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    Hypothermia protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion-induced pyroptosis via m6A-mediated activation of PTEN and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Diao Meng-Yuan,Zhu Ying,Yang Jing,Xi Shao-Song,Wen Xin,Gu Qiao,Hu Wei Brain research bulletin Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury often leads to irreversible neuronal injury and even death, and hypothermia is the only therapeutic method that has been proven to be effective. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of hypothermia treatment on I/R injury have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of hypothermia against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced neuronal damage. Primary hippocampal neurons were exposed to H/R and were then treated with hypothermia. We observed that hypothermia significantly increased cellular viability, downregulated the expression of pyroptosis-related proteins-including NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptotic speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), cleaved Caspase-1, and Gasdermin-D (GsdmD) p30-and reduced secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, pretreatment with MCC950, a specific small-molecule inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, yielded a protective effect on cellular viability that was comparable to that of hypothermia treatment. Furthermore, hypothermia also significantly elevated the expression level of phosphatase and tensin homologous protein (PTEN) and activated the phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). These protective effects of hypothermia on pyroptosis-related proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines were partially reversed by the specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, the methylated level of PTEN mRNA was elevated in hippocampal neurons upon H/R, whereas this level remained stable in the hypothermia group. Therefore, our findings suggest that hypothermia protects neurons against neuronal H/R-induced pyroptosis, and that m6A-mediated activation of PTEN and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway may play crucial roles during this process. 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.03.011
    Methyltransferase 3 Mediated miRNA m6A Methylation Promotes Stress Granule Formation in the Early Stage of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Si Wenwen,Li Yi,Ye Shanyu,Li Zhen,Liu Yangping,Kuang Weihong,Chen Dongfeng,Zhu Meiling Frontiers in molecular neuroscience The modification of methyltransferase-like (METTL) enzymes plays important roles in various cellular responses by regulating microRNA expression. However, how m6A modification is involved in stress granule (SG) formation in the early stage of acute ischemic stroke by affecting the biogenesis processing of microRNAs remains unclear. Here, we established a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats and an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in primary cortical neurons and PC12 cells to explore the potential mechanism between m6A modification and SG formation. The results showed that the level of infarction and apoptosis increased while SG formation decreased significantly within the ischemic cortex with improved reperfusion time after 2 h of ischemia. Consistent with the data, an inverse association between the apoptosis level and SG formation was observed in PC12 cells during the reperfusion period after 6 h of OGD stimulation. Both and results showed that the expression of METTL3 protein, m6A and miR-335 was significantly decreased with the reperfusion period. Overexpression of the METTL3 and METTL3 gene-knockdown in PC12 cells were achieved via plasmid transfection and CRISPR-Cas9 technology, respectively. Overexpression or knockdown of METTL3 in oxygen-glucose deprivation of PC12 cells resulted in functional maturation of miR-335, SG formation and apoptosis levels. In addition, we found that miR-335 enhanced SG formation through degradation of the mRNA of the eukaryotic translation termination factor (Erf1). In conclusion, we found that METTL3-mediated m6A methylation increases the maturation of miR-335, which promotes SG formation and reduces the apoptosis level of injury neurons and cells, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for AIS. 10.3389/fnmol.2020.00103