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    Primary bone lymphoma. Mikhaeel N G Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain)) Primary bone lymphoma is a distinct clinical entity that accounts for 5% of extra-nodal lymphoma. Most patients have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and present with bone pain, a mass or both. The involvement could be in a single focus or disseminated. There are no prospective clinical studies in this disease. Patients have been treated with radiotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination. There is a trend towards improved outcome with combined modality treatment and further improvement with the addition of rituximab. Assessment of response may be difficult with current imaging techniques. The prognosis of primary bone lymphoma is generally good. Here, the current evidence for the optimal treatment of primary bone lymphoma is reviewed and questions for future investigation are addressed. 10.1016/j.clon.2012.02.006
    A non-transgenic mouse model for B-cell lymphoma: in vivo infection of p53-null bone marrow progenitors by a Myc retrovirus is sufficient for tumorigenesis. Yu Duonan,Thomas-Tikhonenko Andrei Oncogene The c-Myc oncoprotein is strongly implicated in B-cell neoplasms such as human Burkitt lymphomas and mouse plasmocytomas. Transgenic mice in which the myc gene is juxtaposed to an immunoglobulin enhancer (E(mu)-myc) also develop B-cell lymphomas, but relatively late in life. In addition, these neoplasms are invariably clonal, suggesting the involvement of additional mutations. Such mutations frequently affect the p53 tumour suppressor gene or its positive regulator Arf, hinting that inactivation of the p53 pathway might be the second hit required for the progression towards malignancy. However, even tumours arising in E(mu)-myc/Arf-null animals are thought to be clonal. This observation raised doubts whether overexpression of Myc in p53-null B-cell precursors is sufficient for tumorigenesis. To address this question, we have established a new, non-transgenic mouse model of B-lymphoma. This model is based on isolation of primary bone marrow (BM) cells, admixing them with packaging cells producing a Myc-encoding retrovirus (LMycSN), and subcutaneous injection into a host with which BM cells are syngeneic. Predictably, wild type BM cells infected in vivo by LMycSN were not tumorigenic. However, LMycSN-infected p53-null BM cells readily gave rise to B-cell lymphomas composed predominantly of late pro-B/small pre-B-cells. In these tumours, heavy chain gene rearrangements were analysed using two independent PCR-based assays. All neoplasms with DJ-rearrangements were found to be polyclonal. This result suggests that inactivation of p53 and overexpression of Myc is all that is necessary for the development of full-fledged B-lymphomas. Our model would also be instrumental in assessing the transforming potential of Myc mutants and in studying cooperation between Myc and other oncogenes. 10.1038/sj.onc.1205244
    BCL6 modulation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia response to chemotherapy. Slone William L,Moses Blake S,Hare Ian,Evans Rebecca,Piktel Debbie,Gibson Laura F Oncotarget The bone marrow niche has a significant impact on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell phenotype. Of clinical relevance is the frequency with which quiescent leukemic cells, in this niche, survive treatment and contribute to relapse. This study suggests that marrow microenvironment regulation of BCL6 in ALL is one factor that may be involved in the transition between proliferative and quiescent states of ALL cells. Utilizing ALL cell lines, and primary patient tumor cells we observed that tumor cell BCL6 protein abundance is decreased in the presence of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and osteoblasts (HOB). Chemical inhibition, or shRNA knockdown, of BCL6 in ALL cells resulted in diminished ALL proliferation. As many chemotherapy regimens require tumor cell proliferation for optimal efficacy, we investigated the consequences of constitutive BCL6 expression in leukemic cells during co-culture with BMSC or HOB. Forced chronic expression of BCL6 during co-culture with BMSC or HOB sensitized the tumor to chemotherapy induced cell death. Combination treatment of caffeine, which increases BCL6 expression in ALL cells, with chemotherapy extended the event free survival of mice. These data suggest that BCL6 is one factor, modulated by microenvironment derived cues that may contribute to regulation of ALL therapeutic response. 10.18632/oncotarget.8273
    Rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene as a prognostic marker in diffuse large-cell lymphoma. Offit K,Lo Coco F,Louie D C,Parsa N Z,Leung D,Portlock C,Ye B H,Lista F,Filippa D A,Rosenbaum A The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:About 40 percent of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are diffuse lymphomas with a large-cell component (DLLC). Current therapy can induce a long-term remission in half the patients with DLLC, but more intensive treatment has the potential to improve outcome, particularly in patients at high risk for treatment failure. Clinical and cytogenetic markers can identify subgroups at high or low risk. Rearrangement of a novel candidate proto-oncogene, bcl-6, is a possible prognostic indicator in DLLC. METHODS:We performed Southern blot hybridization to detect bcl-6 and bcl-2 gene rearrangement in samples of lymphoma from 102 patients with B-cell DLLC. The results were correlated with the patients' histologic features, age, disease stage, tumor sites and bulk of disease, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, and treatment outcome. RESULTS:Rearranged bcl-6 was found in 23 cases, and rearranged bcl-2 in 21 cases. Nineteen of the patients with rearranged bcl-6 had extranodal DLLC, two had primary splenic lymphomas, and only one had bone marrow involvement. Thirty-six months after diagnosis, the proportion with freedom from progression of disease was projected to be 82 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 66 to 98 percent) among the patients with rearranged bcl-6, as compared with 56 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 43 to 70 percent) for the patients with germ-line bcl-6 and bcl-2 and 31 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 8 to 53 percent) for the patients with rearranged bcl-2. The status of the bcl-6 gene was an independent prognostic marker of survival and freedom from disease progression in a multivariate model and added predictive value to established prognostic signs. CONCLUSIONS:Rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene correlated with a favorable clinical outcome in DLLC and may thus serve as a prognostic marker in patients with this form of malignant lymphoma. 10.1056/NEJM199407143310202
    Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the bone: prognostic relevance of protein expression and clinical factors. Adams Heiner,Tzankov Alexandar,d'Hondt Steven,Jundt Gernot,Dirnhofer Stephan,Went Philip Human pathology Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas can be considered primary bone tumors if they are monostotic or polyostotic, affecting multiple skeletal sites without visceral or lymph node involvement. They are rarely considered as extranodal lymphomas or as bone tumors, respectively. To elucidate the prognostic relevance of clinicopathologic characteristics in such disease, we collected a cohort of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the bone and retrospectively investigated 33 patients. The cohort encompassed the years 1975 to 2004. Protein expression patterns were identified by immunohistochemistry applied to a tissue microarray. The patients included 23 males (mean age, 37 years) and 10 females (mean age, 54 years). Disease stage was I and II in 30 and IV in 3 patients. Within the mean follow-up of 28 months, 6 patients died. Median overall survival was reached after 78 months. Clinical factors favoring a good prognosis were age younger than 53 and administration of chemotherapy. Of the phenotypic markers analyzed (CD10, CD44s, CD138, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, MUM1, and Ki-67), MUM1 expression in more than 10% of the tumor cells and CD10 expression in less than 55% as well as a nongerminal center signature substantiated adverse outcome in a univariate model. In summary, poor survival in PB-DLBCL was clearly predicted in patients older than 53, who had not received chemotherapy, and who demonstrated MUM1 expression and nongerminal center phenotype. 10.1016/j.humpath.2008.01.004
    Ikaros regulation of the BCL6/BACH2 axis and its clinical relevance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ge Zheng,Zhou Xilian,Gu Yan,Han Qi,Li Jianyong,Chen Baoan,Ge Qinyu,Dovat Elanora,Payne Jonathon L,Sun Tianyu,Song Chunhua,Dovat Sinisa Oncotarget B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) is a proto-oncogene that is highly expressed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). BTB and CNC Homology 1 Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor 2 (BACH2) is a suppressor of transcription. The BACH2-BCL6 balance controls selection at the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint by regulating p53 expression. However, the underlying mechanism and the clinical relevance of the BCL6/BACH2 axis are unknown. Here, we found that Ikaros, a tumor suppressor encoded by IKZF1, directly binds to both the BCL6 and BACH2 promoters where it suppresses BCL6 and promotes BACH2 expression in B-cell ALL (B-ALL) cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitors increase Ikaros function thereby inhibiting BCL6 and promoting BACH2 expression in an Ikaros-dependent manner. We also found that the expression of BCL6 is higher while BACH2 expression is lower in patients with B-ALL than normal bone marrow control. High BCL6 and low BACH2 expression is associated with high leukemic cell proliferation, unfavorable clinical and laboratory features, and inferior outcomes. Moreover, IKZF1 deletion is associated with high BCL6 and low BACH2 expression in B-ALL patients. CK2 inhibitors increase Ikaros binding to the promoter of BCL6 and BACH2 and suppress BCL6 while promoting BACH2 expression in the primary B-ALL cells. Our data indicates that Ikaros regulates expression of the BCL6/BACH2 axis in B-ALL. High BCL6 and low BACH2 expression are associated with Ikaros dysregulation and have a potential effect on the development of B-ALL. 10.18632/oncotarget.14038
    An immunophenotypic and molecular study of primary large B-cell lymphoma of bone. Huebner-Chan D,Fernandes B,Yang G,Lim M S Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of bone (PNHLB) is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma. Many studies have reported the clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic characteristics of PNHLB; however, their molecular features have not been well studied. In this report, we present the immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics of 20 primary large B-cell lymphoma (PLBCL) of bone from 20 adults. Most demonstrated centroblastic morphology, with the majority exhibiting nuclear multilobation. One case (5%) demonstrated anaplastic features with strong CD30 expression but was ALK-1 negative. BCL-6 expression was seen in 6 of 20 cases, and strong p53 protein expression was seen in 11 of 20 (55%) cases. The majority of cases analyzed (13/18 = 72%) demonstrated a clonal B-cell process by IgH gene rearrangement studies. Of the five cases that did not demonstrate a clonal population, two expressed BCL-6 protein. No cases demonstrated a bcl-2/JH rearrangement, but BCL-2 protein expression was seen in 11 of 20 (55%) cases. In summary, primary lymphoma of bone is largely a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of large B-cell type. Our studies demonstrate that p53 and BCL-2 expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of PLCBL of bone. In addition, a subset of the cases are of putative germinal center B-cell origin based on the expression of BCL-6 protein and may be genetically distinct from follicle center lymphomas. The results provide evidence for molecular heterogeneity within primary large B-cell lymphomas of bone. 10.1038/modpathol.3880425
    Mutations of the 5' noncoding region of the BCL-6 gene in primary bone lymphomas. Gianelli Umberto,Ponzoni Maurilio,Moro Alessia,Alfano Rosa Maria,Pellegrini Caterina,Giardini Roberto,Patriarca Carlo,Armiraglio Elisabetta,Bosari Silvano,Parafioriti Antonina,Coggi Guido Annals of hematology Somatic point mutations of the 5' noncoding region of the BCL-6 gene have been described as genetic alterations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). They are more frequent in diffuse large B cell (DLBCL) and follicular lymphomas (FL). This study aims to analyse the presence and distribution of BCL-6 gene mutations in a large series of primary bone lymphomas (PBL), a rare extranodal presentation of NHL frequently associated with diffuse large cell morphology. Fifty-three cases of PBL were examined. Mutations were detected with non-radioisotopic polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and visualized with fluorescent cycle sequencing. Among stage I(E) PBL, there were 30 cases of DLBCL and one each of follicular, anaplastic large cell and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. The stage II(E) PBL included six DLBCL and one lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, whereas within stage IV PBL there were 12 DLBCL and one Burkitt lymphoma. Fifteen patients (28%) displayed mutational events. In nine cases there were more than one BCL-6 mutation. Only DLBCL displayed mutations (31%). Mutations included single base-pair substitutions (16 transitions and ten transversions) and a single point insertion (ins A 427-28). The frequency of mutations resulted lower in DLBCL of the PBL category than in the majority of other extranodal large cell lymphomas. The prevalence of mutations was higher in stage I(E) PBL than in more advanced stages of the disease (II(E) + IV) ( p=0.02). Our results reinforce the observation of heterogeneity of the DLBCL included in the clinical category of PBL. 10.1007/s00277-003-0721-2
    [The role of translocations involving c-MYC/8q24, BCL2/18q21 and/or BCL6/3q27 genes in patients with follicular lymphoma. Retrospective analysis of single - centre data]. Misyurina A E,Kravchenko S K,Kovrigina A M,Magomedova A U,Plastinina L V,Obukhova T N,Misyurin A V,Misyurin V A,Grebenuk L A,Babaeva F E,Baryakh E A,Vorobiev A I Terapevticheskii arkhiv Aim of the issue was to compare clinical characteristics and treatment results of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) with translocations involving loci of c-MYC/8q24, BCL2/18q21 and/or BCL6/3q27 genes and patients with high - grade B-cell lymphoma [High - grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBL), double - hit (DH)]. Materials and methods. Since 2004 to 2017 years in National Research Center for Hematology 12 patients with high - grade B-cell lymphoma double - hit (HGBL DH) and 6 FL patients with translocations involving c-MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 had been treated. We performed a comparative analysis of clinical characterisctics in both groups. As primary endpoints was assessed frequency of complete remission (CR) or progressive disease (PD); as secondary endpoints - overall (OS) and event - free survival (EFS). Results. 5 patients with HGBL DH had c-MYC/BCL6, 7 - c-MYC/BCL2 rearrangements; 2 patients with FL had c-MYC/BCL2, 3 - c-MYC/BCL6, 1 - c-MYC/BCL2/BCL6 rearrangements. FL was represented by grade 3A in 2, grade 3B - in 4 cases, 3 of them had large - cell transformation. In HGBL DH and FL patients had no significant differences in clinical characteristics. The majority of patients had a widespread tumour, increased LDH activity, high frequency of extranodal and bone marrow involvement. Ki-67 expression level was lower in patients with FL (p. 10.26442/00403660.2019.07.000070
    BCL6 is critical for the development of a diverse primary B cell repertoire. Duy Cihangir,Yu J Jessica,Nahar Rahul,Swaminathan Srividya,Kweon Soo-Mi,Polo Jose M,Valls Ester,Klemm Lars,Shojaee Seyedmehdi,Cerchietti Leandro,Schuh Wolfgang,Jäck Hans-Martin,Hurtz Christian,Ramezani-Rad Parham,Herzog Sebastian,Jumaa Hassan,Koeffler H Phillip,de Alborán Ignacio Moreno,Melnick Ari M,Ye B Hilda,Müschen Markus The Journal of experimental medicine BCL6 protects germinal center (GC) B cells against DNA damage-induced apoptosis during somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. Although expression of BCL6 was not found in early IL-7-dependent B cell precursors, we report that IL-7Ralpha-Stat5 signaling negatively regulates BCL6. Upon productive VH-DJH gene rearrangement and expression of a mu heavy chain, however, activation of pre-B cell receptor signaling strongly induces BCL6 expression, whereas IL-7Ralpha-Stat5 signaling is attenuated. At the transition from IL-7-dependent to -independent stages of B cell development, BCL6 is activated, reaches expression levels resembling those in GC B cells, and protects pre-B cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis during immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain gene recombination. In the absence of BCL6, DNA breaks during Ig light chain gene rearrangement lead to excessive up-regulation of Arf and p53. As a consequence, the pool of new bone marrow immature B cells is markedly reduced in size and clonal diversity. We conclude that negative regulation of Arf by BCL6 is required for pre-B cell self-renewal and the formation of a diverse polyclonal B cell repertoire. 10.1084/jem.20091299
    Essential differences in oncogene involvement between primary nodal and extranodal large cell lymphoma. Raghoebier S,Kramer M H,van Krieken J H,de Jong D,Limpens J,Kluin-Nelemans J C,van Ommen G J,Kluin P M Blood Large cell lymphomas (LCLs) are heterogeneous in morphology, clinical presentation, and behavior. We studied 52 de novo LCLs of B-cell type for rearrangements of the bcl-2 and c-myc oncogenes by Southern blot analysis and related these data to the primary site of presentation, stage, and cytomorphology. Thirteen tumors had comigrating rearrangements of JH and bcl-2, indicative of a t(14;18). Far more primary nodal lymphomas than extranodal lymphomas carried a t(14;18) (40% v less than 5%). Additionally, almost all lymphomas with a t(14;18) versus 41% of the tumors without a bcl-2 rearrangement presented with lymphadenopathy. c-myc rearrangements were seen in 35% of the extranodal lymphomas and 5% of the nodal lymphomas. No differences were observed in bone marrow involvement and staging according to Ann Arbor. bcl-2 rearrangements were found in 50% of the LCLs with cleaved nuclei, whereas c-myc rearrangements were relatively frequent (25%) in the noncleaved subtype. Our data support the hypothesis that primary nodal and extranodal lymphomas have a different genetic origin.
    Clinical relevance of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC rearrangements in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Kramer M H,Hermans J,Wijburg E,Philippo K,Geelen E,van Krieken J H,de Jong D,Maartense E,Schuuring E,Kluin P M Blood Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL) is characterized by a marked degree of morphologic and clinical heterogeneity. We studied 156 patients with de novo DLCL for rearrangements of the BCL2, BCL6, and MYC oncogenes by Southern blot analysis and BCL2 protein expression. We related these data to the primary site of presentation, disease stage, and other clinical risk factors. Structural alterations of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC were detected in 25 of 156, 36 of 116, and 10 of 151 patients, respectively. Three cases showed a combination of BCL2 and BCL6 rearrangements, and two cases had a combination of BCL6 and MYC rearrangements. BCL2 rearrangement was found more often in extensive (39%) and primary nodal (17%) lymphomas than in extranodal cases (4%) (P = .003). BCL2 rearrangement was present in none of 40 patients with stage I disease, but in 22% of patients with stage II to IV (P = .006). The presence of BCL2 rearrangements did not significantly affect overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS). In contrast, high BCL2 protein expression adversely affected both OS (P = .008) and DFS (P = .01). BCL2 protein expression was poorly correlated with BCL2 rearrangement: only 52% of BCL2-rearranged lymphomas and 37% of BCL2-unrearranged cases had high BCL2 protein expression. Rearrangement of BCL6 was found more often in patients with extranodal (36%) and extensive (39%) presentation versus primary nodal disease (28%). No significant correlation was found with disease stage, lymphadenopathy, or bone marrow involvement. DFS and OS were not influenced by BCL6 rearrangements. MYC rearrangements were found in 16% of primary extranodal lymphomas, versus 2% of primary nodal cases (P = .02). In particular, gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas (5 of 18 cases, 28%) were affected by MYC rearrangements. The distinct biologic behavior of these extranodal lymphomas was reflected by a high complete remission (CR) rate: 7 of 10 patients with MYC rearrangement attained complete remission and 6 responders remained alive for more than 4 years, resulting in a trend for better DFS (P = .07). These data show the complex nature of molecular events in DLCL, which is a reflection of the morphologic and clinical heterogeneity of these lymphomas. However, thus far, these genetic rearrangements fail as prognostic markers.
    [BCL2, BCL6, and MYC-positive intravascular large B-cell lymphoma presenting with bilateral adrenal gland lesions]. Ogasawara Toshie,Ebata Nozomiko,Hamasaki Julia,Marshall Shoko,Kawauchi Kiyotaka,Ohshima Koichi,Mori Naoki,Sakura Hiroshi [Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology Primary adrenal lymphoma is a rare lymphoma, accounting for <0.2% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The leading histopathological subtype of adrenal lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is rare. Here, we report a case of IVLBCL occurrence as a bilateral adrenal gland tumor, which was diagnosed by CT-guided biopsy. Tumor cells were positive for CD20 and MUM-1 but not for CD10 on immunostaining, suggesting non-germinal center B-cell subtype lymphoma. In addition, the triple expression of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC was demonstrated on tumor cells. The bone marrow examination revealed the involvement of lymphoma cells but not hemophagocytosis. The chromosomal analysis revealed complex karyotypic abnormalities without a rearrangement of BCL2 or MYC using FISH analysis. Although the patient responded to R-CHOP chemotherapy, he developed central nervous system involvement by lymphoma. To date, the significance of the triple expression of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC without gene translocation remains partially elucidated. Therefore, an accumulation of similar cases is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis and clinical significance of the triple expression of these oncoproteins. 10.11406/rinketsu.60.570
    Oligonucleotide therapeutics: clothing the emperor. Gewirtz A M Current opinion in molecular therapeutics Oligonucleotides (ON) have been used in vitro, in vivo and clinically for the treatment viral infections, malignancies and inflammatory diseases. This review will focus on the application of ON-based therapeutics for hematological disease. The primary application of ONs has been as sequence specific inhibitors of gene expression, ie, antisense oligonucleotides (AS ON) and ribozymes. Based upon the unique expression of the Bcl-Abl neogene in CML cells, numerous studies have targeted this product with AS ONs and ribozymes. These studies demonstrate that ON targeting the breakpoint region selectively inhibit the proliferation of CML cells. Subsequent studies suggest that this effect may not be due to a true antisense effect of the ON. Other targets, which are being exploited for the treatment of hematological malignancies, include ON targeting c-myb gene, p53 and Bcl-2. All three have entered clinical trials and have been shown to be tolerated by patients. In addition to inhibition of gene expression, ON can be selected for sequence specific binding to proteins (aptamer). In particular an ON that binds to thrombin with high affinity is being explored as a potential anticoagulant. These early studies have identified limitations for first generation ON which may be solvable with newer ON chemistries and/or formulations. Although the technology is still nascent it continues to show promise.
    Is Myc an Important Biomarker? Myc Expression in Immune Disorders and Cancer. Trop-Steinberg Shivtia,Azar Yehudit The American journal of the medical sciences The proto-oncogene Myc serves as a paradigm for understanding the dynamics of transcriptional regulation. Myc protein has been linked to immune dysfunction, cancer development and neoplastic transformation. We review recent research regarding functions of Myc as an important modulator in immune disorders, postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and several cancers. Myc overexpression has been repeatedly linked to immune disorders and specific cancers, such as myasthenia gravis, psoriasis, pemphigus vulgaris, atherosclerosis, long-term allogeneic survival among HSCT patients, (primary) inflammatory breast cancer, (primary) ovarian carcinoma and hematological malignancies: acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, decreased expression of Myc has been observed in HSCT patients who did not survive. Understanding impaired or inappropriate expression of Myc may present a path for the discovery of new targets for therapeutic applications. 10.1016/j.amjms.2017.06.007
    Distinguishing primary and secondary translocations in multiple myeloma. Gabrea Ana,Leif Bergsagel P,Michael Kuehl W DNA repair Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant post-germinal center tumor of somatically-mutated, isotype-switched plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow. It often is preceded by a stable pre-malignant tumor called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which can sporadically progress to MM. Five recurrent primary translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus on chromosome 14q32 have been identified in MGUS and MM tumors. The five partner loci include 11q13, 6p21, 4p16, 16q23, and 20q12, with corresponding dysregulation of CYCLIN D1, CYCLIN D3, FGFR3/MMSET, c-MAF, and MAFB, respectively, by strong enhancers in the IgH locus. The five recurrent translocations, which are present in 40% of MM tumors, typically are simple reciprocal translocations, mostly having breakpoints within or near IgH switch regions but sometimes within or near VDJ or JH sequences. It is thought that these translocations are caused by aberrant IgH switch recombination, and possibly by aberrant somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells, thus providing an early and perhaps initiating event in transformation. A MYC gene is dysregulated by complex translocations and insertions as a very late event during the progression of MM tumors. Since the IgH switch recombination and somatic hypermutation mechanism are turned off in plasma cells and plasma cell tumors, the MYC rearrangements are thought to be mediated by unknown mechanisms that contribute to structural genomic instability in all kinds of tumors. These rearrangements, which often but not always juxtapose MYC near one of the strong immunoglobulin enhancers, provide a paradigm for secondary translocations. It is hypothesized that secondary translocations not involving a MYC gene can occur at any stage of tumorigenesis, including in pre-malignant MGUS tumor cells. 10.1016/j.dnarep.2006.05.012
    Small round cell lesions of the bone: Diagnostic approach, differential diagnoses and impact on treatment. Rekhi Bharat,Mridha Asit,Kattoor Jayashree Indian journal of pathology & microbiology Small round cell lesions of the bone encompass a heterogeneous group of tumors and tumor-like lesions, including Ewing sarcoma, small cell osteosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), "Ewing-like" undifferentiated round cell sarcomas, metastasizing small cell carcinoma, along with plasma cell dyscrasia and Langerhan's cell histiocytosis. At the same time, there are tumor mimics, for example, chronic osteomyelitis, which has overlapping radiologic features with Ewing sarcoma and a primary intraosseous NHL. An exact diagnosis necessitates integration of clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and ancillary test results, including immunohistochemical and molecular results. Currently, there are several immunohistochemical markers and specific molecular signatures, driving most of these tumors, available, for an exact diagnosis. This review focuses on a pragmatic approach towards uncovering specific small round cell lesions of the bone, emphasizing upon integration of traditional morphology with ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemical markers and molecular techniques, the latter, especially in cases of Ewing sarcoma, Ewing-like undifferentiated round cell sarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and neuroblastoma. Subsequent to the diagnostic approach, including an impact on treatment, individual intraosseous round cell lesions have been described in detail. The references include updated articles from PUBMED. 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_675_18
    Primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: clinicopathologic study of 21 cases and review of literature. Bhagavathi Sharathkumar,Micale Mark A,Les Kimberly,Wilson Jon D,Wiggins Michele L,Fu Kai The American journal of surgical pathology Primary bone diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (PB-DLBCL) are uncommon extranodal lymphomas. Herein, we report the clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of 21 cases of PB-DLBCL. The mean age of the patients was 54 years (range: 13 to 85 y). The male and female ratio was 1.6:1. The tumors consisted of diffuse sheets of large atypical cells or a polymorphous mixture of small-to-large cells with large multilobated nuclei, fine chromatin, and inconspicuous to prominent nucleoli. Twelve (57%) cases were non-germinal center B (GCB) and 9 (43%) were GCB subtype based on immunohistochemical classification. B-cell lymphomas (BCL)-2 was positive in 17/21 (81%), TP53 in 11/21 (52%) positive and the mean MIB-1 index was 57%. Polymerase chain reaction showed 10 cases with immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) and 4 cases with IGH/BCL-2 gene rearrangement. The fluorescence in-situ hybridization analyses showed 14% of cases with BCL-6, 19% of cases with BCL-2, and 9% of cases with C-MYC gene rearrangement. Age <60 years and complete response to initial treatment were significant predictors of survival outcome (P< or =0.05). Even though no association was observed between the subtype of PB-DLBCL (GCB vs. non-GCB), BCL2, TP53, MIB1 index and overall survival (P>0.05), due to small sample size, and variability in treatment received, this analysis may be interpreted with caution. 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181b314ce
    Extranodal Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: Molecular Features, Prognosis, and Risk of Central Nervous System Recurrence. Ollila Thomas A,Olszewski Adam J Current treatment options in oncology OPINION STATEMENT:Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arises from extranodal organs in about 30% of cases. Its prognosis and risk of recurrence in the central nervous system (CNS) vary according to the primary site of origin. Recent studies begin to clarify these differences using molecular classification. Testicular, breast, and uterine DLBCL (as well as possibly primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg-type) share a high prevalence of the non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB) phenotype and the MYD88/CD79B-mutated (MCD) genotype. These biologic features, which resemble primary CNS lymphoma, may underlie their stage-independent propensity for CNS involvement. Management of these lymphomas should involve CNS prophylaxis, preferably using systemic high-dose methotrexate to prevent intraparenchymal recurrence. Involvement of the kidneys, adrenal glands, ovary, bone marrow, lung, or pleura usually indicates disseminated disease, conferring worse prognosis. Involvement of these sites is often associated with high CNS-International Prognostic Index (IPI), concurrent MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangements, or intravascular lymphoma-risk factors warranting CNS prophylaxis. In contrast, craniofacial, thyroid, localized bone, or gastric lymphomas have a variable prevalence of the non-GCB phenotype and lack MYD88 mutations. Their outcomes with standard immunochemotherapy are excellent, and the risk of CNS recurrence is low. We recommend individualized consideration of CNS prophylaxis based on the CNS-IPI score and anatomical proximity in cases of epidural, orbital, or skull involvement. Rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy is a standard approach for all extranodal DLBCLs. Surgery is no longer required for any primary site, but routine consolidative radiation therapy is recommended for testicular lymphoma. Radiation therapy also appears to be associated with better progression-free survival in primary bone DLBCL. Future studies should better distinguish primary from secondary sites of extranodal involvement, and investigate the association of newly identified genotypes with the risk of CNS or systemic recurrence. 10.1007/s11864-018-0555-8
    [Primary bone marrow diffuse large B cell lymphoma: three case reports and literature review]. Liu Huimin,Yi Shuhua,Liu Enbin,Li Zengjun,Zhang Hongju,Ru Kun,Zou Dehui,Qiu Lugui Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi OBJECTIVE:To report the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of three rare cases of primary bone marrow diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and to improve the recognition of this disease. METHODS:The clinical characteristics, therapeutic course and the outcome of these patients were reviewed. Meanwhile, a series of examinations including morphology, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology of bone marrow samples were also performed. RESULTS:These three patients who were old at the onset age (56, 60 and 70 years old), primarily revealed as abnormal blood count and experienced an aggressive course of disease. Physical and imaging examination showed no enlargement of lymph node, liver and spleen, the patients were finally diagnosed as primary bone marrow DLBCL by bone marrow morphology, flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analyses. They were treated with rituximab combined chemotherapy, which achieved a complete response, but still need longer follow-up to further evaluate their survival. CONCLUSION:Primary bone marrow DLBCL was encountered rarely in clinical practice, and this is the first report in China. Further investigation of pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of this rare disease was warranted. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2014.10.009
    [Pathological Features, Treatment Options and Prognosis Assessment of Patients with Bone Lymphoma in Real-World]. Ou Jin-Ping,Gao Shuang,Wang Li-Hong,Zhang Jian-Hua,Nong Lin,Liu Wei,Wang Wen-Sheng,Sun Yu-Hua,Xu Wei-Lin,Yin Yue,Liang Ze-Yin,Wang Qian,Li Yuan,Dong Yu-Jun,Wang Qing-Yun,Wang Mang-Ju,Wang Bing-Jie,Qiu Zhi-Xiang,Cen Xi-Nan,Ren Han-Yun Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical manifestations pathologic features, treatment options and prognosis of patients with bone lymphoma. METHODS:The clinical characteristics, pathologic features, treatment and prognosis of 34 BL patients diagnosed by histopathologic method or/and PET-CT and treated in first hospital of peking university from January 2004 to April 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS:The median age of 34 BL patients was 56 years old, the male and female ratio was 1.43∶1 (24 /10). Among 34 patients, the patients with primary bone lymphoma(PBL) were 8 cases, the patients with secondary bone lymphoma(SBL) was 26 cases, the PBL and SBL ratio was 0.31∶1. Bone lymphoma lacks typical systemic symptoms, and its onset began mostly from bone pain and pathologic bone fracture. The most frequent pathological type of bone lymphoma in our study was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), accounting for 55.88%. At present, the conventional treatment for bone lymphoma includes chemotherapy, or chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and surgery, as well as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The average and median OS time of BL patients were 349 years and 3 years respectively, meanwhile the OS rate for three years and two years were 56.25% and 78.16%, respectively. Factors that affect survival of BL patients were PBL and SBL classification, pathological type, blood LDH level, and treatment methods. CONCLUSION:Bone lymphoma is usually concealed onset,an adequate and adequate combination therapy can improve the survival rate and transplantation therapy plays an important role. Primary bone lymphoma is rare, the prognosis of patients with primary bone lymphoma is good, whereas the prognosis of patients with secondary bone lymphoma is poor. 10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2019.03.025
    Primary lymphoma of bone in the pediatric and young adult population. Chisholm Karen M,Ohgami Robert S,Tan Brent,Hasserjian Robert P,Weinberg Olga K Human pathology Primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) accounts for 3% to 7% of primary neoplasms of bone and must be distinguished from more common bone tumors in the pediatric population such as osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, and other small round blue cell tumors. In this study, pathology databases from 4 institutions were queried for PLB in individuals 1 to 21 years old. A total of 54 cases of PLB were identified, including 41 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL, 76%), 8 B-lymphoblastic lymphomas (BLL, 15%), 3 anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL, 6%), and 2 low-grade follicular lymphomas (4%). The male/female ratio was 1.8:1 and median age was 16 years (range, 2-21). Patients with DLBCL were significantly older (P<.001), and patients with ALCL and BLL were significantly younger (P=.050 and P=.008, respectively) when compared with the other patients. Due to necrosis, crush artifact, and/or insufficient material, 30% of cases required multiple biopsies for diagnosis. The femur, tibia, pelvic bones, humerus, and vertebrae were most commonly involved. DLBCL patients had significantly more solitary bone involvement (P=.001), whereas BLL had significantly more polyostotic involvement (P<.001). Of the 37 patients with outcome data, all had no evidence of disease on last follow-up. This largest pediatric series of PLB identifies DLBCL as the most frequent subtype and documents rarer occurrences of BLL, ALCL, and follicular lymphomas. The differential diagnosis of bone neoplasms in pediatric patients, including those with necrosis, should include PLB. 10.1016/j.humpath.2016.07.028
    Primary bone lymphoma: tunisian multicentric retrospective study about 32 cases. Ben Ayed Chiraz,Laabidi Soumaya,Said Najla,Afrit Mehdi,Ben Ahmed Selim,Boussen Hammouda La Tunisie medicale AIM:To report the epidemiologic, clinical features, treatment modalities and prognosis of primary bone lymphomas (PBL) within a retrospective Tunisian series. METHODS:We collected cases of histologically confirmed PBL in 3 medical oncology departments from northern and central Tunisia andwe analyzed their characteristics. RESULTS:From January 1990 to July 2014, we collected 32 patients with histologically proven PBL, having a median age of 53 years. They affected mainly the long bones and diagnosed at early stages. 91% of the PBL were large cell B lymphoma. All patients received CHOP or CHOP-likeChemotherapy (CT), associated to Rituximab in the last 9 cases, with 14/32 patients received loco-regional radiotherapy and one patient had a resection-reconstruction surgery. We observed 90% of objective responses after primary CT.With a median follow-up of 38.5 months (1 to 192), the 5-year overall survival OS rate was 63%.18 patients relapsed and 14 remain alive in complete remission. CONCLUSION:PBL remains a rare disease lately diagnosed in Tunisia. However, most of the patients had early stages tumors. Furthermore, the efficacy of CT and introduction of Rituximab leads to a high rate of complete/objective responses, improving the survival rate.
    Malignant lymphoma of bone: a review of 119 patients. Demircay Emre,Hornicek Francis John,Mankin Henry J,Degroot Henry Clinical orthopaedics and related research BACKGROUND:Lymphoma of bone is uncommon. As a result of this, many aspects of primary lymphoma of bone (PLB) are controversial: the definition, treatment strategies, response criteria, and prognostic factors. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:We sought to determine the following in an analysis from a single center over a four-decade period: (1) 5-year disease-free survival of patients with PLB as well as those with systemic lymphoma with bone involvement; and (2) whether prognostic factors (sex, site of tumor, age) were associated with 5-year survival. METHODS:A total of 119 patients with lymphoma involving the musculoskeletal system were retrospectively evaluated. Among these, 94 patients who had a minimum followup of 6 months (mean, 67 months; range, 6 months to 34 years) were further analyzed for the skeletal site of involvement, the orthopaedic intervention(s) needed, and survival. The overall median age was 45 years (range, 7-87 years). The female-to-male ratio was 1:1.53. There were 70 (65 unifocal, five multifocal) patients with PLB. The femur was the most frequent site involved. Appendicular skeleton involvement was substantially higher in patients with PLB. Thirty-four (36%) patients had at least one surgical intervention. Fourteen patients (41%) needed more than one major surgical intervention. RESULTS:The disease-free 5-year survival for patients with PLB was 81% and for the patients with systemic lymphoma with bone involvement, it was 44%. The disease-free 5-year survival of the patients with PLB younger than 60 years old and 60 years old or older was 90% and 62%, respectively. Age was the only prognostic factor on survival of patients with PLB. CONCLUSIONS:Orthopaedic intervention was usually needed for pathologic fractures, avascular necrosis, spinal cord compression, or for the lesions of the weightbearing bones compromising stability or joint motion. The potential for long-term survival suggests the use of implants and techniques that have the best chance of long-term success. 10.1007/s11999-013-2991-x
    The clinical features, management and prognosis of primary and secondary indolent lymphoma of the bone: a retrospective study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG #14 study). Govi Silvia,Christie David,Mappa Silvia,Marturano Emerenziana,Bruno-Ventre Marta,Messina Carlo,Medina Elías A Gracia,Porter David,Radford John,Heo Dae Seog,Park Yeon,Pro Barbara,Jayamohan Jayasingham,Pavlakis Nick,Zucca Emanuele,Gospodarowicz Mary,Ferreri Andrés J M, Leukemia & lymphoma Indolent lymphomas primarily involving the skeleton (iPBL) represent < 1% of all primary bone lymphomas. The management and prognosis have not been previously described. Patients with primary and secondary iPBL were selected from an international database of 499 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and skeleton involvement, and clinical features, management and prognosis were analyzed. Twenty-six (5%) patients had an iPBL. Ten patients had small lymphocytic lymphoma, 10 had follicular lymphoma and six had lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Eleven patients had limited stage and 15 had advanced disease. The overall response rate was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57-89%). Median follow-up was 58 months, and the 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 37 ± 10% and 25 ± 12%, respectively. Nine patients are alive, with 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates of 46 ± 10% and 29 ± 11%, respectively. Patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma showed significantly better outcome than patients with follicular lymphoma. Performance status and stage of disease were independently associated with OS. The prognosis of patients with primary bone lymphoplasmacytic or follicular lymphoma was less favorable. 10.3109/10428194.2013.853298