PGAM5 expression and macrophage signatures in non-small cell lung cancer associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Ng Kee Kwong F,Nicholson A G,Pavlidis S,Adcock I M,Chung K F
BACKGROUND:COPD patients are at increased risk of developing non-small cell lung carcinoma that has a worse prognosis. Oxidative stress contributes to carcinogenesis and is increased in COPD patients due to mitochondrial dysfunction. We determined whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a contributing factor to the reduced survival of COPD patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). METHODS:Using a transcriptomic database and outcome data of 3553 NSCLC samples, we selected mitochondrial-related genes whose levels in the tumour correlated with patient mortality. We further selected those genes showing a ≥ 2 fold expression in cancer compared to normal tissue. Cell-type specific expression of these proteins in lung tissue from NSCLC patients who were non-smokers or smokers with or without COPD (healthy smokers) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Gene set variation analysis was used in additional NSCLC datasets to determine the relative expression of specific macrophage transcriptomic signatures within lung cancer tissue. RESULTS:The expression of 14 mitochondrial-related genes was correlated with patient mortality and these were differentially expressed between cancer and normal lung tissue. We studied further the expression of one of these genes, PGAM5 which is a regulator of mitochondrial degradation by mitophagy. In background lung tissue, PGAM5 was only expressed in alveolar macrophages, with the highest expression in smokers with COPD compared to healthy smokers and non-smokers. In cancerous tissue, only the malignant epithelial cells and associated macrophages at the periphery of the cancer expressed PGAM5. Pre-neoplastic epithelium also showed the expression of PGAM5. There was no difference in expression in cancer tissue between COPD, healthy smoker and non-smoker groups. Macrophages at the edge of the cancer from COPD patients showed a trend towards higher expression of PGAM5 compared to those from the other groups. There was a significant correlation between PGAM5 expression in cancer tissue and the level of expression of 9 out of 49 previously-defined macrophage transcriptomic signatures with a particular one associated with patient mortality (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:PGAM5 is expressed in pre-neoplastic tissue and NSCLC, but not in normal epithelium. The association between PGAM5 expression and patient mortality may be mediated through the induction of specific macrophage phenotypes.
PIK3CA mutation as a distinctive genetic feature of non-small cell lung cancer with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A comprehensive mutational analysis from a multi-institutional cohort.
Sawa Kenji,Koh Yasuhiro,Kawaguchi Tomoya,Kambayashi Satoshi,Asai Kazuhisa,Mitsuoka Shigeki,Kimura Tatsuo,Yoshimura Naruo,Yoshimoto Naoki,Kubo Akihito,Saka Hideo,Matsumura Akihide,Wanibuchi Hideki,Yamamoto Nobuyuki,Nishiyama Noritoshi,Hirata Kazuto
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been proposed to have a mutual developmental mechanism, but their association has not been fully understood. We aimed to examine the association of the mutational landscape of NSCLC with co-morbid COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 197 surgical specimens of early stage NSCLC were retrospectively collected from two independent sources, namely, the Japan Molecular Epidemiology for Lung Cancer Study and the Osaka City University Hospital cohort from 2010 to 2013. COPD and its severity were defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines and grading system. For molecular profiling of NSCLC patients with COPD, the extracted DNAs were deep-sequenced using next generation sequence technologies for somatic mutations in a maximum 72 cancer-associated genes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of COPD on the somatic mutations. RESULTS:The COPD group (n=77), including 56 GOLD 1 and 21 GOLD 2 or 3 patients, had 58 squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC) cases and 19 adenocarcinoma cases. The non-COPD group (n=120) had 53 SCC cases, 64 adenocarcinoma cases, and three cases with other histology. The frequency of PIK3CA mutation was significantly higher in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group (10.4% vs. 1.7%, p=0.015). Meanwhile, NFE2L2 mutation was observed only in SCC cases, with no difference in the frequency between the two groups (17.2% vs. 17.0%). In the multivariate logistic regression model with consideration for COPD status, age, smoking dose, pathological stage, and histology, significantly more PIK3CA mutation was observed in the presence of COPD (odds ratio=5.31, 95% CI: 1.03-27.29, p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS:PIK3CA mutation is a distinctive genetic feature of NSCLC with COPD, regardless of age, smoking dose, pathological stage, and histology.
GRWD1 promotes cell proliferation and migration in non-small cell lung cancer by activating the Notch pathway.
Wang Qiongzi,Ren Hongjiu,Xu Yitong,Jiang Jun,Wudu Muli,Liu Zongang,Su Hongbo,Jiang Xizi,Zhang Yao,Zhang Bo,Qiu Xueshan
Experimental cell research
GRWD1 is a member of the WD repeat protein family that is over-expressed in various cancer cell lines and associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. However, its biological function and mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of GRWD1 in NSCLC. Immunohistochemistry on tumor specimens from 170 patients showed that GRWD1 is highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and positively correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and P-TNM stage, but negatively correlated with differentiation and prognosis. We found that GRWD1 promotes cell colony formation by affecting the expression of Cyclin B1, CDK1, and p27 and inducing G2/M transition. GRWD1 was also found to stimulate cell migration through RhoA, RhoC, and CDC42, and induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by affecting the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Zeb1, and ZO-1. Our results indicated that the GRWD1 can activate the Notch signaling pathway by affecting the Notch intracellular domain and promoting the expression of Hes1. Our use of DAPT to suppress Notch signaling confirmed that GRWD1 promotes the progression of NSCLC through the Notch signaling pathway and may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this disease.
Notch signaling pathway suppresses CD8 T cells activity in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Li Shuo,Wang Zhe,Li Xin-Ju
Evolution and progression of cancer always leads to CD8 T cells dysfunction/exhaustion. Controversy remains as to the role of Notch signaling pathway in CD8 T cells regulation in tumorigenesis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of Notch signaling pathway to peripheral and lung-resident CD8 T cells in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Forty-eight lung adenocarcinoma patients and twenty healthy individuals were enrolled in the current study, and CD8 T cells were purified from both peripheral bloods and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Notch receptor mRNA expression was semi-quantified by real-time PCR. Cytolytic and noncytolytic activity of CD8 T cells evaluated in direct and indirect contact co-culture with A549 cells in response to Notch signaling inhibition by measuring of lactate dehydrogenase release and cytokines production. Expression of Fas ligand (FasL), perforin, and granzyme B were also assessed by flow cytometry. Notch2 mRNA expression was elevated in both peripheral and lung-resident CD8 T cells in lung adenocarcinoma patients, however, did not correlated with tumor stages or epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. Peripheral CD8 T cells from healthy individuals exhibited stronger cytotoxicity in direct contact co-culture system, which was not influenced by Notch signaling inhibition. Moreover, suppression of Notch signaling augmented cytotoxicity of peripheral and lung-resident CD8 T cells from lung adenocarcinoma patients in direct contact co-culture system, and promoted interferon-γ production in both systems. This process was accompanied by increased expression of FasL and perforin within CD8 T cells. The current data revealed a potential immunosuppressive property of Notch signaling pathway to CD8 T cells probably via inhibition of FasL and perforin in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Activation of notch 3/c-MYC/CHOP axis regulates apoptosis and promotes sensitivity of lung cancer cells to mTOR inhibitor everolimus.
Li Ting,Xu Xiao-Huang,Guo Xia,Yuan Tao,Tang Zheng-Hai,Jiang Xiao-Ming,Xu Yu-Lian,Zhang Le-Le,Chen Xiuping,Zhu Hong,Shi Jia-Jie,Lu Jin-Jian
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway converges diverse environmental cues to support the lung cancer growth and survival. However, the mTOR-targeted mono-therapy does not achieve expected therapeutic effect. Here, we revealed that fangchinoline (FCL), an active alkaloid that purified from the traditional Chinese medicine Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, enhanced the anti-lung cancer effect of mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE). The combination of EVE and FCL was effective to activate Notch 3, and subsequently evoked its downstream target c-MYC. The blockage of Notch 3 signal by the molecular inhibitor of γ-secretase or siRNA of Notch 3 reduced the c-MYC expression and attenuated the combinational efficacy of EVE and FCL on cell apoptosis and proliferation. Moreover, the c-MYC could bind to the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) promoter and facilitate CHOP transcription. The conditional genetic deletion of CHOP reduced the apoptosis on lung cancer cells to the same degree as blockage of Notch 3/c-MYC axis, providing further evidence for that the Notch 3/c-MYC axis regulates the transcription of CHOP and finally induces apoptosis upon co-treatment of FCL and EVE in lung cancer cells. Overall, our findings, to the best of our knowledge, firstly link CHOP to Notch 3/c-MYC axis-dependent apoptosis and provide the Notch 3/c-MYC/CHOP activation as a promising strategy for mTOR-targeted combination therapy in lung cancer treatment.
High co-expression of PD-L1 and HIF-1α correlates with tumour necrosis in pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma.
Chang Yih-Leong,Yang Ching-Yao,Lin Mong-Wei,Wu Chen-Tu,Yang Pan-Chyr
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
BACKGROUND:Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinomas (PPCs) are uncommon malignant tumours characterised by an aggressive clinical course and poor survival. These neoplasms frequently exhibit marked confluent necrosis, in which hypoxia levels are extremely high, causing low responsiveness to chemotherapy and conferring basic resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-mediated immune escape may be an underlying source of resistance and a suitable target for specific therapy, but its role in PPCs is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In total, 122 PPCs were investigated. Paraffin-embedded tumour sections were stained with PD-L1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) antibodies. Overexpression was denoted by moderate-to-strong PD-L1 membrane staining in ≥5% of tumour cells and HIF-1α nuclear staining in ≥10% of tumour cells. The presence of driver mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), telomerase reverse harscriptase gene (TERT), phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic alpha (PIK3CA), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and ROS1 (ROS1 proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase) genes were examined. RESULTS:The overall frequencies of PD-L1 and HIF-1α overexpression and EGFR mutation were 70.5, 75.4, and 22.1%, respectively. High PD-L1 expression was significantly correlated with that of HIF-1α (p < 0.001) and tumour necrosis (p < 0.001). HIF-1α expression was associated with EGFR mutation (p = 0.015). Advanced stage and high PD-L1 expression were two independent risks for poor overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:High PD-L1 and HIF-1α co-expression was observed in PPCs compared with their expression in conventional non-small-cell lung carcinoma. The aggressive behaviour of PPC could be partially related to PD-L1-mediated immune escape and intratumoural hypoxia. High PD-L1 expression correlates with poor prognosis and may provide a rationale for the use of targeted immunotherapy in this subtype of high-grade PPC.
Cytokine profile determined by data-mining analysis set into clusters of non-small-cell lung cancer patients according to prognosis.
Barrera L,Montes-Servín E,Barrera A,Ramírez-Tirado L A,Salinas-Parra F,Bañales-Méndez J L,Sandoval-Ríos M,Arrieta Ó
Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
BACKGROUND:Immunoregulatory cytokines may play a fundamental role in tumor growth and metastases. Their effects are mediated through complex regulatory networks. Human cytokine profiles could define patient subgroups and represent new potential biomarkers. The aim of this study was to associate a cytokine profile obtained through data mining with the clinical characteristics of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS:We conducted a prospective study of the plasma levels of 14 immunoregulatory cytokines by ELISA and a cytometric bead array assay in 110 NSCLC patients before chemotherapy and 25 control subjects. Cytokine levels and data-mining profiles were associated with clinical, quality of life and pathological outcomes. RESULTS:NSCLC patients had higher levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17a and interferon (IFN)-γ, and lower levels of IL-33 and IL-29 compared with controls. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with lower hemoglobin levels, worse functional performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, ECOG), fatigue and hyporexia. The anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-33 were associated with anorexia and lower body mass index. We identified three clusters of patients according to data-mining analysis with different overall survival (OS; 25.4, 16.8 and 5.09 months, respectively, P = 0.0012). Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance status and data-mining clusters were significantly associated with OS (RR 3.59, [95% CI 1.9-6.7], P < 0.001 and 2.2, [1.2-3.8], P = 0.005). CONCLUSION:Our results provide evidence that complex cytokine networks may be used to identify patient subgroups with different prognoses in advanced NSCLC. These cytokines may represent potential biomarkers, particularly in the immunotherapy era in cancer research.