0.33/100 000/year (2000-2012). The most common predisposing conditions were infection of the ear-, nose- and throat region (22%), odontogenic infection (15%) and cardiac anomaly (13%). Lately (2000-2012), infections of the ear-, nose- and throat region (15%) and cardiac anomalies (5%) have become less common, whereas odontogenic infections (32%) have become more common. The most common pathogens belong to Streptococcus spp (42%), Fusobacteriae (14%), Actinomycetales (8%) and Staphylococcus spp (8%). Most patients (66%) experienced a favourable recovery; the proportion of patients with favourable outcome enabling return to prior occupation rose over time, from 12% in 1970-1989 to 24% in 1990-2012. Conclusions The predisposing conditions for intracranial abscesses have changed markedly within the study period. Odontogenic infections have become a common predisposing condition, whereas infections of the ear-, nose- and throat region and cardiac malformations are nowadays less common as predisposing conditions compared to at the beginning of the study period. The proportion of patients with favourable outcome enabling return to prior occupation seems to have increased with time. 10.3109/23744235.2015.1113557
    Otogenic cerebral venous thrombosis in children: A review of 16 consecutive cases. Coutinho Gil,Júlio Sara,Matos Ricardo,Santos Margarida,Spratley Jorge International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology OBJECTIVES:Management of otogenic cerebral venous thrombosis (OCVT) is controversial. Despite the modern antibiotic era OCVT still represents a potential life-threatening condition. This study aims to report the clinical presentation and management in a series of children with OCTV. The coexisting intracranial complications (ICC), the extent of the surgical treatment and the role of hypocoagulation were the analysed outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Retrospective chart review of patients aged less than 16 years and consecutively treated for OCVT at a tertiary university hospital between January 2007 and March 2015. RESULTS:Sixteen children with ages ranging between 25 months and 16 years (9 girls/7 boys) with OCVT were identified. Acute otitis media was the causative factor in the majority of cases (n = 13). The remaining cases resulted from chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma (COMC). Eleven patients were under antibiotic therapy prior to admission. Other ICC were simultaneously present: intracranial abscess (n = 6); otitic hydrocephalus (n = 3); and meningitis (n = 1). Thrombus extension correlated with the presence of additional ICC (p = 0.035). Treatment in all cases comprised of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mastoidectomy, and long-range hypocoagulation with warfarin. Transtympanic ventilation tubes were inserted in all cases but one with COMC. Perioperative sigmoid sinus exposure was performed in seven patients, with drainage of perisinus empyema in three cases. Five children underwent simultaneous craniotomy for intracranial abscess drainage. Follow-up imaging performed in 12 cases revealed partial or complete recanalization in three and seven cases, respectively. After a mean hypocoagulation duration of nine months, no hemorrhagic or major neurologic complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical course of OCVT can be masked by previous antibiotic therapy. As such, a high suspicion index is needed for diagnosis. Simultaneous ICC appears to be more frequently found if an extensive thrombosis was present. The high recanalization rate in this series with low morbidity and no mortality can be obtained with a timely combination of antibiotics, mastoidectomy with transtympanic tube insertion and hypocoagulation. However, the decision to start hypocoagulation and its duration should be undertaken on an individual basis owing the possible adverse effects. Prospective and case-control studies are still needed to better clarify the role of the hypocoagulation treatment in OCVT. 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.07.050
    Intracranial complications of midline nasal dermoid cysts. Opsomer Dries,Allaeys Toon,Alderweireldt Ann-Sofie,Baert Edward,Roche Nathalie Acta chirurgica Belgica BACKGROUND:Nasal dermoid cysts are common tumors in children. Due to anomalies in embryologic development of the nasal complex, sometimes an intracranial extension exists. When these cysts become infected they can lead to meningitis, brain abscess and death. METHODS:We report the case of a 1.5-year-old girl admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit after infection of a nasal dermoid cyst. RESULTS:The infant had a spiking fever and epileptic seizures. She was stabilized, intubated and a CT scan showed a subcutaneous mass with an adjacent zone of encephalitis and brain abscess formation. Neurosurgical interventions were necessary to lower intracranial pressure and control infectious spread. After a hospital stay of 69 days the child could be discharged. Due to her young age, irreversible brain damage is expected. CONCLUSION:Nasal midline dermoid cysts are considered benign swellings. When an intracranial extension exists, infection can lead to deleterious complications. It is important for health care practitioners to be aware of this imminent risk. Suspicion of a nasal midline dermoid cyst should prompt a careful clinical work-up with an ultrasound followed by CT or MRI imaging. The treatment is complete excision to avoid disastrous complications and recurrences. 10.1080/00015458.2017.1411552
    Paediatric brain abscesses: a single centre experience. Hall Samuel,Yadu Shirley,Gaastra Benjamin,Mathad Nijaguna,Sparrow Owen,Waters Ryan,Chakraborty Aabir,Tsitouras Vassilios British journal of neurosurgery Brain parenchymal abscesses are relatively infrequent but potentially serious infections in the paediatric population. Surgical intervention in addition to a prolonged administration of antibiotics is generally appropriate management. This study presents our centre's experience of managing such patients in the context of relevant literature. A single-centre retrospective case note review was conducted over a 15 year period (2003-2017). Patients were selected from electronic hospital records using ICD10 code G06.0. Patients < 18 years of age with a confirmed intra-parenchymal abscess were included. Patient records were reviewed for abscess location, microbiology results, surgical intervention, and outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Score at 3 months. Twenty-four patients were identified (mean age: 7.4 ± 5.3 years, male  = 11). Twelve (50.0%) patients had an abscess in the frontal lobe and was the most common causative microorganism ( = 15). Nineteen patients (79.2%) had an identifiable source which included: ENT infections, congenital cardiac malformations, recent dental surgery and meningitis. All 24 patients underwent surgery with 20 patients having a total of 32 aspirations between them and the other 4 having craniotomy and excision. Twenty patients had 3 month follow-up data of which 18 patients scored GOS: 5, one was GOS: 4 and one was GOS: 3. Brain parenchymal abscess remains an uncommon pathology in the paediatric population. The majority of patients have a preceding infection with as the most common causative organism. Antimicrobial therapy should be selected accordingly. All of our patients underwent surgical intervention and received intravenous antibiotics with favourable outcome and no mortality. 10.1080/02688697.2019.1587381
    Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations and Cerebral Abscess Recurrence in a Child With Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia. Giordano Paola,Sangerardi Maria,Suppressa Patrizia,Lastella Patrizia,Attolini Ettore,Valente Federica,Fiorella Maria L,Lenato Gennaro M,Sabbà Carlo Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology BACKGROUND:A 17-year-old boy was referred to our center with a history of brain abscess (BA) recurring after 9 years. The patient reported 2 previous treatments for pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, sporadic nosebleeds, and familial history for epistaxis. Clinical investigations revealed arteriovenous malformations in lung, brain, and liver, as well as mucocutaneous telangiectases. A definite diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was made based on clinical criteria and confirmed by genetic analysis. This is the first report of BA recurrence at the end of pediatric age. CONCLUSIONS:The present case and the literature review of all cases of BA thus far reported highlight the need to raise the suspicion of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, both isolated and in the context of a possible hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, for any case of BA of unexplained etiology, in children as well as in adults. 10.1097/MPH.0000000000000254
    Poster 491 Mirror Therapy in Improving Hand Function of a Hemiparetic Child with Brain Abscess and Tetralogy of Fallot: A Case Report. Hebreo Angelita Roma P,Dungca Monalisa L PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.07.409
    Management and outcomes in children with sinogenic intracranial abscesses. Patel Anant P,Masterson Liam,Deutsch Christopher J,Scoffings Daniel J,Fish Brian M International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology OBJECTIVE:To report our experience of sinogenic intracranial abscesses in the paediatric population and to guide medical and surgical management. METHODS:All children with sinogenic intracranial abscesses presenting to a large university teaching hospital over a five-year period were included in the study. Data on clinical presentation, radiological findings, microbiology, medical and surgical management and follow-up were recorded and analysed. RESULTS:We identified 27 children aged 12.9 ± 3.4 years of which 56% were male. Fourteen (52%) children had extradural abscesses, nine (33%) subdural abscesses and four (15%) parenchymal abscesses. Early sinus drainage procedures were performed on 24 (89%) patients, and the same number required neurosurgical drainage. Streptococcus milleri was isolated in 18 (67%) cases. An initial conservative neurosurgical approach failed in 50% of cases where trialled, and was associated with longer length of stay (p = 0.025). In comparison to extradural abscesses, subdural abscesses were more likely to present with neurological deficits (p < 0.001) and reduced consciousness (p = 0.018), and required multiple neurosurgical procedures (p < 0.001), longer stays (p = 0.017), and had greater morbidity at six months (p = 0.017). A third of children had significant morbidity at six months, which included cognitive and behavioural problems (25%), residual hemiparesis (19%) and expressive dysphasia (7%). There were no mortalities. CONCLUSION:Sinusitis complicated by intracranial abscess remains a contemporary problem. We demonstrate good outcomes with an early combined rhinological and neurosurgical approach. S. milleri is identified as the causative organism in the majority of cases, and empirical antimicrobial treatments should reflect this. 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.03.020
    CONSORT: May stereotactic intracavity administration of antibiotics shorten the course of systemic antibiotic therapy for brain abscesses? Yu Xin,Liu Rui,Wang Yaming,Zhao Hulin,Chen Jinhui,Zhang Jianning,Hu Chenhao Medicine BACKGROUND:Despite advances in surgical techniques in the management of the brain abscess, continuous systemic long-term antibiotics are necessary and crucial. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of intracavity administration of high-dose antibiotics on the course of antibiotic therapy. METHODS:Between 2003 and 2013, 55 patients with bacterial brain abscesses (83 abscesses) were treated with stereotactic aspiration and intracavity injection of high-dose antibiotics combined with a short course systemic antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics of one-eighth daily systemic dosage were injected into the abscess cavity after stereotactic aspiration and intravenous antibiotics were given in all patients for 3 to 4 weeks. The results of the group treated with stereotactic aspiration and intracavity injection of antibiotic solution were compared to the results of our previous patients treated by stereotactic aspiration only. RESULTS:Thirty-nine males and 16 females (age ranging from 1.5 to 76 years; mean age 38.7 years) were included in this study. During the follow-up (mean 26.2 months, ranging from 6 to 72 months), all the abscesses subsided with no recurrence. No adverse effects related to topical use of antibiotics occurred. At the end of follow-up, 38 patients had good outcomes, 11 had mild neurological deficits, 3 had moderate deficits, 1 was in vegetative state, and 2 died of accidents not related to brain abscesses. Compared with conventional stereotactic aspiration and drainage, intracavity injection of antibiotics shorted the course of consecutive systemic intravenous antibiotics by average 10.8 days without an increase of the recurrence rate of abscesses. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that topical application of antibiotics into the brain abscess cavity helps to reduce the length of systemic antibiotic therapy, decreases the abscess recurrence rate, avoids the side effects of long-term high dose antibiotics, shortens the hospitalization and reduces treatment costs. 10.1097/MD.0000000000006359
    Brain abscesses in children: an Italian multicentre study. Raffaldi I,Garazzino S,Castelli Gattinara G,Lipreri R,Lancella L,Esposito S,Giannini A M,Montagnani C,Marseglia G L,Pignata C,Bernardi F,Tovo P-A, Epidemiology and infection Brain abscess is uncommon in paediatric population, but of clinical importance because of significant long-term morbidity and mortality. In this multicentre study, promoted by the Italian Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases, we retrospectively collected patients aged 0-18 years, with a diagnosis of 'brain abscess'. Seventy-nine children were included; the median age was 8·75 years. As predisposing factor, 44 children had preceding infections. The Gram-positive cocci were mostly isolated (27 cases). Sixty (76%) children underwent a surgical intervention. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered in all patients, then switched to oral treatment. Clinical sequelae were recorded in 31 (39·2%) children. Twenty-one of them had a single sequela, of which, the most represented, was epilepsy in nine of them. This study focus the attention on the need to have standardized national guidelines or adequate recommendations on type and duration of antibiotic treatment. 10.1017/S0950268817001583
    Brain abscesses in children: results of 24 children from a reference center in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Canpolat Mehmet,Ceylan Ozgur,Per Huseyin,Koc Gonca,Tumturk Abdulfettah,Kumandas Sefer,Patiroglu Turkan,Doganay Selim,Gumus Hakan,Unal Ekrem,Kose Mehmet,Gorkem Sureyya Burcu,Kurtsoy Ali,Ozturk Mustafa Kursat Journal of child neurology Childhood brain abscesses are a rare and potentially life-threatening condition requiring urgent diagnosis and treatment. This retrospective study analyzed the clinical and radiologic findings of 24 (7 girl, 17 boys) cases with brain abscess. Mean age was 92.98 ± 68.04 months. The most common presenting symptoms were nausea-vomiting (45.8%) and headache (41.7%). Brain abscess was most commonly located in the frontal region. Diffusion restriction was determined in 78.4% of lesions. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient value in these lesions was 0.511 ± 0.23 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. Cultures were sterile in 40% of cases. Antimicrobial therapy was given to only 16.7% of cases. Predisposing factors were identified in 91.6% of cases (congenital heart disease in 20.8% and immunosuppression in 20.8%). Mortality level was 12.5%. In conclusion, immunocompromised states, and congenital heart disease have become an important predisposing factor for brain abscesses. Effective and prompt management should ensure better outcome in childhood. 10.1177/0883073814549247
    Brain Abscess Due to Staphylococcus lugdunenis: A CoNSiderable Pathogen. Diamond Yonatan,Carr Jeremy P,Gwee Amanda,Freyne Bridget The Journal of pediatrics 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.06.051
    Polymicrobial Cerebral Abscess in a Child with Uncorrected Tetralogy of Fallot. Shafquat Yusra,Zeeshan Mohammed,Chandio Saeeda,Mumtaz Zain JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Beta haemolytic Streptococci Lancefield group F are part of the normal oral flora and are known to cause endocarditis, sinusitis, empyema, meningitis and septic arthritis. They are now emerging as a cause of brain abscess particularly in patients with congenital heart diseases. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), who presented with fever, headache and drowsiness. Culture yielded the growth of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus and Beta hemolytic streptococci Lancefield group F. He became clinically stable after treatment with ceftriaxone.
    [Brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type E in a pediatric patient suffering from Apert syndrome]. Isasmendi Adela M,Pinheiro José L,Escudé Natalia García,Efrón Adriana M,Moscoloni María A,Hernández Claudia M Revista Argentina de microbiologia We report a case of a brain abscess caused by Haemophilus influenzae type e in a 12 year-old patient suffering from Apert syndrome. Apert syndrome is characterized by the premature closure of cranial sutures. In 2010 the patient suffered head trauma in the frontal area with cranial fracture and a cerebrospinal fluid fistula. In February 2013 he was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and generalized tonic-clonic seizure with deteriorating mental status/progressive sensory impairment. The computerized axial tomographic scan showed a right frontal lesion, perilesional edema, mild ventricular dilatation and pansinusitis. A brain abscess was diagnosed and drained. The clinical sample was then cultured. A gram negative coccobacillus was isolated and identified as Haemophilus influenzae serotype e. Empirical treatment was started with meropenem (120 mg/kg/day) and vancomycin (60 mg/kg/day), which was later switched to ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) and metronidazole (500 mg/8 h) after culture results arrived. The patient was discharged in good clinical condition. 10.1016/S0325-7541(14)70085-9
    Oxygen Desaturation During Drainage of Brain Abscess in Prone Position in a Child With Eisenmenger Syndrome. Srinivasaiah Bharath,Theerth Kaushic A,Sriganesh Kamath Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000228
    Venous Air Embolism During Brain Abscess Surgery. Masapu Dheeraj,Sriganesh Kamath,Kn Gopalakrishna Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology 10.1097/ANA.0000000000000222
    The proteome of pus from human brain abscesses: host-derived neurotoxic proteins and the cell-type diversity of CNS pus. Hassel Bjørnar,De Souza Gustavo Antonio,Stensland Maria Ekman,Ivanovic Jugoslav,Voie Øyvind,Dahlberg Daniel Journal of neurosurgery OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry. Tissue destruction was determined from brain abscess volumes as measured by MRI. RESULTS Brain abscess volume correlated with extracellular pus levels of antibacterial proteins from neutrophils and macrophages: myeloperoxidase (r = 0.64), azurocidin (r = 0.61), lactotransferrin (r = 0.57), and cathelicidin (r = 0.52) (p values 0.002-0.018), suggesting an association between leukocytic activity and tissue damage. In contrast, perfringolysin O, a cytotoxic protein from Streptococcus intermedius that was detected in 16 patients, did not correlate with abscess volume (r = 0.12, p = 0.66). The median number of proteins identified in each pus sample was 870 (range 643-1094). Antibiotic or steroid treatment prior to pus evacuation did not reduce the number or levels of pus proteins. Some of the identified proteins have well-known neurotoxic effects, e.g., eosinophil cationic protein and nonsecretory ribonuclease (also known as eosinophil-derived neurotoxin). The cellular response to brain infection was highly complex, as reflected by the presence of proteins that were specific for neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, platelets, fibroblasts, or mast cells in addition to plasma and erythrocytic proteins. Other proteins (neurofilaments, myelin basic protein, and glial fibrillary acidic protein) were specific for brain cells and reflected damage to neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes, respectively. Pus from subdural empyemas had significantly higher levels of plasma proteins and lower levels of leukocytic proteins than pus from intracerebral abscesses, suggesting greater turnover of the extracellular fluid of empyemas and washout of pus constituents. CONCLUSIONS Brain abscess pus contains leukocytic proteins that are neurotoxic and likely participate actively in the excessive tissue destruction inherent in brain abscess formation. These findings underscore the importance of rapid evacuation of brain abscess pus. 10.3171/2017.4.JNS17284
    Group G Streptococci in association with brain abscess: a rare occurrence. Subramani Parimala,Raja Vidhya,Lingaiah Bipinchandra Bhagath,Madappa Beena Prasavangada,Chakravarthy Hariprakash Journal of infection in developing countries Brain abscess is a serious life-threatening infection of the brain parenchyma. We are reporting a rare case of brain abscess caused by Group G Streptococcus in a 12 year-old female child who presented with neurological symptoms. She was diagnosed with congenital anomalies of the heart at birth. She was treated with amoxyclav and ciprofloxacin. The child recovered and was discharged uneventfully. 10.3855/jidc.4423
    Rare Presentation of Brain Abscess. Rasheed Javaria,Waqar Fauzia,Sharif Muhammad,Saleem Khalid Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP 2527
    A rare case of multilocus brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica infection in a child. Tamer Gülden S,Öncel Selim,Gökbulut Sevil,Arisoy Emin S Saudi medical journal Brain abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) may pose a diagnostic problem or a therapeutic challenge, as evidenced by the paucity of papers reporting complete recovery after treatment. An 11-year-old girl presented with progressive drowsiness, diminished movements of the left upper limb, and swallowing problems. Cranial MRI showed multiple, contrast-dense masses with fluid content. She was started on meropenem. Surgical drainage was performed. No bacterial or fungal growth was observed in drainage samples. Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites were detected in the tissue sample. Intravenous metronidazole was started and continued for 6 weeks, at the end of which abscesses were found and to have shrunk considerably. Intravenous therapy was switched to oral metronidazole, which was continued for 2 weeks. She regained all her preexisting abilities. Multiple brain abscesses due to E. histolytica is a very rare occurrence, and histopathologic evaluation is important in diagnosis. 10.15537/smj.2015.3.10178
    Aggregatibacter aphrophilus brain abscess secondary to primary tooth extraction: Case report and literature review. Maraki Sofia,Papadakis Ioannis S,Chronakis Efkleidis,Panagopoulos Dimitrios,Vakis Antonis Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi We report on a rare case of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus brain abscess of odontogenic origin in a 6-year-old previously healthy boy, who had close contact with a pet dog. The poodle was the most likely source of the infecting organism, which subsequently colonized the patient's oral cavity. The abscess was surgically removed and he recovered completely after prolonged antibiotic treatment with meropenem. We also review the relevant medical literature on A. aphrophilus pediatric brain abscesses. 10.1016/j.jmii.2013.12.007
    Hear no evil, see no evil: a careful history with judicious use of imaging in detecting brain abscess. Long Catherine,Curtis Nigel,Freyne Bridget Joan Archives of disease in childhood 10.1136/archdischild-2018-314971
    May short-course intravenous antimicrobial administration be as a standard therapy for bacterial brain abscess treated surgically? Xia Chengyu,Jiang Xiaofeng,Niu Chaoshi Neurological research OBJECTIVE:To analyze the outcome in subjects with bacterial brain abscesses (BBAs) treated by operation and shorter antimicrobial duration than usual at a single center over a four-year period. METHODS:Retrospective review was conducted on a series of 55 patients with BBAs surgically treated and managed by prospective antimicrobial protocol of shorter antimicrobial duration than usual. Sixty-one abscesses were diagnosed and surgically managed in 55 patients. Open craniotomy excision was the treatment of choice for 58.2% of the patients, whereas 31.8% of the cases were managed through stereotactically guided aspiration. Intravenous antimicrobial agents were given to all patients emipirically or changed later according to culture results. Intravenous antimicrobial administration was discontinued without following oral therapy when the patients' body temperature was continuously normal for 10-14 days after surgery and neuroimaging showed the resolution of BBAs at the same time [Follow-up CT or MRI showed no residue cavity, or the diffusion wedge images (DWI) showed the signal in the residue cavity was as low as the signal of cerebral spinal fluid]. RESULTS:The mean total antimicrobial duration was 21.7 days (10-66 days), and the mean antimicrobial duration after operation was 19.2 days (10-64 days). Follow-up found there were two patients whose BBAs recurred and died 4-5 months after primary BBAs controlled. Follow-up data of the remaining 53 patients were available with a mean follow-up time of 36 months (12-58 months). Outcome was favorable in 65.5% of the subjects. General morbidity was 18.2%, and recurrence and mortality stood at 3.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:This case series showed the short-course intravenous antimicrobial administration can be considered to be a standard therapy for bacterial brain abscess in the surgically treated group, and the thermal curve and DWI are the two paramount indicators that can safely evaluate the antimicrobial times for the treatment of BBAs. 10.1080/01616412.2016.1177928
    Successful management of intraventricular rupture of pyogenic brain abscess (IVROBA): Systematic review and illustrative case. Omar Abdelsimar T,Khu Kathleen Joy O Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia OBJECTIVES:Intraventricular rupture of brain abscess (IVROBA) is one of the most dreaded complications of pyogenic brain abscess due to its high mortality rate. Because of its relative infrequency and poor outcome, the optimal management of this condition remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS:We report the case of a 5-year old female with a presumptive diagnosis of IVROBA who was discharged with good neurologic outcome after completing intravenous antibiotic treatment and undergoing insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) and later, a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. We also performed a systematic review of the SCOPUS and PubMed databases for case reports and series documenting patients who survived after undergoing treatment for IVROBA. RESULTS:A total of 24 cases of IVROBA survivors were reported in the literature, including the present case. The median age was 48.5 years (range: 5-71), with a male predilection (3:1). The most common location of the brain abscesses was temporal while the most common route of spread was hematogenous. Surgery was performed in 92% of cases, with EVD being the most common surgical procedure. Twenty nine percent of cases required a VP shunt. The duration of systemic antibiotic treatment ranged from 31 to 180 days (median: 56 days) while intraventricular antibiotics were given for 8-42 days (median: 14 days). CONCLUSION:The management of IVROBA in this series varied widely, with surgery playing an important role. Although IVROBA is still a devastating complication of intracranial abscess, a good neurologic outcome may still be possible with treatment. 10.1016/j.jocn.2019.08.067
    Group A Streptococcal Brain Abscess in the Pediatric Population: Case Series and Review of the Literature. Capua Tali,Klivitsky Amir,Bilavsky Efraim,Ashkenazi-Hoffnung Liat,Roth Jonathan,Constantini Shlomi,Grisaru-Soen Galia The Pediatric infectious disease journal BACKGROUND:Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a rare cause of central nervous system infections. METHODS:We describe 3 new cases of GAS brain abscess in previously healthy children treated by us between 2015 and 2016 and review the 5 cases reported in the literature since 1988. RESULTS:All 8 children received early empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, and 5 made a full recovery. CONCLUSIONS:GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected. Prognosis is expected to be good with early implementation of appropriate treatment. 10.1097/INF.0000000000001947
    Burr Hole Aspiration of Brain Abscess in Children with Cyanotic Heart Disease. Ashraf Muhammad,Ahmed Shakeel,Ahmad Shafiq,Hussain Mukhtar Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP OBJECTIVE:To determine the efficacy of burr hole aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease in terms of number of aspirations and residual abscess. STUDY DESIGN:Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery at The Children's Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Multan, from July 2010 to June 2014. METHODOLOGY:Pediatric patients of cyanotic heart disease with brain abscess were admitted. After taking history, clinical examination and necessary investigation, aspiration of abscess through a burr hole was performed. Data was collected through pre-designed proforma. Analysis of results was performed and comparison was made through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS-20). RESULTS:Total number of patients were 50 with 31 (62%) male and 19 (38%) female children. Patients' age ranged from 5-10 years with mean age of 7.44 ±1.11 years. Single abscess in supra tentorial was commonly found in 44 (88%) patients. Multiple abscesses were present in 4 (8%) patients. Cerebellum was involved in 2 (4%) patients. Abscess was completely aspirated in single attempt in 37 (74%) patients, two attempts in 9 (18%) patients, and three attempts in 4 (8%) patients. No bacterial growth on culture was reported in 32 (64%) patients. Culture was positive in 18 (36%) patients. Postoperative hematoma developed in 2 (4%) patients. No mortality was reported in early postoperative period. CONCLUSION:Aspiration of brain abscess in children with cyanotic heart disease through a burr hole is safe and successful. 2675
    Case-based update: primary intraventricular brain abscess in a 10-year-old child. Fernández Patricia Barrio,Suárez Javier Pérez,Messing-Jünger A Martina Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Intraventricular abscesses are very rare and usually result from secondary rupture of a brain abscess. In the few published cases, clinical presentation was subacute and different pathogens were found. The diagnosis might be mistaken as an intraventricular tumor. CASE REPORT:This is a case of a 10-year-old girl suffering from cyanotic heart disease that was presented with subacute onset of headache, vomiting, and some signs of inflammation. Symptoms lead to early brain imaging (CT/MRI) demonstrating left ventricular horn lesion affecting adjacent brain structures. Neuroradiologists suspected an intraventricular tumor, but cardiac history and signs of inflammation led to lumbar puncture and evidence of CNS infection, and intraventricular abscess was suspected. Navigated aspiration was performed, and multi-sensitive Eikenella corrodens was cultivated. Broad antibiotic treatment and dexamethasone were initiated, and symptoms disappeared. Follow-up imaging demonstrated gradual regression of the intraventricular abscess. The girl underwent regular professional teeth cleaning which was discussed as possible cause of infection. CONCLUSIONS:Although an isolated intraventricular abscess is a very rare event, typical predisposing cardiac history together with central nervous symptoms and an intracranial contrasting mass should always lead to the differential diagnosis of a brain abscess and be biopsied first. E. corrodens is a typical organism of the mouth flora, but a rare cause for a brain abscess. Harmless teeth cleaning procedures may cause hematogenic spread and lead to CNS infections, e.g., in patients with predisposing diseases. To our knowledge, there are only six previous reports of primary intraventricular brain abscess. 10.1007/s00381-015-2856-6
    Brain abscess in pediatric age: a review. Mameli Chiara,Genoni Teresa,Madia Cristina,Doneda Chiara,Penagini Francesca,Zuccotti Gianvincenzo Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the paper is to examine the current state of the art about epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this infection. METHODS:A review of the literature was performed through a PubMed search of original articles, case reports, and reviews using the key words "brain abscess," "cerebral abscess," "brain infection," "intracranial suppuration," "otogenic brain abscess," "otitis complications," and "sinusitis complications." RESULTS:Pediatric brain abscess is a rare but serious infection, often involving patients with specific risk factors and burdened by a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Brain abscess incidence and mortality decreased over the years, thanks to improved antibiotic therapy, new neurosurgical techniques, and the wide spread of vaccinations. There are no guidelines for the adequate diagnostic-therapeutic pathway in the management of brain abscesses; therefore, conflicting data emerge from the literature. In the future, multicentric prospective studies should be performed in order to obtain stronger evidences about brain abscesses management. Over the next few years, changes in epidemiology could be observed because of risk factors changes. 10.1007/s00381-019-04182-4
    Brain abscess of odontogenic origin in children: a systematic review of the literature with emphasis on therapeutic aspects and a new case presentation. Lajolo C,Favia G,Limongelli L,Tempesta A,Zuppa A,Cordaro M,Vanella I,Giuliani M Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Societa italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale 10.14639/0392-100X-2281
    Forgotten? Not Yet. Cardiogenic Brain Abscess in Children: A Case Series-Based Review. Udayakumaran Suhas,Onyia Chiazor U,Kumar R Krishna World neurosurgery BACKGROUND:Brain abscess is a significant cause of morbidity in patients with uncorrected or partially palliated congenital cyanotic heart disease (CCHD). Unfortunately, in the developing world, the majority of patients with CCHD remain either uncorrected or only partially palliated. Furthermore, a risk of this feared complication also exists even among those undergoing staged corrective operations in the interval in between operations. There have been no recent articles in the literature on the outcomes of surgical management of cardiogenic brain abscess in children. In this study, we aimed to describe the clinical and demographic profile of patients with cardiogenic cerebral abscess and to highlight the fact that uncorrected or palliated CCHD continue to be at risk for brain abscess. METHODS:This study was a retrospective analysis of 26 children (age <19 years) being managed for CCHD who were diagnosed with cerebral abscess managed surgically (26 of 39 of cases cerebral abscess in children), at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kochi, India between December 2000 and January 2014. Data collected retrospectively included demographic information, modes of presentation, diagnosis, location of abscess, details of the underlying heart disease, management of the cerebral abscess, and outcomes of management. RESULTS:The patient cohort comprised 26 patients (16 males and 10 females), with a mean age of 7.19 years (range, 1.5-19 years). Ten of the 26 patients (38%) required reaspiration after the initial surgery. On follow-up, all the patients had improved symptomatically and demonstrated no signs of cerebral abscess. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiogenic origin of cerebral abscess is the most common cause of cerebral abscess in children. Unresolved CCHD is a risk factor for the occurrence, persistence, and recurrence of cerebral abscess. 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.07.144
    Group A streptococcal brain abscess in children: two case reports and a review of the literature. Hazan Guy,Kristal Eyal,Gideon Michael,Tzudikov Vadim,Cavari Yuval,Fruchtman Yariv,Ben-Shimol Shalom,Leibovitz Eugene,Lazar Isaac,Melamed Rimma Infectious diseases (London, England) Brain abscesses caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are infrequently encountered in children. We present two cases of brain abscess (one cerebellar and one located in the temporal lobe) due to GAS infection occurring in close temporal proximity in previously healthy young children living in different geographic areas of southern Israel. The relevant literature since 2000, in the context of recent epidemiological data reporting an increase in the incidence of invasive GAS infections, is reviewed. 10.1080/23744235.2017.1374551
    Pyogenic brain abscess in children: a Tunisian multi-center experience. Miniar Tfifha,Amel Ben Abdallah,Khalil Saadaoui,Ben Helal Ben Helal Khaled,Gueddiche Gueddiche Med Naji,Tilouche Tilouche Samia,Saida Hassayoun,Abroug Abroug Saoussen African health sciences Background:Brain abscess (BA) is an uncommon intracranial suppurative infectious disease, especially in children. Treatment involves surgery and prolonged courses of antibiotics. Objectives:Our study aimed to describe clinical characteristics of children with BA treated in middle Tunisian health centers. Methods:A retrospective study lasting 19 years (1995-2014) was conducted in Tunisia middle region. Forty one children having radiologic abnormalities suggestive of BA and confirmed per operative lesions were included. Mycobacterial, parasitic or fungal abscesses were excluded. Medical records were analyzed for age, gender, presenting symptoms, predisposing factors, imaging, microbiology results, treatment and outcome. Results:The mean age was 4.9 years. The most common clinical presentations were intracranial hypertension symptoms (87%). BA was diagnosed in 95.1% on the basis of cranial imaging. The majority of abscesses was supra-tentorial (92.6%). The most frequent etiology was loco-regional infections (63.4%). No predisposing factor was found in 17%. Intravenous antibiotics were given in all cases with surgical drainage in 63.4%,. Causative organisms were identified in 53.7%. The mortality rate was 24.3%. Age less than 2 years was the only statistically significant prognostic factor identified. Conclusion:Our study confirmed the severity of this pathology and underlined the importance of early diagnosis and management. 10.4314/ahs.v18i3.13
    Brain Abscess in Children: A Rare but Serious Infection. Sahbudak Bal Zumrut,Eraslan Cenk,Bolat Elif,Avcu Gulhadiye,Kultursay Nilgun,Ozkinay Ferda,Kurugol Zafer,Vardar Fadil Clinical pediatrics Brain abscess is a rare disease in childhood requiring prompt medical and/or surgical treatment. The objective was to review presentation, management, and outcome of brain abscess in children. We reviewed the clinical and radiological features and outcomes of 18 children (10 females, 8 males), with a median age of 48 months (range 1-182), that presented with brain abscesses and admitted to a tertiary pediatric infectious department between December 2010 and January 2017. One (5.5%) patient underwent craniotomy and 14 (77.7%) had burr hole aspirations. The most common localization was the frontal lobe (33.3%). The survival rate was 94.4%, and long-term neurological sequelae affected 27.7% of the patients. Empiric treatment choices require knowledge of common pathogens and local resistance. The most predominant infections were still upper respiratory infections. Clinicians may treat the children with appropriate choice and duration of antibiotic treatment for upper respiratory tract infections. 10.1177/0009922817733301
    Brain abscess in children, a two-centre audit: outcomes and controversies. Gilard Vianney,Beccaria Kévin,Hartley John C,Blanot Stéphane,Marqué Sophie,Bourgeois Marie,Puget Stephanie,Thompson Dominic,Zerah Michel,Tisdall Martin Archives of disease in childhood OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to better characterise clinical presentation, management and outcome in infants and children with brain abscess. METHODS:The authors conducted a retrospective, multicentre study in two national reference centres over a 25-year period (1992-2017). During this period, 116 children and 28 infants (age <1 year) with brain abscess were treated. RESULTS:The median age at diagnosis was 101.5 (range: 13-213) months in children and 1 (0-11) month in infants. Significant differences were observed between children and infants. The most common predisposing factor was meningitis in infants (64% of cases vs 3% in children), while it was otolaryngology-related infection in children (31% of cases vs 3.6% in infants). Infants presented more frequently with fever and meningism compared with children. 115 patients were treated with aspiration and 11 with excision. Reoperation was required in 29 children vs 1 infant. The overall mortality rate was 4% (3.4% for children, 7.1% for infants). At 3-month follow-up, the outcome was favourable in 86% of children vs in 68% of infants. CONCLUSION:There is a clear difference between children and infants with brain abscess in terms of predisposing factors, causative organisms and outcome. Despite surgical drainage and directed antibiotic therapy, 25% of patients with brain abscess require reoperation. Mortality is improved compared with historical series; however, long-term morbidity is significant particularly in the infant population. 10.1136/archdischild-2018-316730