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    A new development in radiology: TIPS. Thomas S Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) Interventional radiology has had a significant impact on patient care over the past 20 years, with the development of low-risk procedures. Nurses specialising in this field must maintain their knowledge of innovations to ensure that the nursing care of such patients remains appropriate. This article describes the indications for and procedural technique of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS), a new initiative in interventional radiology. Although there are risks and side-effects, initial evidence of the method's efficacy suggests it has great potential in reducing morbidity and length of hospital stay.
    High-output congestive heart failure following transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunting. Braverman A C,Steiner M A,Picus D,White H Chest A hyperdynamic circulatory state with elevated cardiac output, decreased peripheral vascular resistance, and sodium retention occurs in patients with portal cirrhosis. Surgical portal-systemic shunts and transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunts (TIPS) have been shown to worsen the high-output state in these patients. However, clinical evidence of high-output congestive heart failure has been reported only rarely to complicate cirrhosis. We describe a patient who developed high-output congestive heart failure with markedly elevated filling pressures after TIPS and had complete resolution of heart failure after liver transplantation. 10.1378/chest.107.5.1467
    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis. Møller S,Henriksen J H Gut Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis without adequate plasma volume expansion, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion, peritoneovenous shunting and surgery. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation, but improved liver function has also been shown to reverse the cardiac abnormalities. No specific treatment can be recommended, and cardiac failure should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and oxygen therapy when necessary. Special care should be taken with the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin antagonists in these patients. The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed. 10.1136/gut.2006.112177
    Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis. Møller S,Henriksen J H Postgraduate medical journal Cardiovascular complications of cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central, splanchnic and peripheral circulation, and haemodynamic changes caused by humoral and nervous dysregulation. Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy implies systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysiological abnormalities, an entity that is different from alcoholic heart muscle disease. Being clinically latent, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be unmasked by physical or pharmacological strain. Consequently, caution should be exercised in the case of stressful procedures, such as large volume paracentesis without adequate plasma volume expansion, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion, peritoneovenous shunting and surgery. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation, but improved liver function has also been shown to reverse the cardiac abnormalities. No specific treatment can be recommended, and cardiac failure should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and oxygen therapy when necessary. Special care should be taken with the use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin antagonists in these patients. The clinical significance of cardiovascular complications and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is an important topic for future research, and the initiation of new randomised studies of potential treatments for these complications is needed. 10.1136/gut.2006.112177
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Møller Søren,Henriksen Jens H Journal of hepatology Increased cardiac output was first described in patients with cirrhosis more than fifty years ago. Later, various observations have indicated the presence of a latent cardiac dysfunction, which includes a combination of reduced cardiac contractility with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysiological abnormalities. This syndrome is termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Results of experimental studies indicate the involvement of several mechanisms in the pathophysiology, such as reduced beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction, altered transmembrane currents and electromechanical coupling, nitric oxide overproduction, and cannabinoid receptor activation. Systolic incompetence in patients can be revealed by pharmacological or physical strain and during stressful procedures, such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and liver transplantation. Systolic dysfunction has recently been implicated in development of renal failure in advanced disease. Diastolic dysfunction reflects delayed left ventricular filling and is partly attributed to ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial oedema, and altered collagen structure. The QT interval is prolonged in about half of the cirrhotic patients and it may be normalised by beta-blockers. No specific therapy for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy can be recommended, but treatment should be supportive and directed against the cardiac dysfunction. Future research should better describe the prevalence, impact on morbidity and survival, and look for potential treatments. 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.02.023
    Myocardial late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with cirrhosis. Lossnitzer Dirk,Steen Henning,Zahn Alexandra,Lehrke Stephanie,Weiss Celine,Weiss Karl Heinz,Giannitsis Evangelos,Stremmel Wolfgang,Sauer Peter,Katus Hugo A,Gotthardt Daniel N Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance BACKGROUND:Portal hypertension and cardiac alterations previously described as "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy" are known complications of end stage liver disease (ELD). Cardiac failure contributes to morbidity and mortality, particularly after liver transplantation and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). We sought to identify myocardial tissue characterization and evaluate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for diagnosis of cardiac impairment. RESULTS:Twenty ELD patients underwent CMR for morphological, functional and tissue characterization by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Based on extent of LGE, patients were dichotomized into high and low LGE groups and analyzed regarding liver, cardiocirculatory and renal functions. CMR demonstrated hyperdynamic left ventricular function and a patchy pattern of LGE of the myocardium to a variable extent (range 2-62%) in all patients. There were no significant differences in Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), Child-Pugh score or the left ventricular ejection fraction between high and low LGE groups. QTc-interval was prolonged in 25% of the patients. E/A ratio was at the upper limit of norm; no difference between groups. Patients showing high LGE had a higher CI (p < 0.05). Biomarkers of myocardial stress were elevated. While NT-proBNP and c-Troponin-T showed no differences, PLGF and sFLT1 were lower in the high LGE group. CONCLUSION:CMR shows myocardial involvement in patients with ELD resembling appearance of myocarditis. The hyperdynamic circulation in portal hypertension may be an important factor. Larger prospective trials are warranted to confirm the association with severity and outcome of liver disease and to test the predictive power of CMR for patients listed for liver transplantation. 10.1186/1532-429X-12-47
    A perspective on cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Timoh T,Protano M A,Wagman G,Bloom M,Vittorio T J Transplantation proceedings Cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis and potential clinical implications have long been known, but the pathophysiology and potential targets for therapeutic intervention are still under investigation and are only now becoming understood. The pathophysiological changes result in systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, and electrophysiological changes. Here, we aim to review cirrhotic cardiomyopathy from a cellular and physiological model and how these patients develop overt heart failure in the setting of stress, such as infection, ascites, and procedures including transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, portocaval shunts, and orthotopic liver transplantation. We will also review the most current, although limited, available therapeutic modalities. 10.1016/j.transproceed.2011.01.188
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: review of pathophysiology and treatment. Chayanupatkul Maneerat,Liangpunsakul Suthat Hepatology international Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a cardiac condition observed in patients with cirrhotic regardless of the etiologies. It is characterized by the impaired systolic response to physical stress, diastolic dysfunction, and electrophysiological abnormalities, especially QT interval prolongation. Its pathophysiology and clinical significance has been a focus of various researchers for the past decades. The impairment of β-adrenergic receptor, the increase in endogenous cannabinoids, the presence of cardiosuppressants such as nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines are the proposed mechanisms of systolic dysfunction. The activation of cardiac renin-angiotensin system and salt retention play the role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function. QT interval prolongation, which is observed in 40-50 % of cirrhotic patients, occurs as a result of the derangement in membrane fluidity and ion channel defect. The increased recognition of this disease will prevent the complications of overt heart failure after procedures such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and liver transplantation. Better understandings of the pathogenesis and pathology of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is crucial in developing more accurate diagnostic tools and specific treatments of this condition. 10.1007/s12072-014-9531-y
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy: Implications for the perioperative management of liver transplant patients. Rahman Suehana,Mallett Susan V World journal of hepatology Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a disease that has only recently been recognised as a definitive clinical entity. In the setting of liver cirrhosis, it is characterized by a blunted inotropic and chronotropic response to stress, impaired diastolic relaxation of the myocardium and prolongation of the QT interval in the absence of other known cardiac disease. A key pathological feature is the persistent over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system in cirrhosis, which leads to down-regulation and dysfunction of the β-adrenergic receptor. Diagnosis can be made using a combination of echocardiography (resting and stress), tissue Doppler imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 12-lead electrocardiogram and measurement of biomarkers. There are significant implications of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in a number of clinical situations in which there is an increased physiological demand, which can lead to acute cardiac decompensation and heart failure. Prior to transplantation there is an increased risk of hepatorenal syndrome, cardiac failure following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and increased risk of arrhythmias during acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Liver transplantation presents the greatest physiological challenge with a further risk of acute cardiac decompensation. Peri-operative management should involve appropriate choice of graft and minimization of large fluctuations in preload and afterload. The avoidance of cardiac failure during this period has important prognostic implications, as there is evidence to suggest a long-term resolution of the abnormalities in cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. 10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.507
    Cardiovascular dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis. Fede Giuseppe,Privitera Graziella,Tomaselli Tania,Spadaro Luisa,Purrello Francesco Annals of gastroenterology Hyperdynamic syndrome is a well-known clinical condition found in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, characterized by increased heart rate and cardiac output, and reduced systemic vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure. The leading cause of hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhotic patients is peripheral and splanchnic vasodilatation, due to an increased production/activity of vasodilator factors and decreased vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors. The term "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy" describes impaired contractile responsiveness to stress, diastolic dysfunction and electrophysiological abnormalities in patients with cirrhosis without known cardiac disease. Underlying circulatory and cardiac dysfunctions are the main determinant in the development of hepatorenal syndrome in advanced cirrhosis. Moreover, the clinical consequences of cirrhosis-related cardiovascular dysfunction are evident during and after liver transplantation, and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion. Cardiovascular complications following these procedures are common, with pulmonary edema being the most common complication. Other complications include overt heart failure, arrhythmia, pulmonary hypertension, pericardial effusion, and cardiac thrombus formation. This review discusses the circulatory and cardiovascular dysfunctions in cirrhosis, examining the pathophysiologic and clinical implications in light of the most recent published literature.
    Diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis. Møller Søren,Wiese Signe,Halgreen Hanne,Hove Jens D Heart failure reviews Development of esophageal varices, ascites, and hepatic nephropathy is among the major complications of cirrhosis. The presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which includes a left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD), seems to deteriorate the course of the disease and the prognosis. Increased stiffness of the cirrhotic heart may decrease the compliance and result in DD. The prevalence of DD in cirrhotic patients averages about 50 %. It can be evaluated by transmitral Doppler echocardiography, tissue Doppler echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. There seems to be a relation between DD and the severity of liver dysfunction and the presence of ascites. After liver transplantation, DD worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of graft rejection, but DD improves after few months. Insertion of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt increases left ventricular diastolic volumes, and DD is a predictor of poorer survival in these patients. Future studies should aim at disclosing pathophysiological mechanisms behind the developing of DD in cirrhosis in relation to patient characteristics, development of complications, treatment, and risk associated with interventional procedures. 10.1007/s10741-016-9552-9
    The heart and the liver. Møller Søren,Dümcke Christine Winkler,Krag Aleksander Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek to secure perfusion of vital organs. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, physical and/or pharmacological stress may reveal a reduced cardiac performance with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysical abnormalities, termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Pathophysiological mechanisms include reduced beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction and defective cardiac electromechanical coupling. However, the QT interval is prolonged in approximately half of patients with cirrhosis and it may be improved by beta-blockers. No specific therapy can be recommended but it should be supportive and directed against the heart failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and liver transplantation affect cardiac function in portal hypertensive patients and cause stress to the cirrhotic heart, with a risk of perioperative heart failure. The risk and prevalence of coronary artery disease are increasing in cirrhotic patients and since perioperative mortality is high, careful evaluation of such patients with dobutamine stress echocardiography, coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging is required prior to liver transplantation. Future research should focus on beneficial effects of treatment on cardiac function and mortality. 10.1586/17474124.3.1.51
    Recent advances in cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Karagiannakis Dimitrios S,Papatheodoridis George,Vlachogiannakos Jiannis Digestive diseases and sciences Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, a cardiac dysfunction presented in patients with cirrhosis, represents a recently recognized clinical entity. It is characterized by altered diastolic relaxation, impaired contractility, and electrophysiological abnormalities, in particular prolongation of the QT interval. Several mechanisms seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, including impaired function of beta-receptors, altered transmembrane currents, and overproduction of cardiodepressant factors, like nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor α, and endogenous cannabinoids. Diastolic dysfunction is the first manifestation of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and reflects the increased stiffness of the cardiac mass, which leads to delayed left ventricular filling. On the other hand, systolic incompetence is presented later, is usually unmasked during pharmacological or physical stress, and predisposes to the development of hepatorenal syndrome. The prolongation of QT is found in about 50 % of cirrhotic patients, but rarely leads to fatal arrhythmias. Cirrhotics with blunted cardiac function seem to have poorer survival rates compared to those without, and the risk is particularly increased during the insertion of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt or liver transplantation. Till now, there is no specific treatment for the management of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. New agents, targeting to its pathogenetical mechanisms, may play some role as future therapeutic options. 10.1007/s10620-014-3432-8
    A Prospective Study Identifying Predictive Factors of Cardiac Decompensation After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: The Toulouse Algorithm. Billey Chloé,Billet Sophie,Robic Marie Angèle,Cognet Thomas,Guillaume Maeva,Vinel Jean Pierre,Péron Jean Marie,Lairez Olivier,Bureau Christophe Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is now a standard for the treatment of portal hypertension-related complications. After the TIPS procedure, incidence and risk factors of cardiac decompensation are poorly known. The main objectives were to measure the incidence of the onset of cardiac decompensation after TIPS and identify the predictive factors. APPROACH AND RESULTS:All patients with cirrhosis treated with TIPS between May 2011 and June 2016 were considered for inclusion. They received a cardiac assessment by standard biological parameters, transthoracic echocardiography, and right heart catheterization. Patients were followed for 1 year after TIPS insertion. The main endpoint was the incidence of cardiac decompensation requiring hospitalization. One hundred seventy-four patients were treated by TIPS during the period. One hundred patients who underwent a complete cardiac evaluation were included. A cardiac decompensation occurred in 20% of the patients. The parameters associated with the occurrence of severe cardiac decompensation were a prolonged QT interval corrected (462 vs. 443 ms; P = 0.05), an elevated pre-TIPS brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level, an elevated E/A ratio (1.5 vs. 1.0; P = 0.001) and E/e' ratio (11 vs. 7; P < 0.001), and a left atrial dilatation (40 vs. 29 mL/m ; P = 0.011). The presence of aortic stenosis was also associated with cardiac decompensation. A level of BNP <40 pg/mL and NT-proBNP <125 pg/mL allowed identifying patients without risk of cardiac decompensation. Additionally, absence of diastolic dysfunction criteria at echocardiography ruled out the risk of further cardiac decompensation. CONCLUSIONS:Hospitalization for cardiac decompensation is observed in 20% of patients in the year after TIPS insertion. Combining BNP or NT-proBNP levels and echocardiographic parameters should help improve patient selection. 10.1002/hep.30934
    Effects of transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) on splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics, and hepatic function in patients with portal hypertension. Preliminary results. Rodríguez-Laiz J M,Bañares R,Echenagusia A,Casado M,Camuñez F,Pérez-Roldán F,de Diego A,Cos E,Clemente G Digestive diseases and sciences The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics and hepatic function after TIPS creation. Fifteen cirrhotics with portal hypertension underwent TIPS placement for treatment of variceal hemorrhage, and extensive hemodynamic studies including right heart catheterization, portal pressure measurement, hepatic blood flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance were performed before and 1 month after the procedure. Self-expandable metal stents (Strecker 11 mm diameter) were placed in all cases. Portasystemic gradient significantly diminished (18.3 +/- 4.2 vs 8 +/- 2.8; 54% +/- 18 mm Hg) after the technique, mainly due to a decrease in portal pressure, and remained stable in the final study. Cardiac output and mean arterial pressure increased (6.2 +/- 1.4 vs 8.2 +/- 1.8 liters/min, 80.1 +/- 10.1 vs 91 +/- 11.2 mm Hg, respectively), and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance was registered (1018 +/- 211 vs 872 +/- 168 dyne/sec/cm5); the hepatic blood flow and ICG clearance also decreased significantly (1.5 +/- 0.7 vs 0.68 +/- 0.2 liters/min, 0.4 +/- 0.2 vs 0.24 +/- 0.06 liters/min, respectively). There was an increase in the preload at the final study, as evidenced by a marked increase in right atrial (3.1 +/- 1.6 vs 4.35 +/- 2.2 mmHg, +15%, P < 0.05), pulmonary arterial (12.2 +/- 2.4 vs 15.9 +/- 3.2 mm Hg, +31.8%, P < 0.001), and wedge pulmonary arterial pressures (6.9 +/- 2.4 vs 9.8 +/- 3.1 mm Hg, +53%, P < 0.001). These results suggest that TIPS worsens the hyperdynamic syndrome associated to portal hypertension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) 10.1007/bf02208995
    Predicting Heart Failure After TIPS: Still More Questions Than Answers. Baiges Anna,Garcia-Pagán Juan Carlos Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 10.1002/hep.30948
    Respiratory failure in portal hypertension: at the heart of the matter. Melchio Remo,Margaria Franca,Bracco Christian,Pomero Fulvio,Fenoglio Luigi Maria Internal and emergency medicine 10.1007/s11739-016-1413-y
    Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction is Associated with Renal Dysfunction, Poor Survival and Low Health Related Quality of Life in Cirrhosis. Premkumar Madhumita,Devurgowda Devaraja,Vyas Tanmay,Shasthry Saggere M,Khumuckham Jelen S,Goyal Ritu,Thomas Sherin S,Kumar Guresh Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology Background:The presence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with cirrhosis leads to a restriction of activities and a poor health related quality of life (HRQoL), which should be taken into consideration when treating them for liver and cardiac complications. Aims:The prevalence, complications, predictors of HRQoL and survival in cirrhotic patients with LVDD were studied. Methods:We report a prospective cohort study of 145 consecutive cirrhotic patients with LVDD who were evaluated for cardiac functional status at enrollment and followed up for hepatic complications, cardiac events, outcome and HRQoL using the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) over a period of 2 years. Results:In total, 145 (mean age 61 years, 59% male) patients were included. Seventeen patients died with 10.5%, 22.5% and 40% mortality rates in patients with Grades 1, 2 and 3 LVDD respectively over 24 months. The parameters that were significant for predicting mortality on bivariate analysis were MELD, MELDNa, hepatic venous pressure gradient, MLHFQ, and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function (e' and E/e' ratio), but only MELD, MELDNa and E/e' remained significant on multivariate analysis. The E/e' ratio (8.7 ± 3.3 in survivors vs. 9.1 ± 2.3 in non-survivors) predicted outcome. On univariate analysis, the predictors of poor HRQoL were the Child-Pugh score ≥9.8 (OR 2.6; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 2.3-9.1,  = 0.041), MELD score ≥ 15.7 (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.4-3.9,  = 0.029), refractory ascites (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-6.1,  = 0.050), and E/e' ratio ≥7.6 (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.8-7.1,  = 0.036) The presence of Class II/III ( = 0.046) symptoms of heart failure and MLHFQ≥ 45 ( = 0.042) were predictors of mortality at 24 months. Conclusion:The grade of LVDD correlates with liver function, clinical events, risk of renal dysfunction and HRQoL. Evaluation of novel therapies which target symptomatic improvement in LVDD, should be done with suitable outcome measures, including HRQoL assessment. 10.1016/j.jceh.2018.08.008
    Therapy insight: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Gaskari Seyed A,Honar Hooman,Lee Samuel S Nature clinical practice. Gastroenterology & hepatology Liver cirrhosis is associated with several cardiovascular disturbances. These disturbances include hyperdynamic systemic circulation, manifested by an increased cardiac output and decreased peripheral vascular resistance and arterial pressure. Despite the baseline increase in cardiac output, cardiac function in patients with cirrhosis is abnormal in several respects. Patients show attenuated systolic and diastolic contractile responses to stress stimuli, electrophysiological repolarization changes, including prolonged QT interval, and enlargement or hypertrophy of cardiac chambers. This constellation of cardiac abnormalities is termed cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. It has been suggested that cirrhotic cardiomyopathy has a role in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction and even overt heart failure after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, major surgery and liver transplantation. Cardiac dysfunction contributes to morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, even in many patients who have no prior history of cardiac disease. Depressed cardiac contractility contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome, especially in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying cirrhotic cardiomyopathy include cardiomyocyte-membrane biophysical changes, attenuation of the stimulatory beta-adrenergic system and overactivity of negative inotropic systems mediated via cyclic GMP. The clinical features, general diagnostic criteria, pathogenesis and treatment of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy are discussed in this review. 10.1038/ncpgasthep0498
    Cardiovascular abnormalities in special conditions of advanced cirrhosis. The circulatory adaptative changes to specific therapeutic procedures for the management of refractory ascites. Pozzi M,Ratti L,Redaelli E,Guidi C,Mancia G Gastroenterologia y hepatologia Advanced liver disease is characterized by decreased arterial blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistances, increased cardiac output and heart rate in the setting of a hyperdynamic circulatory pattern favoured by total blood volume expansion, circulatory overload and overactivity of the endogenous vasoactive systems. Reduced heart responses to stressful conditions such as changes in loading conditions of the heart in presence of further deterioration of liver function such as refractory ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bleeding esophageal varices have been recently identified and the knowledge of the cirrhotic cardiomyopathy syndrome has gained the dignity of a new clinical entity. Facing the availability of therapeutic interventions (paracentesis, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, peritoneovenous shunt, orthotopic liver transplantation) currently employed to manage the life-threatening complications of the most advanced phases of cirrhotic disease, the knowledge of their impact on cardiovascular function is of paramount relevance. 10.1157/13086820
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Alqahtani Saleh A,Fouad Tamer R,Lee Samuel S Seminars in liver disease Liver cirrhosis is associated with several cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite an increased baseline cardiac output, cirrhotic patients have a suboptimal ventricular response to stress. This phenomenon is called cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. The pathogenesis of this syndrome is multifactorial and includes diminished beta-adrenergic receptor signal transduction, cardiomyocyte cellular plasma membrane dysfunction, and increased activity or levels of cardiodepressant substances such as cytokines, endogenous cannabinoids, and nitric oxide. Although cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is usually clinically mild or silent, overt heart failure can be precipitated by stresses such as liver transplantation or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion. Moreover, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. Treatment of this condition is mainly supportive. Orthotopic liver transplantation appears to improve or normalize the condition, generally after a period of several months. 10.1055/s-2008-1040321
    Endocarditis as a complication of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt. Finkielman J D,Gimenez M,Pietrangelo C,Blanco M V Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 10.1093/clinids/22.2.385
    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt worsens the hyperdynamic circulatory state of the cirrhotic patient: preliminary report of a prospective study. Azoulay D,Castaing D,Dennison A,Martino W,Eyraud D,Bismuth H Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) The aim of this prospective nonrandomized study was to assess the immediate and short-term sequelae of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting on the circulatory hyperdynamic state of the cirrhotic patient. Twelve transjugular portosystemic shunting procedures were performed in 12 cirrhotic patients for sclerotherapy failure (10 cases) and/or intractable ascites (4 cases). Self-expandable stents 10 mm in diameter were used in all cases. Portal pressure measurement and right-heart catheterization were performed before and 30 min and 1 mo after the procedure. The portoatrial pressure gradient decreased from 15 +/- 3 to 7 +/- 3 mm Hg 30 min after surgery (p < 0.0001) to 8 +/- 3 mm Hg 1 mo after surgery (p < 0.001, in comparison with basal values). The cardiac index increased from 4.5 +/- 1.3 to 5.7 +/- 1.5 L/min.m2 30 min after surgery (p < 0.001) to 7.4 +/- 1.4 L/min.m2 1 mo after surgery (p < 0.001). Systemic vascular resistance decreased from 808 +/- 323 to 646 +/- 209 dyne.sec.cm-5 30 min after surgery (p < 0.01) to 467 +/- 101 dyne.sec.cm-5 1 mo after surgery (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that transjugular portosystemic shunting rapidly and significantly worsens the hyperdynamic circulatory state of the cirrhotic patient. Although apparently noninvasive, this procedure should be considered with caution in cirrhotic patients with limited cardiac reserve.
    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: a medical perspective. Sanyal A J,Shiffman M L Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an exciting new addition to the therapeutic armamentarium against portal hypertension. It is currently indicated for salvage of patients with active variceal hemorrhage despite sclerotherapy or where sclerotherapy is not feasible. Its use for recurrent episodes of bleeding despite chronic sclerotherapy and for ascites and hepatorenal syndrome remains experimental. It is contraindicated in patients with right-heart failure and portal vein thrombosis. TIPS is not indicated for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage or portal decompression prior to liver transplantation. TIPS is associated with its unique spectrum of complications which can occasionally be life-threatening. Although initial experience with this procedure is encouraging, a great amount of work remains to be done to fully define its role in clinical practice. 10.1159/000171498
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in the pre- and post-liver transplantation phase. Zardi Enrico Maria,Zardi Domenico Maria,Chin Diana,Sonnino Chiara,Dobrina Aldo,Abbate Antonio Journal of cardiology Patients with advanced liver cirrhosis may develop a clinical syndrome characterized by a blunted contractile responsiveness to stress and/or altered diastolic relaxation, called "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy." This syndrome, which is initially asymptomatic, is often misdiagnosed due to the presence of symptoms that characterize other disorders present in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, such as exercise intolerance, fatigue, and dyspnea. Stress and other conditions such as liver transplantation and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) may unmask this syndrome. Liver transplantation in this group of patients results in a clinical improvement and can be a cure for the cardiomyopathy. However, post-transplant prognosis depends on the identification of cirrhotics with cardiomyopathy in the pre-transplant phase; an early diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy in the pre-transplant phase may avoid an acute onset or worsening of cardiac failure after liver transplantation. Since a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction may mask the presence of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, the use of newer noninvasive diagnostic techniques (i.e. tissue Doppler, myocardial strain) is necessary to identify cirrhotics with this syndrome, in the pre-transplant phase. A pre-transplant treatment of heart failure in cirrhotics with cardiomyopathy improves the quality of life in this phase and reduces the complications during and immediately after liver transplantation. Since specific therapies for cirrhotic cardiomyopathy are lacking, due to the absence of a clear understanding of the pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy, further research in this field is required. 10.1016/j.jjcc.2015.04.016
    Pulmonary hypertension after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: effects on right ventricular function. Van der Linden P,Le Moine O,Ghysels M,Ortinez M,Devière J Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) The short- and mid-term hemodynamic effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) were studied in 16 sedated cirrhotic patients. Indications included relapsing variceal bleeding (n = 10) and refractory ascites (n = 6). The decrease of porto-atrial pressure gradient (from 20.4 +/- 4.2 mm Hg to 10.1 +/- 2.4 mmHg; P < .05) was associated with an increase of mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) (from 12.3 +/- 3.0 mm Hg to 20.3 +/- 5.3 mm Hg; P < .05) and of right atrial pressure (RAP) from 3.4 +/- 2.6 mm Hg to 8.3 +/- 3.7 mm Hg; P < .05), whereas right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDVI) remained unchanged. The significant increase of cardiac index (CI) (from 4.5 +/- 1.2 L/min/m2 to 5.0 +/- 1.1 L/min/m2; P < .05) was essentially attributable to an increase of heart rate (HR) (from 81 +/- 11 to 88 +/- 10 beats/min; P < .05). Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased (from 812 +/- 281 to 666 +/- 191 dynes/sec/cm5; P < .05), whereas pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) increased (from 60.6 +/- 29.6 to 82.0 +/- 34.6 dynes/sec/cm5; P < .05). After transient shunt occlusion with a balloon catheter, all of the hemodynamic parameters returned to baseline values, except pulmonary artery pressure, which also decreased but remained significantly increased. One month after TIPS, pulmonary pressure remained elevated, and CI further increased. It is concluded that increased PVR is the major hemodynamic alteration occurring after TIPS placement. It correlates with the decrease of porto-atrial gradient and is probably mediated by both mechanical and neurohumoral factors. 10.1053/jhep.1996.v23.pm0008621179
    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is less prevalent in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome than cirrhosis of liver. Shukla Akash,Bhatt Pratin,Gupta Deepak Kumar,Modi Tejas,Patel Jatin,Phadke Milind,Rathod Krantikumar,Meshram Megha,Bhatia S J Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology BACKGROUND AND AIM:Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with high mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis. There is no data about the prevalence or impact of CCM in Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). We assessed the prevalence of CCM in patients with BCS and its impact on outcome after radiological intervention. METHODS:Thirty-three consecutive patients with BCS (15 men) and 33 controls with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis (18 men, matched for Child-Pugh score) were evaluated with baseline electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO) and dobutamine stress ECHO, and ECG (DSE). The two groups were compared for prevalence of CCM. Patients with BCS with and without CCM were assessed for development of heart failure, duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and in-hospital mortality immediately after radiological intervention. RESULTS:Fewer patients with BCS had CCM (7/21 vs. 21/33; p = 0.001, OR-0.16, CI [0.05-0.5]), diastolic dysfunction (DD) (0/33 vs. 6/33; p = 0.01, OR-0.06, CI [0.00-1.1]), and prolonged QTc interval (5/33 vs.17/33; p = 0.001, OR-0.16, CI [0.05-0.5]) despite correction for age. Patients with BCS had lower end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes of left and right ventricles. None of the 19 patients (five with CCM) with BCS undergoing radiological intervention (12 TIPS, 4 inferior vena cava, and 3 hepatic vein stenting) developed heart failure or had prolonged ICU stay. There was no in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION:Patients with BCS have lower frequency of CCM as compared to patients with cirrhosis. CCM may not adversely affect outcomes after radiological interventions. 10.1007/s12664-017-0811-z
    Haemodynamic adaptation two months after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhotic patients. Colombato L A,Spahr L,Martinet J P,Dufresne M P,Lafortune M,Fenyves D,Pomier-Layrargues G Gut BACKGROUND AND AIMS:In portal hypertensive patients, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) acutely increases cardiac output and exaggerates peripheral vasodilatation. It has been suggested that the worsened hyperdynamic state may progress to high output heart failure. The aim was to evaluate the acute and short-term haemodynamic adaptation to this procedure. METHODS:Systemic, splanchnic, and pulmonary haemodynamics were studied in 15 cirrhotic patients under stable haemodynamic conditions before placement of TIPS, then 15-30 minutes after and two months later. For inclusion in the final analysis, an uneventful post-TIPS at two months follow up and a stable portacaval gradient were required. The following variables were measured or calculated: portacaval gradient; cardiac index (thermodilution); systolic and diastolic mean arterial, atrial, pulmonary arterial, and wedged pulmonary capillary pressures; heart rate; and total peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistances. Blood flow in the shunt was measured using duplex Doppler ultrasound. RESULTS:The portacaval gradient decreased by 56% and remained stable thereafter. Shunt blood flow was unchanged when measured immediately after TIPS and two months later. Immediately after TIPS there was a pronounced increase in cardiac index (+32%; p < 0.05) in association with a decrease in peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistance (-21%; p < 0.05 and -14%; NS). Two months later, whereas the initial rise in cardiac index was attenuated, peripheral vascular resistances remained similar and pulmonary vascular resistances decreased further (-33%; p < 0.05) compared with immediate post-TIPS values. CONCLUSIONS:Hyperdynamic circulation worsened immediately after TIPS, with a progressive adaptation during follow up. The mechanisms of post-TIPS induced haemodynamic changes include an abrupt volume load resulting from splanchnic decompression and an increased delivery of gut derived vasodilators to the systemic circulation. The persistence of decreased peripheral and pulmonary vascular resistances despite the reduction in high cardiac output two months after TIPS suggests that vasodilatation is not solely a compensatory response to a TIPS induced increased preload. Vasodilatory substances shunted away from the liver probably play an important part in this phenomenon. 10.1136/gut.39.4.600
    Acute effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) procedure on renal blood flow and cardiopulmonary hemodynamics in cirrhosis. Stanley A J,Redhead D N,Bouchier I A,Hayes P C The American journal of gastroenterology OBJECTIVE:An acute increase in portal pressure is associated with an immediate reduction in renal blood flow. It has been suggested that this supports the presence of an hepatorenal reflex. In this study, we used TIPSS placement as a model to investigate the effect of an acute reduction in portal pressure on renal blood flow and cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters. METHODS:Eleven cirrhotic patients were studied during elective TIPSS placement for variceal hemorrhage (n = 9) or refractory ascites (n = 2). Unilateral renal blood flow (RBF) was measured before and at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after shunt insertion. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), right atrial pressure (RAP), mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac output (CO), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were also measured before and 30 min after TIPSS placement. RESULTS:Despite significant increases in CO (p = 0.001), RAP (p < 0.001), PAP (p < 0.001), and PCWP (p = 0.001), and a fall in SVR (p = 0.003), no change was observed in RBF, HR, or MAP after TIPSS placement. The fall in the portoatrial pressure gradient correlated only with the rise in CO (p < 0.05) and the drop in SVR (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Despite the fall in portal pressure and the systemic hemodynamic changes caused by TIPSS placement, there is no immediate effect on RBF. Any improvement in renal function after TIPSS procedure does not appear to be due to an acute increase in RBF. 10.1111/j.1572-0241.1998.00705.x
    Cardiac function and haemodynamics in alcoholic cirrhosis and effects of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt. Huonker M,Schumacher Y O,Ochs A,Sorichter S,Keul J,Rössle M Gut BACKGROUND:A portosystemic stent shunt may impair cardiac function and haemodynamics. AIMS:To investigate the effects of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on cardiac function and pulmonary and systemic circulation in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. PATIENTS/METHODS:17 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and recent variceal bleeding were evaluated by echocardiography and catheterisation of the splanchnic and pulmonary circulation before and after TIPS. The period of catheter measurement was extended to nine hours in nine of the patients. The portal vein was investigated by Doppler ultrasound before and nine hours after TIPS. RESULTS:Baseline echocardiography showed the left atrial diameter to be slightly increased and the left ventricular volume to be in the upper normal range. Nine hours after TIPS, the left atrial diameter and left ventricular end diastolic volume were increased (by 6% (p<0.01) and 7% (p<0.01) respectively); end systolic volume had not changed significantly. Invasive measurements showed a sharp increase in right atrial pressure (by 101%; p<0.01), mean pulmonary artery pressure (by 92%; p<0.01), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (by 111%; p<0.01), and cardiac output (8.1 (1.6) to 11.9 (2.4) l/min; p<0.01). Systemic vascular resistance decreased (824 (242) to 600 (265) dyn.s.cm-5 p<0.01), and total pulmonary resistance increased (140 (58.5) to 188 (69.5) dyn.s.cm-5; p<0.05). Total pulmonary resistance (12%; NS), cardiac output (1.4 l/min; p<0. 05), and portal vein blood flow (1.4 l/min; p<0.05) remained elevated for nine hours after TIPS in the subgroup. Portoatrial pressure gradient (43%; p<0.05), portohepatic vascular resistance (72%; p<0.05), and systemic vascular resistance (27%; p<0.01) were consistently reduced. CONCLUSIONS:The increase in the left atrial diameter, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and total pulmonary resistance observed after the TIPS procedure reflected diastolic dysfunction of the hyperdynamic left ventricle in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. The haemodynamic effects of the portosystemic stent shunt itself on the splanchnic circulation seem to be mainly responsible for the further decrease in systemic vascular resistance. TIPS may unmask a coexisting preclinical cardiomyopathy in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. 10.1136/gut.44.5.743
    [Studies on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)]. Wagatsuma Y,Naritaka Y,Shimakawa T,Ogawa K Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology In 10 patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) at our institution, postoperative pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic changes were compared with those before the procedure. After TIPS, right atrial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, cardiac output, and cardiac index increased significantly, and there was a significant decrease in total peripheral resistance. Thus, systemic hemodynamic changes showed evidence of a more hyperdynamic circulation. In addition, right ventricular end-diastolic volume index was significantly increased and this increase was persistent, with maintained right heart strain. With respect to pulmonary hemodynamics, alveolar arterial oxygen difference and right-to-left shunt increased significantly, along with a significant decrease in arterio-venous oxygen content difference, which indicated impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity. These findings suggest that preoperative evaluation of the cardiac reserve and pulmonary function is important before performing TIPS. After TIPS, patients should be followed carefully because postoperative heart failure or pulmonary edema may occur.
    Cardiopulmonary consequences of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: role of increased pulmonary artery pressure. Schwartz Jonathan M,Beymer Charles,Althaus Sandra J,Larson Anne M,Zaman Atif,Glickerman David J,Kowdley Kris V Journal of clinical gastroenterology GOALS:To determine whether increased pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPSS) results in short-term mortality or cardiorespiratory complications. BACKGROUND:TIPSS is frequently performed for complications of cirrhosis. PAP increases following TIPSS; however consequences of this phenomenon are unknown. STUDY:Demographics, disease severity and etiology were recorded among patients undergoing TIPSS. PAP before and following TIPSS were measured and the relationship between PAP before and after TIPSS, and subsequent cardiorespiratory complications and mortality was examined. RESULTS:Thirty-one patients were enrolled (mean age 53 years, 74% men, 55% Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis). TIPSS was performed for variceal bleeding in 84% of cases. Ten patients (32%) died 5-20 days following TIPSS. PAP increased significantly following TIPSS (mean 20.8 mm Hg pre-TIPSS (95% CI 18.2-23.4) to 26.9 mm Hg post-TIPSS (95% CI 24.2-29.6, P = 0.0016). Congestive heart failure developed in 4 patients (13%), sepsis in 4 (13%), and ARDS in 8 (26%). Increased PAP following TIPSS was not associated with early mortality (P = 0.13), CHF (P = 0.31), or ARDS (P = 0.43). ARDS was the only significant predictor of short-term mortality following TIPSS (OR 18.7, P = 0.02 (95% CI: 1.5-232). CONCLUSION:PAP increases after TIPSS and cardiorespiratory complications are common, yet unrelated to increased PAP. ARDS is independently associated with increased risk of mortality after TIPSS.
    Modifications of cardiac function in cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Merli Manuela,Valeriano Valentina,Funaro Stefania,Attili Adolfo Francesco,Masini Andrea,Efrati Cesare,De Castro Stefano,Riggio Oliviero The American journal of gastroenterology OBJECTIVES:The implantation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been shown to exacerbate the hyperdynamic circulation and might induce a significant cardiac overload. We investigated cardiac function before and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the TIPS procedure in cirrhotic patients. METHODS:Eleven patients with nonalcoholic cirrhosis were evaluated. Cardiovascular parameters were assessed by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography. RESULTS:After TIPS, the left ventricular diastolic diameter increased from 26.5 +/- 1.8 mm (basal) to 30.0 +/- 2.8 mm (6 months) (p < 0.05), whereas the ejection fraction showed a slight increase (basal, 64.5 +/- 3.3; 6 months, 68.1 +/- 3.2). The left ventricular pre-ejection period and the isovolumetric relaxation time decreased transiently at 1 month (p < 0.05). An increased velocity in all of the components of pulmonary venous flow (systolic, diastolic, and atrial) documented the accelerated fluxes induced by the procedure. The estimated pulmonary systolic arterial pressure also increased at 1 month (29.5 +/- 1.4 vs 44.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, p < 0.05). All of these modifications reverted after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS:Our study demonstrates that nonalcoholic cirrhotic patients, without cardiovascular pathologies, show transient modifications in cardiac dimension and function for 3-6 months after TIPS caused by the increased volume load shunted to the heart. 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05438.x
    Clinical experience of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and its effects on systemic hemodynamics. Naritaka Yoshihiko,Ogawa Kenji,Shimakawa Takeshi,Wagatsuma Yoshihisa,Konno Soichi,Katsube Takao,Hamaguchi Kanako,Hosokawa Toshihiko Hepato-gastroenterology We performed TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) in patients with intractable esophageal varices accompanied by repeated hematemesis or with refractory ascites for the purpose of portal venous decompression, and successfully obtained complete elimination of esophageal varices or a marked decrease in ascites. While TIPS caused no particular variations in mean blood pressure or heart rate, cardiac output increased markedly on the 2nd and 3rd postoperative days before declining on the 5th postoperative day. Along with this, right atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure also increased transiently. TIPS has the potential to become an established effectual therapy for intractable esophageal varices and refractory ascites. However, careful attention should be paid to its hemodynamic effects, including the occurrence of cardiac failure.
    Abnormal portal venous flow at sonography predicts reduced survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation. Harrod-Kim Paul,Waldman David L Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR PURPOSE:To determine if ultrasound (US) findings of abnormal portal venous flow (APVF) before transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation are predictive of increased mortality risk after TIPS creation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Retrospective review of 141 patients with US before TIPS creation was performed. APVF was defined by (i) bidirectional flow, (ii) thrombus, and/or (iii) reversed flow. Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were calculated. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests were used to detect survival differences based on the presence of APVF. Multivariate analysis included APVF, MELD, Child-Pugh class, International Normalized Ratio, creatinine level, total bilirubin level, ascites, hepatocellular carcinoma, low serum sodium level, congestive heart failure, and myocardial infarction. RESULTS:Twenty-six percent of patients (36 of 141) exhibited APVF on US before TIPS creation. Patients with APVF had lower survival rates at 3 and 6 months after TIPS procedures in comparison with patients with normal portal flow (P = .02 at 3 months and P = .04 at 6 months). In patients with MELD scores lower than 18, there was decreased survival based on APVF at 1, 3, and 6 months (P = .04, P = .02, and P = .04, respectively). In patients with MELD scores of 18 or greater, there was a trend for lower survival rates with APVF, but it did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate analysis of patients with MELD scores lower than 18 demonstrated only APVF and low serum sodium levels as independent predictors of outcome, with APVF resulting in a greater than six-fold increased likelihood of mortality. CONCLUSION:US findings of APVF before TIPS creation are associated with increased mortality risk and may be useful in identifying patients otherwise considered safe candidates based on MELD score alone. 10.1097/01.RVI.0000175328.72653.CA
    Diastolic dysfunction on echocardiography does not predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt in patients with cirrhosis. Armstrong Matthew J,Gohar Farhan,Dhaliwal Amritpal,Nightingale Peter,Baker Graham,Greaves Daniel,Mangat Kam,Zia Zergum,Karkhanis Salil,Olliff Simon,Mehrzad Homoyon,Steeds Rick P,Tripathi Dhiraj Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics BACKGROUND:Cardiac dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with cirrhosis. There remains a paucity of data from routine clinical practice regarding the role of echocardiography in the pre-assessment of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt. AIM:Our study aimed to investigate if echocardiography parameters predict outcomes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt insertion in cirrhosis. METHODS:Patients who underwent echocardiography and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt insertion at the liver unit (Birmingham, UK) between 1999 and 2016 were included. All echocardiography measures (including left ventricle ejection fraction; early maximal ventricular filling/late filling velocity ratio, diastolic dysfunction as per British Society of Echocardiography guidelines) were independently reviewed by a cardiologist. Predictors of 30-day and overall transplant free-survival were assessed. RESULTS:One Hundred and Seventeen patients with cirrhosis (median age 56 years; 54% alcohol; Child-Pugh B/C 71/14.5%; Model For End-Stage Liver Disease 12) underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt for ascites (n = 78) and variceal haemorrhage (n = 39). Thirty-day and overall transplant-free survival was 90% (n = 105) and 31% (n = 36), respectively, over a median 663 (IQR 385-2368) days follow-up. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (P < 0.001) and Child-Pugh Score (P = 0.002) significantly predicted 30-day and overall transplant-free survival. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease ≥15 implied three-fold risk of death. Six per cent (n = 7) of patients pre-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt had a history of ischaemic heart disease and 34% (n = 40) had 1 or more cardiovascular disease risk factors. Fifty per cent (n = 59) had an abnormal echocardiogram and 33% (n = 39) had grade 1-3 diastolic dysfunction. On univariate analysis none of the echocardiography measures pre-intervention were related to 30-day or overall transplant-free survival post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt. CONCLUSIONS:Ventricular, in particular diastolic dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis does not predict survival after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt insertion. Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh scores remain the best predictors of survival. Further prospective study is required to clarify the role of routine echocardiography prior to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt insertion. 10.1111/apt.15164
    The use of E/A ratio as a predictor of outcome in cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Rabie Rania Nancy,Cazzaniga Massimo,Salerno Francesco,Wong Florence The American journal of gastroenterology OBJECTIVES:The clinical significance of diastolic dysfunction in cirrhosis, a feature of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of E/A ratio, an indicator of diastolic dysfunction, to predict ascites clearance and mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) insertion. METHODS:A total of 101 cirrhotic patients who received TIPS had pre-TIPS assessments of demographics, severity of liver dysfunction (Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores), renal function, hemodynamics, and cardiac function (two-dimensional echocardiography). An E/A ratio of < or =1 was used to indicate diastolic dysfunction. Patients were followed-up for a mean period of 24.6+/-2.4 months post TIPS. RESULTS:A total of 41 patients with an E/A ratio of < or =1 (group A), and 60 patients with an E/A ratio of >1 (group B) were studied. Group A had significantly higher MELD scores (14.0+/-1.0 vs. 11.4+/-0.8; P=0.03), because of higher serum creatinine levels (107+/-5 vs. 86+/-6 micromol/l; P<0.01). There was no difference in pre-TIPS systemic hemodynamics, systolic function, or portal pressure between the two groups. After TIPS, more patients in group B had ascites clearance (log rank, P=0.038), and the same patients had a higher probability of survival (log rank, P=0.046). There were three post-TIPS cardiac deaths in group A only. A multivariate analysis showed that an E/A of ratio < or =1 was predictive of slow ascites clearance (hazard ratio=7.3, 95% confidence interval=1.3-40.7, P=0.021) and death after TIPS (hazard ratio=4.7, 95% confidence interval=1.1-20.2, P=0.035). CONCLUSIONS:Diastolic dysfunction, indicated by reduced E/A ratio, is prevalent in advanced cirrhosis and is associated with reduced ascites clearance and increased mortality post TIPS, possibly related to worsening of hemodynamic dysfunction in the post-TIPS period. 10.1038/ajg.2009.321
    Cardiac and renal effects of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhosis. Busk Troels M,Bendtsen Flemming,Møller Søren European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology Refractory ascites and recurrent variceal bleeding are among the serious complications of portal hypertension and cirrhosis for which a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can be used. Cirrhotic patients have varying degrees of haemodynamic derangement, mainly characterized by peripheral arterial vasodilatation, central underfilling and activation of several vasoactive systems. These changes affect the heart, the lungs and the kidneys in particular. The cardiac effects of TIPS are immediate and are related to the redirection of blood from the splanchnic circulation into the systemic circulation, resulting in worsening of the hyperdynamic circulation with increasing cardiac output and decreasing systemic vascular resistance; further, TIPS may unmask a latent diastolic dysfunction of the heart. However, the renal effects of TIPS seem to be beneficial as renal function tends to improve in patients with the hepatorenal syndrome. The clinical and haemodynamic effects of TIPS have been studied intensively and will be reviewed in the present paper. Considerable knowledge on the effects of TIPS on the pathophysiology of cirrhosis has been gained, but studies on the central haemodynamic effects are warranted to refine the already applied treatments and develop new treatment modalities. 10.1097/MEG.0b013e32835d09fe
    Elevated cardiac markers are associated with higher mortality in patients after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion. Vasatova Martina,Pudil Radek,Safka Vaclav,Fejfar Tomas,Buchler Tomas,Hulek Petr,Palicka Vladimir Annals of clinical biochemistry BACKGROUND:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs) have become a widely accepted tool in the treatment of patients with symptomatic portal hypertension. The aim of our study was to assess the value of cardiac markers before and after TIPS insertion for the prediction of one-year mortality in cirrhotic patients. METHODS:The study population consisted of 55 patients (38 men and 17 women, aged 55.6 ± 8.9 y, range 37-74) with liver cirrhosis treated with transjugular portosystemic shunting. Biochemical markers were measured before and 24 h after TIPS. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) was tested by high-sensitivity immunoassay for Elecsys analyser (Roche Diagnostics). Concentrations of creatine kinase MB isoenzyme, myoglobin (MYO), glycogenphosphorylase BB isoenzyme (GPBB) and heart type of fatty acid binding protein (FABP) were measured by the Evidence Investigator protein biochip system (Randox Laboratories). RESULTS:In patients before TIPS insertion, hs-cTnT was increased above the cut-off (0.014 μg/L) in 39.2% of patients. Higher hs-cTnT and FABP concentrations were associated with poor survival in patients before TIPS (hs-cTnT: P = 0.018; FABP: P = 0.016). Twenty-four hours after the TIPS procedure, we found a significant elevation in serum GPBB in comparison with preprocedural values (P < 0.001). There was an association between postprocedural concentrations of cardiac markers (MYO, hs-cTnT, FABP) and overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:Measurement of cardiac markers, mainly hs-cTnT and FABP, may be useful for mortality prediction in cirrhotic patients after TIPS. Cardiac markers are better mortality predictors than other risk factors such as age, gender or Child-Pugh score. 10.1258/acb.2012.012097
    The effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt on systemic cardiocirculatory parameters. Saugel Bernd,Mair Sebastian,Meidert Agnes S,Phillip Veit,Messer Marlena,Nennstiel Simon,Berger Hermann,Gaa Jochen,Wagner Julia Y,Schneider Heike,Schmid Roland M,Huber Wolfgang Journal of critical care PURPOSE:We aimed to evaluate the effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) on systemic cardiocirculatory parameters in patients treated with TIPS for portal hypertension-associated complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This prospective study was conducted in an intensive care unit of a German university hospital (October 2010-July 2013). We assessed hemodynamic parameters before and after TIPS placement using single-indicator transpulmonary thermodilution and pulse contour analysis. After exclusion of 5 patients treated with vasoactive agents during study measurements, 15 patients were included in the final statistical analysis. RESULTS:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt induced a statistically significant decrease in portal pressure (median, 29 [25%-75% percentile range, 23-37] mm Hg before TIPS vs 21 [18-27] mm Hg after TIPS; P<.01) in parallel with a statistically significant increase in central venous pressure (10 [6-15] mm Hg before TIPS vs 13 [9-16] mm Hg after TIPS; P=.01), cardiac index (3.8 [2.9-4.6] L min(-1) m(-2) before TIPS vs 4.5 [3.8-5.4] L min(-1) m(-2) 14 hours after TIPS; P=.01), and stroke volume index (54 [42-60] mL/m2 before TIPS vs 60 [47-63] mL/m2 14 hours after TIPS; P=.03). Arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance index were statistically significantly lower after TIPS. CONCLUSIONS:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt placement is associated with an increase in central venous pressure and an improvement of global blood flow (cardiac index and stroke volume index) in patients with portal hypertension. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.06.028
    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is associated with significant changes in mitral inflow parameters. Pudil Radek,Praus Rudolf,Hulek Petr,Safka Vaclav,Fejfar Tomas,Vasatova Martina,Jirkovsky Vaclav Annals of hepatology INTRODUCTION:Liver cirrhosis is associated with hyperdynamic circulation which can result in heart failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) due to increase of cardiac output is a stressful stimulus for cardiovascular system. Therefore, new methods for early detection of heart failure are needed. Transmitral flow is a marker of diastolic dysfunction. AIM:To analyze short- and long-term effect of TIPS procedure on transmitral flow. MATERIAL AND METHODS:55 patients (38 men and 17 women, 55.6 ± 8.9 years) with liver cirrhosis treated with TIPS were enrolled in the study. Echocardiography was performed before, 24 h, 7, 30 and 180 days after the procedure. During 6 month follow up 22 patients died. Results. Left ventricle end-diastolic diameter was increasing during the follow-up [baseline: 47 (44.7-51.2) mm, day 7: 50 (46.5-51.3) mm, p < 0.05; day 30: 49.5 (46.7-55.2) mm, p < 0.01; 6 months: 52.5 (48.3-55.2) mm, p < 0.01)]. The peak early filling velocity (E) was significantly increasing [before: 75.5 (60.5-87.3) cm/s, 24 h: 88 (74.3-109.7), p < 0.01; day 7: 89 (81.5-105) p < 0.01; 1 month: 94 (82.7-108.5) p < 0.01; 6 month: 91 (80.1-120.2) p < 0.01]. Peak late atrial filling velocity (A) significantly increased within 24 h after the procedure: 85.1 (76.2-99.5) vs. 91.2 (81.5-104.5) cm/s, p < 0.05. The E/A ratio was increasing during the follow up (baseline: 0.88, 24 h after: 0.89, 1 week: 1.0, 30 days: 1.13, 6 month: 1.06 p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:Hemodynamic changes following TIPS procedure can be monitored using echocardiography. Transmitral flow analysis can serve as a useful tool for evaluating of diastolic function in these patients.
    Right atrial pressure may impact early survival of patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation. Parvinian Ahmad,Bui James T,Knuttinen M Grace,Minocha Jeet,Gaba Ron C Annals of hepatology PURPOSE:To elucidate the impact of right atrial (RA) pressure on early mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). MATERIAL AND METHODS:In this single institution retrospective study, 125 patients (M:F = 75:50, mean age 55 years) who underwent TIPS with recorded intra-procedural RA pressures between 1999-2012 were studied. Demographic (age, gender), liver disease (Child-Pugh, Model for End Stage Liver Disease or MELD score), and procedure (indication, urgency, Stent type, portosystemic gradient or PSG reduction, baseline and post-TIPS RA pressure) data were identified, and the influence of these parameters on 30- and 90-day mortality was assessed using binary logistic regression. RESULTS:TIPS were created for variceal hemorrhage (n = 55) and ascites (n = 70). Hemodynamic success rate was 99% (124/125) and mean PSG reduction was 13 mmHg. 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 18% (19/106) and 28% (29/106). Baseline and final RA pressure were significantly associated with 30- (12 vs. 15 mmHg, P = 0.021; 18 vs. 21 mmHg, P = 0.035) and 90-day (12 vs. 14 mmHg, P = 0.022; 18 vs. 20 mmHg, P = 0.024) survival on univariate analysis. Predictive usefulness of RA pressure was not confirmed in multivariate analyses. Area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curve analysis revealed good pre- and post-TIPS RA pressure predictive capacity for 30- (0.779, 0.810) and 90-day (0.813, 0.788) mortality among variceal hemorrhage patients at 14.5 and 21.5 mm Hg thresholds. CONCLUSION:Intra-procedural RA pressure may have predictive value for early post-TIPS mortality. Pre-procedure consideration and optimization of patient cardiac status may enhance candidate selection, risk stratification, and clinical outcomes, particularly in variceal hemorrhage patients.
    Effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) on blood volume distribution in patients with cirrhosis. Busk Troels M,Bendtsen Flemming,Henriksen Jens H,Fuglsang Stefan,Clemmesen Jens O,Larsen Fin S,Møller Søren Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND:Cirrhosis is accompanied by portal hypertension with splanchnic and systemic arterial vasodilation, and central hypovolaemia. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) alleviates portal hypertension, but also causes major haemodynamic changes. AIMS:To investigate effects of TIPS on regional blood volume distribution, and systemic haemodynamics. METHODS:Thirteen cirrhotic patients had their regional blood volume distribution determined with gamma-camera technique before and after TIPS. Additionally, we measured systemic haemodynamics during liver vein and right heart catheterization. Central and arterial blood volume (CBV) and cardiac output (CO) were determined with indicator dilution technique. RESULTS:After TIPS, the thoracic blood volume increased (+10.4% of total blood volume (TBV), p<0.01), whereas the splanchnic blood volume decreased (-11.9% of TBV, p<0.001). CO increased (+22%, p<0.0001), and systemic vascular resistance decreased (-26%, p<0.001), whereas CBV did not change. Finally, right atrial pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure increased after TIPS (+50%, p<0.005; +40%, p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:TIPS restores central hypovolaemia by an increase in thoracic blood volume and alleviates splanchnic vascular congestion. In contrast, CBV seems unaltered. The improvement in central hypovolaemia is therefore based on an increase in thoracic blood volume that includes both the central venous and arterial blood volume. This is supported by an increase in preload, combined with a decrease in afterload. 10.1016/j.dld.2017.06.011
    Circulatory response to volume expansion and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in refractory ascites: Relationship with diastolic dysfunction. Filì Daniela,Falletta Calogero,Luca Angelo,Hernandez Baravoglia Cesar,Clemenza Francesco,Miraglia Roberto,Scardulla Cesare,Tuzzolino Fabio,Vizzini Giovanni,Gridelli Bruno,Bosch Jaime Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver BACKGROUND:Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may lead to heart failure in stressful circumstances, such as after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. AIM:To examine whether acute volume expansion predicts haemodynamic changes after TIPS and elicits signs of impending heart failure. METHODS:We prospectively evaluated refractory ascites patients (group A) and compensated cirrhotics (group B), who underwent echocardiography, NT-proBNP measurement, and heart catheterization before and after volume load; group A repeated measurements after TIPS. RESULTS:15 patients in group A (80% male; 54±12.4 years) and 8 in group B (100% male; 56±6.2 years) were enrolled. Echocardiography disclosed diastolic dysfunction in 30% and 12.5%, respectively. In group A, volume load and TIPS induced a significant increase in right atrial, mean pulmonary, capillary wedge pressure and cardiac index, and a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (respectively, 4.7±2.8 vs. 9.9±3.6 mmHg; 13.3±3.5 vs. 21.9±5.9 mmHg; 8.3±3.4 vs. 15.4±4.7 mmHg; 3.7±0.7 vs. 4.6±11 t/min/m2; 961±278 vs. 767±285 dynscm(-5); and 10.1±3.3 vs. 14.2±3.4 mmHg; 17.5±4 vs. 25.2±4.2 mmHg; 12.3±4 vs. 19.3±3.4 mmHg; 3.4±0.8 vs. 4.5±0.91l t/min/m2; 779±62 vs. 596±199 dynscm(-5), p<0.001 for all pairs). At 24h, cardiopulmonary pressures returned towards baseline. CONCLUSIONS:Acute volume expansion predicted haemodynamic changes immediately after TIPS. All patients had adequate haemodynamic adaptation to TIPS; none developed signs of heart failure. 10.1016/j.dld.2015.08.014
    Tei index is associated with survival in cirrhosis patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Song Yan,Li Weizhi,Xue Hui,Ruan Litao Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) BACKGROUND:Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is the method of choice for the treatment of portal hypertension. The Tei index is the most sensitive indicator of myocardial function. DESIGN:This study enrolled 31 patients with cirrhosis who underwent TIPS and were followed up over a median period of 34 months (range 2-60 months). Baseline Meld score and the changes in the Tei index within 1 month after TIPS and their potential relationship with prognosis were evaluated. The primary endpoint was mortality. RESULTS:Thirteen patients (42%) died during follow-up. Survival analysis showed that the pre-TIPS Tei index (RR = -7.660, 95% confidence interval 0.000-0.069, P < 0.05) and the baseline MELD score > 10 (RR = 0.305,95% CI:1.036-1.778, P < 0.05) were significantly associated with survival rate after TIPS. CONCLUSION:The Tei index before TIPS is associated with the survival of patients with cirrhosis after TIPS, and is potentially a predictive factor of mortality. 10.1111/echo.14201
    Fifteen years' experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using bare stents: retrospective review of clinical and technical aspects. Gazzera C,Righi D,Valle F,Ottobrelli A,Grosso M,Gandini G La Radiologia medica PURPOSE:The authors present a retrospective analysis of a large series of patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Between March 1992 and December 2006, 658 patients were referred to our centre for TIPS placement. Indications for the procedure were digestive tract bleeding (52.8%), refractory ascites (35.3%), preservation of portal vein patency prior to liver transplantation (3.0%) and thrombosis of the suprahepatic veins (2.3%). Other indications (6.6%) included pleural ascites, portal thrombosis and hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndromes. All patients were evaluated with colour Doppler ultrasonography and in a few cases with computed tomography. The portal system was punctured under sonographic guidance. Wallstent, Palmaz and Nitinol thermosensitive stents were used. Embolisation of persistent varices was performed in 6.8% of cases. RESULTS:Technical success was 98.9%. During a 1,500-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of stent revision was 25.7% (Nitinol), 32.9% (Wallstent) and 1.8% (Palmaz). Mortality rates were 31.1%, 38.5% and 56.4%, respectively. The technical complications included six cases of heart failure, six of haematobilia, three of stent migration, two of intrahepatic haematoma and one of haemoperitoneum. Eight patients with severe portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) were treated with a reduction stent. CONCLUSIONS:TIPS placement is safe and effective and may act as a bridge to liver transplantation. Ultrasonography plays a fundamental role in the preliminary assessment, in portal vein puncture and during the follow-up. Stent patency is satisfactory. 10.1007/s11547-008-0349-3
    Novel tips for engaging the coronary sinus guided by right ventricular lead. Cheng Chien-Ming,Huang Jin-Long,Wu Tsu-Juey,Su Chieh-Shou,Pai Hsi-Yen,Liao Mau-Fang,Ting Chih-Tai,Chen Shih-Ann Europace : European pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac electrophysiology : journal of the working groups on cardiac pacing, arrhythmias, and cardiac cellular electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology AIMS:This study investigated the relationship between the ostia of the coronary sinus (CS) and the tricuspid annulus (TA) for CS cannulation using a right ventricular (RV) lead, which could map out the TA by forming a curve when placed at the apex or low septum. METHODS AND RESULTS:Seventy patients (45 males, 67 ± 12 years) who were admitted for CRT device implant were included in the evaluation of the relationship between the CS ostia and TA. An electrophysiological (EP) mapping catheter was used to probe the CS. The ostium was shown by the CS venography at the left anterior oblique (LAO) 20° and caudal 20°. Local electrograms were collected with CS catheters in the CS or RV. Transthoracic echocardiography was evaluated before each procedure. All CS ostia were located within 3.75 cm around the tip of TA. Sixty-two subjects (Group I, 89%) had CS ostia located under the TA. Eight patients (Group II) with CS ostia over the TA revealed larger left ventricular (LV) size and a smaller ratio of left atrium (LA)/LV size. LV enlargement predicted the presence of CS ostia over the TA. Typical CS electrograms were used to further confirm if the EP catheter was in the CS in all the subjects. CONCLUSION:Use of the RV lead revealed that the CS ostia had a close relationship with the TA. 10.1093/europace/eus192
    Unsuccessful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for a patient with right heart failure and portal hypertension. Graus L,Verresen L,De Vusser P,Verbrugge F H,Caenepeel P Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica A 60-year-old women with a history of congenital pulmonary valve stenosis developed right heart failure, cardiac cirrhosis and end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy. Cirrhosis was complicated by portal hypertension, resulting in intractable gastro-intestinal bleedings despite optimal treatment with beta-blockers and endoscopic band ligation. Because of fears for worsening right heart failure, a decision for placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was initially turned down. However, as intractable bleeding problems persisted and caused heavy transfusion needs, TIPS was ultimately performed as a rescue procedure. Although TIPS successfully reduced the hepatic venous pressure gradient from 16 mmHg to 4 mmHg, portal pressure remained high at 14 mmHg because of persisting right heart failure with elevated central venous pressure. Hepatic encephalopathy soon developed after TIPS placement and culminated in multi-organ failure after another episode of gastro-intestinal bleeding. At this point, the family of the patient decided to withdraw care and the patient died subsequently. This case illustrates how important it is to diagnose and optimally treat right heart failure before cardiac cirrhosis with its impending complications emerges. Although TIPS may effectively treat complications of portal hypertension in the context of cirrhosis, persisting right heart failure may abrogate its beneficial effects.
    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: impact on systemic hemodynamics and renal and cardiac function in patients with cirrhosis. Busk Troels M,Bendtsen Flemming,Poulsen Jørgen H,Clemmesen Jens O,Larsen Fin S,Goetze Jens P,Iversen Jens S,Jensen Magnus T,Møgelvang Rasmus,Pedersen Erling B,Bech Jesper N,Møller Søren American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) alleviates portal hypertension and possibly increases central blood volume (CBV). Moreover, renal function often improves; however, its effects on cardiac function are unclear. The aims of our study were to examine the effects of TIPS on hemodynamics and renal and cardiac function in patients with cirrhosis. In 25 cirrhotic patients, we analyzed systemic, cardiac, and splanchnic hemodynamics by catheterization of the liver veins and right heart chambers before and 1 wk after TIPS. Additionally, we measured renal and cardiac markers and performed advanced echocardiography before, 1 wk after, and 4 mo after TIPS. CBV increased significantly after TIPS (+4.6%, P < 0.05). Cardiac output (CO) increased (+15.3%, P < 0.005) due to an increase in stroke volume (SV) (+11.1%, P < 0.005), whereas heart rate (HR) was initially unchanged. Cardiopulmonary pressures increased after TIPS, whereas copeptin, a marker of vasopressin, decreased (-18%, P < 0.005) and proatrial natriuretic peptide increased (+52%, P < 0.0005) 1 wk after TIPS and returned to baseline 4 mo after TIPS. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, renin, aldosterone, and serum creatinine decreased after TIPS (-36%, P < 0.005; -65%, P < 0.05; -90%, P < 0.005; and -13%, P < 0.005, respectively). Echocardiography revealed subtle changes in cardiac function after TIPS, although these were within the normal range. TIPS increases CBV by increasing CO and SV, whereas HR is initially unaltered. These results indicate an inability to increase the heart rate in response to a hemodynamic challenge that only partially increases CBV after TIPS. These changes, however, are sufficient for improving renal function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY For the first time, we have combined advanced techniques to study the integrated effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in cirrhosis. We showed that TIPS increases central blood volume (CBV) through improved cardiac inotropy. Advanced echocardiography demonstrated that myocardial function was unaffected by the dramatic increase in preload after TIPS. Finally, renal function improved due to the increase in CBV. Recognition of these physiological changes significantly contributes to our clinical understanding of TIPS. 10.1152/ajpgi.00094.2017