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    Assessment of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk in patients with osteoarthritis who require NSAIDs: the LOGICA study. Lanas Angel,Tornero Jesús,Zamorano José Luis Annals of the rheumatic diseases BACKGROUND:Medical management of adults with osteoarthritis (OA) who require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) must be decided after assessing prevalent gastrointestinal (GI) and cardiovascular (CV) risks in the individual patient. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the GI and CV risk profile of patients with OA who require NSAIDs. METHODS:A transversal, multicentre and observational study was conducted in consecutive patients with OA who were considered candidates for NSAID treatment and were visited by 374 unselected rheumatologists throughout the National Health System. Patients were classified into three risk groups (low, moderate and high) for their GI and CV characteristics. These were defined by considering the presence of a number of well-established GI risk factors or by application of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation model for assessing the overall risk for CV disease, respectively. RESULTS:Of 3293 consecutive patients, most (86.6%) were at increased GI risk and a considerable number, 22.3%, were at high GI risk. The CV risk was high in 44.2% of patients, moderate in 28.5% and low in 27.3%. Overall, 15.5% of patients presented a very high-risk profile, having high GI and CV risks. The type of NSAID prescription was similar regardless of the associated GI and CV risk profile. CONCLUSION:Most patients with OA requiring NSAIDs for pain control showed a high prevalence of GI and CV risk factors. Over half of the patients were at either high GI or CV risk, or both, such that the prescription of OA treatments should be very carefully considered. 10.1136/ard.2009.123166
    Peptic ulcer, prednisone and serum gastrin in chronic active liver disease. Uribe M,Go V L,Summerskill W H The New England journal of medicine 10.1056/NEJM197701202960313
    The incidence of peptic ulcer among patients on long term prednisone therapy. MELTZER L E,BOCKMAN A A,KANENSON W,COHEN A Gastroenterology
    Peptic ulcer bleeding: accessory risk factors and interactions with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Weil J,Langman M J,Wainwright P,Lawson D H,Rawlins M,Logan R F,Brown T P,Vessey M P,Murphy M,Colin-Jones D G Gut AIMS:To determine risk factors for peptic ulcer bleeding other than non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods-Data on possible antecedent risk factors obtained in a large case control study of 1121 patients admitted to hospitals in Glasgow, Newcastle, Nottingham, Oxford, and Portsmouth with bleeding peptic ulcers were compared with the same information obtained in 989 population controls. Data were analysed by logistic regression with the calculation of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS:From a logistic regression model, oral anticoagulants (OR 7. 8; 95% CI 2.8-21.5), previous peptic ulcer (3.8; 2.6-4.9), treatment for heart failure (5.9; 2.3-13.1), oral corticosteroid use (2.7; 1. 3-4.5), treatment for diabetes (3.1; 1.2-4.3), and current smoking (1.6; 1.2-2.0) were all independent risk factors. No association was found with use of calcium channel antagonists. Odds ratios for concomitant NSAID usage were multiplicative with the exception of current smoking. CONCLUSIONS:Some 45% of admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in England and Wales in those aged 60 or more are calculated to be attributable to, or associated with, these accessory risk factors, which, together with those associated with aspirin or other NSAID use will account for over 80% of predisposing factors to ulcer bleeding. 10.1136/gut.46.1.27