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    Accounting for attitude in a KAP Study: A comment on knowledge, attitude and practice of stroke in India versus other developed and developing countries. Raina Sunil Kumar Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 10.4103/0972-2327.132663
    Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding folic acid deficiency; A hidden hunger. Hisam Aliya,Rahman Mahmood Ur,Mashhadi Syed Fawad Pakistan journal of medical sciences OBJECTIVES:To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. METHODS:A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique. After taking informed verbal consent, a closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was filled. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS:Mean age of the respondents was 30.31 + 5.280 years. Illiterate and literate were 165 (41.25%) and 235 (58.75%) respectively. The knowledge regarding folic acid need was 172 (43%). Only 161 (40.25%) thought that folic acid deficiency in pregnant women results in abnormality in newborn. In pregnancy, 205 (51.25%) had received folic acid supplementation. Association between education level and practice of folic acid was significant (p= 0.009) at 95% confidence level. CONCLUSION:Knowledge regarding folic acid deficiency among WOCBA was low along with the poor attitude. Practice was also not satisfactory. Education status plays important role in preventing micronutrient deficiency. 10.12669/pjms.303.4716
    Survey of knowledge-attitude-practice concerning insulin use in adult diabetic patients in eastern India. Das Choudhury Sourav,Das Somak Kumar,Hazra Avijit Indian journal of pharmacology OBJECTIVES:The study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding insulin use among diabetic patients in tertiary care hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, aged 18 years and above, attending the Medicine/Endocrinology out-patient department or admitted as in-patients in three hospitals in and around Kolkata were enrolled. A pretested structured questionnaire comprising of 51 items was administered through face-to-face interview. Responses from 385 subjects were analyzed. RESULTS:Both higher educational and higher economic standards were associated with better understanding of insulin use. Longer duration of diabetes and its treatment (oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin) were associated with better knowledge of some parameters. Female subjects were less aware of HbA1c as a monitoring tool. Among current insulin users, 70% had never used a glucometer; only 27.33% carried simple carbohydrates for use in hypoglycemic attacks; and 32% failed to rotate sites for insulin injection. CONCLUSION:Knowledge and attitude were satisfactory on the whole but deficiencies in practice were pronounced, which can potentially be removed through appropriate counseling. 10.4103/0253-7613.135957
    Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification in type 2 diabetic patients. Okonta Henry I,Ikombele John B,Ogunbanjo Gboyega A African journal of primary health care & family medicine BACKGROUND:The number of persons suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus continues to rise worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. Behaviour change and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits help to prevent or slow down the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the knowledge and practice of healthy lifestyles in many diabetic patients have been inadequate. AIM:This study sought to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification amongst type 2 diabetic patients. SETTING:The diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, South Africa. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire amongst 217 type 2 diabetic patients seen at the diabetic clinic of Mamelodi hospital. Baseline characteristics of the participants were obtained and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding lifestyle modification were assessed. RESULTS:Of the 217 participants, 154 (71%) were obese and 15 (7%) were morbidly obese. The majority of respondents (92.2%) had poor knowledge of the benefits of exercise, weight loss and a healthy diet. What is interesting is that the majority (97.7%) demonstrated bad practices in relation to lifestyle modifications, although over four-fifths (84.3%) had a positive attitude toward healthy lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSION:Despite the positive attitudes of respondents toward healthy lifestyle modifications, the knowledge and practice regarding lifestyle modifications amongst type 2 diabetes mellitus participants seen at Mamelodi hospital were generally poor. 10.4102/phcfm.v6i1.655
    Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in North Central Health Authority in Trinidad and Tobago. Webb M C,Aguilal J J The West Indian medical journal Objectives:To assess knowledge, attitude and practice in relation to their disease among patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in one regional health district in Trinidad and Tobago and to compare these attributes between patients receiving/not receiving nutrition counselling. Methods:A cohort of 122 patients with diabetes was selected on site at their respective public clinics via quota sampling and surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Results:Mean knowledge score was 5.4 (SD = 0.985). Mean attitude and practice scores were significant between those who received and did not receive counselling ( = 0.033 and < 0.001, respectively). Patients receiving nutrition counselling were more likely than those not receiving counselling to not drink soft drinks ( < 0.001), consume fast foods ( < 0.001) and drink alcohol (p = 0.003) but were equally likely to drink at least eight glasses of water daily. Additionally, patients receiving and those not receiving counselling were equally likely to agree with the attitude statements given. There was a statistically significant interaction between the effects of gender and age group on knowledge score, F = 2.631, = 0.039. Nutrition counselling was a statistically significant predictor of knowledge score (B = 0.444, standard error = 0.192, = 0.023). Conclusions:Patients receiving nutrition counselling were more knowledgeable about diabetes than those not receiving such counselling, and had a more positive outlook as to what it would take on the part of the patient and clinicians to manage the disease effectively. 10.7727/wimj.2014.287
    Diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetic patients in Nepal. Gautam Anju,Bhatta Dharma Nand,Aryal Umesh Raj BMC endocrine disorders BACKGROUND:Globally, diabetes is the top priority chronic disease. Health literary would be cost effective for prevention and control of diabetes and its consequences. This study was conducted to determine the level of diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among diabetic patient and factors associated with KAP. METHODS:An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted using a non-probability sampling technique to select the diabetic patients. A total of 244 diabetic patients were interviewed from July to November 2014. Data was collected by face to face interview using structured interviewer rater questionnaires. Relative risk ratio (RRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of associated factors were estimated by a stepwise likelihood ratio method with multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS:More than half (52.5%) of all patients were female, 18% were illiterate, and 24.6% were from rural residence. The diabetes related risk factors were common among diabetic patients; 9.8% smoker, 16% alcohol drinking, and 17.6% reported low or no physical activity. Median score for knowledge, attitude, and practice were 81, 40 and 14 respectively. Among all patients, 12.3%, 12.7% and 16% had highly satisfactory knowledge, attitude and practice respectively. Using highly insufficient knowledge as the baseline, the likelihood of having a level of highly sufficient knowledge was 17 times higher among patients who have graduated and above level of education compared to those who were illiterate. Albeit this value was comparatively lower than insufficient level of knowledge. The probability of having a sufficient level of practice among diabetic patient with a history of smoking was 0.10 times lower than in patient with no history of smoking. CONCLUSIONS:Our study reveals a variation between diabetes related health knowledge, attitude and practice in Nepal among those who are affected by diabetes. Our results show the potential diabetes health literacy needs to be improved or developed for better health promotion. 10.1186/s12902-015-0021-6
    Evaluating the Effect of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Self-Management in Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Dialysis. Ghannadi Shima,Amouzegar Atieh,Amiri Parisa,Karbalaeifar Ronak,Tahmasebinejad Zhale,Kazempour-Ardebili Sara Journal of diabetes research Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran. 10.1155/2016/3730875
    Oral health status, knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with heart disease. Rasouli-Ghahroudi Amir Alireza,Khorsand Afshin,Yaghobee Siamak,Rokn Amirreza,Jalali Mohammad,Masudi Sima,Rahimi Hamed,Kabir Ali ARYA atherosclerosis BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS:In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS:CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION:The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups.
    Changing Clinical Presentation, Current Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Current Vision Related Quality of Life in Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Retinopathy in Eastern India: The LVPEI Eye and Diabetes Study. Das Taraprasad,Wallang Batriti,Semwal Preeti,Basu Soumyava,Padhi Tapas R,Ali Mohd Hasnat Journal of ophthalmology . To document the changing clinical presentation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) over a decade, the current knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) of known type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the current vision related quality of life (VR-QOL) of patients with DR in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. . Two hundred and forty patients with known type-2 DM were evaluated. The evaluation included status of DR ( = 240), KAP ( = 232), and VR-QOL ( = 75). International classification of DR was used in the study. The DR status was compared with another cohort ( = 472) examined a decade earlier, in year 2001. The KAP-25 questions were designed after literature review. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ; including optional items) was validated by Rasch analysis. Both KAP and VR-QOL were analyzed according to degree of DR, duration of known DM, and educational qualification. . Average age of the current cohort ( = 240) was 57.16 ± 9.03 years; there were 205 (85.4%) male patients and 143 (59.6%) patients had received less than graduate qualification. The mean duration of DM since diagnosis was 10 ± 7.8 months (range 8 months to 30 years); 118 (49.16%) patients had DR. In a decade time, 2001 to 2011, there was a change of retinopathy status at presentation (more often nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, NPDR). One-third of NPDR patients had poor vision and half of them were hypertensive. KAP was better in patients with higher education and those having DR. VFQ score was higher in better seeing patients. . Patients currently presenting at earlier stage of retinopathy are probably related to poor vision. Early detection and treatment of DR is likely to preserve and/or improve vision. 10.1155/2016/3423814
    Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding household consumption of iodized salt among rural women of Tripura, India: A mixed-methods study. Karmakar Nabarun,Datta Anjan,Nag Kaushik,Datta Shib Sekhar,Datta Swati Journal of education and health promotion INTRODUCTION:Iodine is an essential element for thyroid function; it is necessary in minute amounts for normal growth, development, and well-being of all humans. There is gap in the utilization of adequately iodized salt in the rural areas due to nonavailability, poverty, poor knowledge of iodine deficiency diseases, and faulty storage practices. OBJECTIVE:The objective was to find out knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) regarding iodized salt consumption and association of sociodemographic factors, if any, among rural women of Tripura. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This community-based study was conducted among 270 rural women residing at Madhupur village, Tripura. A self-made pretested schedule (Cronbach's alpha = 0.7) was used as the study tool to collect information on KAP regarding iodized salt consumption. RESULTS:Majority of the participants belonged to 31-40 years (30.4%), with a mean age of 38.6 (±13.8) years; all were predominantly Hindus (90.4%). Knowledge and attitude regarding iodized salt consumption were significantly associated with age groups ≤36 years, literacy, and general caste ( < 0.05), but practice was not significant ( > 0.05). Good knowledge and attitude regarding use of iodized packed salt were less than half (46.7% and 41.1%, respectively), but higher level (83.3%) of correct practice was found ( > 0.05). CONCLUSION:The existing knowledge and attitude of participants toward iodized salt usage were less, but majority were consuming iodized salt without knowing its benefits. Hence, there is a need to educate rural people through nutrition education or knowledge, with active participation of grassroot level workers in generating awareness about the health benefits of consuming adequately iodized salt. 10.4103/jehp.jehp_248_18
    The knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetic patient in central region of Saudi Arabia. Ibrahim Abougalambou Salwa Selim,AbaAlkhail Haneen,Abougalambou Ayman S Diabetes & metabolic syndrome BACKGROUND:Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease with increasing prevalence world wide; it leads to devastating human, social and economic impact. AIMS:this study were to determine the level of diabetes-related knowledge, attitude, and practice among adult diabetic patients in central region and finding correlation between knowledge, attitude and practice regarding diabetes. METHOD:A descriptive study was conducted on 300 diabetic patients on internet using Monkey Survey from 7th to 24th April 2015. A questionnaire was filled out. SPSS version 22 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics were comprising percentages, and frequency in order to describe knowledge, attitude, and practice. Correlations between main outcomes variables were calculated by means of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r) that measures the linear relationship between two variables. P-value ≤0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. RESULTS:In the studied sample, 47% were age more than 45 years. About 71.4% of cases were females. The level of knowledge and attitude had 'good' in 73.6%, and 87.7% respectively but level of practice had poor in 45% of patients. There were good correlations between knowledge, attitude and practice. Significant positive linear correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.503, P < 0.001), knowledge and practice (r = 0.337, P < 0.001), and statistically significant linear correlation between attitude and practice (r = 0.235, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:The overall knowledge and attitude were good, while diabetes-related practice were poor. However results indicate that an increase in knowledge will increase attitude, and practice. A better educational program on diabetes should be conducted to improve patients' attitude, and practice towards diabetes. 10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.049
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of Sudanese pharmacist with regard to management of diabetes during Ramadan: A cross-sectional survey. Abdelaziz Tarig Adil,Abdulraheem Muhammad Abdou,Badi Safaa Abdulraheem,Badawi Muhammed Ibrahim,Saeed Ahmed Omer,Elobied Muhammed Ali,Ahmed Mohamed H Diabetes & metabolic syndrome BACKGROUND:Fasting during Ramadan for some individuals with diabetes may lead to complications. Pharmacists may assist in dose adjustment and compliance with medication during Ramadan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of Sudanese community pharmacists in the management of diabetes during Ramadan. METHOD:A cross-sectional study from April to June 2017, included 330 pharmacies in Khartoum state. The sampling technique was done by two methods using stratified and systematic methods for seven localities of Khartoum State. The community pharmacists were assessed in their knowledge about Medication regimen adjustment (MRA), diabetes risk stratification and the condition in which the fasting diabetic patient have to stop their fast. RESULTS:The total response rate was 311(94.2%), and the females were 203(65.3%). Pharmacists mean age was 27.6 (SD = 5.9), ranged between 21-62 years. Importantly, more than 75% of the Pharmacists have sufficient knowledge of both identifying high-risk individuals and whether they need to break their fasting. The practice questions answered correctly by more than 80% of pharmacists in relation to monitor blood glucose level, undergo meal planning to avoid hypoglycemia and dehydration during prolong fasting hours and to undergo meal choices to avoid postprandial hyperglycemia. Importantly, 56.9% community pharmacists advised individuals with diabetes about physical activity. The barriers that hindering the proper counseling was attributed to the Lack of knowledge (71.4%). MRA was reported as highly important by (56.6%) and extremely important by (39.2%). The confidence of knowledge about MRA was reported by 52.1%. CONCLUSION:This study showed that pharmacists had sufficient knowledge, positive attitude and good practice about diabetes management during Ramadan. 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.07.019
    Self-care related knowledge, attitude, practice and associated factors among patients with diabetes in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North Ethiopia. Niguse Haftom,Belay Goitom,Fisseha Girmatsion,Desale Tesfaye,Gebremedhn Goitom BMC research notes OBJECTIVE:A good self-care practice is important for patients with diabetes to achieve the desired treatment targets and to contribute meaningfully in the management of their disease. The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetes self-care and to identify the factors associated with diabetes self-care. RESULTS:A total of 338 patients with diabetes having mean age of 45.8 years were included in the study. Among those 70.4%, 70.4% and 25.5% of the patients had a good knowledge, attitude and self-care practices, respectively. Being male (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.30-5.65), living in urban (AOR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.39-8.15) and earning medium income (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.15-5.65) were significantly associated with having good knowledge of self-care while being widowed (AOR = 0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.70) was associated with having poor knowledge. Having a higher income (AOR = 7.95, 95% CI 1.54-41.12) was significantly associated with a good attitude towards diabetic self-care. However, taking both insulin and oral hypoglycemics (AOR = 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.67) was associated with a poor attitude. Being Muslim (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.28-7.91), living in urban areas (6.47, 95% CI 1.38-30.43) and earning high income (AOR = 3.03, 95% CI 1.10-8.35) were determinant of good self-care practice. Efforts should be made to improve self-care practices of patients in closing the gap between knowledge and practice. 10.1186/s13104-019-4072-z
    Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease in Fiji in 2018: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Patients. Alvis Zibran Mohammed,Mohammadnezhad Masoud The review of diabetic studies : RDS OBJECTIVE:The aim was to identify the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at Sigatoka Subdivisional Hospital (SSH) in 2018 since no studies have been done on this issue so far in Fiji. METHODS:A quantitative, cross-sectional study including 225 patients was carried out July 1, 2018, through August 31, 2018, using a validated self-structured questionnaire. Fijians, aged 30 years or above, with confirmed T2D and CKD who were attending the Special Outpatient Department (SOPD) at SSH, were included in the study using a purposive sampling method to identify eligible participants. Data was gathered by a questionnaire that covered questions related to each aspect of KAP. RESULTS:The relation of native Fijians (i-Taukei) to Fijians of Indian descent (FID) was approximately 1:1. The majority of participants had high levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice (61.8%, 63.6%, and 88.4%, respectively). However, a few areas of low knowledge were evident, such as the relation between high blood pressure and renal status in people with diabetes and the need for renal transplant in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) abroad. Low attitude was apparent for the impact and management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Low practice was evident regarding clinic attendance, self-monitoring, and opting for non-medical treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of T2D patients with CKD had a high level of knowledge, but weaknesses were observed in the self-management of CKD and clinic attendance. This information should be considered by clinicians and policy-makers to improve management and treatment of CKD in T2D. 10.1900/RDS.2019.15.26
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of General Practitioners towards adverse drug reaction reporting in South of Iran, Shiraz (Pharmacoepidemiology report). Peymani Payam,Tabrizi Reza,Afifi Saba,Namazi Soha,Heydari Seyed Taghi,Shirazi Mohammad Khabaz,Nouraei Hasti,Sadeghi Elham,Lankarani Kamran B,Maharlouei Najmeh The International journal of risk & safety in medicine BACKGROUND:An adverse drug reaction (ADRs) is linked with the use of medications and unpredictable negative consequences. The Iranian Pharmacovigilance center (IPC) has reported that the rate of ADR is very low. OBJECTIVE:Thus, this study was performed to find the reasons for this under-reporting, and investigate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of General Practitioners (GPs) about spontaneous reporting system in Shiraz. METHODS:The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 general practitioners (GPs) working in Shiraz, Iran from Oct 2014 to March 2015. A semi-structured questionnaire was used which included demographic features, and evaluated KAPs of GPs regarding ADRs, Pharmacovigilance, and yellow card reporting. Statistical analysis was done by descriptive and analytical statistics (frequency, Mean±SD, Student t-test, Chi-square) using SPSS version 16. RESULTS:Of 350 (95.1%) GPs, 333 completed the questionnaire. The respondents aged from 26 to76 years, of whom 176 (52.9%) were males with mean age 39.6±8.8 SD years. In regard to work place, 85 (25.5%) had their own office, and 112 (33.7%), 101 (30.9%), and 35 (10.5%) worked in private hospitals, in governmental hospitals, and in more than one place, respectively. Work experience mean was 13.3±8.2SD years and median was 12 years (range 1-50 years). Although, less than half of the participants (n = 151; 45.3%) described ADR correctly, 215 (64.6%) respondents claimed that they were not familiar with physician's responsibility regarding ADR reporting. Overall, few of the participants were aware of the steps in either ADR reporting or using Yellow Card System. On the whole, 100 (30%) respondents achieved acceptable knowledge score, while the median score was 9 out of 14 and minimum and maximum being 5 and 14, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The physicians in Shiraz have poor knowledge of the pharmacovigilance system; however self-education leads to a better knowledge and positive attitude regarding ADRs reporting system. National Pharmacovigilance center should play a more active role in improving physicians' adherence to the ADRs reporting systems and the comprehensive educational pack can be used in local and national meetings. The main factor for low ADR reporting rates is lack of information about ADRs and how to report an ADR. Otherwise, obligatory education and training courses should be designed for general practitioners on reporting ADRs during and after graduation. 10.3233/JRS-160670
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes. Awotidebe Taofeek O,Adedoyin Rufus A,Afolabi Mubaraq A,Opiyo Rose Diabetes & metabolic syndrome AIMS:Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at <0.05. RESULTS:The mean age of respondents was 51.9±9.8 years. A majority, 245(81.9%) were married individuals and more than half, 195(65.3%) were in the low SES. One hundred and forty-eight (49.5%) had good knowledge of exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). CONCLUSION:Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. 10.1016/j.dsx.2016.01.006
    Determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice in patients with both type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease in Fiji. Zibran Mohammed Alvis,Mohammadnezhad Masoud F1000Research In Fiji, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Chronic kidney disease (CKD) are amongst the top four causes of premature mortality, disability and death. This study aims to identify the determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in T2DM patients with CKD in Fiji in 2018. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sigatoka Sub-divisional Hospital (SSH) in Fiji in July-August, 2018 using a self-structured questionnaire to test KAP of 225 patients. The inclusion criteria were confirmed T2DM patients (Fijian citizens) with CKD, aged 30 years or above and attending Special Out-Patient's Department (SOPD) at SSH. Independent t-test and ANOVA was used to test differences between demographic variable and practice score while non-parametric tests were used for knowledge and attitude. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regressions were conducted. All tests were set at 5% level of significance. From 249 questionnaires distributed, 225 responded thus response rate was 95%. The mean KAP level was high: knowledge, 23.3/30 (SD±3.25); attitude, 23.1/30 (SD±2.73) and practice, 7.1/10 (SD±2.04). A high level of knowledge was seen in those with university-level education (p<0.001), unemployed (p=0.05) and high average monthly income (p=0.03). Those aged 61-70 years had a 0.53-point lower attitude score (p=0.05) than other age categories, while those >70 years had a 1.78-point lower attitude score (p=0.01) than other age categories. Fijians of Indian descent (FID) had lower attitude (p=0.002) and higher practice (p=0.001) scores. Patients with both T2DM and CKD at SSH have high levels of KAP. The determinants of KAP have been shown and thus, this study identified high-risk groups for low KAP, which can become the focus of future public health intervention. 10.12688/f1000research.18188.3
    Differences in UK healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitude and practice towards infliximab and insulin glargine biosimilars. Aladul Mohammed I,Fitzpatrick Raymond W,Chapman Stephen R The International journal of pharmacy practice OBJECTIVES:To investigate knowledge and attitudes of different healthcare professionals in UK towards infliximab and insulin glargine biosimilars METHODS: UK medical consultants/registrars, nurses and pharmacists participated in anonymised, self-administered web-based survey distributed by professional associations. KEY FINDINGS:There were 234 respondents: medical consultants/registrars (150), nurses (58) and pharmacists (26). 76% of medical consultants/registrars, 84% of pharmacists and 53% of nurses understood what biosimilars were. Medical consultants/registrars and pharmacists had safety and efficacy concerns when switching patients compared to initiation. Nurses had similar levels of safety and efficacy concerns about initiation. CONCLUSION:Healthcare professionals were more comfortable with the initiation of biosimilars than switching current patients. Medical consultants/registrars and pharmacists were more informed than nurses. 10.1111/ijpp.12485
    Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice on Salt and Assessment of Dietary Salt and Fat Intake among University of Sharjah Students. Cheikh Ismail Leila,Hashim Mona,H Jarrar Amjad,N Mohamad Maysm,T Saleh Sheima,Jawish Nada,Bekdache Mayssaa,Albaghli Hiba,Kdsi Dyana,Aldarweesh Dina,S Al Dhaheri Ayesha Nutrients BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of deaths in the United Arab Emirates and reducing dietary salt intake is recommended to improve the population's health. METHODS:a cross-sectional survey was given to 401 students from the University of Sharjah to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to dietary salt intake and a 24-h dietary recall among a subsample of 122 students, to assess the dietary intake of total fat, cholesterol, saturated fat, trans fat, and sodium. RESULTS:findings indicated low salt-related knowledge scores among students (17 out of 30), high prevalence of overweight (28%), obesity (14%), hypertension stage 1 (31%), and hypertension stage 2 (20%). The results also revealed a high percentage of students exceeding the recommended intake of total fat (48%), saturated fat (90%), trans fat (64%), and sodium (89%), and all students not meeting potassium recommendations. CONCLUSIONS:culture-specific awareness campaigns on salt and fat intake and their association with health are needed. 10.3390/nu11050941
    Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hypertension among residents in a housing area in Selangor, Malaysia. Buang Nurul Fatin Binti,Rahman Nor Azlina A,Haque Mainul Medicine and pharmacy reports Background and aims:Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic and threat to the world population. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a housing area in Selangor, Malaysia to study the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hypertension among the residents. Methods:A total of 110 respondents aged 18 years old and above were selected by convenience sampling. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-guided questionnaire with Likert-scale choices of answers. Results:All respondents were Malay with the mean age of 41 years [Standard Deviation (SD)=11.828]. The total mean and SD of knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 74.33 (SD=6.25), 44.22 (SD=5.05) and 27.55 (SD=2.86), respectively. There were significant positive correlations between knowledge with attitude (r=+0.393; p<0.001) and practice (r=+0.378; p<0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between attitude and practice (r=+0.120; p=0.212). There were significant fair positive correlations between age with knowledge (r=+0.402; p<0.001), attitude (r=+0.265; p=0.005) and practice (r=+0.337; p<0.001) regarding hypertension. Meanwhile, gender, educational level, employment status and family history had no significant association with knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hypertension. Conclusion:This study revealed that KAP regarding hypertension were associated with age, but not with other socio-demographic characteristics studied. The awareness, prevention and control programs of hypertension in their community should be increased, so that the residents could enjoy and maintain the healthy lifestyle. 10.15386/mpr-1227
    Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards Glycemic Control and Its Associated Factors among Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Asmelash Daniel,Abdu Netsanet,Tefera Samson,Baynes Habtamu Wondifraw,Derbew Cherie Journal of diabetes research Background:Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologic factors characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism. It can play the vital role in the cause of morbidity and mortality through continued clinical consequence. Therefore, good knowledge, attitude, and practices of glycemic control are necessary in promoting care, in enhancing better therapeutic outcomes, and in the prevention and management of diabetes complications. Methods:A cross-sectional study design was conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice towards glycemic control and its associated factors. Diabetic patients who were attending the University of Gondar Hospital from March to May 2018 were included in the study. The data was collected using questionnaires, and individuals that can fulfill our inclusion criteria were selected by a simple random sampling technique. SPSS version 20 was used for descriptive and logistic regression analysis, and finally, the variables were summarized and presented using tables and graphs. Results:Of the total 403 participants, 216 (53.6%) were males and 176 (43.7%) were illiterate. Of the total, 250 (62%) had good knowledge, 271 (67.2%) had a good attitude, and 300 (74.4%) had good practice towards glycemic control. In multivariate logistic regression, occupational status and marital status were significantly associated with the knowledge of participants towards glycemic control. Occupational status, educational status, and marital status were significantly associated with attitude and practice towards glycemic control. Conclusion:More than half of the participants had good knowledge, attitude, and practice towards glycemic control. Occupational status and marital status were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude, and practice towards glycemic control. 10.1155/2019/2593684
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus towards complementary and alternative medicine. Al-Eidi Sulaiman,Tayel Salwa,Al-Slail Fatima,Qureshi Naseem Akhtar,Sohaibani Imen,Khalil Mohamed,Al-Bedah Abdullah Mohammad Journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is relatively common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) around the world. Like many other countries, Saudi Arabia has a high incidence of T2DM, and incorporates the use of CAM in its treatment. This study explores the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of CAM therapies among patients with T2DM and explores the relationships between sociodemographics and the KAP of CAM modalities. METHODS:This is a hospital-based, observational, cross-sectional study that selected 302 outpatients with T2DM, from Diabetic Center of King Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Hospital, in Riyadh city, in May 2014. Patients were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS:The mean age of patients was (51.6 ± 10.6) years and 43.4% of them were males. The prevalence of CAM practices was 30.5%; 30.39% of them used herbs, 20.58% used wet cupping and 17.64% used nutritional supplements and other therapies. The factors found to predict the use of CAM therapies among patients with T2DM were: age above 51 years, unemployment and the participants± knowledge about the effectiveness of CAM products. CONCLUSION:This preliminary study estimated the prevalence of CAM use, revealed positive attitude towards CAM and found three significant predictors of CAM use among patients with T2DM, which is consistent with regional data. A community-based research with a larger sample that targets T2DM population is needed in Saudi Arabia. 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60244-3
    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Diabetic Retinopathy amongst the Diabetic Patients of AlJouf and Hail Province of Saudi Arabia. Al Zarea Bandar Krayem Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR INTRODUCTION:Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by elevated blood sugar levels. It is a non-communicable disease and currently, a major disease of concern in terms of public health. AIM:To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetic retinopathy amongst the diabetic patients of Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus visiting to Ministry of Health hospitals were incorporated in this study. Self administered questionnaires were used to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of diabetic retinopathy amongst the diabetic patients. The data collected was entered in a pre-designed proforma and analysed using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS:This study incorporated 439 diabetic individuals out of which 251 (57.17%) were male patients and 188 (42.82%) were females. Majority of the diabetic patients (75.62%) were aware that diabetes can cause eye disorders, 73.80% of patients replied that diabetic individuals should go for regular eye check-ups and 65.10% of patients were aware that they should visit an ophthalmologist in the event of eye problem. Out of 439 diabetic 302 patients (68.79%) were aware that timely treatment can prevent or delay damage of eyes in diabetic patients and about 95% of all the participants went for regular ocular examinations. CONCLUSION:Majority of the diabetes patients were aware that diabetes can cause eye disease and it is necessary for the diabetic individuals to consult the ophthalmologist for the prevention of the same. 10.7860/JCDR/2016/19568.7862
    Public knowledge, attitude and practice toward diabetes mellitus in Hail region, Saudi Arabia. Aljofan Mohamad,Altebainawi Ali,Alrashidi Mubarak Nsha International journal of general medicine There is a rapid increase in the number of people with type II diabetes worldwide with many preventable cases. Diabetes control or prevention is partially influenced by the individual's knowledge, attitude and practice toward the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the general public knowledge, attitude and practice toward diabetes in the region of Hail, which is located northern of the Saudi capital. This is a cross-sectional study conducted during the period of March 2018 until September 2018. We randomly selected participants over the age of 18 years at different locations. A total of 738 participants (428 females and 310 males) with and an age range of 18-61 years and mean age of 35±12 were surveyed. The majority of the participants, regardless of education levels, residence and employment status showed high knowledge of diabetes (82%) and knew that physical activity can positively affect/prevent diabetes. Participant's age was found to have a significant association with participant's knowledge of diabetes with the ≥35 year old group knew the different types of diabetes (<0.001) and knew that high carbohydrate consumption can increase the risk of diabetes (<0.001), but only the younger group <18 year old's identified diabetes as a genetic disorder (<0.001). The high knowledge of the disease and its risk factors were not truly mirrored in the participant's attitude and practice toward the disease. Therefore, it is quite essential for the local health authorities to implement awareness programs to improve public attitude and practice toward diabetes. 10.2147/IJGM.S214441
    KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE TOWARD DISEASE AND PRACTICE SURVEY ON DIABETES IN GARDABANI DISTRICT. Kajaia M,Butsashvili M,Gulbiani L,Khatiashvili Kh,Mindeli K,Osepaishvili N,Gordeladze K,Kobaek A,Kamkamidze G Georgian medical news In 2014-2016, the Georgia Red Cross Society (GRCS) implemented a project to improve diabetes prevention, detection and care in rural Georgia, namely in the Gardabani district. The KAP survey was conducted to determine current levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diabetes among the general population in the Gardabani district. We compared current findings with baseline results from a 2014 survey to identify trends. A cross sectional study design with multi-stage random sampling was used to select participants. Data were collected at households through face-to-face individual interviews using a specially designed questionnaire. In total, 716 individuals were surveyed, the majority of whom (98.9%) were aware of diabetes. Most respondents (85.3%) believed that diabetes can be prevented and correctly identified measures of diabetes prevention. Compared to the previous survey, the level of knowledge regarding risk factors, symptoms and complication of diabetes had improved significantly. Knowledge of diabetes prevention correlated positively with individuals having a higher education level (62.6% vs. 50.8%; p=0.05), higher family income (62.2% vs. 53.5%; p=0.03) and residing in rural settlements (58.6% vs. 25%; p<0.001). Knowledge of diabetes management was significantly associated with type of residence (rural 50.3% vs. urban 28.4%; p<0.001) and family income (high family income 52.3% vs. low family income 45.5%; p=0.05). Respondents identifying GRCS as a source of information tended to have a higher awareness of diabetes prevention and management. Knowledge of diabetes has significantly improved among the general population of the Garabani district from 2014 to 2016. The development and implementation of similar public health programs to increase the level of awareness and knowledge about diabetes is required in other parts of Georgia to improve control and management of the disease throughout the country.
    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Hypertension Among Antihypertensive Medication Users. Shrestha S,Adhikari B,Poudel R S,Thapaliya K,Kharal T,Bastakoti M,Bhatta N K JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association INTRODUCTION:Hypertension is growing among the population of Nepal. We aimed to determine the current knowledge, attitude and practice of hypertension among hypertensive patients taking antihypertensive medication in the community of Central Nepal. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among the hypertensive patients in Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal from July 2015 to September 2015 using clustered sampling technique. Suitably designed and validated questionnaire of knowledge, attitude and practice on hypertension consisting of 27 questions were used to determine the KAP scores. The difference in the median KAP scores between sex, level of education and duration of hypertension were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS:A total of 200 patients met the inclusion criteria and majority of them were male (60%), had received primary education (36%) and had hypertension for ≥5 years (46.5%). The blood pressure ranged from 100-180/60-110 mmHg. The median K, A and P scores were 8 (6), 5 (1) and 6 (3) respectively. K and A were statistically associated with sex both at p<0.001 and level of education (K at p<0.001 and A at p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS:The current knowledge, attitude and practice among hypertensive patients using antihypertensive medication can be improved.
    Evaluating the effect of knowledge, attitude and practice on self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes. Karbalaeifar Ronak,Kazempour-Ardebili Sara,Amiri Parisa,Ghannadi Shima,Tahmasebinejad Zhale,Amouzegar Atieh Acta diabetologica AIMS:Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common disease imposing a great economic burden to health systems. As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Iran has grown over the past decades, it has become necessary to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of type 2 diabetic patients in our country for policy planning to increase the patients' awareness of diabetes and its complications and, in the long run, decrease costs of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes and its relationship with self-managing of disease and quality of life. METHODS:This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the knowledge, attitude, self-reported practice, self-care and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients attending diabetes clinic of Torfeh academic hospital in Tehran, Iran, during April to June 2014. The study population comprised of 120 type 2 diabetic patients aged above 30 years receiving anti-diabetic medications visiting Torfeh's outpatient diabetes clinic for follow-up care. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to fill five questionnaires evaluating patients' knowledge, attitude, practice, self-care and HRQoL. Demographic characteristics were recorded at the beginning of the study. Laboratory data were extracted from patients' most recent medical documents. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. RESULTS:120 type 2 diabetic patients (86 female and 34 male patients) with mean age of 55.98 ± 9.50 years were evaluated. The mean score of knowledge, attitude, practice, self-care and HRQoL was 67.99 ± 10.38, 73.43 ± 11.84, 64.69 ± 16.63, 58.22 ± 12.24 and -1.13 ± 0.6, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between HbA1c and patients' practice. We did not find any correlation between patients' knowledge, attitude or practice and their HRQoL. There was a significant direct relationship between patients' knowledge with their attitude and practice. CONCLUSION:This study observed a good level of knowledge, attitude and practice but a low level of self-care and HRQoL among patients. As knowledge and attitude have a direct relationship with practice and the number of people with diabetes continues to rise, we can help patients improve practice and decrease the burden of diabetes complications and their related expenditures by increasing their knowledge. 10.1007/s00592-016-0905-6
    Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Tools for Health Education Among Diabetic Patients. Ismaile Samantha,Alhosban Fuad,Almoajel Alyah,Albarrak Ahmed,Househ Mowafa Studies in health technology and informatics Health education is an integral part of self-management programs and an important element for the control and effective management of any chronic disease including diabetes. Patient Knowledge, Awareness, and Practices (KAP) are considered to be the most important factors for assessing the results of health education in patients with diabetes. In order to develop such health education models, it is important to have a validated and reliable tools which asses a diabetic patient's knowledge, attitude and practice. The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature on KAP assessment tools regarding health education among diabetic patients. The researchers conducted a systematic literature review using MEDLINE database from 1980 up to 2016. A developed search strategy was conducted by the researchers for MEDLINE and EBESCO. Of the 94 articles identified only 16 articles fully met the inclusion criteria. This review identifies useful assessment tools of KAP regarding health education for diabetic patients which will help to improve strategies in regards to assessing KAP for diabetic patients worldwide. The KAP assessment tools should be: carefully developed, user friendly, evidence-based, valid and reliable.
    Validation and Reliability of Healthcare Workers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Instrument for Uncomplicated Malaria by Rasch Measurement Model. Ismail Nahlah E,Jimam Nanloh S,Dapar Maxwell L P,Ahmad Sohail Frontiers in pharmacology This study assessed the validity and reliability of healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices instrument for uncomplicated malaria (HKAPIUM) for evaluation of healthcare workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) on uncomplicated malaria management in primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Plateau state, Nigeria. Relevant variables from literature, malaria treatment guidelines for Nigeria, and World Health Organization (WHO) were used to generate and present the items for the draft HKAPIUM scale, which was first screened by six experts before administered to 121 respondents who filled and returned immediately. The data were sorted and analyzed using Rasch measurement model (Bond & Fox software). The outcome of the initial screening showed high items content validity indices (I-CVI) (0.83-1.00) and high scale-CVI (S-CVI) {universal agreement (UA) within the experts (S-CVI/UA) (0.67-0.89) and the average CVI [S-CVI/Ave (0.94-0.98)]} for relevance, clarity, simplicity, and comprehensiveness. The Rasch analysis outputs showed good items' reliability for the three factors (KAP) > 0.9 with high separation index values of > 2.0; however person reliability were poor (< 0.6) which were confirmed by their low separation values. Goodness of fit statistics indicated nine items not fitting the model based on the suggested fit index values of 0.6 to 1.5, and ± 2 for mean square (MNSQ) and standardized Z-score (Zstds) respectively, and 0.3 to 0.7 for "point-measure correlation coefficients" (PTMEA Corr). Deletion of misfit items resulted in the items and persons' reliabilities falling above the minimum accepted limit of 0.6, with their separation values were all in the range of 1 and 2 which were acceptable. Similarly, fit index values for MNSQ infit and outfit, and Zstd parameters items in the new scale were all within the acceptable range of 0.6 to 1.5, and ±2 respectively, in addition to the positive PTMEA Corr as further confirmation of the items' fitness to the model. The reduction of 27-items draft HKAPIUM scale to 18 items was successful with good reliability and fitness to the model. 10.3389/fphar.2019.01521
    Influencing Factors of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Medical Nutrition Therapy in Patients with Diabetes: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Urban China. Li Zijian,Jin Haimin,Chen Wei,Sun Zilin,Jing Lulu,Zhao Xiaohui,Zhu Sainan,Guo Xiaohui,Study Group China NEEDs Journal of diabetes research To investigate the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) score in diabetes patients living in urban China regarding Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) and explore the influencing factors, this national survey recruited diabetes and prediabetes patients in 40 hospitals across 26 provinces in China. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the data and assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding MNT. Logistic regression was used to explore the factor influencing KAP scores. A total of 6441 diabetes patients (mean age: 60.02 ± 13.14 years) completed this survey. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was 8.12 ± 2.12%, and the control rate of HbA1c (HbA1c < 7.0%) was 38.92%. Of the total, 53.56% had received MNT education. Over half of the patients had a poor total KAP score as well as poor K, A, and P scores. Patients with higher KAP scores had higher control rate of HbA1c ( < 0.05) but lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2h-PG). Gender, occupation, residence, education level, and MNT education could influence the KAP scores ( < 0.05). This study showed that diabetes patients in urban China generally had poor understandings and practices related to MNT. Patients with higher KAP scores exhibited better control of blood glucose. 10.1155/2017/8948452
    Knowledge attitude and practice regarding diabetes mellitus among Nondiabetic and diabetic study participants in Bangladesh. Fatema Kaniz,Hossain Sharmin,Natasha Khurshid,Chowdhury Hasina Akhter,Akter Jesmin,Khan Tahmina,Ali Liaquat BMC public health BACKGROUND:Increased awareness amongst large population groups is a major determinant for the prevention of diabetes and its complications as well as related metabolic disorders. Knowledge and attitude are the principal markers of awareness that need to be studied in various population groups in specific racial and cultural contexts. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding -diabetes mellitus (DM) among nondiabetic (nonDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Bangladesh. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among 18,697 adults (aged 18 years and above; 7796 male and 10,901 female; 6780 nonDM and 11,917 T2DM) selected purposively from the OPD of 19 healthcare centres in and around Dhaka and in northern parts of Bangladesh. KAP were assessed by a pre-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire and categorised using predefined scores of poor (<mean - 1 SD), average (mean ± 1 SD) and good (>mean + 1 SD). Univariate and bivariate statistical analysis were done as appropriate. Multivariate linear regression was done to examine the association between diabetes related KAP and other covariates. RESULTS:The mean (±SD) age (years) of all the study participants was 46 ± 14, mean BMI 24.4 ± 4.1 and mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) was 0.93 ± 0.07. The proportion of poor, average and good knowledge scores among T2DM subjects were 17%, 68% and 15% respectively. The corresponding values for attitude score were 23%, 67% and 10% respectively. The KAP regarding diabetes was found to be better among people who were living with diabetes compared to their counterparts. DM males showed better knowledge and practice regarding diabetes, compared to nonDM counterparts (M ± SD; 44.18 ± 16.13 vs 40.88 ± 15.62, p = <0.001; 66.00 ± 29.68 vs 64.21 ± 31.79, p < 0.001, respectively). Females showed better attitude score compared to males. Overall KAP were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) in middle aged (31-50 years) participants in each group. Participants from urban residents, higher educational background and upper socio-economic class demonstrated significantly greater score in terms of KAP in both nonDM and T2DM groups (p < 0.001). On linear regression analysis, knowledge scores correlated strongly with education, income, residence, diabetic state, BMI and attitude. CONCLUSIONS:The overall level of knowledge and practice concerning diabetes among Bangladeshi population is average, but the overall level of attitude is good both in nonDM and T2DM subjects. To prevent diabetes and its complications there is an urgent need for coordinated educational campaigns with a prioritized focus on poorer, rural and less educated groups. 10.1186/s12889-017-4285-9
    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with diabetes at central rural India. Taksande Bharati Amar,Thote Mukesh,Jajoo U N Journal of family medicine and primary care Introduction:Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the common and most devastating preventable complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is associated with morbidity and premature mortality due to long-term complications affecting foot. The American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes should have a comprehensive foot examination once per year. Most of the foot problems can be prevented with careful foot care. It may take effort and time to build up good foot care habits, but self-care is essential. Aim:The main aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude, and practice of foot care in patients with DM in central rural India. Methodology:This study was conducted at a rural educational hospital in central part of India over 200 patients who have Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They were evaluated for their knowledge about foot care and footwear practices. A structured and validated questionnaire was administered to cases. Results:Around 82.9% of the patients were aware of the disease and 23.2% were aware of the complications of the DM. In 63% of the patients, foot care examination and education regarding foot complications were not suggested by their treating physicians. Annual examination of feet by the physician and self-examination were not known facts to the diabetic population. Conclusion:It is necessary to firstly develop awareness of diabetes mellitus and the related complications, one amongst which is foot care. Certain educational strategies should be established for both the consultant physician and also the common man to create awareness for effective foot care. 10.4103/2249-4863.219994
    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of urban Gujarati type 2 diabetics: Prevalence and impact on disease control. Solanki Jayesh Dalpatbhai,Sheth Nidhi Shaileshbhai,Shah Chinmay J,Mehta Hemant B Journal of education and health promotion CONTEXT:Type 2 diabetes is the modern epidemic wherein patient care needs multiple approaches, education, and self-awareness being one of them. There are some knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) studies from India but very few relating it with disease control. AIMS:We tried to study KAP of treated type 2 diabetics and its correlation with glycemic control. SETTINGS AND DESIGN:Cross-sectional KAP study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:We formulated KAP questionnaires in the form of KAP - 10 points for each and total 30. We recruited 200 type 2 diabetics (96 males, 104 females) treated by MD physicians with known current glycemic status. They were asked KAP questionnaires one to one by a direct interview in local language and results were associated with various factors and glycemic control. RESULTS:KAP score on was average 19 out of 30 in type 2 diabetics having mean age 58 years, mean duration 9 years. KAP score was unaffected by gender, occupation, duration of disease but significantly affected by current age, and education level. Only 40% patients had good glycemic control who scored better KAP than poor glycemic. There was positive correlation between KAP score and glycemic control, with significance for only glycosylated hemoglobin and not fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS:Physician treated type 2 diabetics of our region had moderate KAP score, affected by age, education which suggested to affect glycemic control. Lacunae in knowledge regarding incurability of disease, attitudes toward complication, self-care, and good practices like walking, enriching knowledge need improvement so as an optimum glycemic control. 10.4103/jehp.jehp_101_15
    Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public in Galle district in Southern Sri Lanka: a pilot study. Herath H M M,Weerasinghe N P,Dias H,Weerarathna T P BMC public health BACKGROUND:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global epidemic with significant disability and premature death. Identification of the level of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to diabetes among the general public is important in strategies for prevention of diabetes mellitus. METHODS:This study was conducted as a community based cross sectional study in three Medical Officers of Health (MOH) areas in Galle district. Previously healthy literate individuals who have not attended any diabetes education program in the last two years were selected for this study. RESULTS:A total of 277 participants were included in the study. The majority (77%) had either moderate (39%) or above moderate knowledge (38%) on diabetes mellitus. Even though, level of education was significantly and positively associated with knowledge (p = 0.001), the association of gender and age with knowledge was not significant. Unlike knowledge, the attitude towards diabetes was poor in majority (90%) and level of education had no significant effect on attitude. With regards to practices, more than half of study subjects never had their blood sugar checked and, about 65% used to take refined sugar liberally and a large majority (80%) had no regular exercise activity. CONCLUSIONS:Even though the majority (77%) had moderate or above moderate knowledge on diabetes, their attitudes towards diabetes was poor (88%). It appears that the higher knowledge on diabetes did not translate into good practices as over 50% of study subjects did not involve with any preventive measures. Therefore, more emphasis should be given to address the issue of poor attitude and practices towards diabetes mellitus among general public in Sri Lanka. 10.1186/s12889-017-4459-5
    Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Iranian Internists Regarding Diabetes: A Cross Sectional Study. Niroomand Mahtab,Ghasemi Seyedeh Najmeh,Karimi-Sari Hamidreza,Khosravi Mohammad Hossein Diabetes & metabolism journal BACKGROUND:A number of studies investigated the general practitioners' and family physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) on diabetes. However, studies on internists' KAP on diabetes management are limited. This study aimed to investigate the Iranian internists' KAP on diabetes mellitus and its management. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of internists who participated in the 26th annual congress of internists in Tehran, Iran. The level of KAP and affecting factor was evaluated by a validated instrument. RESULTS:One-hundred internists with the mean age of 41.98±9.26 years were evaluated. Totally, the physicians possessed 66.29%±19.5%, 50.44%±19.39%, and 64.5%±15.3% of the scores in KAP, respectively. The time since graduation in general medicine had significant negative correlation with their knowledge and practice, that was along with the subjects' age (P<0.05). The KAP level had not significant difference between subjects participated in a continuing medical education (CME) program during the last year compared to subjects did not participated (P>0.05). Attitude, and practice scores were significantly higher in physicians who were working at diabetes clinic (P<0.05), and attitude was more in physicians working at teaching hospitals compared to those who were not working (57.82 vs. 47.72, P=0.020). CONCLUSION:According to our results, subjects' age and time since graduation in general medicine and specialty were inversely correlated by knowledge and practice. So internists with older age seems to be in priority for educational programs. And holding CME programs in current forms seems to be not suitable to increase the KAP regarding diabetes. 10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.179
    Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) among Diabetic Patients in A Tertiary Eye Care Centre. Srinivasan Nithin Keshav,John Deepa,Rebekah Grace,Kujur Evon Selina,Paul Padma,John Sheeja Susan Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR INTRODUCTION:Diabetic retinopathy is becoming an increasingly important cause of visual impairment in India. Many diabetic patients who come to our centre have undetected, advanced diabetic retinopathy. If diabetic retinopathy had been detected earlier in these patients, irreversible visual impairment could have been prevented. AIM:To document Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) patterns of diabetic patients regarding diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, to determine association between them, and to identify barriers to compliance with follow up and treatment regimes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study, conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology at Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India, over a six-month period from June 2013 to November 2013. Two hundred and eighty eight diabetic patients, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria, were included in the study. KAP of patients was assessed using a 45-point, verbally administered questionnaire. Patients were placed in different categories, such as, 'good/ poor' knowledge, 'positive/negative' attitude and 'good/poor' practice. Data were analysed using Chi-square test and binary logistic regression, as appropriate. The proportion of patients with 'good/poor' knowledge, 'positive/negative' attitude and 'good/poor' practice, and the association between KAP were studied. Barriers to compliance with follow up/treatment regimes were identified. RESULTS:Out of the 288 patients in the study, 42% had good knowledge about diabetes, but only 4.5% had good knowledge about retinopathy. Good knowledge about diabetes was significantly associated with positive attitude towards diabetes and good practice patterns regarding retinopathy; awareness of retinopathy was also significantly associated with good practice. A total of 61.1% of patients did not have periodic eye examination; most common barrier identified was lack of awareness about the necessity for this (38.5%). CONCLUSION:Good knowledge about the disease was significantly associated with positive attitude and good practice patterns. Knowledge about diabetic retinopathy was poor among the patients in our study. Lack of awareness concerning the need for screening for retinopathy was a major barrier to regular screening. There is an urgent need to educate diabetic patients about this potentially blinding complication of diabetes. 10.7860/JCDR/2017/27027.10174
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of Lebanese primary care physicians in nutrition counseling: a self-reported survey. Hseiki Rasha A,Osman Mona H,El-Jarrah Rana T,Hamadeh Ghassan N,Lakkis Najla A Primary health care research & development Aim This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of primary care physicians (PCPs) in Lebanon regarding nutrition counseling and to investigate possible related barriers. BACKGROUND:Nutrition counseling is an important aspect of patient care, especially with the increase in nutrition-related disorders. METHODS:This is a descriptive study among a convenience sample of PCPs in Lebanon at two annual conferences in 2014 using an anonymous questionnaire. Findings Response rate was 54.6%. Overall, physicians considered that they have good to very good nutritional knowledge. Although they rated their formal nutritional education poorly, they had a positive attitude towards nutritional counseling and reported practicing general nutritional counseling with their patients. Barriers to nutritional counseling were: time, perceived poor patient adherence to diet, gap in physician's nutritional knowledge and lack of insurance coverage for dietitian fees. Changes should be made to medical education curricula to include nutrition courses related to prevalent health problems. 10.1017/S1463423617000330
    Knowledge, attitude and practice towards eating and physical activity among primary school children in Brunei: a cross-sectional study. Murang Zaidah Rizidah,Tuah Naa,Naing Lin International journal of adolescent medicine and health Background Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. Many studies have been conducted to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices towards eating and physical activity amongst parents and healthcare workers. However, very little is known amongst children. It is imperative to understand these factors as they have been associated with obesity among children. Objective This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of Bruneian children towards eating and physical activity, in order to identify the factors that influence the development of obesity. Methods The study involved 353 children from four primary schools in Brunei. The data collection tool used was modified validated questionnaires with sections on demographic characteristic, knowledge about obesity, eating habits and physical activity. Results The majority of children (>60%) had good knowledge of obesity and intake of healthy food, but, 84.2% lacked knowledge on the required daily servings of fruits and vegetables. 68.8% purchased food and beverages from their school canteen. 93.8% were aware about the health benefits of physical activity and 70.2% spent only 1-2 h of screen time per day, however, 46.9% did not meet the recommended amount of physical activity although they reported to have performed enough. This suggested that a comprehensive education on food intake requirements and physical activity are necessary in order to better educate children. Conclusion Health educators and public health professionals may find our findings useful in order to plan and develop tailored interventions for children, as well as better promotion of a healthy lifestyle to children and their families. 10.1515/ijamh-2017-0118
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian hypertensive patients regarding hypertension. Rashidi Yaseen,Manaflouyan Hesam,Pournaghi Azar Fatemeh,Nikniaz Zeinab,Nikniaz Leila,Ghaffari Samad Journal of cardiovascular and thoracic research This study aimed at evaluating knowledge and awareness of hypertension and the risk factors for hypertension among hypertensive patients. In this study, 110 hypertensive patients were enrolled and filled out two self-administered questionnaires. The first questionnaire was about the demographic characteristics and the second one was about the knowledge (n = 10), attitude (n = 9) and practice (n = 8). The internal consistency and the stability of the questionnaires were approved. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Seventy-three percent of participants know the normal range of hypertension. Most of the participants truly knew that stress (87.3%), obesity (70.9%) and aging (48.2%) are risk factors for hypertension. About 60% of participants knew the complications of uncontrolled hypertension. About 82.7% of participants believed that after adaptation of body to hypertension, there is no need to use antihypertensive drug. About 13.6% of participants measured their blood pressure daily and 11.8% of them measured it once a month. The educational level of participants was significantly associated with knowledge score ( = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between knowledge ( < 0.001) and attitude and also attitude and practice ( < 0.001) scores. These findings have important implications for developing proper and continuous self-management hypertension education programs in Iran which should mostly emphasize on the practical information about control and prevention programs. 10.15171/jcvtr.2018.02
    Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Regarding the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients Attending Outpatient Clinic in Kuantan, Malaysia. Mohammad Nursyafiza B,Rahman Nor Azlina A,Haque Mainul Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences Background:Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death around the world including Malaysia. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the main contributors to the disease burden in developing countries. Materials and Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding the risk of CVD in patients attending an outpatient clinic in Kuantan, Malaysia. A total of 100 patients comprising 52 male and 48 female subjects were selected through convenient sampling method. Results:Of the total subjects, 86% were Malays. The mean scores (standard deviation) for KAP were 60.75±4.823, 54.36±8.711, and 33.43±4.046, respectively, whereas the maximum scores obtained by the subjects for KAP were 71, 65, and 43, respectively. Regarding questions related to knowledge, 88% subjects knew irregular eating pattern can cause disease and the benefits of vegetable intake. Most subjects recognized that smoking and obesity were CVD risk factors. Regarding questions related to attitude, 96% agreed that exercise can prevent CVD. More than half of the subjects followed healthy lifestyle. There were statistically significant differences observed in knowledge level between sexes ( = 0.046) and races ( = 0.001). Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference observed in KAP across different education levels of the subjects regarding the risk of CVD (-value = 0.332, 0.185, and 0.160, respectively). Conclusion:This study revealed that patients had good knowledge and attitude regarding CVD risk factors. Yet, the number of smokers is still quite high. Development of better public information system is essential for the well-being of the society. 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_227_17
    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of diabetic retinopathy among physicians in Northwestern Nigeria. Abdulsalam S,Ibrahim A,Saidu H,Muazu M,Aliyu U T,Umar H I,Gezawa I D,Owolabi L F Nigerian journal of clinical practice Background:Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of preventable blindness in the productive population that poses a considerable global public health burden. Objective:The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of DR screening among physicians in Northwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Survey responses were obtained from 105 physicians in 4 tertiary hospitals using a Likert scale questionnaire. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Principal component analysis was used for data reduction and grouping with the varimax rotation method, and the factors were extracted based on an Eigenvalue> 1. Results:Most of the respondents (78.8%) were aware of the most effective method of delaying the onset of DR and frequency of eye examination (94.1%). Lack of ophthalmoscopes (70.6%) and dilating eye drops (50.6%) form important barriers to performing a good eye examination. Conclusion:DR screening among physicians practicing in Northwestern Nigeria was suboptimal, which prompts the need for improved training of physicians managing persons with diabetes on eye examination in a bid to strengthen DR screening and reduce the burden of visual impairment in our environment. 10.4103/njcp.njcp_266_17
    Knowledge attitude, and practice regarding dietary salt intake among urban slum population of North India. Bhattacharya Sudip,Thakur J S,Singh Amarjeet Journal of family medicine and primary care Introduction:Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. High salt intake is an etiological factor for hypertension. Any effective salt reduction strategy will be based on people's mind-set about salt use. Our objective for this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice for dietary salt intake by urban slum populations in Indira Colony, Chandigarh. Methodology:In 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among a representative sample of 300 adults aged 18-69 years using a standardized questionnaire. Variations in the knowledge attitude and practice by gender and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Results:Most of them (96%) took processed foods and 99% did not bother about the salt levels in the food. They also added salt on table. They did not buy low-sodium salts. Majority of them (75%) perceived that they are taking right amount of salt. They were clueless about the daily recommended allowance. Many participants (43%) did not know about the harmful effects of dietary salt. One-fifth (18%) of them had wrong information about dietary salt. Majority of the participants (64%) considered that lowering salt in diet is not important. Conclusion:Overall awareness level about optimal salt intake in diet was very poor among the slum residents. Recommendation:Development of effective public education initiative is the need of the hour for combatting hypertension. 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_60_17
    Knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast Cancer among nurses in hospitals in Asmara, Eritrea. Andegiorgish Amanuel Kidane,Kidane Eyob Azeria,Gebrezgi Merhawi Teklezgi BMC nursing Background:Breast cancer accounted for 1.03% of all deaths in 2014 in Eritrea. Yet the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the population in general or the health personnel in the country in relation to the disease, remains unknown. Hence, this study was designed to assess the KAP regarding breast cancer among female nurses working in ten hospital wards in Asmara, Eritrea. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 414 nurses. Descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA were used to evaluate the KAP of the nurses. Results:Nurses' knowledge about the possible risk factors of breast cancer was low but the nurses knew the signs and symptoms of breast cancer since each sign or symptom was mentioned by > 50% of them. The practice of breast cancer screening, however, was low (only 30 and 11.3% practiced clinical breast examination and mammography respectively). Respondents' family history of breast cancer, having breast problems, their professional level and unit where they worked were associated with the KAP of nurses about breast cancer. Conclusion:Training programs could help to increase the nurses' knowledge about the risk factors of breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. This could also help to increase the knowledge of the public about breast cancer. 10.1186/s12912-018-0300-4
    Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitude and practice towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting at the health center level in Ethiopia. Seid Mohammed Assen,Kasahun Asmamaw Emagn,Mante Bamlak Markos,Gebremariam Saron Naji International journal of clinical pharmacy Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are major health problems which are of global concern. Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions constitutes a crucial contribution to patient care. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of healthcare professionals towards adverse drug reaction reporting. Setting Health care professionals in Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2017. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to distinguish factors that affect adverse drug reaction reporting. A p value < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant. Main outcome measure Factors affecting adverse drug reaction reporting of health care professionals. Results Of 102 healthcare professionals included in this study, 61 (59. 8%) were nurses, 16 (15.7%) health officers, and 25 (24.5%) pharmacy professionals. Nearly 48 (47%) study participants had an inadequate level of knowledge towards adverse drug reaction reporting. The majority of participants 88 (86.3%) had a positive attitude, while more than half (51%) of study participants did not report the adverse drug reaction they encountered. Participants who had not taken adverse drug reaction reporting training (p = 0.037), health officers (p = 0.019), and nurse professionals (p = 0.001) showed a statistically significant association with an inadequate level of knowledge. Conclusion Even though the majority of healthcare professionals had a positive attitude, they had an inadequate level of knowledge and practice towards adverse drug reaction reporting. 10.1007/s11096-018-0682-0
    Sakarya University students' fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese individuals and their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviours: Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study. Cetinkaya Serap,Sert Havva JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association OBJECTIVE:To evaluate fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese person among university students to determine their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviour. METHODS:The knowledge, attitude and practice study was conducted at Sakarya University, Turkey, between May and December 2015, and comprised students of either gender. Data was collected by using the socio-demographic form, fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale. SPSS 16 was used for data analysis. RESULTS:Of the 2100 students, 1056(50.3%) were male and 2067(98.4%) were in the 17-26 years age group. The mean fat phobia scale score was 3.72±0.63and mean attitudes toward obese persons scale score was 59.95±0.63. Relationship between fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale scores was significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Fatphobia moderately existed among the students.
    Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Related to Diabetes Mellitus Among Diabetics and Nondiabetics Visiting Homeopathic Hospitals in West Bengal, India. Koley Munmun,Saha Subhranil,Arya Jogendra Singh,Choubey Gurudev,Ghosh Shubhamoy,Chattopadhyay Rajat,Das Kaushik Deb,Ghosh Aloke,Hait Himangsu,Mukherjee Rajarshi,Banerjee Tanapa Journal of evidence-based complementary & alternative medicine High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P < .0001); still the latter need to be made aware and knowledgeable to curtail the ever-increasing burden of diabetes. 10.1177/2156587215593656
    Diabetes knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study among Iranian in-patients with type-2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study. Niroomand Mahtab,Ghasemi Seyedeh Najmeh,Karimi-Sari Hamidreza,Kazempour-Ardebili Sara,Amiri Parisa,Khosravi Mohammad Hossein Diabetes & metabolic syndrome AIM:Recent studies highlight barriers of diabetes educational programs in Iran and also present some successful experiences carried out for improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of type-2 diabetic patients. Hence, evaluation of patients' KAP seems to be needed. We designed a multicenter study evaluating level of KAP in type-2 diabetic patients in the capital city of Tehran and identifying variables that affect this KAP level. METHODS:This multicenter analytical cross-sectional study was approved by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Ethics Committee. Questionnaires were designed for evaluation of diabetes-related KAP in patients. After validating the questionnaires by endocrinologists, test-retest method was used for questionnaire reliability by checking in 15 diabetic patients. Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients admitted to 4 hospitals of Tehran filled out the questionnaires. Using SPSS software, the level of KAP and its confounders were evaluated in patients. RESULTS:Two hundred type-2 diabetic patients with the mean age of 60.17 years were evaluated (106 male and 94 female). The mean diabetes duration was 13.06 years. The levels of patients' good knowledge, attitude, and practice were 61.41%, 50.44% and 52.23%, respectively. Age, treatment methods, DM duration, and existence of diabetic retinopathy had significant correlations with KAP level. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study showed that recent educational programs in Iran improved KAP level. Patients' KAP increases as their condition worsens/progresses. Hence education should be considered as a priority for newly diagnosed patients and those with lower KAP levels before occurrence of diabetes complications. 10.1016/j.dsx.2015.10.006
    Nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice toward micronutrients among Iranian households: the NUTRI-KAP survey. Heshmat Ramin,Abdollahi Zahra,Ghotbabadi Farzaneh Sadeghi,Rostami Mahsa,Shafiee Gita,Qorbani Mostafa,Rezaei Homami Mohsen,Larijani Bagher,Salehi Forouzan Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders BACKGROUND:Healthy diet for maintaining a healthy weight and prevention of chronic disease is vital at all stages of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practice among urban and rural households in Iran. METHODS:In this nation-wide study, 14,136 subjects were selected using a multistage cluster sampling method from 31 provinces of Iran. This study was on the households in rural and urban areas in Iran. Participants of this study were mothers or other members who were responsible for preparing meals for the whole family. Data were gathered by the questionnaire and the interview with the qualified person in each family. RESULTS:Frequency of knowledge about food source of calcium was between 11.6 and 64.7 %. Knowing of food source of zinc was about 12.8-16.7 %. Knowledge about of meat as source of iron was 50.9 and 46.5 % in regions of urban and rural, respectively. Positive attitude about preferring to use the full-fat dairy was about 25.1 % and negative attitude about this issue was 71.4 %; the positive attitude was slightly lower in rural areas than in urban areas. Respectively, frequency of using red meat in urban households was 10.8, 73.7, and 15.5 % as daily, weekly and rarely. Frequency of using daily of milk, yogurt and cheese was significantly lower in rural than in urban household. CONCLUSION:This national study indicates that in some cases there is a gap between knowledge and behavior among household of Iranian population. 10.1186/s40200-016-0260-8
    Investigation into knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding medical nutrition therapy among patients with diabetes in China: Results from a national multicenter cross-sectional study. Jing Lu Lu,Chen Wei,Sun Zi Lin,Zhu Sai Nan,Shen Li,Li Wen Xia,Huang Jin,Lou Qing Qing,Bian Rong Wen,Guo Xiao Hui, Journal of diabetes BACKGROUND:The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) associated with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) among Chinese adult patients with diabetes and prediabetes. METHODS:From May to August 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 40 hospitals across China. The KAP of respondents was investigated through a pretested structured questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected, and KAP scores were recorded according to patient responses. RESULTS:In all, responses from 7017 of 7508 patients were analyzed. The mean (±SD) overall KAP score was 9.63 ± 3.46, with individual scores for the K, A, and P components being 2.69 ± 1.90, 1.77 ± 1.99, and 5.17 ± 1.99, respectively (out of possible total scores of 19, 6, 3, and 10, respectively). All scores were higher in respondents who received ≥15 min MNT education than in those with shorter sessions. Patients with higher KAP scores exhibited significantly better glycemic control, with a higher proportion achieving target HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). "Health publicity in hospitals" and "expert outpatient services" were the most favorable means of acquiring MNT information. The two predominant concerns associated with MNT were "the feasibility" and "the authenticity and professionalism of the information". CONCLUSIONS:Patients with diabetes and prediabetes achieved moderate scores for KAP towards MNT. Glycemic control was positively correlated with the KAP score. Thus, MNT education should be improved, with a particular focus on feasibility and authenticity and professionalism, in China. 10.1111/1753-0407.12500
    Comparison of nurses and general caregivers' knowledge, attitude, and practice on medication administration process and their distress level in long-term care facilities across Penang, Kuala Lumpur, and Selangor of Malaysia. Tangiisuran Balamurugan,Tye Sok Cin,Leow May Yen,Awang Rahmat Aging clinical and experimental research AIM:Comparing nurses and general caregivers' knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on medication administration process in long-term care (LTC) setting and an assessment of their stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD) level. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was conducted among nurses and general caregivers working in LTC using a validated questionnaire. Consisting of demographic characteristics (Section 1); 40 questions on KAP (Section 2); and assessment of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) (Section 3). RESULTS:155 formally paid staffs in 26 LTC facilities were recruited. Nurses scored significantly higher in the knowledge section compared to caregivers (12.4 ± 1.7 vs. 4.5 ± 3.8; P < 0.001); better attitude (41.5 ± 4.8 vs. 30.8 ± 7.3; P < 0.001); and better practice (65.2 ± 8.5 vs. 40.3 ± 10.9; P < 0.001), respectively. SAD scores reveal that caregivers had significantly higher level of stress, anxiety, and depression compared to the nurses. DISCUSSION:General caregivers exhibit poorer knowledge on aspects pertaining to posology, appropriate methods of drug administration, and side effects of common drugs used by the elderly. Compared to nurses, the general caregivers also reported poorer medication administration practices; including not checking labels and expiry dates prior to administration, and not providing basic information about medication therapy to the residents. However, both nurses and general caregivers reported positive attitudes in their role as caregivers. They take pride and satisfaction in their occupation providing support to the elderly. CONCLUSION:General caregivers demonstrated lesser knowledge, poorer attitude, and practices towards medication administration processes, in addition to higher SAD score in LTC facilities. 10.1007/s40520-017-0772-1
    Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on malaria, from high malaria burden rural communities, southeastern Iran. Nejati Jalil,Moosa-Kazemi Seyed Hassan,Saghafipour Abedin,Soofi Khodamorad Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology Nowadays, community based control strategies are considered efficient in reaching the malaria elimination goal. For this reason, this study was conducted to access the knowledge, attitude and practice of people on malaria from rural areas with high malaria incidence. In this descriptive-analytic study, a total of 200 rural residents of southeastern Iran were recruited. They were selected based on cluster and simple random sampling methods. Data collection was done using questionnaire with reliability confirmation by Cronbach's alpha and data was analyzed using SPSS. Mosquito's bite was answered as the main route of malaria transmission. Also, majority of the participants correctly expressed most important symptoms of malaria. Most of them believed that malaria is preventable and the best strategy for its control is indoor residual spraying. Very few number of the respondents mentioned sleeping under insecticide treated bed net as a method for controlling the transmission of malaria. Chi square test shows significant difference between the level of education and usage of mosquito nets, but there was no significant difference between the use of bed nets and time of usage. Another significant relationship was seen between malaria infection, use of mosquito nets and place of sleeping at nights during summer. The current study showed the appropriate level of KAP among rural communities in southeast of Iran. Alongside of people's knowledge and attitudes, their practice about malaria should be increased as an effective factor for achieving to great goal of malaria elimination. 10.1007/s12639-017-0965-8
    Knowledge, attitude and practice of secondary schools and university students toward Middle East Respiratory Syndrome epidemic in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Al-Hazmi Ali,Gosadi Ibrahim,Somily Ali,Alsubaie Sarah,Bin Saeed Abdulaziz Saudi journal of biological sciences This study was aiming to investigate the knowledge, practice and attitudes of secondary school and university students toward MERS-CoV infection. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Study participants were recruited from several constituent colleges of King Saud University and secondary schools in Riyadh. Data were collected using self-administered, closed-ended questionnaires. Frequencies and proportions were computed for descriptive purposes. Chi square test was utilized to depict statistical difference between groups. Among the 1109 students who answered the questionnaires, 53.1% were male, and 46.9% were female. Level of knowledge about clinical presentation of MERS is generally similar among university and school students. The most frequently reported source of transmission is entering crowded spaces and being exposed to coughing and sneezing. Additionally, hand washing was the most commonly reported method of protection against the infection. The localized spread of MERS in Saudi Arabia and the number of fatalities associated with it might have increased public interest in understanding how to maintain proper precautionary measures both on a community and on an individual level. More emphasis should be placed on educating the student participants about preventive measures such as using tissues when sneezing and coughing and proper tissue disposal. 10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.032