Circadian blood pressure pattern and cardiac autonomic functions: different aspects of same pathophysiology. Okutucu Sercan,Karakulak Uğur Nadir,Kabakçı Giray Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi : AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology Arterial blood pressure fluctuates with a pattern that follows a circadian rhythm, with a peak in the early morning hours and a trough during nighttime. Nocturnal dipping of arterial blood pressure is part of this normal circadian pattern, and its absence, which is called non-dipping is associated with more severe end-organ damage and increased risk of cardiovascular events, especially in hypertensive patients. Although pathologic mechanisms are still unclear, it has been suggested that non-dippers show impairment in the autonomic system functions that include abnormal parasympathetic and sympathetic activities. Several studies have examined the role of the autonomic nervous system in the non-dipping phenomenon. In this paper, we aimed to review the studies evaluating the relationship between circadian arterial blood pressure pattern and indices of cardiac autonomic functions. 10.5152/akd.2011.031
    Blood pressure reverse dipping may associate with stable coronary artery disease in patients with essential hypertension: a cross-sectional study. Yan Bin,Sun Lu,Gao Ya,Guo Qi,Guo Litao,Wang Xue,Wang Gang Scientific reports The dipping variations of circadian blood pressure (BP) correlate closely with target-organ damages and cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between BP reverse dipping and the prevalence of stable coronary artery disease (sCAD) in hypertensive patients. Clinical data and the results of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) were obtained from 718 hypertensive patients (390 males, mean age 59.6 ± 13.8 years) in a single centre in Northern China. Reverse dipping pattern was defined as nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) was higher than daytime SBP. A logistic regression model was applied to explore the independent risk factors of sCAD. The patients with BP reverse dipping accounted for 31.5% in sCAD group and 19.5% in control group (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, BP reverse dipping remained significantly associated with the prevalence of sCAD (Odds ratio [OR], 1.772; p = 0.027). Furthermore, the circadian decline rate of SBP was independently associated with sCAD (OR, 0.975; p = 0.043). The hypertensive patients with reverse BP dipping were found to be more frequently suffering from sCAD. BP reverse dipping examined with 24-hour ABPM may indicate sCAD. 10.1038/srep25410
    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and diabetes complications: Targeting morning blood pressure surge and nocturnal dipping. Najafi Mohammad Taghi,Khaloo Pegah,Alemi Hamid,Jaafarinia Asma,Blaha Michael J,Mirbolouk Mohammadhassan,Mansournia Mohammad Ali,Afarideh Mohsen,Esteghamati Sadaf,Nakhjavani Manouchehr,Esteghamati Alireza Medicine Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) correlates more closely to organ damages than clinic blood pressure (BP). In the current study we aimed to investigate the association between micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes and both diurnal and nocturnal variability in BP.A total of 192 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who had complete data on ABPM were selected. BP categories were defined based on 2017 ACC/American Heart Association BP guideline. The cross-sectional association between different BP phenotypes and diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD), nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy was assessed using multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension (HTN), hemoglobin A1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol.Approximately 48.9% of participants with T2DM had 24-hour HTN. The prevalence of daytime, nighttime, and clinic HTN were 35.9%, 96.3%, and 53.1%, respectively. Approximately 54.2% of participants had nondipping nocturnal pattern and 28.6% were risers. Nondipping nocturnal BP was associated with CVD, neuropathy, and retinopathy (P = .05, .05, and .014, respectively). Sleep trough morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) was associated with neuropathy (P = .023). Neuropathy was also associated with other components of MBPS (P < .05).We demonstrated that diabetic neuropathy was associated with all the components of MBPS and abnormal dipping status. Our results indicated loss of nocturnal BP dipping but not MBPS as a risk factor for CVD and retinopathy in patients with T2DM. Our findings once again highlighted the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring and targeted antihypertensive therapy directed toward to restore normal circadian BP in patients with T2DM. 10.1097/MD.0000000000012185
    Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Circadian Rhythm of Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects. Lecarpentier Yves,Schussler Olivier,Hébert Jean-Louis,Vallée Alexandre Current hypertension reports PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm (CR) in normotensive subjects. BP increases in the morning and decreases at night. This review aims at providing an up-to-date overview regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of BP. RECENT FINDINGS:The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the regulatory center for CRs. In SCN astrocytes, the phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (pGSK-3β) also follows a CR and its expression reaches a maximum in the morning and decreases at night. pGSK-3β induces the β-catenin migration to the nucleus. During the daytime, the nuclear β-catenin increases the expression of the glutamate excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) and glutamine synthetase (GS). In SCN, EAAT2 removes glutamate from the synaptic cleft of glutamatergic neurons and transfers it to the astrocyte cytoplasm where GS converts glutamate into glutamine. Thus, glutamate decreases in the synaptic cleft. This decreases the stimulation of the glutamate receptors AMPA-R and NMDA-R located on glutamatergic post-synaptic neurons. Consequently, activation of NTS is decreased and BP increases. The opposite occurs at night. Despite several studies resulting from animal studies, the circadian regulation of BP appears largely controlled in normotensive subjects by the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway involving the SCN, astrocytes, and glutamatergic neurons. 10.1007/s11906-020-01063-z
    Morning surge in blood pressure and blood pressure variability in Asia: Evidence and statement from the HOPE Asia Network. Sogunuru Guru P,Kario Kazuomi,Shin Jinho,Chen Chen-Huan,Buranakitjaroen Peera,Chia Yook C,Divinagracia Romeo,Nailes Jennifer,Park Sungha,Siddique Saulat,Sison Jorge,Soenarta Arieska A,Tay Jam C,Turana Yuda,Zhang Yuqing,Hoshide Satoshi,Wang Ji-Guang, Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To effectively prevent end-organ damage, maintain vascular integrity and reduce morbidity and mortality, it is essential to decrease and adequately control blood pressure (BP) throughout each 24-hour period. Exaggerated early morning BP surge (EMBS) is one component of BP variability (BPV), and has been associated with an increased risk of stroke and cardiovascular events, independently of 24-hour average BP. BPV includes circadian, short-term and long-term components, and can best be documented using out-of-office techniques such as ambulatory and/or home BP monitoring. There is a large body of evidence linking both BPV and EMBS with increased rates of adverse cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and end-organ damage. Differences in hypertension and related cardiovascular disease rates have been reported between Western and Asian populations, including a higher rate of stroke, higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, greater salt sensitivity and more common high morning and nocturnal BP readings in Asians. This highlights a need for BP management strategies that take into account ethnic differences. In general, long-acting antihypertensives that control BP throughout the 24-hour period are preferred; amlodipine and telmisartan have been shown to control EMBS more effectively than valsartan. Home and ambulatory BP monitoring should form an essential part of hypertension management, with individualized pharmacotherapy to achieve optimal 24-hour BP control particularly the EMBS and provide the best cardio- and cerebrovascular protection. Future research should facilitate better understanding of BPV, allowing optimization of strategies for the detection and treatment of hypertension to reduce adverse outcomes. 10.1111/jch.13451
    [Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease]. Kanda Takeshi,Takeda Ayano,Kawabe Hiroshi Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine Circadian blood pressure (BP) patterns are regulated mainly by autonomic nerve system. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) reveals that BP has circadian pattern over a 24 h period. The decline in nocturnal BP by 10-20% is considered to be normal (a dipper pattern). Non-dipper, riser, and extreme-dipper circadian patterns are considered to be abnormal because of their association with poor prognosis and end organ damage such as heart failure and cerebral vascular disease (CVD). On the other hand, end organ damage alters circadian BP patterns especially at night and people with CVD or heart failure have a high prevalence of abnormal circadian BP patterns.
    High-normal blood pressure conferred higher risk of cardiovascular disease in a random population sample of 50-year-old men: A 21-year follow-up. Chen Xiaojing,Barywani Salim Bary,Hansson Per-Olof,Rosengren Annika,Thunström Erik,Zhong You,Ergatoudes Constantinos,Mandalenakis Zacharias,Caidahl Kenneth,Fu Michael Medicine The relationship between various categories of blood pressure (BP), subtypes of hypertension, and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been extensively studied. Therefore, our study aimed to explore this relationship in a random population sample of men born in 1943, living in Sweden and followed over a 21-year period.Participants were examined for the first time in 1993 (age 50 years), where data on medical history, concomitant diseases, and general health were collected. The examination was repeated in 2003 and with additional echocardiography also in 2014. Classification of participants according to their BP at the age of 50 years was as follows: optimal-normal BP (systolic blood pressure [SBP] <130 and diastolic BP [DBP] <85 mmHg), high-normal BP (130 ≤ SBP < 140, 85 ≤ DBP < 90 mmHg), isolated systolic-diastolic hypertension (ISH-IDH) (SBP ≥140 and DBP <90 or SBP <140 and DBP ≥90 mmHg), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) (SBP ≥140 and DBP ≥90 mmHg).During the follow-up, the incidence of heart failure (HF), CVD, and coronary heart disease were all lowest for those with optimal-normal BP. Participants with high-normal BP showed greater wall thickness and left ventricular mass index, larger LV size and larger left atrial size when compared with the optimal-normal BP group. Furthermore, those with high-normal BP, ISH-IDH, and SDH had a higher risk of CVD than those with optimal-normal BP. The adjusted relative risk of CVD was highest for SDH (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.37-2.79), followed by ISH-IDH (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.93-1.95) and high-normal BP (HR 1.31; 95% CI 0.91-1.89).Over a 21-year follow-up, the participants with high-normal BP or ISH-IDH had a higher relative risk of CVD than those with optimal-normal BP. 10.1097/MD.0000000000019895
    Pulse pressure or dipping pattern: which one is a better cardiovascular risk marker in resistant hypertension? Muxfeldt Elizabeth S,Salles Gil F Journal of hypertension OBJECTIVE:Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) reduction and ambulatory pulse pressure (PP) are well known prognostic markers obtained from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). The aim of this study is to investigate which one of these ABPM parameters is related to high cardiovascular risk profile in resistant hypertension, based on their associations with target organ damage (TOD). METHODS:Clinical-demographic, laboratory and ABPM variables were recorded in a cross-sectional study involving 907 resistant hypertensive patients. Nocturnal systolic BP reduction and 24-h PP were assessed both as continuous and dichotomized variables (PP at the upper tertile value: 63 mmHg). Statistical analyses included bivariate tests and multivariate logistic regression with each TOD as the dependent variable. RESULTS:Patients with the nondipping pattern and high 24-h PP shared some characteristics: they were older, had higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and nephropathy, higher office and 24-h BP levels, increased serum creatinine and microalbuminuria, and higher left ventricular mass index than their counterparts. Additionally, patients with high PP had a greater prevalence of diabetes and other TOD. In multivariate logistic regression, high PP was independently associated with all TODs even after adjustment for sex, age, BMI, cardiovascular risk factors, 24-h mean arterial pressure and antihypertensive treatment, whereas nondipping pattern was only associated with hypertensive nephropathy. Furthermore, PP was more strongly associated with the number of TOD than the nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) fall. CONCLUSIONS:In a large group of resistant hypertensive patients, an increased 24-h PP shows a closer correlation with high cardiovascular risk profile than the nocturnal BP reduction. 10.1097/HJH.0b013e3282f55021
    Vascular disease in mice with a dysfunctional circadian clock. Anea Ciprian B,Zhang Maoxiang,Stepp David W,Simkins G Bryan,Reed Guy,Fulton David J,Rudic R Daniel Circulation BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States and the world. A profound pattern exists in the time of day at which the death occurs; it is in the morning, when the endothelium is most vulnerable and blood pressure surges, that stroke and heart attack most frequently happen. Although the molecular components of circadian rhythms rhythmically oscillate in blood vessels, evidence of a direct function for the "circadian clock" in the progression to vascular disease is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS:In the present study, we found increased pathological remodeling and vascular injury in mice with aberrant circadian rhythms, Bmal1-knockout and Clock mutant. In addition, naive aortas from Bmal1-knockout and Clock mutant mice exhibit endothelial dysfunction. Akt and subsequent nitric oxide signaling, a pathway critical to vascular function, was significantly attenuated in arteries from Bmal1-knockout mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our data reveal a new role for the circadian clock during chronic vascular responses that may be of significance in the progression of vascular disease. 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.827477
    Night-time blood pressure patterns and target organ damage: a review. Routledge Faye S,McFetridge-Durdle Judith A,Dean C R, The Canadian journal of cardiology BACKGROUND:Individuals who do not have a 10% to 20% reduction in blood pressure (BP) during the night are known as 'nondippers'. The cause of this nondipping phenomenon is not fully understood; however, there is a growing body of evidence linking a nondipping BP pattern with target organ damage. OBJECTIVE:To review the literature and present an overview of the target organ damage found to be associated with a nondipping BP pattern. METHODS:PubMed, CINAHL and Medscape searches of all available English language articles from 1986 to 2005 were performed. Search terms included 'BP nondipping', 'BP dipping' and 'target organ damage'. RESULTS:There is evidence to suggest that individuals with hypertension who exhibit a nondipping BP profile are at higher risk of cardiac and extracardiac morbidity and mortality. In particular, nondippers with essential hypertension have been found to have more advanced left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index, carotid artery wall thickness, carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, silent cerebral infarct, stroke, cognitive impairment and microalbuminuria. CONCLUSION:A better understanding of the importance of the circadian variations of BP may help to identify those at higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as lay the foundation for interventions to prevent/treat alterations in night-time BP patterns. 10.1016/s0828-282x(07)70733-x
    Feasibility Study of Advanced Cardiovascular Screening in Middle-Aged Patients with Diabetes. Lindholt Jes Sanddal,Frystyk Jan,Hallas Jesper,Rasmussen Lars Melholt,Diederichsen Axel Cosmus Pyndt Clinical epidemiology Purpose:Cardiovascular mortality remains high among patients with diabetes compared with the general population. The primary aim was to evaluate the interest in and demand for advanced cardiovascular screening in patients with diabetes; the secondary aim was to explore its efficiency in detecting unprotected subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients and Methods:In a cross-sectional design, randomly selected 40-60-year-old men and women with diabetes were invited to the screening trial. Screening encompassed (1) a comprehensive medical interview; (2) non-contrast computed tomography scanning to quantify coronary artery and aortic valve calcification, to measure left atrial size, to assess heart rhythm and to detect aortic and iliac dilatations; (3) ankle and brachial blood pressure measurements; and (4) blood and urine samples for measurements of HbA, lipid profile, renal function, NT-pro B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) and albuminuria. Primary outcome was participation rate; secondary outcome was rate of unprotected subclinical CVD. Results:Of 465 invited patients, 191 (41.1%) attended screening. The participation rate was 40% (95% CI:33-47) for males and 42% (95% CI:36-48) for females. Twenty-four patients were excluded due to previous CVD. The remaining patients' mean age was 52 years; 58% were males. Subclinical CVD was found in 64%, with a male preponderance (males 75% (95% CI:66-83; females 49% (95% CI:37-60)). Presence of severe coronary artery calcification (score ≥ 400) showed a male preponderance (males 19% (95% CI:12-27); females 7% (95% CI:3-16)). Aortic valve calcification, enlarged left atrial volume, atrial fibrillation, aortic dilatations, peripheral artery disease or increased pro-BNP were uncommon, and without any sex differences. Unprotected subclinical CVD was very common, and medical treatment was intensified in 60% (95% CI:53-68) of patients. Conclusion:We propose a feasible cardiovascular screening examination from which middle-aged patients with diabetes may benefit. However, the participation rate may be too low to warrant screening. 10.2147/CLEP.S246636
    A possible relationship of nocturnal blood pressure variability with coronary artery disease in diabetic nephropathy. Tamura Kouichi,Tsurumi Yuko,Sakai Masashi,Tanaka Yutaka,Okano Yasuko,Yamauchi Junji,Ishigami Tomoaki,Kihara Minoru,Hirawa Nobuhito,Toya Yoshiyuki,Yabana Machiko,Tokita Yasuo,Ohnishi Toshimasa,Umemura Satoshi Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) Evidence suggests a relationship between short-term blood pressure (BP) variability and cardiovascular target-organ damage. Although a blunted nocturnal decrease in BP and reduced heart rate variability have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity in diabetic patients, little information is available on short-term BP variability. In this study, short-term BP variability was assessed in 36 subjects with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy who underwent ambulatory BP monitoring, and the factors that correlated with short-term BP variability were examined. The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) was significantly greater in the patients with increased 24-h systolic BP variability (67% versus 11%; p < 0.0005), while that of cerebrovascular disease was not significantly affected (61% versus 50%). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum cholesterol (cholesterol) and plasma norepinephrine (p-NE) were significant and independent contributors to nighttime systolic BP variability (partial R2 = 0.490, p < 0.001; partial R2 = 0.470, p < 0.001) and demonstrated that body mass index and p-NE were primary determinants of nighttime diastolic BP variability (partial R2 = 0.539, p < 0.0005; partial R2 = 0.304, p < 0.05). Diabetic nephropathy patients with CAD had significantly increased daytime systolic (17.8 mmHg versus 13.1 mmHg, p < 0.0005), nighttime systolic (17.4 mmHg versus 10.5 mmHg, p < 0.0001), and nighttime diastolic (10.4 mmHg versus 7.2 mmHg, p < 0.05) BP variability. Furthermore, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nighttime systolic BP variability was an independent risk factor for CAD (odds ratio 3.13 [95% CI 1.02-9.61]; p < 0.05). The increase in nighttime BP variability is associated with a proportional sympathetic activation in diabetic nephropathy. Elevated short-term BP variability combined with relative sympathetic prevalence during the night might represent an important risk factor for cardiovascular events in the diabetic population. 10.1080/10641960601096760
    Associations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure night-to-day ratios with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Cai Anping,Zhong Qi,Liu Chaofan,Zhou Dan,Li Xida,Zhang Ying,Feng Yingqing,Zhou Yingling Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Our objective was to evaluate the associations of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure night-to-day ratios (SBP-NDR and DBP-NDR) with composite atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) comprising coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke (IS) cases, respectively. The clinical conditions associated with SBP-NDR and DBP-NDR were also evaluated. A total of 401 patients who underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. In general, the mean age was 59.7±14.7 years and male subjects accounted for 59.1% of the study subjects. Regarding the ASCVD risk factors, 17.0% of the study subjects smoked, 5.2% abused alcohol, 2.0% had a family history of ASCVD, 23.3% had diabetes and 96.0% had dyslipidemia. Fifty (12.5%) and 128 (31.9%) study subjects had a previous diagnosis of CHD and IS, respectively. Dipper and non-dipper pattern-specific differences in clinical characteristics between the SBP-NDR and DBP-NDR categories were observed. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that advanced age, smoking, CHD and IS were positively associated with SBP-NDR and statins were inversely associated with SBP-NDR; only IS was positively associated with DBP-NDR. The logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for the covariates of age, smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and SBP and DBP at admission, only DBP-NDR remained significantly associated with composite ASCVD, with an odds ratio of 1.029 (95% confidence interval 1.002-1.056, P=0.038). There were significant differences in the associations of SBP-NDR and DBP-NDR with composite ASCVD. Clinical conditions independently associated with SBP-NDR and DBP-NDR were also somewhat different. In a specific population group, DBP-NDR may be superior to SBP-NDR with respect to screening for ASCVD. 10.1038/hr.2016.82
    Ambulatory blood pressure thresholds for diagnosis of hypertension in patients with and without type 2 diabetes based on cardiovascular outcomes. Hermida Ramón C,Ayala Diana E,Mojón Artemio,Fernández José R Chronobiology international Currently recommended ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring (ABPM) thresholds for diagnosis of hypertension do not differentiate, as international guidelines do for clinic BP, uncomplicated persons at low risk from those at higher risk, e.g., patients with diabetes, for target injury and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to derive diagnostic thresholds for the awake and asleep systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP means based upon CVD outcomes (death from all causes, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, coronary revascularization, heart failure, acute arterial occlusion of the lower extremities, thrombotic occlusion of the retinal artery, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and transient ischemic attack) for patients with and without diabetes. We prospectively studied 3344 subjects (1718 men/1626 women), 52.6 ± 14.5 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, 607 with type 2 diabetes, during a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs. Those with hypertension at baseline were randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or the entire daily dose of ≥1 of them at bedtime. At baseline, BP was measured at 20-min intervals from 07:00 to 23:00 h and at 30-min intervals at night for 48 h, and physical activity was simultaneously monitored every minute by wrist actigraphy to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means. Identical assessment was scheduled annually and more frequently (quarterly) if treatment adjustment was required. Cox regression analysis was used to derive outcome-based reference thresholds for ABPM in subjects with and without diabetes. CVD risk was consistently greater in patients with than without diabetes for awake SBP/DBP means ≥130/75 mm Hg and asleep means ≥110/65 mm Hg. Derived outcome-based reference thresholds for persons without diabetes were 135/85 mm Hg for the awake and 120/70 mm Hg for the asleep SBP/DBP means. In terms of CVD outcome, the equivalent cutoff threshold values for patients with diabetes were 120/75 mm Hg for the awake and 105/60 mm Hg for the asleep SBP/DBP means. Outcome-based reference thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were 15/10 mm Hg lower for ambulatory SBP/DBP in patients with than without diabetes. This marked difference indicates the need for revision of current guidelines that propose diagnostic thresholds for ambulatory BP without differentiation between the presence/absence of diabetes. 10.3109/07420528.2012.702584
    The comparison of QT dispersion and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring amongst diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria. Yeo C K,Hapizah M N,Khalid B A K,Wan Nazainimoon W M,Khalid Y The Medical journal of Malaysia Diabetes mellitus is an important coronary artery disease risk factor. The presence of microalbuminuria, which indicates renal involvement in diabetic patients, is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. There are suggestions that diabetic patients with microalbuminuria have more adverse risk profile such as higher ambulatory blood pressure and total cholesterol levels to account for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. QT dispersion is increasingly being recognized as a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and sudden death. Some studies have suggested that QT dispersion is an important predictor of mortality in Type II diabetic patients. Our cross sectional study was to compare the QT dispersion and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring between diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and those without microalbuminuria. Diabetic patients with overt coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. A total of 108 patients were recruited of which 57 patients had microalbuminuria and 51 were without microalbuminuria. The mean value of QT dispersion was significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria than in patients without microalbuminuria (58.9 +/- 27.9 ms vs. 47.1 +/- 25.0 ms, p < 0.05). The mean 24 hour systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in patients with microalbuminuria than in patients without microalbuminuria (129.5 +/- 12.3 mm Hg vs 122.3 +/- 10.2 mm Hg, p < 0.05 and 78.4 +/- 6.9 mm Hg vs 75.3 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, p < 0.05, respectively). Our study suggests that QT dispersion prolongation, related perhaps to some autonomic dysfunction, is an early manifestation of cardiovascular aberration in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. The higher blood pressure levels recorded during a 24-hour period min diabetics with microalbuminuria could also possibly account for the worse cardiovascular outcome in this group of patients.
    Increased total mortality as a function of 24-h pulse pressure dipping. Sobiczewski W,Wirtwein M,Jarosz D,Trybala E,Bieniaszewski L,Gruchala M Journal of human hypertension Elevated pulse pressure (PP) as a difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure is a significant risk factor of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. The goal of our study was to determine the association between PP and major adverse CV events (MACEs), and all-cause and CV mortality in the different age groups of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) confirmed by angiography. To the PROGNOSIS study, finally there were included 891 subjects with CAD. An analysis of the receiver operating characteristic was used for predicting PP dipping among the age groups of patients. A COX proportional hazards model was used to examine the association between PP and PP dipping and risk of MACE, revascularization, CV and total mortality after adjusting for sex, diabetes, smoking and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The median follow-up period was 8.3 years (interquartile range: 5.3-9.0 years). There were 245 (27%) all-cause deaths including 114 (13%) CV deaths during the follow-up period. MACE occurred in 442 (50%) subjects, but coronary artery interventions (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) were performed in 578 subjects (65%). A Cox proportional regression analysis confirmed the relationship between PP dipping as well as PP dipping thresholds points and risk of MACE and total mortality only in the group of the oldest subjects. In contrast to younger CAD patients, PP dipping is related to MACE, CV and total mortality in very elderly CAD subjects. Nocturnal PP values tend to be higher than diurnal PP values in the oldest CAD individuals. In conclusion, in contrast to younger CAD patients, PP dipping is related to MACE, CV and total mortality in very elderly CAD subjects. Nocturnal PP values tend to be higher than diurnal PP values in the oldest CAD individuals. 10.1038/jhh.2015.31
    Extreme-Dipper Profile, Increased Aortic Stiffness, and Impaired Subendocardial Viability in Hypertension. Amah Guy,Ouardani Rahma,Pasteur-Rousseau Adrien,Voicu Sebastian,Safar Michel E,Kubis Nathalie,Bonnin Philippe American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:In treated hypertensives, extreme-dippers with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit more severe nighttime cardiac ischemia than dippers. After excluding confounding factors such as diabetes, CAD or chronic kidney disease (CKD), we assessed whether subendocardial viability, determined by the Buckberg index, was more significantly impaired in extreme-dippers than in dippers. METHODS:Two hundred thirteen consecutive treated hypertensives (156 dippers, 57 extreme-dippers), were included. After 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, patients underwent radial applanation tonometry (with determination of: subendocardial viability ratio [SEVR], central augmentation index [AIx], and pulse pressure amplification [PPamp]), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) measurement, and cycle ergometer stress testing. RESULTS:Extreme-dippers showed higher cfPWV (8.99 ± 2.16 vs. 8.29 ± 1.69 m/s, P = 0.014), higher AIx (29.7 ± 9.4 vs. 26.4 ± 10.4%, P = 0.042), lower PPamp (1.22 ± 0.14 vs. 1.30 ± 0.15, P < 0.001), lower SEVR (146 ± 23% vs. 157 ± 26%, P = 0.007), and lower nighttime diastolic BP (DBP) (70 ± 9 vs. 75 ± 9 mm Hg, P < 0.001) than dippers. SEVR and cfPWV were inversely correlated. Among extreme-dippers, women exhibited lower SEVR (138 ± 21% vs. 161 ± 23%, P = 0.004), PPamp (1.16 ± 0.10 vs. 1.31 ± 0.15, P < 0.001), and nighttime DBP (67 ± 8 mm Hg vs. 72 ± 8 mm Hg, P = 0.017) than men. CONCLUSIONS:Extreme-dipper treated hypertensives with no history of CAD, diabetes or CKD, present increased aortic stiffness and low PPamp. Furthermore, this is the first demonstration of the greater likelihood of these patients to exhibit impaired subendocardial viability compared to dippers. Extreme-dipper hypertensive patients, women in particular, may have a significantly higher risk of silent myocardial ischemia, thus justifying systematic screening. 10.1093/ajh/hpw209
    Risers and extreme-dippers of nocturnal blood pressure in hypertension: antihypertensive strategy for nocturnal blood pressure. Kario Kazuomi,Shimada Kazuyuki Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) There is increasing evidence that disruption of diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation is a risk factor for hypertensive target organ damage and cardiovascular events. Especially, the risers (extreme non-dippers), who exhibit a nocturnal BP increase compared with daytime BP, have the worst cardiovascular prognosis, both for stroke and cardiac events. On the other hand, extreme-dippers (with marked nocturnal BP falls) are at risk for non-fatal ischemic stroke and silent myocardial ischemia, particularly extreme-dippers complicated with atherosclerotic arterial stenosis and excessive BP reduction due to antihypertensive medication. Extreme-dipping status of nocturnal BP is closely associated with excessive morning BP surge and orthostatic hypertension. Hypertensive patients who have these conditions and exhibit marked BP variations are likely to have silent cerebral infarct and to be at high-risk with regard to future stroke. Individualized antihypertensive medication targeting disrupted diurnal BP variation might thus be beneficial for such high-risk hypertensive patients. 10.1081/ceh-120028556
    Association of blunted nighttime blood pressure dipping with coronary artery stenosis in men. Mousa Tarek,el-Sayed Moustafa A,Motawea Ahmed K,Salama Mohsen A,Elhendy Abdou American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:The aim of this work was to study the association between blunted nighttime dipping of blood pressure (BP) and coronary artery stenosis in men. METHODS:Sixty-eight men (aged 52 +/- 11 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as >/=70% diameter stenosis, and a control group of 68 men, matched for age and risk factors without angiographic CAD were studied by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Patients were defined as nondippers when the nighttime systolic and diastolic BP decrease was <10%. Medications included beta-blockers in 20 (15%), calcium antagonists in 39 (29%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in 44 (32%), angiotensin receptor blockers in 21 (15%), and diuretics in 37 (27%) patients. A logistic regression model was used to define independent predictors of angiographic CAD. Covariates were symptoms, total cholesterol, daytime BP, and nondipping. RESULTS:A larger proportion of patients with CAD were nondippers as compared to control subjects (49 [72%] v 31 [46%], P < .005). In a logistic regression model, nondipping was associated with coronary artery stenosis independent of other clinical parameters (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.6-8.8). CONCLUSIONS:Blunted nighttime dipping of BP is independently associated with angiographic coronary artery stenosis in men. 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.05.020
    The importance of circadian rhythms on drug response in hypertension and coronary heart disease--from mice and man. Lemmer Björn Pharmacology & therapeutics The cardiovascular system is highly organised in time; blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), peripheral resistance, pressure and the release/activity of vasodilating hormones all display pronounced circadian variations. Pathophysiological events within the cardiovascular system are also not random, as shown for instance by sudden cardiac death (SCD), stroke, ventricular arrhythmias (VA), arterial embolism, and symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD) such as myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia, angina attacks (AA) in stable angina (stA) or variant angina (varA) or silent ischemia. In hypertensive patients various anti-hypertensive drugs were investigated in crossover studies (morning vs. evening dosing); however consistent data were only obtained for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers. Whereas in dippers ACE inhibitors had a super-dipping effect when dosed at night, no consistent difference in BP lowering effect on the 24-hr BP profile was found with calcium channel blockers after morning and evening dosing. In non-dippers the calcium channel blockers isradipine and amlodipine consistently transformed non-dippers into dippers, after evening dosing. Diuretics are also able to normalize a non-dipping behaviour. Moreover, a circadian phase-dependency in pharmacokinetics has been demonstrated for various cardiovascular active drugs such as beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, oral nitrates and ACE inhibitors, modified by the pharmaceutical formulation. There is evidence that in hypertensive dippers anti-hypertensive drugs should be given in the early morning, whereas in non-dippers it may be necessary to add an evening dose or even to use a single evening dose in order to not only reduce high BP but also to normalize a disturbed non-dipping 24 hr BP profile. In CHD, calcium channel blockers-mainly short acting and non-retarded preparations-seem to be less effective than beta-adrenoceptor antagonists in reducing ischemic events during the night and early morning. However, the role of formulation and/or subclasses of the calcium channel blockers remains to be elucidated. In order to get more insight into the circadian regulation of the cardiovascular system animal models of primary and secondary hypertension have been studied in various strains of normotensive and hypertensive rats and mice. At least in rodents there is ample evidence that the 24-hr rhythms in BP and HR are under the control of biological clock(s) as they persist under constant darkness (i.e. in free-run conditions) with a period deviating from 24 hr; these rhythms are abolished by lesioning of the "master clock" located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In conclusion, chronobiological and chronopharmacological studies are important experimental and clinical approaches to get a better insight into the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of the cardiovascular system including their rhythmic organisation. Circadian time-dependent clinical studies also have implications for drug therapy in hypertension and CHD. 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.11.008
    [The influence of melatonin supplementation on circadian pattern of blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease--preliminary report]. Rechciński Tomasz,Kurpesa Małgorzata,Trzos Ewa,Krzeminska-Pakuła Maria Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej UNLABELLED:Melatonin--sleep-inducing remedy was reported to be implicated in "biological clock" of circulatory system. The deficits of this pineal hormone were observed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and those with abnormal circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP). We hypothesize that melatonin supplementation could be beneficial for this group of patients thanks to return from "non-dippers" to physiological "dippers" group, which is characterized by lower rate of left ventricle hypertrophy and/or number of ischemic episodes, in comparison with "non-dippers". The aim of this study was to assess safety and the effects of melatonin treatment in patients with CAD and impaired circadian pattern of BP. INVESTIGATED GROUP AND METHODS:Thirty-nine ambulatory patients (69% males, mean age 61+/-5,0), with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography and with circadian pattern of BP classified in 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) as "non-dippers" were included into the study. All study participants, apart of previous treatment, started to use 5 mg melatonin before sleep. Control 24h ABPM was performed after 30 days of such cure. The results of both ABPMs were compared using statistical methods. RESULTS:Melatonin supplementation improved circadian pattern of BP in one third (30,8%) of study group - they were classified in the second ABPM as "dippers". Despite a tendency to increase a day/night difference of average BP for 5,9%--a percentage of patients who remained in the group of "non-dippers" was 46,2%. Unfavourable effect of melatonin treatment was observed in 23% of patients: 15,4%--"extreme-dippers", 7,6% --"reverse-dippers". CONCLUSION:Twenty-four hour noninvasive blood pressure monitoring performed before and during melatonin cure is crucial by considering benefits and dangers of this treatment begun in purpose to modify impaired pattern of blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease.
    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy, estimated cardiovascular risk, and circadian blood pressure pattern in diabetes mellitus. Cabezas-Cerrato Jose,Hermida Ramon Carmelo,Cabezas-Agricola Jose Manuel,Ayala Diana Elva Chronobiology international This study was designed to investigate potential factors involved in the disruption of the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern in diabetes mellitus, as well as the relation between BP, cardiac autonomic neuropathy, and estimated cardiovascular risk. We studied 101 diabetic patients (58% with type 2 diabetes; 59% men), age 21-65 yrs, evaluated by 48 h BP monitoring. We performed three autonomic tests in a single session: deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and standing up from a seated position. Patients were classified according to the number of abnormal tests and their 10 yr risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. The prevalence of non-dipping 24 h patterning ranged from 47.6% in type 1 to 42.4% in type 2 diabetes. The awake/asleep ratio of systolic BP (SBP) was comparable between patients with or without abnormal autonomic tests. Pulse pressure (PP) was significantly higher in patients with > or =1 abnormal autonomic test (p < 0.001). Ambulatory SBP was significantly elevated in the group with higher risk of coronary heart disease (p < 0.001). Patients with higher stroke-risk had higher SBP but lower diastolic BP, and thus an elevated ambulatory PP by 9 mmHg, compared to those with lower risk (p < 0.001). Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is not the main causal-factor for the non-dipper BP pattern in diabetes mellitus. The most significant finding from this study is the high ambulatory PP found in patients with either cardiac autonomic dysfunction or high risk for coronary heart disease or stroke. After correcting for age, this elevated PP level emerged as the main cardiovascular risk factor in diabetes mellitus. 10.1080/07420520903044448
    Prognostic Effect of the Nocturnal Blood Pressure Fall in Hypertensive Patients: The Ambulatory Blood Pressure Collaboration in Patients With Hypertension (ABC-H) Meta-Analysis. Salles Gil F,Reboldi Gianpaolo,Fagard Robert H,Cardoso Claudia R L,Pierdomenico Sante D,Verdecchia Paolo,Eguchi Kazuo,Kario Kazuomi,Hoshide Satoshi,Polonia Jorge,de la Sierra Alejandro,Hermida Ramon C,Dolan Eamon,O'Brien Eoin,Roush George C, Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) The prognostic importance of the nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) fall, adjusted for average 24-hour SBP levels, is unclear. The Ambulatory Blood Pressure Collaboration in Patients With Hypertension (ABC-H) examined this issue in a meta-analysis of 17 312 hypertensives from 3 continents. Risks were computed for the systolic night-to-day ratio and for different dipping patterns (extreme, reduced, and reverse dippers) relative to normal dippers. ABC-H investigators provided multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs), with and without adjustment for 24-hour SBP, for total cardiovascular events (CVEs), coronary events, strokes, cardiovascular mortality, and total mortality. Average 24-hour SBP varied from 131 to 140 mm Hg and systolic night-to-day ratio from 0.88 to 0.93. There were 1769 total CVEs, 916 coronary events, 698 strokes, 450 cardiovascular deaths, and 903 total deaths. After adjustment for 24-hour SBP, the systolic night-to-day ratio predicted all outcomes: from a 1-SD increase, summary HRs were 1.12 to 1.23. Reverse dipping also predicted all end points: HRs were 1.57 to 1.89. Reduced dippers, relative to normal dippers, had a significant 27% higher risk for total CVEs. Risks for extreme dippers were significantly influenced by antihypertensive treatment (P<0.001): untreated patients had increased risk of total CVEs (HR, 1.92), whereas treated patients had borderline lower risk (HR, 0.72) than normal dippers. For CVEs, heterogeneity was low for systolic night-to-day ratio and reverse/reduced dipping and moderate for extreme dippers. Quality of included studies was moderate to high, and publication bias was undetectable. In conclusion, in this largest meta-analysis of hypertensive patients, the nocturnal BP fall provided substantial prognostic information, independent of 24-hour SBP levels. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06981
    Usefulness of home blood pressure measurement in the morning in type 2 diabetic patients. Kamoi Kyuzi,Miyakoshi Masashi,Soda Satoshi,Kaneko Susumu,Nakagawa Osamu Diabetes care OBJECTIVE:Recently, repeated home blood pressure (HBP) measurements in the morning for a long period have been shown to have a stronger predictive power for mortality in patients with hypertension than occasional casual/clinic blood pressure (CBP) measurements. We studied whether HBP in the morning in type 2 diabetic patients is useful for prediction of diabetic complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:The occurrence of diabetic complications (nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary heart disease [CHD], and cerebrovascular disease [CVD]) were examined in relation to morning HBP as well as to CBP in 170 type 2 diabetic patients treated with antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs. Blood pressure was measured at the clinic during the day and at home after awakening in the morning. Clinic hypertension (CH) and morning hypertension (MH) were defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or =130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) > or =85 mmHg. The relation of CH and MH to the prevalence of these events was examined. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in the prevalence of nephropathy, retinopathy, CHD, and CVD between the two groups with (n = 131) and without CH (n = 39), whereas the prevalences of these events in the patients with MH (n = 97) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in those without MH (n = 73). The prevalence of nephropathy was highly associated with systolic MH. CONCLUSIONS:Elevations of HBP in the morning in diabetic patients are strongly related to microvascular and macrovascular complications, especially nephropathy. It is concluded that the control of MH may prevent vascular complications in type 2 diabetic patients. 10.2337/diacare.25.12.2218
    High pulse pressure and nondipping circadian blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease: Relationship to thrombogenesis and endothelial damage/dysfunction. Lee Kaeng W,Blann Andrew D,Lip Gregory Y H American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:Patients with high ambulatory pulse pressure (APP) or nondipping pattern of circadian BP (nondippers) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease that may be due to abnormalities in coagulopathy and vascular function. We hypothesized that patients with high APP or nondipper status have an adverse hemostasis profile. Accordingly, we assessed hemorheology (by plasma viscosity and fibrinogen levels), endothelial damage/dysfunction (von Willebrand factor [vWf] and flow-mediated dilatation [FMD]), thrombogenesis (D-dimer), and platelet activation (soluble P-selectin). METHODS:Seventy-three patients (58 men, 59 +/- 11 years) with stable coronary artery disease completed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. Plasma viscosity was assessed on a Coulter viscometer, fibrinogen by Clauss, vWf, D-dimer and soluble P selectin by ELISA, and FMD by reactive hyperemia. RESULTS:High APP (median APP >/=51 mm Hg) and nondipping was associated with significantly higher levels of vWf, D-dimer, fibrinogen, and soluble P-selectin compared to patients with low APP and dippers, respectively (all P < .05), even after adjustment for ages, 24-h mean systolic, mean diastolic, and mean arterial BPs. After the same adjustments, as well as for dipping status, white coat effects, and left ventricular mass, patients with high APP also had more impaired FMD and still significantly higher levels of vWf and D-dimer, compared to patients with low APP (all P < .05). However, the highest levels of vWf, fibrinogen, and soluble P-selectin and the most impaired FMD were found in those nondipper patients with concurrent high APP. CONCLUSIONS:High ambulatory pulse pressure or nondipping pattern of circadian BP per se are important pathophysiologic factors that may influence cardiovascular risk by altering hemostasis or endothelial function. 10.1016/j.amjhyper.2004.09.003
    Nighttime blood pressure dipping in young adults and coronary artery calcium 10-15 years later: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Viera Anthony J,Lin Feng-Chang,Hinderliter Alan L,Shimbo Daichi,Person Sharina D,Pletcher Mark J,Jacobs David R Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) Nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping can be quantified as the ratio of mean nighttime (sleep) BP to mean daytime (awake) BP. People whose dipping ratio is ≥ 0.90 have been referred to as nondippers, and nondipping is associated with cardiovascular disease events. We examined the relationship between systolic nighttime BP dipping in young adults and the presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) 10 to 15 years later using data from the ambulatory BP monitoring substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Among 239 participants with adequate measures of both nighttime and daytime readings and coronary artery calcium, the systolic BP dipping ratio ranged from 0.72 to 1.24 (mean, 0.88; SD, 0.06), and CAC was present 10 to 15 years later in 54 participants (22.6%). Compared with those whose systolic BP dipping ratio ranged from 0.88 to 0.92 (quartile 3), the 57 participants (23.9%) with less pronounced or absent dipping (ratio, 0.92-1.24; quartile 4) had an unadjusted odds ratio of 4.08 (95% CI, 1.48-11.2) for the presence of CAC. The 60 participants (25.1%) with a more pronounced dipping (ratio, 0.72-0.85; quartile 1) also had greater odds for presence of CAC (odds ratio, 4.76 [95% CI, 1.76-12.9]). When modeled as a continuous predictor, a U-shaped relationship between systolic BP dipping ratio and future CAC was apparent and persisted after adjustment for multiple potential confounders (P<0.001 for quadratic term). Both failure of systolic BP to dip sufficiently and "overdipping" during nighttime may be associated with future subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.191536
    [The predictive value of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters on left ventricular hypertrophy and carotid artery intima-media thickness in hypertensives]. Wang De-xian,Zhao Wei,Sun Yan-shu,Tian Qing-ping,Chen Yan Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi OBJECTIVE:To investigate the predictive value of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) in the hypertensives. METHODS:We evaluated 147 hypertensive patients who were never treated regularly before. All patients underwent ultrasound examinations of the heart and the IMT of carotid arteries. We classified them as LVH group (n = 45) or no LVH group (n = 102), and as IMT increased group (n = 52) or no IMT increased group (n = 95). The record of medical history, physical examination and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were performed in all the patients. The biochemical parameters such as blood lipids, glucose and so on were tested. Then the data comparison was made. RESULTS:(1) There were no significant differences in clinical manifestations and biochemical parameters between the LVH and no LVH groups (P > 0.05). Age (68.3 +/- 6.2) year vs (65.6 +/- 5.8) year, male 75.6% vs 66.7%, body mass index (24.1 +/- 4.1) vs (23.8 +/- 4.7) (kg/m(2)), diabetes mellitus and(or) impaired glucose tolerance 40.0% vs 38.2%, angina pectoris 42.3% vs 38.9%, cerebral vascular diseases 19.2% vs 15.7%, total cholesterol (5.40 +/- 1.42) vs (5.28 +/- 1.46) mmol/L, triglycerides (1.80 +/- 1.02) vs (1.74 +/- 1.08) mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4.03 +/- 1.43) vs (4.06 +/- 1.48) mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.00 +/- 0.30) vs (0.99 +/- 0.26) mmol/L. (2) The parameters of ABPM in LVH group were higher than those in no LVH group. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in 24 h mean systolic blood pressure (140.7 +/- 14.1) vs (128.3 +/- 12.3) mm Hg, 24 h mean diastolic blood pressure (86.4 +/- 8.9) vs (81.6 +/- 9.3) mm Hg, daytime mean systolic blood pressure (142.8 +/- 13.9) vs (130.9 +/- 11.1) mm Hg, daytime mean diastolic blood pressure (86.9 +/- 8.8) vs (83.4 +/- 9.0) mm Hg, nighttime mean systolic blood pressure (129.0 +/- 13.2) vs (114.6 +/- 11.4) mm Hg, nighttime mean diastolic blood pressure (77.2 +/- 9.4) vs (67.5 +/- 8.1) mm Hg, 24 h pulse pressure (54.2 +/- 10.2) vs (46.9 +/- 9.6) mm Hg, daytime pulse pressure (55.9 +/- 10.5) vs (47.5 +/- 9.1) mm Hg, nighttime pulse pressure (51.8 +/- 10.7) vs (47.1 +/- 8.7) mm Hg, 24 h systolic blood pressure variance (8.4 +/- 2.0) vs (7.2 +/- 1.9), 24 h diastolic blood pressure variance (9.5 +/- 2.2) vs (8.0 +/- 2.1), the non-dipper rhythm of ambulatory blood pressure 55.6% vs 25.5%. (3) There were also no significant differences in clinical manifestations between the IMT increased and no IMT increased group (P > 0.05). While there were significant differences between the IMT increased and no IMT increased group in those parameters of ABPM (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:There were more LVH or IMT increased persons in the hypertensives whose ABPM parameters were abnormal.
    Pulse pressure in normotensives: a marker of cardiovascular disease. Zakopoulos N A,Lekakis J P,Papamichael C M,Toumanidis S T,Kanakakis J E,Kostandonis D,Vogiazoglou T J,Rombopoulos C G,Stamatelopoulos S F,Moulopoulos S D American journal of hypertension The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relation of the systemic arterial pulse pressure and other parameters derived from the 24-h arterial blood pressure (BP) monitoring to the severity of coronary artery disease, carotid lesions, and left ventricular (LV) mass index in patients without arterial hypertension. One hundred ten patients with known coronary artery disease underwent coronary arteriography, 24-h arterial BP monitoring, and ultrasound imaging of the carotid arteries and the myocardium. Measurements of 24-h arterial BP monitoring (systolic, diastolic, and average BP, pulse pressure, abnormal values of systolic and diastolic BP, and heart rate), the severity of coronary heart disease (Gensini score), intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and LV mass index were determined in all patients. By univariate analysis, only 24-h pulse pressure was significantly related to the severity of coronary artery disease (P < .01), carotid IMT(P < .01), and LV mass index (P < .01). In a multivariate analysis, 24-h pulse pressure was also the best predictor of the severity of coronary lesions (P = .009), carotid IMT (P = .003), and LV mass index (P = .009). Gensini score was related (P < .01) to LV mass index and not to carotid IMT. In conclusion, systemic arterial pulse pressure derived from 24-h arterial BP monitoring is related to coronary artery disease, carotid IMT, and LV mass index independently of age or any other derivative of 24-h arterial BP monitoring, indicating that this parameter could be a marker of global cardiovascular risk. 10.1016/s0895-7061(00)01268-1
    Ability of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and myocardial/carotid ultrasound to predict the location and the severity of coronary artery lesions in normotensive patients: a clinical study. Konstandonis Dimitrios,Papadopoulos Vassilios P,Toumanidis Savvas T,Papamichael Christos M,Kanakakis Ioannis E,Zakopoulos Nikolaos A Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Pulse pressure has been recognized as a marker of cardiovascular disease in normotensives. Moreover, internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed to reflect coronary artery lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of other parameters derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), myocardial ultrasound, and carotid ultrasound to predict the location and the severity of coronary artery disease in normotensives. One hundred and thirteen patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent coronary angiography, 24-h ABPM and myocardial/carotid ultrasound. Multivariate analysis was applied and equations were extrapolated based on independent variables derived from ABPM and ultrasound. The Gensini score was independently correlated with male gender, pulse pressure, average heart rate for both 24-h (p=0.001) and night (p=0.006) values, as well as percentage of high systolic blood pressure (BP), average diastolic BP, average mean BP, and heart rate concerning daily mesurements (p=0.001). Moreover, the Gensini score was independently correlated with end-systolic volume, posterior wall thickness during systole and intraventricular septum thickness during diastole, along with male gender and age (p=0.001), as well as mean internal and right common carotid artery IMT (p=0.002). Similar mathematical formulas have been calculated separately for the coronary arteries and their main branches. In conclusion, the location and the severity of coronary disease can be effectively evaluated by ABPM and myocardial/carotid ultrasound in normotensives. This approach could be useful for determining atypical patients at risk and/or for treating patients with suspected coronary disease who refuse coronary angiography. 10.1291/hypres.30.741
    Racial impact of diurnal variations in blood pressure on cardiovascular events in chronic kidney disease. McMullan Ciaran J,Yano Yuichiro,Bakris George L,Kario Kazuomi,Phillips Robert A,Forman John P Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH Ambulatory blood pressure parameters, nocturnal dipping and morning surge, are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in several populations. While significant variation exists between racial groups in ambulatory blood pressure measurements and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the effect of race on the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In a prospective analysis of 197 African American and 197 Japanese individuals with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease matched by age and renal function, we analyzed the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular events for both races and assessed whether these relations differed by race. Higher sleep-trough morning surge was independently associated with cardiovascular events in Japanese (hazard ratio, 1.93 per 10 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.10) but not in African American participants, with race an effect modifier (P-value <.01). Dipping was not associated with cardiovascular events in either racial group. In individuals with chronic kidney disease, the association between morning surge and cardiovascular events appears to be dependent upon race, with higher morning surge a risk factors in Japanese but not in African Americans. 10.1016/j.jash.2015.02.005
    Identification of an increased short-term blood pressure variability on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a coronary risk factor in diabetic hypertensives. Ozawa Motoko,Tamura Kouichi,Okano Yasuko,Matsushita Kouhei,Yanagi Mai,Tsurumi-Ikeya Yuko,Oshikawa Jin,Hashimoto Tatsuo,Masuda Shinichiro,Wakui Hiromichi,Shigenaga Atsu-Ichiro,Azuma Kouichi,Ishigami Tomoaki,Toya Yoshiyuki,Ishikawa Toshiyuki,Umemura Satoshi Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) We examined risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring in 72 diabetic hypertensives who were hospitalized for the educational program. The patients were divided into two groups (CHD group, 19 subjects; and non-CHD group, 53 subjects) along with or without co-existing CHD. On ambulatory BP monitoring, no significant differences were found between the groups regarding BP values through the day. However, the CHD group had a significantly greater BP variability than non-CHD group. The result of logistic regression analysis demonstrated that nighttime systolic BP variability was an independent risk factor for CHD. 10.1080/10641960902822518
    Is nighttime blood pressure important in cardiovascular risk assessment in coronary atherosclerosis? Sobiczewski W,Wirtwein M,Gruchala M Journal of human hypertension Elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) values have a pivotal role in cardiovascular risk assessment in the general population. However, the role of elevated nighttime BP in hypertensive patients with established coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. In the PROGNOSIS (Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Confirmed by Angiography) study, we evaluated the relationship between abnormal nighttime BP and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a median 6.6-year observation period of hypertensive subjects with coronary atherosclerosis established by coronary angiography. There was a higher prevalence of abnormal nighttime BP (defined as mean nighttime BP values > or = 120/70 mmHg) in patients with MACE than those without MACE (58% vs. 48%, P < 0.01). The curves of cumulative incidence revealed a higher risk of MACE in subjects with abnormal nighttime BP than in those without nighttime hypertension during the follow-up period. Our findings might indicate that nighttime BP contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in subjects with coronary atherosclerosis established by coronary angiography. 10.1038/jhh.2013.141
    Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis. Taylor Kathryn S,Heneghan Carl J,Stevens Richard J,Adams Emily C,Nunan David,Ward Alison PloS one In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods. 10.1371/journal.pone.0126375
    Increased morning blood pressure surge and coronary microvascular dysfunction in patient with early stage hypertension. Caliskan Mustafa,Caliskan Zuhal,Gullu Hakan,Keles Nursen,Bulur Serkan,Turan Yasar,Kostek Osman,Ciftci Ozgur,Guven Aytekin,Aung Soe Moe,Muderrisoglu Haldun Journal of the American Society of Hypertension : JASH Morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) is defined as an excessive increase in blood pressure (BP) in the morning from the lowest systolic BP during sleep, and it has been reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events in current clinical studies. In this study, we evaluated the association between the rate of BP variation derived from ambulatory BP monitoring data analysis and coronary microvascular function in patients with early stage hypertension. One hundred seventy patients with prehypertension and Stage 1 hypertension who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. We divided our study population into two subgroups according to the median value of coronary flow reserve (CFR). Patients with CFR values <2.5 were defined as the impaired CFR group, and patients with CFR values ≥2.5 were defined as the preserved CFR group, and we compared the MBPS measurements of these two subgroups. CFR was measured using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE). Ambulatory 24-hour systolic and diastolic BP, uric acid, systolic MBPS amplitude, diastolic MBPS amplitude, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and mitral flow E/A ratio were statistically significant. These predictors were included in age- and gender-adjusted multivariate analysis; ambulatory 24-hour systolic BP (ß = 0.077, P < .001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.080; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.037-1.124]) and systolic MBPS amplitude (ß = 0.043, P = .022; OR = 1.044; 95% CI [1.006-1.084]) were determined to be independent predictors of impaired CFR (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = .165, Nagelkerke's R(2) = 0.320). We found that increased changes in MBPS values in patients with prehypertension and Stage 1 hypertension seemed to cause microvascular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. 10.1016/j.jash.2014.05.010
    The Relationship Between Gene Polymorphisms and Dipping Profile in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease. Wirtwein Marcin,Melander Olle,Sjőgren Marketa,Hoffmann Michal,Narkiewicz Krzysztof,Gruchala Marcin,Sobiczewski Wojciech American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:The aim of this study is to report the relationship between certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) fall in patients with coronary artery disease confirmed by coronary angiography. METHODS:According to the percentage decrease in mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the nighttime period, subjects were classified as dippers or nondippers (nighttime relative SBP or DBP decline ≥10% and <10%, respectively). Genetic risk score (GRS18) was constructed to evaluate additive effect of 18 SNPs for nondipping status. RESULTS:In the present study, 1,345 subjects with coronary heart disease (CHD) were included. During follow-up period (median 8.3 years, interquartile range 5.3-9.0 years), there were 245 all-cause deaths (18.2%) including 114 cardiovascular deaths (8.5%). There were significant differences in the number of revascularizations between nondippers SBP and DBP and dippers SBP and DBP (48.0% vs. 36.4%, P < 0.01). SNPs of the genes, MIA3, MRAS, PCSK9, SMG6, and ZC3HC1, were related to a higher risk of nondipping SBP and DBP status. CONCLUSIONS:In the present study, polymorphisms of genes related to CHD (MIA3, MRAS, PCSK9, SMG6, and ZC3HC1) were associated with nondipping SBP and DBP profile, and GRS18 was associated with nondipping status. In addition, this profile was related to a higher risk of revascularization. 10.1093/ajh/hpw040
    Morning Blood Pressure Surge, Dipping, and Risk of Coronary Events in Elderly Treated Hypertensive Patients. Pierdomenico Sante D,Pierdomenico Anna M,Di Tommaso Roberta,Coccina Francesca,Di Carlo Silvio,Porreca Ettore,Cuccurullo Franco American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:The independent prognostic significance of morning surge (MS) of blood pressure (BP) is not yet clear. We investigated the association between MS of systolic BP and risk of coronary events in elderly treated hypertensive patients. METHODS:The occurrence of coronary events was evaluated in 1,191 elderly treated hypertensive patients (age range 60-90 years). Subjects were divided according to tertiles of MS of systolic BP of the population as a whole, by dipping status and by group-specific tertiles of MS of systolic BP in dippers and nondippers. RESULTS:During the follow-up (9.1 ± 4.9 years, range 0.4-20 years), 120 coronary events occurred. In the population as a whole, coronary event risk was not significantly associated with tertiles of MS of systolic BP, whereas nondippers were at higher risk than dippers. When nondippers and dippers were analyzed separately, by group-specific tertiles of MS of systolic BP, coronary event risk was associated with MS of systolic BP in dippers but not in nondippers. After adjustment for various covariates, Cox regression analysis showed that dippers in the third tertile (>23 mm Hg) of MS of systolic BP (hazard ratio 1.912, 95% confidence interval 1.048-3.488, P = 0.03) and nondippers (hazard ratio 1.739, 95% confidence interval 1.074-2.815, P = 0.02) were at higher coronary event risk than dippers with MS of systolic BP <23 mm Hg . CONCLUSIONS:In elderly treated hypertensive patients, high MS of systolic BP predicts coronary events in dippers but not in nondippers. Nondippers, however, show higher risk of coronary events independently of MS in systolic BP. 10.1093/ajh/hpv074
    Nighttime Blood Pressure Measured by Home Blood Pressure Monitoring as an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Events in General Practice. Kario Kazuomi,Kanegae Hiroshi,Tomitani Naoko,Okawara Yukie,Fujiwara Takeshi,Yano Yuichiro,Hoshide Satoshi Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) We developed an innovative automated home blood pressure (BP) monitoring method that measures BP while asleep repeatedly over several days. Our aim was to assess the predictive ability of nighttime BP obtained using the home BP device for incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general practice patients. We used data from the nationwide practice-based J-HOP (Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure) Nocturnal BP Study, which recruited 2545 Japanese with a history of or risk factors for CVD (mean age 63 years; antihypertensive medication use 83%). The associations between nighttime home BPs (measured at 2:00, 3:00, and 4:00 am using validated, automatic, and oscillometric home BP devices) and incident CVD, including coronary disease and stroke events, were assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. The mean±SD office, morning home, and nighttime home systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP were 140±15/82±10, 137±15/79±10, and 121±15/70±9 mm Hg, respectively. During a follow-up of 7.1±3.8 years (18,116 person-years), 152 CVD events occurred. A 10-mm Hg increase of nighttime home SBP was associated with an increased risk of CVD events (hazard ratios [95% CIs]: 1.201 [1.046-1.378]), after adjustments for covariates including office and morning home SBPs. The model fit assessed by the change in Goodness-of-Fit was improved when we added nighttime home SBP into the base models including office and morning home SBPs (Δ6.838 [5.6%]; P=0.009). This is among the first and largest nationwide practice-based study demonstrating that nighttime SBP obtained using a home device is a predictor of incident CVD events, independent of in-office and morning in-home SBP measurement. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/icdr/index.html . Unique identifier: UMIN000000894. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12740
    Association of Daytime and Nighttime Blood Pressure With Cardiovascular Disease Events Among African American Individuals. Yano Yuichiro,Tanner Rikki M,Sakhuja Swati,Jaeger Byron C,Booth John N,Abdalla Marwah,Pugliese Daniel,Seals Samantha R,Ogedegbe Gbenga,Jones Daniel W,Muntner Paul,Shimbo Daichi JAMA cardiology Importance:Little is known regarding health outcomes associated with higher blood pressure (BP) levels measured outside the clinic among African American individuals. Objective:To examine whether daytime and nighttime BP levels measured outside the clinic among African American individuals are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality independent of BP levels measured inside the clinic. Design, Setting, and Participants:This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 1034 African American participants in the Jackson Heart Study who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline (September 26, 2000, to March 31, 2004). Mean daytime and nighttime BPs were calculated based on measurements taken while participants were awake and asleep, respectively. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to April 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Cardiovascular disease events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, experienced through December 31, 2014, and all-cause mortality experienced through December 31, 2016, were adjudicated. The associations of daytime BP and nighttime BP, separately, with CVD events and all-cause mortality were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results:A total of 1034 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.9 [10.9] years; 337 [32.6%] male; and 583 [56.4%] taking antihypertensive medication) were included in the study. The mean daytime systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) was 129.4/77.6 mm Hg, and the mean nighttime SBP/DBP was 121.3/68.4 mm Hg. During follow-up (median [interquartile range], 12.5 [11.1-13.6] years for CVD and 14.8 [13.7-15.6] years for all-cause mortality), 113 CVD events and 194 deaths occurred. After multivariable adjustment, including in-clinic SBP and DBP, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD events for each SD higher level were 1.53 (95% CI, 1.24-1.88) for daytime SBP (per 13.5 mm Hg), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.22-1.80) for nighttime SBP (per 15.5 mm Hg), 1.25 (95% CI, 1.02-1.51) for daytime DBP (per 9.3 mm Hg), and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06-1.59) for nighttime DBP (per 9.5 mm Hg). Nighttime SBP was associated with all-cause mortality (HR per 1-SD higher level, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45), but no association was present for daytime SBP (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.97-1.33) and daytime (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) and nighttime (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90-1.24) DBP. Conclusions and Relevance:Among African American individuals, higher daytime and nighttime SBPs were associated with an increased risk for CVD events and all-cause mortality independent of BP levels measured in the clinic. Measurement of daytime and nighttime BP using ambulatory monitoring during a 24-hour period may help identify African American individuals who have an increased cardiovascular disease risk. 10.1001/jamacardio.2019.2845
    [Comparative characteristics of 24-hour blood pressure profile and heart rate variability in indigenous and non-indigenous patients with chronic coronary heart disease and hypertension from the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic District]. Gapon L I,Sereda T V,Leont'eva A V,Gul'atiaeva E P Terapevticheskii arkhiv AIM:To investigate the specific features of a 24-hour blood pressure (BP) profile and heart rate variability (HRV) in the indigenous peoples (Nenets, Khanty, Selcups, and Komis) and newcomers with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension, who lived in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic District. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Two hundred male and females patients aged 21 to 55 years (mean age 48.2 +/- 0.7 years) with chronic CHD and hypertension, who resided in the Far North, were examined. All the patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) 50 aboriginal patients with hypertension only; (2) 50 newcomers with hypertension only; 3) 50 natives with chronic CHD and hypertension; (4) 50 non-natives with the above conditions. The groups were matched for gender, age, and the duration of hypertension and CHD. To study the nature of changes in the 24-hour BP profile, all the patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and HRV examination. RESULTS:The HRV analysis revealed that all the groups had increases in sympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity (88% in Group 1; 96% in Group 2; 94% in Group 3, and 92% in Group 4) and decreases in parasympathetic ANS activity (76% in Group 1; 74% in Group 2; 78% in Group 3; and 72% in Group 4), which was suggestive of neurocardiopathy. Analyzing the data of 24-hour ABPM showed that among the natives, there were more patients with increased systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) variability and higher nocturnal SBP time index (TI). These groups also showed a preponderance of patients with abnormal 24-hour BP profiles as compared to the groups of newcomers (p = 0.034). Among the latter, there were more patients with higher SBP and DBP variability and increased daytime DBP TI and also more patients with a normal nocturnal BP reduction (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION:The group of indigenous populations displayed a predominance of non-dippers and night-pickers and higher nocturnal SBP and DBP whereas the group of non-indigenous ones exhibited a preponderance of dippers and higher daytime SBP and DBP variability.
    Nighttime blood pressure dipping in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease. Sherwood Andrew,Bower Julie K,Routledge Faye S,Blumenthal James A,McFetridge-Durdle Judith A,Newby L Kristin,Hinderliter Alan L American journal of hypertension BACKGROUND:Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping is prognostic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This relationship may be stronger among women than men. The present study hypothesized that coronary artery disease (CAD) and advancing age would be associated with reduced BP dipping in postmenopausal women. The effects of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep quality on BP dipping were also examined. METHODS:54 postmenopausal women with CAD (≥50% occlusion of at least one major coronary vessel) and 48 age-matched (range 50-80 years) postmenopausal women without CAD (non-CAD) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring and actigraphic evaluations of daytime physical activity and nighttime sleep efficiency. RESULTS:Women with CAD evidenced higher nighttime systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.05) and blunted SBP dipping (P = 0.017), blunted diastolic BP (DBP) dipping (P = 0.047), and blunted pulse pressure dipping (P = 0.01), compared to non-CAD women. Multivariable regression models showed that the presence of CAD, age, daytime physical activity, and nighttime sleep efficiency were independently related to the magnitude of SBP dipping, together accounting for 25% of its variability. DBP dipping showed similar associations. CONCLUSIONS:For postmenopausal women, the presence of CAD and advancing age are accompanied by blunted nighttime BP dipping, which may increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Lifestyle changes that increase daytime physical activity and improve nighttime sleep quality may help improve cardiovascular risk by enhancing nighttime BP dipping. 10.1038/ajh.2012.95
    Retinal vessel caliber and its relationship with nocturnal blood pressure dipping status: the SABPA study. Smith Wayne,Malan Nicolaas T,Schutte Aletta E,Schutte Rudolph,Mc Mels Catharina,Vilser Walthard,Malan Leone Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Adverse changes in retinal microvasculature caliber are associated with incident hypertension, coronary heart disease and stroke. The absence of a nocturnal dipping in arterial pressure may induce changes throughout the vascular tree, including the retinal microvasculature, but the later link is not sufficiently studied. We explored the relationship between retinal vessel caliber and dipping status in a group of black and white teachers. The study included black (n=68) and white (n=81) men (24-66 years) from the SABPA study. We measured 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and the percentage mean arterial pressure dipping(%MAPdip) was calculated as (diurnal MAP-nocturnal MAP)/diurnal MAP × 100. Retinal images were captured and the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) calculated. Black men demonstrated higher diurnal and nocturnal MAP (P⩽0.001) and a lesser %MAPdip compared with white men (P=0.047). When stratified by dipping status, black non-dippers (n=33) revealed an increased CRVE (P<0.001) compared with their dipper counterparts (n=35). In black men, CRVE was negatively (R=0.38, β=-0.47, P<0.001) associated with %MAPdip independent of 24 h MAP or nocturnal MAP. CRVE also associated negatively with dipping status as a dichotomized variable (R=0.29, β=-0.32, P=0.006), independent of 24 h MAP. These associations were absent in the white men. In conclusion, in this group of black men, a non-dipping blood pressure profile was associated with a larger CRVE, suggesting microvascular deterioration due to the absence of nocturnal dipping in blood pressure. This may add to our understanding of the stroke risk in black populations. 10.1038/hr.2016.48
    Morning Surge and Peak Morning Ambulatory Blood Pressure Versus Automated Office Blood Pressure in Predicting Cardiovascular Disease. Andreadis Emmanuel A,Geladari Charalampia V,Angelopoulos Epameinondas T,Kolyvas George N,Papademetriou Vasilios High blood pressure & cardiovascular prevention : the official journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension INTRODUCTION:Automated office blood pressure (AOBP) has been recently shown to predict equally well to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), conventional office blood pressure (OBP) and home blood pressure (HBP), cardiovascular (CV) events among hypertensives. AIM:To compare AOBP recording and ABP monitoring in order to evaluate morning blood pressure (BP) peak in predicting CV events and deaths in hypertensives. METHODS:We assessed 236 initially untreated hypertensives, examined between 2009 and 2013. The end points were CV and non-CV death and any CV event including myocardial infarction, evidence of coronary heart disease, heart failure hospitalization, severe arrhythmia, stroke, and symptomatic peripheral artery disease. We fitted proportional hazards models using the different modalities as predictors and evaluated their predictive performance using two metrics: the Akaike's Information Criterion, and Harrell's C-index. RESULTS:After a mean follow-up of 7 years, 23 subjects (39% women) had at least one CV event. In Cox regression models, systolic conventional OBP, AOBP and peak morning BP were predictive of CV events (p < 0.05). The Akaike Information Criterion showed smaller values for AOBP than peak morning BP, indicating a better performance in predicting CV events (227.2736 and 238.7413, respectively). The C-index was 0.6563 for systolic AOBP and 0.6243 for peak morning BP indicating a better predicting ability for AOBP. CONCLUSION:In initially untreated hypertensives, AOBP appears to be at least equally reliable to 24-h monitoring in the evaluation of morning BP peak in order to detect CV disease whereas the sleep-trough and preawakening morning BP surge did not indicate such an effect. 10.1007/s40292-019-00315-7
    Morning and Evening Home Blood Pressure and Risks of Incident Stroke and Coronary Artery Disease in the Japanese General Practice Population: The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure Study. Hoshide Satoshi,Yano Yuichiro,Haimoto Hajime,Yamagiwa Kayo,Uchiba Kiyoshi,Nagasaka Shoichiro,Matsui Yoshio,Nakamura Akira,Fukutomi Motoki,Eguchi Kazuo,Ishikawa Joji,Kario Kazuomi, Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) UNLABELLED:Our aim is to determine the optimal time schedule for home blood pressure (BP) monitoring that best predicts stroke and coronary artery disease in general practice. The Japan Morning Surge-Home Blood Pressure (J-HOP) study is a nationwide practice-based study that included 4310 Japanese with a history of or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or both (mean age, 65 years; 79% used antihypertensive medication). Home BP measures were taken twice daily (morning and evening) over 14 days at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 4 years (16 929 person-years), 74 stroke and 77 coronary artery disease events occurred. Morning systolic BP (SBP) improved the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics, 0.802; 95% confidence interval, 0.692-0.911) beyond traditional risk factors including office SBP (0.756; 0.646-0.866), whereas the changes were smaller with evening SBP (0.764; 0.653-0.874). The addition of evening SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors plus morning SBP) significantly reduced the discrimination of incident stroke (C statistics difference, -0.008; 95% confidence interval: -0.015 to -0.008; P=0.03). The category-free net reclassification improvement (0.3606; 95% confidence interval, 0.1317-0.5896), absolute integrated discrimination improvement (0.015; SE, 0.005), and relative integrated discrimination improvement (58.3%; all P<0.01) with the addition of morning SBP to the model (including traditional risk factors) were greater than those with evening SBP and with combined morning and evening SBP. Neither morning nor evening SBP improved coronary artery disease risk prediction. Morning home SBP itself should be evaluated to ensure best stroke prediction in clinical practice, at least in Japan. This should be confirmed in the different ethnic groups. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/. Unique identifier: UMIN000000894. 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.116.07201
    Effects of exercise and stress management training on nighttime blood pressure dipping in patients with coronary heart disease: A randomized, controlled trial. Sherwood Andrew,Smith Patrick J,Hinderliter Alan L,Georgiades Anastasia,Blumenthal James A American heart journal INTRODUCTION:Blunted nighttime blood pressure (BP) dipping is prognostic of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are often characterized by a blunted nighttime BP dipping pattern. The present study compared the effects of 2 behavioral intervention programs, aerobic exercise (EX) and stress management (SM) training, with a usual care (UC) control group on BP dipping in a sample of CHD patients. METHODS:This was a secondary analysis of a randomized, controlled trial with allocation concealment and blinded outcome assessment in 134 patients with stable CHD and exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Nighttime BP dipping was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, at prerandomization baseline and after 16 weeks of one of the following treatments: usual medical care; UC plus supervised aerobic EX for 35 minutes, 3 times per week; UC plus weekly 1.5-hour sessions of SM training. RESULTS:The EX and SM groups exhibited greater improvements in systolic BP dipping (P=.052) and diastolic BP dipping (P=.031) compared with UC. Postintervention systolic BP percent-dipping means were 12.9% (SE=1.5) for SM, 11.1% (SE=1.4) for EX, and 8.6% (SE=1.4) for UC. Postintervention diastolic BP percent-dipping means were 13.3% (SE=1.9) for SM, 14.1% (SE=1.8) for EX, and 8.8% (1.8) for UC. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with stable CHD, EX or SM training resulted in improved nighttime BP dipping compared with usual medical care. These favorable effects of healthy lifestyle modifications may help reduce the risk of adverse clinical events. 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.011
    Genetic risk factors influence nighttime blood pressure and related cardiovascular complications in patients with coronary heart disease. Wirtwein Marcin,Melander Olle,Sjőgren Marketa,Hoffmann Michal,Narkiewicz Krzysztof,Gruchala Marcin,Sobiczewski Wojciech Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Genetic predisposition of elevated nighttime blood pressure (BP) in patients with coronary heart disease is unknown. We evaluated genetic predisposition and the relationship between elevated nighttime BP and cardiovascular complications over a median of 8.6 years of observation of hypertensive subjects with coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography. Genetic Risk Score (GRS19) was constructed to evaluate the additive effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms for daytime and nighttime BP. The Receiver Operating Characteristic was used for determination of cutoff points for daytime BP (systolic BP (SBP) 133 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) 77 mm Hg) and nighttime BP (SBP 122 mm Hg and DBP 73 mm Hg). The curves of cumulative incidence revealed an increased risk of major advanced cardiovascular events in subjects with elevated nighttime BP compared with those without elevated nighttime BP during the follow-up period. Subjects with normal daytime and elevated nighttime BP exhibited increased GRS19 compared with those with normal daytime and nighttime BPs (8.6±3.0 vs. 7.9±3.0, P<0.01). After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, GRS19 determined nighttime SBP (β 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-0.5, P<0.01). Our study confirmed that elevated nighttime SBP was genetically determined and related to an increased risk of major adverse coronary events in patients with confirmed coronary atherosclerosis. 10.1038/hr.2017.87
    [Effect of individualized antihypertensive therapy on the blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy of hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease]. Liu T T,Li Y,Yao S Y,Wang C,Wang M,Liu J,Shi Y J,Xue H Zhonghua yi xue za zhi To investigate the effect of individualized antihypertensive therapy on the blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) of hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We conducted a prospective study from Sep. 2014 to Dec. 2015 in Chinese PLA General Hospital. A total of 650 patients complicated with non-dipper or reverse-dipper hypertension and CHD were enrolled. All the participants were divided into non-dipper (=259) and reverse-dipper (=391) group according to their 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) reports. Patients who took short-acting antihypertensives changed their medicine to long-acting ones. Patients who had already taken long-acting antihypertensives switched to nighttime or added antihypertensives at night. Self-measured home blood pressure was recorded before going to bed and in the morning. All patients were regularly followed up by face-to-face surveys and clinic BP was recorded every 3 months. After 1 year's follow-up, the effect of individualized antihypertensive treatment on circadian rhythm of blood pressure was evaluated by 24h ABPM. The effect of individualized antihypertensive treatment on LVH was evaluated by echocardiography. After 1 year's individualized antihypertensive therapy, the clinic BP and 24h ABPM of the patients were decreased. BP rhythm in 44% of the non-dipper and 57% of the reverse-dipper patients restored to normal. LVH were returned to normal in 44% of the non-dipper patients and and 48% of the reverse dipper patients, respectively. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were (59±12) kg/m(2.7) vs (48±10) kg/m(2.7) (P<0.01), and (63±13) kg/m(2.7) vs (48±11) kg/m(2.7) (P<0.01) respectively in non-dipper and reverse-dipper group before and after individualized antihypertensive treatment. Individualized antihypertensive intervention of abnormal blood pressure circadian rhythm can effectively restore the circadian rhythm of blood pressure and reverse LVH in hypertensive patients with CHD. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2019.13.004