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    Gastric and extragastric actions of the histamine antagonist ranitidine during posttraumatic sepsis. Stewart R M,Fabian T C,Fabian M J,Trenthem L L,Pritchard F E,Croce M A,Proctor K G Surgery BACKGROUND:Histamine H2 antagonists (e.g., ranitidine) are generally thought to specifically reduce gastric acid secretion and are commonly used for stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients because of their efficacy and safety profile. A few reports suggest that ranitidine might also bind to extragastric sites and/or act as an immunomodulator. The potential effects on posttraumatic sepsis are unknown. METHODS:Mongrel pigs (n = 24) were anesthetized with fentanyl, injured by a 10 kg steel bar dropped from a height of 1 m onto the fleshy portion of the posterior thigh, and then 35% of their blood volume was drained through the arterial catheter. All the shed blood plus two times the hemorrhage volume as lactated Ringer's solution was infused after a 1-hour shock period. Either vehicle or ranitidine (1.5 mg/kg) was intravenously administered at the time of resuscitation and every 12 hours thereafter in a blinded fashion. After 72 hours a septic challenge was administered (15 micrograms/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide [LPS] x 30 min). Serial gastroscopy, gastric pH, hemodynamics, leukocyte counts, cortisol, and tumor necrosis factor were recorded for 180 minutes after LPS. RESULTS:Immediately before LPS all hemodynamic variables were identical between treatments, but gastric pH was slightly higher and stress gastritis was marginally lower with ranitidine. LPS caused profound leukopenia and a hyperdynamic circulatory response (i.e., tachycardia, increased cardiac output, and decreased peripheral vascular resistance at relatively constant blood pressure); these changes were not altered by ranitidine. Gastric pH remained elevated after LPS with ranitidine, but LPS-induced gastritis was not modified. Ranitidine delayed the LPS-induced ventilation-perfusion imbalance and attenuated the peak increase in the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor, without altering its antiinflammatory opponent, cortisol. Similar changes were observed in four additional animals treated with cimetidine. The proportion of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes was slightly altered 180 minutes after LPS, but there was no obvious effect on T lymphocytes in vivo, and no effect on the LPS-induced increase in neutrophil CD18 expression in vitro was seen. CONCLUSIONS:(1) Ranitidine increased gastric pH, which blunted the stress gastritis caused by trauma but not that caused by LPS; (2) ranitidine delayed the early LPS-evoked pulmonary changes and reduced the tumor necrosis factor spike, which is consistent with a favorable immunomodulatory action that has been reported in patients who are critically ill or are undergoing an elective abdominal surgical procedure; (3) the mechanism is probably related to H2 receptor antagonism rather than to a nonspecific side effect of ranitidine, which suggests that histamine may have a previously unrecognized role in posttraumatic septic responses; and (4) the site of action is probably not in the heart or peripheral resistance vessels, but salutary effects on circulating lymphocytes or neutrophils cannot be excluded.
    The impact of advanced opioid drugs and analgesic adjuvants on murine macrophage oxygen burst. Kozlowski Michael,Nazimek Katarzyna,Wąsik Magdalena,Filipczak-Bryniarska Iwona,Bryniarski Krzysztof Folia medica Cracoviensia Macrophages (Mf) are a versatile group of phagocytic cells responsible for fulfilling a variety of immune functions, most notably for mounting the initial anti-microbial response and for the clearance of cellular debris and apoptotic bodies. The key processes for fulfilling these functions include the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and nitric oxide (NO). Mf also express a variety of receptors, including opioid, serotonin, and norepinephrine receptors, and thus can react to various substances. Our study aimed to examine the effects of oxycodone and buprenorphine on the production ROIs and NO by Mf from intraperitoneally-treated mice, as compared to the previously studied morphine, fentanyl, and methadone, as well as the effects of the analgesic adjuvants gabapentin, amitriptyline, and venlafaxine. ROIs was estimated via luminol and lucigenin dependent chemiluminescence assay, and NO secretion was estimated via a colorimetric method utilizing a modified Griess reaction. We observed an overall decrease in both ROIs and NO production by Mf from adjuvant-treated mice, especially with amitriptyline. Opioids, however, resulted in enhanced ROIs production and mixed NO secretion, with oxycodone and buprenorphine have the least immunomodulatory effects. As ROIs and NO are potent mediators of Mf activity during the innate immune response, our current results express great translational potential. Our results suggest that OPs administration may boost Mf anti-microbial response. On the other hand, during sterile in ammation, enhanced generation of ROIs by Mf influenced by opioids may increase the risk of tissue damage, but co-administration of adjuvants could abolish this adverse effect.
    Opioid-induced immunosuppression. Sacerdote Paola Current opinion in supportive and palliative care PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review provides an overview of the immunological effects of commonly used analgesic opioid drugs with particular emphasis on human studies, with the final aim to highlight their potential clinical relevance. RECENT FINDINGS:The immunomodulatory effects of morphine have been characterized in animal and human studies. Morphine decreases the effectiveness of several functions of both natural and acquired immunity, interfering with important intracellular pathways involved in immune regulation. Mainly from animal studies, however, it has emerged that not all opioids induce the same immunosuppressive effects and evaluating each opioid's profile is important for appropriate analgesic selection. The potent opioid fentanyl also exerts a relevant immunosuppression, while the partial agonist buprenorphine appears to have a more favourable immune profile. The impact of the opioid-mediated immune effects could be particularly dangerous in selective vulnerable populations, such as the elderly or immunocompromised patients. SUMMARY:The impact of opioid drug treatment on immunity may be a new safety concern for the physician. Although many advances have been made in understanding the effects of opioid drugs on immune responses, their relevance is not completely clear. The scientific community must be aware that it is about time to perform well designed clinical studies in order to assess the importance of opioid-induced immune suppression. 10.1097/SPC.0b013e3282f5272e
    Do All Opioid Drugs Share the Same Immunomodulatory Properties? A Review From Animal and Human Studies. Franchi Silvia,Moschetti Giorgia,Amodeo Giada,Sacerdote Paola Frontiers in immunology Suppression of the immune system has been constantly reported in the last years as a classical side effect of opioid drugs. Most of the studies on the immunological properties of opioids refer to morphine. Although morphine remains the "reference molecule," other semisynthetic and synthetic opioids are frequently used in the clinical practice. The primary objective of this review is to analyze the available literature on the immunomodulating properties of opioid drugs different from morphine in preclinical models and in the human. A search strategy was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane databases using the terms "immunosuppression," "immune system," "opioids," "Natural killer cells," "cytokines," and "lymphocytes." The results achieved concerning the effects of fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, buprenorphine, remifentanil, tramadol, and tapentadol on immune responses in animal studies, in healthy volunteers and in patients are reported. With some limitations due to the different methods used to measure immune system parameters, the large range of opioid doses and the relatively scarce number of participants in the available studies, we conclude that it is not correct to generalize immunosuppression as a common side effect of all opioid molecules. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02914
    Anaesthetics and immune function. Kelbel I,Weiss M Current opinion in anaesthesiology Surgical trauma and anaesthetics may cause immune suppression, predisposing patients to postoperative infections. Furthermore, stress such as surgery and pain per se is associated with immune suppression which, in animal models, leads to an increased susceptibility to infection and tumour spread. Thus, by modulating the neurohumoral stress response, anaesthesia may indirectly affect the immune system of surgical patients. In particular, regional anaesthesia attenuates this stress response and the associated effects on cellular and humoral immunity. Additionally, anaesthetics may directly affect the functions of immune-competent cells. However, the reported effects of commercial preparations of, for example, propofol, etomidate and midazolam are highly dependent on the applied solvent. Immunosuppressive effects may be particularly relevant in the intensive care unit when anaesthetics are used as long-term sedatives. There is a striking body of evidence that long-term exposure to certain sedatives is paralleled by infectious complications. On the other hand, anti-inflammatory effects of anaesthetics may be therapeutically beneficial in distinct situations such as those involving ischaemia/reperfusion injury or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Consequently, sedatives should be administered with careful regard to their respective potential immunomodulatory properties, the clinical situation, and the immunity status of the critically ill patient. 10.1097/00001503-200112000-00015
    Intensive Care Unit-acquired infection as a side effect of sedation. Nseir Saad,Makris Demosthenes,Mathieu Daniel,Durocher Alain,Marquette Charles-Hugo Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Sedative and analgesic medications are routinely used in mechanically ventilated patients. The aim of this review is to discuss epidemiologic data that suggest a relationship between infection and sedation, to review available data for the potential causes and pathophysiology of this relationship, and to identify potential preventive measures. METHODS:Data for this review were identified through searches of PubMed, and from bibliographies of relevant articles. RESULTS:Several epidemiologic studies suggested a link between sedation and ICU-acquired infection. Prolongation of exposure to risk factors for infection, microaspiration, gastrointestinal motility disturbances, microcirculatory effects are main mechanisms by which sedation may favour infection in critically ill patients. Furthermore, experimental evidence coming from studies both in humans and animals suggest that sedatives and analgesics present immunomodulatory properties that might alter the immunologic response to exogenous stimuli. Clinical studies comparing different sedative agents do not provide evidence to recommend the use of a particular agent to reduce ICU-acquired infection rate. However, sedation strategies aiming to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation, such as daily interruption of sedatives or nursing-implementing sedation protocol, should be promoted. In addition, the use of short acting opioids, propofol, and dexmedetomidine is associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, and might be helpful in reducing ICU-acquired infection rates. CONCLUSIONS:Prolongation of exposure to risk factors for infection, microaspiration, gastrointestinal motility disturbances, microcirculatory effects, and immunomodulatory effects are main mechanisms by which sedation may favour infection in critically ill patients. Future studies should compare the effect of different sedative agents, and the impact of progressive opioid discontinuation compared with abrupt discontinuation on ICU-acquired infection rates. 10.1186/cc8907
    The immunomodulatory effects of prolonged intravenous infusion of propofol versus midazolam in critically ill surgical patients. Helmy S A,Al-Attiyah R J Anaesthesia Both propofol and midazolam are known to inhibit immune function. The aim of this study was to investigate cytokine production in critically ill surgical patients as early markers of immune response to prolonged infusion of propofol and midazolam. The study enrolled 40 elective patients who were to receive long-term sedation for more than 2 days. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two equally sized groups. Central venous blood samples for measurement of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were drawn prior to the start and after 48 h of infusion. After 48 h, propofol caused significant increases in IL-1beta (24%), IL-6 (23%) and TNF-alpha (4.8 times) levels, while midazolam caused significant decreases in IL-1beta (21%), IL-6 (21%) and TNF-alpha (19%). Both agents caused significant decreases in IL-8 levels (propofol: 30%, midazolam: 48%, p < 0.05). Propofol caused significant decreases in IL-2 levels (68%, p < 0.001) but increases in IFN-gamma (30%, p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant change with midazolam compared with the pre-infusion level. In conclusion, during 48 h of continuous infusion, propofol stimulated, while midazolam suppressed, the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, and both caused suppression of IL-8 production. Propofol inhibited IL-2 production and stimulated IFN-gamma production, whereas midazolam failed to do so. Therefore, sedative agents may have clinical implications in high-risk and immunocompromised patients. 10.1046/j.1365-2044.2001.01713.x
    Dose-dependent influence of barbiturates but not of propofol on human leukocyte phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus. Ploppa Annette,Kiefer Ralph-Thomas,Nohé Boris,Haeberle Helene A,Dieterich Hans-Jürgen,Unertl Klaus E,Krueger Wolfgang A Critical care medicine OBJECTIVE:Deep sedation with barbiturates or propofol is a standard therapy for patients with critically elevated intracranial pressure. Such patients are prone to infectious complications, especially to pneumonias, which are most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Although various immunomodulatory effects of barbiturates have been described in vitro, their influence on the phagocytosis of viable S. aureus has yet to be investigated. Therefore, we examined the effects of thiopentone, methohexitone, and propofol on the phagocytosis of viable S. aureus. DESIGN:Laboratory study. SETTING:University laboratory. PATIENTS:Ten healthy volunteers aged 32.5 +/- 7 yrs. INTERVENTIONS:Blood sampling. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Whole blood samples were preincubated with different concentrations of thiopentone, methohexitone, and propofol, which is an isopropylphenol derivate. After viable S. aureus was added, phagocytosis was stopped at different time points. Leukocytes were then stained with monoclonal antibodies for flow cytometric analysis of granulocyte recruitment (ratio of ingesting granulocytes) and phagocytosis activity (fluorescence intensity of ingested bacteria). Both barbiturates inhibited granulocyte recruitment and phagocytosis activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas propofol did not affect any of the investigated variables. At concentrations higher than 7.6 x 10(-3) M (for thiopentone, p < .008) and 1.1 x 10(-3) M (for methohexitone, p < .04), granulocyte recruitment and phagocytosis activity were significantly inhibited. The calculated inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of thiopentone for granulocyte recruitment and for phagocytosis activity were 1.3 x 10(-2) M and 1.1 x 10(-2) M, respectively. The corresponding values for methohexitone were 3.6 x 10(-3) M and 1.1 x 10(-3) M. CONCLUSIONS:Our in vitro model points at substantially different effects of barbiturates and propofol on phagocytosis of S. aureus, which is one of the most important pathogens in patients who need neuroprotective therapy. The inhibitory effects of both barbiturates demonstrate a strong dose-dependency, with more pronounced effects for methohexitone. Impairment of phagocytosis activity was more pronounced than granulocyte recruitment. 10.1097/01.ccm.0000199067.71968.6e
    The Effect of Propofol vs. Isoflurane Anesthesia on Postoperative Changes in Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Levels: Results from a Randomized Trial. Berger Miles,Ponnusamy Vikram,Greene Nathaniel,Cooter Mary,Nadler Jacob W,Friedman Allan,McDonagh David L,Laskowitz Daniel T,Newman Mark F,Shaw Leslie M,Warner David S,Mathew Joseph P,James Michael L, Frontiers in immunology Introduction:Aside from direct effects on neurotransmission, inhaled and intravenous anesthetics have immunomodulatory properties. and mouse model studies suggest that propofol inhibits, while isoflurane increases, neuroinflammation. If these findings translate to humans, they could be clinically important since neuroinflammation has detrimental effects on neurocognitive function in numerous disease states. Materials and methods:To examine whether propofol and isoflurane differentially modulate neuroinflammation in humans, cytokines were measured in a secondary analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients prospectively randomized to receive anesthetic maintenance with propofol vs. isoflurane (registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT01640275). We measured CSF levels of EGF, eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-α2, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNF-α before and 24 h after intracranial surgery in these study patients. Results:After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, we found significant increases from before to 24 h after surgery in G-CSF, IL-10, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNF-α. However, we found no difference in cytokine levels at baseline or 24 h after surgery between propofol- ( = 19) and isoflurane-treated ( = 21) patients ( > 0.05 for all comparisons). Increases in CSF IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and MCP-1 levels directly correlated with each other and with postoperative CSF elevations in tau, a neural injury biomarker. We observed CSF cytokine increases up to 10-fold higher after intracranial surgery than previously reported after other types of surgery. Discussion:These data clarify the magnitude of neuroinflammation after intracranial surgery, and raise the possibility that a coordinated neuroinflammatory response may play a role in neural injury after surgery. 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01528
    Propofol: a review of its non-anaesthetic effects. Vasileiou Ioanna,Xanthos Theodoros,Koudouna Eleni,Perrea Despoina,Klonaris Chris,Katsargyris Athanasios,Papadimitriou Lila European journal of pharmacology Propofol, a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agent has gained wide acceptance since its introduction in the late 80s, not only in operating rooms but also in other departments, due to its several advantages. Apart from its multiple anaesthetic advantages, it has been reported recently that propofol exerts a number of non-anaesthetic effects. The drug stimulates constitutive nitric oxide (NO) production and inhibits inducible NO production. Propofol has also anxiolytic properties, which may be related to several neuromediator systems. Moreover, it has antioxidant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antiemetic and neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, propofol inhibits both platelet aggregation and intracellular calcium increases in response to thrombin or ADP and it also exerts direct inhibitory effects on recombinant cardiac sarcolemmal KATP channels. All these beneficial properties may expand propofol's clinical use. 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.01.007
    The experimental and clinical pharmacology of propofol, an anesthetic agent with neuroprotective properties. Kotani Yoshinori,Shimazawa Masamitsu,Yoshimura Shinichi,Iwama Toru,Hara Hideaki CNS neuroscience & therapeutics Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is a versatile, short-acting, intravenous (i.v.) sedative-hypnotic agent initially marketed as an anesthetic, and now also widely used for the sedation of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). At the room temperature propofol is an oil and is insoluble in water. It has a remarkable safety profile. Its most common side effects are dose-dependent hypotension and cardiorespiratory depression. Propofol is a global central nervous system (CNS) depressant. It activates gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A) receptors directly, inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and modulates calcium influx through slow calcium-ion channels. Furthermore, at doses that do not produce sedation, propofol has an anxiolytic effect. It has also immunomodulatory activity, and may, therefore, diminish the systemic inflammatory response believed to be responsible for organ dysfunction. Propofol has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. It reduces cerebral blood flow and intracranial pressure (ICP), is a potent antioxidant, and has anti-inflammatory properties. Laboratory investigations revealed that it might also protect brain from ischemic injury. Propofol formulations contain either disodium edetate (EDTA) or sodium metabisulfite, which have antibacterial and antifungal properties. EDTA is also a chelator of divalent ions such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc. Recently, EDTA has been reported to exert a neuroprotective effect itself by chelating surplus intracerebral zinc in an ischemia model. This article reviews the neuroprotective effects of propofol and its mechanism of action. 10.1111/j.1527-3458.2008.00043.x
    Effects of propofol on pulmonary inflammatory response and dysfunction induced by cardiopulmonary bypass. An K,Shu H,Huang W,Huang X,Xu M,Yang L,Xu K,Wang C Anaesthesia The pulmonary inflammatory response and pulmonary dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass is a major problem in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Propofol has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties which may attenuate this response. Thirty patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly assigned to receive saline (control group) or propofol (propofol group). Pulmonary thoracic compliance, respiratory index, malondialdehyde and interleukin-8 concentrations and intrapulmonary polymorphonucleocyte sequestration were measured at pre-bypass and 5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after unclamping the aorta. Plasma levels of interleukin-8, malondialdehyde and the respiratory index increased and reached peaks 30 min after unclamping in both groups. However, in the propofol group the increases were less than in the control group (p < 0.01). Intrapulmonary polymorphonucleocytes sequestration in the propofol group was less than in the control group 5 min after unclamping (p < 0.0001). Pulmonary thoracic compliance decreased significantly after unclamping in both groups, but the reduction was less in the propofol group (p < 0.01). These findings suggest that propofol administered during bypass could reduce the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05627.x
    Anesthetic propofol reduces endotoxic inflammation by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-regulated Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling. Hsing Chung-Hsi,Lin Ming-Chung,Choi Pui-Ching,Huang Wei-Ching,Kai Jui-In,Tsai Cheng-Chieh,Cheng Yi-Lin,Hsieh Chia-Yuan,Wang Chi-Yun,Chang Yu-Ping,Chen Yu-Hong,Chen Chia-Ling,Lin Chiou-Feng PloS one BACKGROUND:Anesthetic propofol has immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the area of anti-inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation through toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling. We investigated the molecular actions of propofol against LPS/TLR4-induced inflammatory activation in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Non-cytotoxic levels of propofol reduced LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO as determined by western blotting and the Griess reaction, respectively. Propofol also reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Western blot analysis showed propofol inhibited LPS-induced activation and phosphorylation of IKKβ (Ser180) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (Ser536); the subsequent nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was also reduced. Additionally, propofol inhibited LPS-induced Akt activation and phosphorylation (Ser473) partly by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; inter-regulation that ROS regulated Akt followed by NF-κB activation was found to be crucial for LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. An in vivo study using C57BL/6 mice also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory properties against LPS in peritoneal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:These results suggest that propofol reduces LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages by inhibiting the interconnected ROS/Akt/IKKβ/NF-κB signaling pathways. 10.1371/journal.pone.0017598
    Propofol attenuates sepsis-induced acute kidney injury by regulating miR-290-5p/CCL-2 signaling pathway. Zheng Guodong,Qu Hong,Li Fen,Ma Weiquan,Yang Hong Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas Previous studies have indicated that propofol has immunomodulatory and antioxidative properties. However, the renoprotection effect and the precise mechanisms of propofol in sepsis-induced renal injury remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-290-5p/CCL-2 signaling in septic mice treatment with propofol. Mice were treated with propofol (50 mg/kg) twice within 24 h. Survival outcome was monitored within 48 h. The mRNA and protein levels were assayed by qRT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Mouse podocytes (MPC5) were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish the cell model in vitro. The proliferation of MPC5 was monitored using the MTS assay. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Propofol improved survival outcome and alleviated acute kidney injury in cecal ligation and puncture-operated mice. Propofol increased miR-290-5p expression and decreased CCL-2 and inflammatory cytokines levels in the kidney for septic mice. We found that miR-290-5p was a direct regulator of CCL-2 in MPC5. Propofol could abrogate LPS-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MPC5. Meanwhile, propofol inhibited CCL-2 expression in LPS-treated MPC5, however, knockdown of miR-290-5p abrogated the inhibitory effect propofol on the mRNA and protein expressions of CCL-2. Propofol could serve as an effective therapeutic medication to suppress sepsis-induced renal injury in vivo and in vitro by regulating the miR-290-5p/CCL-2 signaling pathway. 10.1590/1414-431X20187655
    Propofol increases morbidity and mortality in a rat model of sepsis. Schläpfer Martin,Piegeler Tobias,Dull Randal O,Schwartz David E,Mao Mao,Bonini Marcelo G,Z'Graggen Birgit Roth,Beck-Schimmer Beatrice,Minshall Richard D Critical care (London, England) INTRODUCTION:Severe sepsis is associated with approximately 50% mortality and accounts for tremendous healthcare costs. Most patients require ventilatory support and propofol is commonly used to sedate mechanically ventilated patients. Volatile anesthetics have been shown to attenuate inflammation in a variety of different settings. We therefore hypothesized that volatile anesthetic agents may offer beneficial immunomodulatory effects during the course of long-term intra-abdominal sepsis in rats under continuous sedation and ventilation for up to 24 hours. METHODS:Sham operation or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in adult male Wistar rats followed by mechanical ventilation. Animals were sedated for 24 hours with propofol (7 to 20 mg/kg/h), sevoflurane, desflurane or isoflurane (0.7 minimal alveolar concentration each). RESULTS:Septic animals sedated with propofol showed a mean survival time of 12 hours, whereas >56% of all animals in the volatile groups survived 24 hours (P <0.001). After 18 hours, base excess in propofol + CLP animals (-20.6 ± 2.0) was lower than in the volatile groups (isoflurane + CLP: -11.7 ± 4.2, sevoflurane + CLP: -11.8 ± 3.5, desflurane + CLP -14.2 ± 3.7; all P <0.03). Plasma endotoxin levels reached 2-fold higher levels in propofol + CLP compared to isoflurane + CLP animals at 12 hours (P <0.001). Also blood levels of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10, CXCL-2, interferon-γ and high mobility group protein-1) were accentuated in propofol + CLP rats compared to the isoflurane + CLP group at the same time point (P <0.04). CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to assess prolonged effects of sepsis and long-term application of volatile sedatives compared to propofol on survival, cardiovascular, inflammatory and end organ parameters. Results indicate that volatile anesthetics dramatically improved survival and attenuate systemic inflammation as compared to propofol. The main mechanism responsible for adverse propofol effects could be an enhanced plasma endotoxin concentration, leading to profound hypotension, which was unresponsive to fluid resuscitation. 10.1186/s13054-015-0751-x
    Influence of propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia on peri-operative outcome measures: a narrative review. Irwin M G,Chung C K E,Ip K Y,Wiles M D Anaesthesia Propofol-based total intravenous anaesthesia is well known for its smooth, clear-headed recovery and anti-emetic properties, but there are also many lesser known beneficial properties that can potentially influence surgical outcome. We will discuss the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propofol and their roles in pain, organ protection and immunity. We will also discuss the use of propofol in cancer surgery, neurosurgery and older patients. 10.1111/anae.14905
    Propofol specifically suppresses IL-1β secretion but increases bacterial survival in Staphylococcus aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells. Chen Ming-Shan,Lin Wen-Chun,Yeh Hsuan-Te,Hu Chia-Lin,Sheu Shew-Meei Molecular and cellular biochemistry Anesthetics have immunomodulatory effects, but the use of different assay systems has contributed to inconsistent results in the literature. IL-1β and reactive oxygen species (ROS) secreted by phagocytes are important factors that protect against Staphylococcus aureus infection. In this study, the effects of four intravenous anesthetics (propofol, thiamylal sodium, midazolam, and ketamine) on IL-1β secretion, ROS, and bacterial survival in S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells with or without intravenous anesthetic treatment were established as the experimental model. Cell supernatants were subjected to ELISAs to measure secreted IL-1β. Cell pellets were subjected to qPCR and western blot analyses to analyze IL-1β mRNA and protein levels. Luminol chemiluminescence assays were used to detect ROS, and bacterial survival was determined by counting the colony forming units at the beginning and end of the infection. Compared with the levels after treatment with the other intravenous anesthetics, secreted IL-1β levels were lowest in the supernatant of S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cell cultures after propofol treatment, but propofol did not decrease IL-1β mRNA or protein expression. However, thiamylal sodium and midazolam decreased IL-1β mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, propofol substantially decreased S. aureus-stimulated ROS and phagocytosis. Bacterial survival was strongly increased by propofol treatment. Of the four intravenous anesthetics, propofol was the most potent inhibitor of IL-1β secretion and ROS level in S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells; moreover, propofol resulted in an increase in bacterial survival by inhibiting ROS and phagocytosis. 10.1007/s11010-018-3348-2