The intrinsic proteostasis network of stem cells.
Llamas Ernesto,Alirzayeva Hafiza,Loureiro Rute,Vilchez David
Current opinion in cell biology
The proteostasis network adjusts protein composition and maintains protein integrity, which are essential processes for cell function and viability. Current efforts, given their intrinsic characteristics, regenerative potential and fundamental biological functions, have been directed to define proteostasis of stem cells. These insights demonstrate that embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells exhibit an endogenous proteostasis network that not only modulates their pluripotency and differentiation but also provides a striking ability to suppress aggregation of disease-related proteins. Moreover, recent findings establish a central role of enhanced proteostasis to prevent the aging of somatic stem cells in adult organisms. Notably, proteostasis is also required for the biological purpose of adult germline stem cells, that is to be passed from one generation to the next. Beyond these links between proteostasis and stem cell function, we also discuss the implications of these findings for disease, aging, and reproduction.
Polycomb regulation is coupled to cell cycle transition in pluripotent stem cells.
Asenjo Helena G,Gallardo Amador,López-Onieva Lourdes,Tejada Irene,Martorell-Marugán Jordi,Carmona-Sáez Pedro,Landeira David
When self-renewing pluripotent cells receive a differentiation signal, ongoing cell duplication needs to be coordinated with entry into a differentiation program. Accordingly, transcriptional activation of lineage specifier genes and cell differentiation is confined to the G phase of the cell cycle by unknown mechanisms. We found that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) subunits are differentially recruited to lineage specifier gene promoters across cell cycle in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Jarid2 and the catalytic subunit Ezh2 are markedly accumulated at target promoters during S and G phases, while the transcriptionally activating subunits EPOP and EloB are enriched during G phase. Fluctuations in the recruitment of PRC2 subunits promote changes in RNA synthesis and RNA polymerase II binding that are compromised in Jarid2 -/- mESCs. Overall, we show that differential recruitment of PRC2 subunits across cell cycle enables the establishment of a chromatin state that facilitates the induction of cell differentiation in G phase.