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    Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study. Forrest Cameron J,King Daniel L,Delfabbro Paul H Addictive behaviors Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, M=26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.10.013
    The role of school connectedness and maladaptive cognitions in the association between stress and Internet addiction: A serial mediation model. Gao Tingting,Hu Yueyang,Qin Zeying,Cao Ruilin,Liu Sibei,Mei Songli,Meng Xiangfei Perspectives in psychiatric care PURPOSE:To explore the mediating effect of school interest and maladaptive cognitions in the relationship between stress and Internet addiction. DESIGN AND METHODS:A total of 2271 high school students were recruited from a Chinese high school. Serial mediation model was used. RESULTS:School interest and maladaptive cognitions had 0.03 and 0.13 indirect effects in the association between stress and Internet addiction, and accounting for 7.9% and 34.2% of the total effect, respectively. The serial indirect effect of school interest and maladaptive cognition was 0.05, accounting for 13.2% of the total effect. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:The present study highlights the need of reducing stress and increasing school interest among high school students to prevent and intervene the occurrence of Internet addiction. 10.1111/ppc.12417
    Reciprocal Relationship between Internet Addiction and Network-Related Maladaptive Cognition among Chinese College Freshmen: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis. Han Piguo,Wang Peng,Lin Qingnan,Tian Yu,Gao Fengqiang,Chen Yingmin Frontiers in psychology This study explored the reciprocal relationship between Internet addiction (IA) and network-related maladaptive cognition (NMC) in Chinese college freshmen. A short-term longitudinal survey with a sample of 213 college freshmen was conducted in Shandong province, China. The results revealed that IA can significantly predict the generation and development of NMCs, and that when such maladaptive cognitions have been established, they can further adversely affect the extent of the students' IA. A vicious cycle was observed between these two variables, with IA having predictive priority in its relationship with NMC. This study also determined that the relationship between these two variables was the same for both males and females; therefore, the final model we established can be extensively applied to Chinese college freshmen, regardless of gender. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between these two variables can assist in interventions in IA at the outset of students' college life. 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01047
    Cognitive flexibility in internet addicts: fMRI evidence from difficult-to-easy and easy-to-difficult switching situations. Dong Guangheng,Lin Xiao,Zhou Hongli,Lu Qilin Addictive behaviors Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has raised widespread public health concerns. In this study, we explored the cognitive flexibility in IAD subjects using a color-word Stroop task. Behavioral and imaging data were collected from 15 IAD subjects (21.2±3.2years) and 15 healthy controls (HC, 22.1±3.6years). Group comparisons found that IAD subjects show higher superior temporal gyrus activations than healthy controls in switching (easy to difficult; difficult to easy) than in repeating trials. In addition, in difficult-to-easy situation, IAD subjects show higher brain activation in bilateral insula than healthy controls; in easy-to-difficult situation, IAD subjects show higher brain activation in bilateral precuneus than healthy controls. Correlations were also performed between behavioral performances and brain activities in relevant brain regions. Taken together, we concluded that IAD subjects engaged more endeavors in executive control and attention in the switching task. From another perspective, IAD subjects show impaired cognitive flexibilities. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.11.028
    Problematic Internet use and problematic alcohol use from the cognitive-behavioral model: a longitudinal study among adolescents. Gámez-Guadix Manuel,Calvete Esther,Orue Izaskun,Las Hayas Carlota Addictive behaviors Problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic alcohol use are two pervasive problems during adolescence that share similar characteristics and predictors. The first objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relationships among the main components of PIU from the cognitive-behavioral model (preference for online social interaction, mood regulation through the Internet, deficient self-regulation, and negative consequences). The second objective was to examine the temporal and reciprocal relationships between PIU components and problematic alcohol use. We also examined whether these relationships differ between males and females. The sample comprised 801 Spanish adolescents (mean age=14.92, SD=1.01) who completed the measures both at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) six months apart. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship among the variables. Results showed that deficient self-regulation at T1 predicted an increase in preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences of the Internet at T2. In turn, the emergence of negative consequences of PIU at T1 predicted a rise in problematic alcohol use at T2. Longitudinal relationships between different components of PIU and between the components of PIU and problematic alcohol use were invariant across genders. Deficient self-regulation, consisting of diminished self-control over cognition and behaviors related to the Internet, plays a central role in the maintenance of PIU, increasing the preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences from Internet use over time. In turn, adolescents who present negative consequences of PIU are vulnerable targets for problematic alcohol use. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.09.009
    Personality and Problematic Internet Use Among Chinese College Students: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Cognitions Over Internet Use. Zhou Nan,Geng Xiaomin,Du Hongfei,Wu Lulu,Xu Jianjie,Ma Shanshan,Zhang Jintao,Yu Chengfu,Liang Yue,Meng Jiangbei,Yuan Xiaojiao,Cao Hongjian,Fang Xiaoyi Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking The previous research on personality and problematic Internet use (PIU) has predominantly, if not exclusively, focused on their direct associations with cross-sectional designs. Based on four annual waves of data from 2,516 Chinese college students, this study examined the mediating role of maladaptive cognitions over Internet use in the associations between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism) and PIU. Results indicated that these personality traits assessed at year 2 (i.e., the second college year) were indirectly associated with PIU at year 4 via maladaptive cognitions over Internet use at year 3. The indirect associations were robust after controlling for PIU at year 2, depression and anxiety at year 4, and a series of demographic covariates at year 1. Such findings highlight various personality traits as critical antecedents of PIU. Furthermore, identifying maladaptive cognitions over Internet use as a mechanism explaining the associations between personality traits and PIU may facilitate more targeted and effective intervention efforts. 10.1089/cyber.2018.0279
    Treatment outcomes in patients with internet addiction: a clinical pilot study on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program. Wölfling K,Beutel M E,Dreier M,Müller K W BioMed research international Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far. 10.1155/2014/425924
    Using metaphors to investigate cognition-behavior link in problematic Internet use among college students. Koc Mustafa Asia-Pacific psychiatry : official journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists INTRODUCTION:This study employed metaphor analysis as a novel approach to explore college students' metaphorical representations of the Internet and their associations with problematic Internet use (PIU). It aimed to find out whether normal and problematic Internet users conceive the Internet through the same cognitive framework. METHODS:The sample included 370 college students in Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted to gather metaphorical conceptions of the Internet, patterns of Internet usage, and PIU status. Data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. RESULTS:Of the sample, 8.6% were diagnosed with PIU. Home access and entertainment gratification were strong correlates of PIU. Gender and major had no effects on PIU. Participants produced 66 metaphors that were grouped into eight conceptual categories: information source, immensity, basic need, addictive substance, double-edged sword, transporter, mood regulator, and supporter. DISCUSSION:PIU was the highest in the addictive substance category, followed by basic need and mood regulator categories, with cigarette, water, and friend being the dominant metaphors in these categories, respectively. Problematic users are less likely to conceptualize the Internet as a supportive entity. Normal users are able to verbalize the good and bad aspects of the Internet, but those negatively affected appear to have lost sight of the most useful function of the Internet. 10.1111/appy.12150
    The cognitive dysregulation of Internet addiction and its neurobiological correlates. Kim Yeon Jin,Kim Dai Jin,Choi Jung-Seok Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) Individuals with Internet addiction (IA) show loss of control and recurring maladaptive Internet use. This condition has negative consequences and causes significant psychosocial distress. Here, we review neurobiological changes in four key paradigms in cognitive domain in IA including reward processing, impulsivity, cue reactivity, and decision-making. IA is associated with alterations in prefrontal-cingulate region activation during the inhibition of inappropriate responses. Such patterns are also observed in cue-reactivity paradigm tasks, suggesting a relationship with loss of control and deficits in the control of cue-eliciting behavior. Individuals with IA exhibit heightened reward prediction, devalue negative outcomes and have a higher risk-taking propensity under ambiguous situations. In conclusion, addictive use of the Internet is associated with deficits in cognitive-emotional processing, aberrant sensitivity to rewards and Internet-related cues, poor impulse control, and impaired decision-making. There is a need to examine neural underpinnings of these aberrant behaviors and neurobiological-cognitive perspective in IA. 10.2741/e804
    How Has the Internet Reshaped Human Cognition? Loh Kep Kee,Kanai Ryota The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry Throughout our evolutionary history, our cognitive systems have been altered by the advent of technological inventions such as primitive tools, spoken language, writing, and arithmetic systems. Thirty years ago, the Internet surfaced as the latest technological invention poised to deeply reshape human cognition. With its multifaceted affordances, the Internet environment has profoundly transformed our thoughts and behaviors. Growing up with Internet technologies, "Digital Natives" gravitate toward "shallow" information processing behaviors characterized by rapid attention shifting and reduced deliberations. They engage in increased multitasking behaviors that are linked to increased distractibility and poor executive control abilities. Digital natives also exhibit higher prevalence of Internet-related addictive behaviors that reflect altered reward-processing and self-control mechanisms. Recent neuroimaging investigations have suggested associations between these Internet-related cognitive impacts and structural changes in the brain. Against mounting apprehension over the Internet's consequences on our cognitive systems, several researchers have lamented that these concerns were often exaggerated beyond existing scientific evidence. In the present review, we aim to provide an objective overview of the Internet's impacts on our cognitive systems. We critically discuss current empirical evidence about how the Internet environment has altered the cognitive behaviors and structures involved in information processing, executive control, and reward-processing. 10.1177/1073858415595005
    Therapeutic mechanisms of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for internet gaming disorder: Reducing craving and addictive behavior by targeting cognitive processes. Li Wen,Garland Eric L,Howard Matthew O Journal of addictive diseases : Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is characterized by signs and symptoms similar to substance use and gambling disorders, and associated with psychosocial impairments. Research suggests that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions and coping may be implicated in IGD; therefore, interventions for IGD need to target these underlying mechanisms. Mindfulness-based treatment is effective in changing maladaptive cognitive processes and increasing adaptive coping among people with addictions. : This study used data from an RCT of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) for IGD to further examine changes in maladaptive gaming-related cognitions and positive reappraisal as mediators of the effects of MORE on IGD signs/symptoms. : Participants ( = 30, Age = 25.0,   = 5.4) were randomized to 8-weekly sessions of MORE or a support group (SG) control condition. IGD severity, levels of craving for video game playing, maladaptive gaming-related cognitions, and positive reappraisal were measured at pre-and posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. : Multivariate path analyses revealed that effects of MORE in reducing IGD and craving were statistically mediated by changes in maladaptive gaming-related cognitions. Though changes in positive reappraisal did not significantly mediate effects of MORE on IGD or craving, MORE enhanced positive reappraisal to a significantly greater extent than the SG at posttreatment. : Findings suggest that effects of mindfulness treatment in reducing maladaptive gaming-related cognitions might lead to reductions in IGD severity and cravings for video game playing. This cognitive mechanism should be evaluated in a future, full-scale RCT. 10.1080/10550887.2018.1442617
    The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder. King Daniel L,Delfabbro Paul H Clinical psychology review Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has received nomenclatural recognition as a potential mental health disorder, despite evident variability in its core psychopathology and psychometric assessment. Although cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered an efficacious treatment for IGD, the underlying cognitions of the disorder are not well understood. This review aimed to synthesise research evidence on Internet gaming cognition toward identification of cognitive factors underlying IGD. A systematic review of 29 quantitative studies on Internet gaming cognition and 7 treatment studies employing cognitive therapy for IGD was conducted. Four cognitive factors underlying IGD were identified. Factors included (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. It is proposed that IGD-related cognition may be more complex than "preoccupation" (i.e., criterion A of IGD). IGD cognition may involve the persistent overvaluation of video gaming rewards, activities, and identities, combined with a need to adhere to maladaptive rules governing use and completion of video games. Greater understanding of the proposed cognitive factors may advance clinical research agendas on identification of individuals with IGD, as well as the expansion and improvement of cognitive therapies for the disorder. 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.03.006
    Relationship between Self-Identity Confusion and Internet Addiction among College Students: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Inflexibility and Experiential Avoidance. Hsieh Kuan-Ying,Hsiao Ray C,Yang Yi-Hsin,Lee Kun-Hua,Yen Cheng-Fang International journal of environmental research and public health Internet addiction (IA) has become a major public health problem among college students. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-identity confusion and IA and the mediating effects of psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PI/EA) indicators in college students. A total of 500 college students (262 women and 238 men) were recruited. Their levels of self-identity were evaluated using the Self-Concept and Identity Measure. Their levels of PI/EA were examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The relationships among self- identity, PI/EA, and IA were examined using structural equation modeling. The severity of self-identity confusion was positively associated with both the severity of PI/EA and the severity of IA. In addition, the severity of PI/EA indicators was positively associated with the severity of IA. These results demonstrated that the severity of self-identity confusion was related to the severity of IA, either directly or indirectly. The indirect relationship was mediated by the severity of PI/EA. Self-identity confusion and PI/EA should be taken into consideration by the community of professionals working on IA. Early detection and intervention of self-identity confusion and PI/EA should be the objectives for programs aiming to lower the risk of IA. 10.3390/ijerph16173225
    Association between physiological oscillations in self-esteem, narcissism and internet addiction: A cross-sectional study. Pantic Igor,Milanovic Anita,Loboda Barbara,Błachnio Agata,Przepiorka Aneta,Nesic Dejan,Mazic Sanja,Dugalic Stefan,Ristic Sinisa Psychiatry research Internet addiction is a novel and relatively uninvestigated form of dependence that is fairly common in adolescent population. Previous research has indicated that it may be associated with other mental health problems, such as dysthymic mood and narcissistic behavior. In our study, we tested the existence and strength of relationship between Internet addiction, self-esteem and narcissism in a student population. On a sample of 244 students, we also investigated social networking activities, such as number of self-portrait photographs ("selfies"), and their potential connection with self-esteem and narcissism. Each participant completed a questionnaire consisting of Young Internet Addiction Test, Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and Narcissistic Personality Inventory. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between internet addiction score and self-esteem. Internet addiction increased as self-esteem decreased and vice versa. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation between internet addiction and narcissism. NPI score and number of self-portrait photographs (selfies) on Facebook were also in a positive relationship. Conversely, NPI score increased as the self-esteem decreased. The results of the study are in accordance with our previous findings on Internet use and mental health, confirming that Internet addiction is a potentially a serious public health problem. 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.044
    Relationship of Internet addiction with cognitive style, personality, and depression in university students. Senormancı Omer,Saraçlı Ozge,Atasoy Nuray,Senormancı Güliz,Koktürk Fürüzan,Atik Levent Comprehensive psychiatry BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, personality, and depression with Internet addiction in university students. METHODS:A total of 720 university students participated in the study in Bülent Ecevit University English Preparatory School which offers intensive English courses. Students were evaluated with a sociodemographic data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale form A (DAS-A), Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised/Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A). RESULTS:The results indicated that 52 (7.2%) of the students had Internet addiction. There were 37 (71.2%) men, 15 (28.8%) women in the addicted group. While the addicted groups' BDI, DAS-A perfectionistic attitude, need for approval, RSES, EPQR-A neuroticism, and psychoticism scores were significantly higher, EPQR-A lie scores were significantly lower than those of the non addicted group. According to the multiple binary logistic regression analysis, being male, duration of Internet usage, depression, and perfectionistic attitude have been found as predictors for Internet addiction. It has been found that perfectionistic attitude is a predictor for Internet addiction even when depression, sex, duration of Internet were controlled. CONCLUSIONS:To the knowledge of the researchers, this study is the first study to show the dysfunctional attitudes in Internet addiction. It can be important to evaluate dysfunctional attitudes, personality, self-esteem and depression in people with Internet addiction. These variables should be targeted for effective treatment of people with Internet addiction in cognitive behavioral therapy. 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.025
    Predicting effects of borderline personality symptoms and self-concept and identity disturbances on internet addiction, depression, and suicidality in college students: A prospective study. Chen Ting-Hsiang,Hsiao Ray C,Liu Tai-Ling,Yen Cheng-Fang The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences The aims of this study were to evaluate the predicting effects of borderline personality symptoms and self-concept and identity disturbances on internet addiction, significant depression, and suicidality among college students at follow-up assessments conducted 1 year later. A sample of 500 college students aged between 20 and 30 years participated in this study. Their levels of borderline personality symptoms, self-concept and identity disturbances, internet addiction, depression, and suicidality at baseline and at follow-up interviews were assessed through the Borderline Symptoms List, Self-concept and Identity Measure, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and questions related to suicidality from the Epidemiological version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, respectively. A total of 324 college students received follow-up assessments 1 year later. Among them, 15.4%, 27.5%, and 17% had internet addiction, significant depression, and suicidality, respectively. Our result revealed the severity of borderline symptoms, disturbed identity, unconsolidated identity, and lack of identity at initial assessment increased the occurrence of internet addiction, significant depression, and suicidality at follow-up assessment except for the predictive effect of unconsolidated identity on internet addiction. The results indicated that self-concept and identity and borderline symptoms may have a significant role in the risk of mental health problems in college students. 10.1002/kjm2.12082
    The Mediational Role of Coping Strategies in the Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Risk of Internet Addiction. Servidio Rocco,Gentile Ambra,Boca Stefano Europe's journal of psychology The aim of the present study is to explore, through a mediation model, the relationship among self-esteem, coping strategies, and the risk of Internet addiction in a sample of 300 Italian university students. We submitted the data to a descriptive, mediational comparison between variables (t-test), and correlational statistical analyses. The results confirmed the effect of self-esteem on the risk of Internet addiction. However, we found that the introduction of coping strategies as a mediator gives rise to partial mediation. A low level of self-esteem is a predictor of avoidance-oriented coping that, in turn, affects the risk of Internet addiction. 10.5964/ejop.v14i1.1449
    A study on Internet addiction and its relation to psychopathology and self-esteem among college students. Kumar Manish,Mondal Anwesha Industrial psychiatry journal Background:Internet use is one of the most important tools of our present-day society whose impact is felt on college students such as increased use of Internet. It brings change in mood, an inability to control the amount of time spent with the Internet, withdrawal symptoms when not engaged, a diminishing social life, and adverse work or academic consequences, and it also affects self-esteem of the students. Objective:The main objective of this study is to explore the Internet use and its relation to psychopathology and self-esteem among college students. Methodology:A total of 200 college students were selected from different colleges of Kolkata through random sampling. After selection of the sample, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used to assess the Internet usage, psychopathology, and self-esteem of the college students. Results:Depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity were found to be correlated with Internet addiction. Along with that, low self-esteem has been found in students to be associated with possible users of Internet. Conclusion:Internet usage has been found to have a very strong impact on college students, especially in the areas of anxiety and depression, and at times it affected their social life and their relationship with their family. 10.4103/ipj.ipj_61_17
    Perceived Social Support, Self-Esteem, and Internet Addiction Among Students of Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran. Naseri Laila,Mohamadi Jalal,Sayehmiri Koroush,Azizpoor Yosra Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences BACKGROUND:Internet addiction is a global phenomenon that causes serious problems in mental health and social communication. Students form a vulnerable group, since they have free, easy, and daily access to the internet. OBJECTIVES:The current study aimed to investigate perceived social support, self-esteem, and internet addiction among Al-Zahra University students. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In the current descriptive research, the statistical sample consisted of 101 female students residing at AL-Zahra University dormitory, Tehran, Iran. Participants were randomly selected and their identities were classified. Then, they completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, and Yang Internet Addiction Test. After completion of the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using the correlation test and stepwise regression. RESULTS:The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated significant relationships between self-esteem and internet addiction (P < 0.05, r = -0.345), perceived social support (r = 0.224, P < 0.05), and the subscale of family (r = 0.311, P < 0.05). The findings also demonstrated a significant relationship between internet addiction and perceived social support (r = -0.332, P < 0.05), the subscale of family (P < 0.05, r = -0.402), and the other subscales (P < 0.05, r = -0.287). Results of the stepwise regression showed that the scale of internet addiction and the family subscale were predicative variables for self-esteem (r = 0.137, P < 0.01, F2, 96 = 77.7). CONCLUSIONS:Findings of the current study showed that persons with low self-esteem were more vulnerable to internet addiction. 10.17795/ijpbs-421
    The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students. Yao Mike Z,He Jing,Ko Deborah M,Pang Kaichung Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet. 10.1089/cyber.2012.0710
    Internet Addiction and Relationships with Insomnia, Anxiety, Depression, Stress and Self-Esteem in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study. Younes Farah,Halawi Ghinwa,Jabbour Hicham,El Osta Nada,Karam Latife,Hajj Aline,Rabbaa Khabbaz Lydia PloS one BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Internet addiction (IA) could be a major concern in university medical students aiming to develop into health professionals. The implications of this addiction as well as its association with sleep, mood disorders and self-esteem can hinder their studies, impact their long-term career goals and have wide and detrimental consequences for society as a whole. The objectives of this study were to: 1) Assess potential IA in university medical students, as well as factors associated with it; 2) Assess the relationships between potential IA, insomnia, depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem. METHODS:Our study was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among 600 students of three faculties: medicine, dentistry and pharmacy at Saint-Joseph University. Four validated and reliable questionnaires were used: the Young Internet Addiction Test, the Insomnia Severity Index, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS 21), and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES). RESULTS:The average YIAT score was 30 ± 18.474; Potential IA prevalence rate was 16.8% (95% confidence interval: 13.81-19.79%) and it was significantly different between males and females (p-value = 0.003), with a higher prevalence in males (23.6% versus 13.9%). Significant correlations were found between potential IA and insomnia, stress, anxiety, depression and self-esteem (p-value < 0.001); ISI and DASS sub-scores were higher and self-esteem lower in students with potential IA. CONCLUSIONS:Identifying students with potential IA is important because this addiction often coexists with other psychological problems. Therefore, interventions should include not only IA management but also associated psychosocial stressors such as insomnia, anxiety, depression, stress, and self-esteem. 10.1371/journal.pone.0161126
    The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem. Zhang Ying,Mei Songli,Li Li,Chai Jingxin,Li Jiaomeng,Du Hongyang PloS one Internet addiction (IA) has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. "Meaning in life" is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. "Self-esteem" is often regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to IA. Therefore, we examined meaning in life and self-esteem's possible effects in this relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were used to calculate the possible mediation and moderation relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self-esteem, impulsivity, and IA. In the analyses that we conducted, IA was shown to be prevalent among Chinese university students. The relationship between impulsivity and IA was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship between meaning in life and IA was moderated by self-esteem. Our findings demonstrate that meaning in life and self-esteem can be useful buffers to IA for highly impulsive individuals. Further randomized trials to confirm these results are needed. 10.1371/journal.pone.0131597
    Relationship of Internet addiction with self-esteem and depression in university students. Bahrainian S A,Alizadeh K Haji,Raeisoon M R,Gorji O Hashemi,Khazaee A Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of self-esteem and depression with Internet addiction in university students. METHODS:The present descriptive-analytic correlation study involved 408 students (150 female and 258 male) who had been selected by means of a cluster sampling method from among all the students studying in Birjand Islamic Azad University. Students were evaluated through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Internet Addiction Test (IAT). RESULTS:The results indicated that 40.7% of the students had Internet addiction. A significant correlation emerged between depression, self-esteem and Internet addiction. Regression analysis indicated that depression and self-esteem were able to predict the variance of Internet addiction to some extent. CONCLUSIONS:It may be important to evaluate self-esteem and depression in people with Internet addiction. These variables should be targeted for effective cognitive behavioral therapy in people with Internet addiction.
    Impact of facebook addiction on narcissistic behavior and self-esteem among students. Malik Sadia,Khan Maheen JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction, narcissism and self-esteem and to see if gender played any role in this equation. METHODS:The correlational study was conducted from February to March 2013 at the Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Using convenient sampling, two equal groups of male and female students were enrolled from different departments of the university. Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale were used for evaluation. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Of the 200 subjects in the study, 100(50%) each were males and females. Facebook addiction was positively correlated with narcissism(r=0.20; p<0.05) and negatively with self-esteem(r=-0.18; p<0.05). Relationship between narcissism and self-esteem was non-significant(r=0.05; p>0.05). Facebook addiction was a significant predictor of narcissistic behaviour (b=0.202; p<0.001) and low self-esteem (b=-0.18; p<0.001). There were no significant gender differences in the three variables (p>0.05 each). CONCLUSIONS:Facebook addiction was a significant predictor of narcissistic behaviour and low levels of self-esteem among students.
    Age of Initiation and Internet Gaming Disorder: The Role of Self-Esteem. Beard Charlotte L,Haas Amie L,Wickham Robert E,Stavropoulos Vasileios Cyberpsychology, behavior and social networking The link between early initiation and problematic use has been observed for substance use disorders; however, this link has not been as clearly established for Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Available studies indicate that individuals who initiate Internet use at younger ages exhibit an increased risk for general Internet addiction. Prior research also suggests unique cognitive processes in online gaming, such that an individual's overall sense of self-worth can become contingent upon self-esteem derived from the gaming environment. The current research examines the mediational role of self-esteem variables in the relationship between age of initiation and IGD symptomatology. Data were analyzed from 1,044 adult participants (mean age = 30.90; standard deviation: 9.28; 35.0% female) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk who reported playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Age of gaming initiation is directly linked to IGD, as earlier age predicted overall IGD symptom severity (b = -0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI: -0.17, -0.03]), controlling for self-esteem factors. In addition, self-esteem factors emerged as mediators of the effect, where global self-esteem served as a protective factor (b = -0.05, 95% CI: [-0.07, -0.02]) and high gaming-contingent self-worth (GCSW; b = -0.10, 95% CI: [-0.15, -0.04]) was associated with more negative outcomes. Earlier age of gaming initiation is associated with IGD symptomatology. Although risks of screen time are often referred to in terms of physical consequences, the present study provides support regarding the inclusion of self-esteem factors in the link between early use and IGD. 10.1089/cyber.2017.0011
    The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Andreassen Cecilie Schou,Pallesen Ståle,Griffiths Mark D Addictive behaviors Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (M=35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible. 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.006
    The links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics. Leménager Tagrid,Hoffmann Sabine,Dieter Julia,Reinhard Iris,Mann Karl,Kiefer Falk Journal of behavioral addictions Background Addicted Internet users present with higher rates of comorbidities, e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive, and anxiety disorders. In addition, deficits in self-concept-related characteristics were found in addicted Internet gamers and social network users. The aim of this study was to examine the links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics. The association between recently developed ADHD-like symptoms without an underlying diagnosis and addictive Internet use was also examined. Methods n = 79 healthy controls, n = 35 problematic, and n = 93 addicted Internet users were assessed for comorbidities, social and emotional competencies, body image, self-esteem, and perceived stress. Apart from an ADHD-diagnosis, recently developed ADHD-like symptoms were also assessed. Results Addicted users showed more self-concept-related deficits and higher rates of comorbidities with ADHD, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Addicted and problematic users showed similarities in the prevalence of cluster B personality disorders and decreased levels of characteristics related to emotional intelligence. Participants with recently developed ADHD-like symptoms scored higher in lifetime and current severity of Internet use compared with those without ADHD symptoms. Addicted participants with recently developed ADHD symptoms showed higher lifetime Internet use severity compared with those without any symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cluster B personality disorders and premorbid problems in emotional intelligence might present a link between problematic and addictive Internet use. Furthermore, the findings provide a first indication that addictive Internet use is related to ADHD-like symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD should therefore be assessed against the background of possible addicted Internet use. 10.1556/2006.7.2018.13
    Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students. Nie Jia,Zhang Wei,Liu Ying Comprehensive psychiatry BACKGROUND:The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. METHODS:The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. RESULTS:The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. 10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.10.006
    The relationship between internet addiction, social anxiety, impulsivity, self-esteem, and depression in a sample of Turkish undergraduate medical students. Yücens Bengü,Üzer Ahmet Psychiatry research Internet addiction (IA) is currently becoming a serious mental health problem. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of IA among undergraduate medical students and evaluate the relationship of IA with social anxiety, impulsivity, self-esteem, and depression. The study included 392 undergraduate medical students. Evaluations were made with the sociodemographic data form, the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The IA group had significantly higher scores on LSAS, BDI, BAI and lower scores on RSES than the control group but the BIS-11 scores were similar among groups. IAT severity was positively correlated with LSAS, BDI, and BAI and negatively with RSES. No correlation was observed between IAT severity and BIS-11. In the hierarchical linear regression analysis, the avoidance domain of social anxiety was the strongest predictor of the severity of IA. The present study suggests that undergraduate medical students with IA exhibit higher social anxiety, lower self-esteem and are more depressed than those without IA, thus, indicating that social anxiety, rather than impulsivity, seemed to play a prominent role in IA psychopathology. 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.033
    The role of self-esteem in Internet addiction within the context of comorbid mental disorders: Findings from a general population-based sample. Sevelko Katrin,Bischof Gallus,Bischof Anja,Besser Bettina,John Ulrich,Meyer Christian,Rumpf Hans-Jürgen Journal of behavioral addictions BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Internet Addiction (IA) has consistently been related to comorbid psychiatric disorders and lowered self-esteem. However, most studies relied on self-report questionnaires using non-representative samples. This study aims to analyze the relative impact of self-esteem and comorbid psychopathology with lifetime IA in a population-based sample of excessive Internet users using clinical diagnoses assessed in a personal interview. METHODS:The sample of this study is based on a general population survey. Using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, all participants with elevated Internet use scores were selected and invited to a follow-up interview. Current DSM-5 criteria for Internet gaming disorder were rephrased to apply to all Internet activities. Out of 196 participants, 82 fulfilled the criteria for IA. Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. RESULTS:Self-esteem is significantly associated with IA. For every unit increase in self-esteem, the chance of having IA decreased by 11%. By comparison, comorbidities such as substance-use disorder (excluding tobacco), mood disorder, and eating disorder were significantly more likely among Internet-addicted than in the non-addicted group. This could not be reported for anxiety disorders. A logistic regression showed that by adding self-esteem and psychopathology into the same model, self-esteem maintains its strong influence on IA. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:Self-esteem was associated with IA, even after adjustment for substance-use disorders, mood disorder, and eating disorder. Self-esteem and psychopathology should be considered in prevention, intervention measures, as well as in the conception of etiological models. 10.1556/2006.7.2018.130