Expression profile and overexpression outcome indicate a role for βKlotho in skeletal muscle fibro/adipogenesis. Phelps Michael,Stuelsatz Pascal,Yablonka-Reuveni Zipora The FEBS journal Regeneration of skeletal muscles is required throughout life to ensure optimal performance. Therefore, a better understanding of the resident cells involved in muscle repair is essential. Muscle repair relies on satellite cells (SCs), the resident myogenic progenitors, but also involves the contribution of interstitial cells including fibro/adipocyte progenitors (FAPs). To elucidate the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in these two cell populations, we previously analyzed freshly isolated cells for their FGF receptor (FGFR) signature. Transcript analysis of the four Fgfr genes revealed distinct expression profiles for SCs and FAPs, raising the possibility that these two cell types have different FGF-mediated processes. Here, we pursued this hypothesis exploring the role of the Klotho genes, whose products are known to function as FGFR co-receptors for the endocrine FGF subfamily. Isolated SC and FAP populations were analyzed in culture, exhibiting spontaneous myogenic or adipogenic differentiation, respectively. αKlotho expression was not detected in either population. βKlotho expression, while not detected in SCs, was strongly upregulated in FAPs entering adipogenic differentiation, coinciding with expression of a panel of adipogenic genes and preceding the appearance of intracellular lipid droplets. Overexpression of βKlotho in mouse cell line models enhanced adipogenesis in NIH3T3 fibroblasts but had no effect on C2C12 myogenic cells. Our study supports a pro-adipogenic role for βKlotho in skeletal muscle fibro/adipogenesis and calls for further research on involvement of the FGF-FGFR-βKlotho axis in the fibro/adipogenic infiltration associated with functional deterioration of skeletal muscle in aging and muscular dystrophy. 10.1111/febs.13682
    Fibroblast growth factor-23 induces cellular senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells from skeletal muscle. Sato Chisato,Iso Yoshitaka,Mizukami Takuya,Otabe Koji,Sasai Masahiro,Kurata Masaaki,Sanbe Takeyuki,Sekiya Ichiro,Miyazaki Akira,Suzuki Hiroshi Biochemical and biophysical research communications Although muscle wasting and/or degeneration are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease, it remains unknown whether FGF-23 influences muscle homeostasis and regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle are distinct from satellite cells and have a known association with muscle degeneration. In this study we sought to investigate the effects of FGF-23 on MSCs isolated from human skeletal muscle in vitro. The MSCs expressed FGF receptors (1 through 4) and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor, but no traces of the Klotho gene were detected. MSCs and satellite cells were treated with FGF-23 and angiotensin-II for 48 h. Treatment with FGF-23 significantly decreased the number of MSCs compared to controls, while treatment with angiotensin-II did not. FGF-23 and angiotensin-II both left the cell counts of the satellite cells unchanged. The FGF-23-treated MSCs exhibited the senescent phenotype, as judged by senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, cell morphology, and increased expression of p53 and p21 in western blot analysis. FGF-23 also significantly altered the gene expression of oxidative stress regulators in the cells. In conclusion, FGF-23 induced premature senescence in MSCs from skeletal muscle via the p53/p21/oxidative-stress pathway. The interaction between the MSCs and FGF-23 may play a key role in the impaired muscle reparative mechanisms of chronic kidney disease. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.01.086
    Regulation of oxidative stress by the anti-aging hormone klotho. Yamamoto Masaya,Clark Jeremy D,Pastor Johanne V,Gurnani Prem,Nandi Animesh,Kurosu Hiroshi,Miyoshi Masayoshi,Ogawa Yasushi,Castrillon Diego H,Rosenblatt Kevin P,Kuro-o Makoto The Journal of biological chemistry klotho is an aging suppressor gene and extends life span when overexpressed in mice. Klotho protein was recently demonstrated to function as a hormone that inhibits insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Here we show that Klotho protein increases resistance to oxidative stress at the cellular and organismal level in mammals. Klotho protein activates the FoxO forkhead transcription factors that are negatively regulated by insulin/IGF-1 signaling, thereby inducing expression of manganese superoxide dismutase. This in turn facilitates removal of reactive oxygen species and confers oxidative stress resistance. Thus, Klotho-induced inhibition of insulin/IGF-1 signaling is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, which potentially contributes to the anti-aging properties of klotho. 10.1074/jbc.M509039200
    Fibroblast growth factor 23 does not directly influence skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation or ex vivo muscle contractility. Avin Keith G,Vallejo Julian A,Chen Neal X,Wang Kun,Touchberry Chad D,Brotto Marco,Dallas Sarah L,Moe Sharon M,Wacker Michael J American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism Skeletal muscle dysfunction accompanies the clinical disorders of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets. In both disorders, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone regulating phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, becomes chronically elevated. FGF23 has been shown to play a direct role in cardiac muscle dysfunction; however, it is unknown whether FGF23 signaling can also directly induce skeletal muscle dysfunction. We found expression of potential FGF23 receptors ( Fgfr1-4) and α-Klotho in muscles of two animal models (CD-1 and Cy/+ rat, a naturally occurring rat model of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder) as well as CC myoblasts and myotubes. CC proliferation, myogenic gene expression, oxidative stress marker 8-OHdG, intracellular Ca ([Ca]), and ex vivo contractility of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) or soleus muscles were assessed after treatment with various amounts of FGF23. FGF23 (2-100 ng/ml) did not alter CC proliferation, expression of myogenic genes, or oxidative stress after 24- to 72-h treatment. Acute or prolonged FGF23 treatment up to 6 days did not alter CC [Ca] handling, nor did acute treatment with FGF23 (9-100 ng/ml) affect EDL and soleus muscle contractility. In conclusion, although skeletal muscles express the receptors involved in FGF23-mediated signaling, in vitro FGF23 treatments failed to directly alter skeletal muscle development or function under the conditions tested. We hypothesize that other endogenous substances may be required to act in concert with FGF23 or apart from FGF23 to promote muscle dysfunction in hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets and CKD. 10.1152/ajpendo.00343.2017
    Fibroblast growth factor 19 regulates skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates muscle wasting in mice. Benoit Bérengère,Meugnier Emmanuelle,Castelli Martina,Chanon Stéphanie,Vieille-Marchiset Aurélie,Durand Christine,Bendridi Nadia,Pesenti Sandra,Monternier Pierre-Axel,Durieux Anne-Cécile,Freyssenet Damien,Rieusset Jennifer,Lefai Etienne,Vidal Hubert,Ruzzin Jérôme Nature medicine The endocrine-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 19 has recently emerged as a potential target for treating metabolic disease. Given that skeletal muscle is a key metabolic organ, we explored the role of FGF19 in that tissue. Here we report a novel function of FGF19 in regulating skeletal muscle mass through enlargement of muscle fiber size, and in protecting muscle from atrophy. Treatment with FGF19 causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice, while physiological and pharmacological doses of FGF19 substantially increase the size of human myotubes in vitro. These effects were not elicited by FGF21, a closely related endocrine FGF member. Both in vitro and in vivo, FGF19 stimulates the phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), an mTOR-dependent master regulator of muscle cell growth. Moreover, mice with a skeletal-muscle-specific genetic deficiency of β-Klotho (KLB), an obligate co-receptor for FGF15/19 (refs. 2,3), were unresponsive to the hypertrophic effect of FGF19. Finally, in mice, FGF19 ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid treatment or obesity, as well as sarcopenia. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that the enterokine FGF19 is a novel factor in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass, and that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of muscle wasting. 10.1038/nm.4363
    Exercise-stimulated FGF23 promotes exercise performance via controlling the excess reactive oxygen species production and enhancing mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Li Dong-Jie,Fu Hui,Zhao Ting,Ni Min,Shen Fu-Ming Metabolism: clinical and experimental OBJECTIVE:Physical exercise induces many adaptive changes in skeletal muscle and the whole body and improves metabolic characteristics. Fibroblast growth-factor 23 (FGF23) is a unique member of the FGF family that acts as a hormone regulating phosphate metabolism, calcitriol concentration, and kidney functions. The role of FGF23 in exercise and skeletal muscle is largely unknown yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS:C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a motor treadmill. Mice serum FGF23 levels; FGF23 mRNA expression in various organs including the liver, heart, skeletal muscle tissue, and thyroid; and FGF23 receptor Klotho mRNA expression were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunoblotting, respectively, after a single bout of acute exercise (60min), exhaustive exercise, and chronic prolonged exercise (60min every day for one week). C57BL/6J mice were injected with recombinant FGF23 (100mg/kg, twice per day, i.p.) or vehicle control (saline) for 3days, and then the exercise performance, reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 production, and mitochondrial functional biomarkers in muscle (gene expression of sirtuin 1, PPAR-δ, PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor A [TFAM], and citrate synthase activity) were assayed. RESULTS:Three forms of exercise, acute exercise, exhaustive exercise, and chronic exercise, increased serum FGF23 levels. However, only chronic exercise upregulated FGF23 mRNA and protein expression in skeletal muscle. FGF23 mRNA expression in the heart, liver, and thyroid was not affected. FGF23 protein was mainly located in the cytoplasm in skeletal muscle tissue and the localization of FGF23 was not altered by exercise. Exogenous FGF23 treatment significantly extended the time to exhaustion and reduced the exercise-induced ROS and H2O2 production. FGF23 treatment increased the mRNA level of PPAR-δ and citrate synthase activity, but did not influence the mRNA expression of sirtuin 1, PGC-1α, and TFAM in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION:These results demonstrate that exercise-stimulated FGF23 promotes exercise performance via controlling the excess ROS production and enhancing mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle, which reveals an entirely novel role of FGF23 in skeletal muscle. 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.02.009
    Relationship of low-circulating "anti-aging" klotho hormone with disability in activities of daily living among older community-dwelling adults. Crasto Candace L,Semba Richard D,Sun Kai,Cappola Anne R,Bandinelli Stefania,Ferrucci Luigi Rejuvenation research The aging suppressor gene klotho encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein klotho that in mice is known to extend life span when overexpressed and to resemble accelerated aging, with skeletal muscle atrophy and decreased bone mineral density, when expression is disrupted. We sought to examine the relationship between plasma klotho and disability in activities of daily living (ADL) in older community-dwelling adults. In a cross-sectional study, plasma klotho was measured in a population-based sample of 802 adults, ≥ 65 years, who participated in the "Invecchiare in Chianti" (Aging in the Chianti Area) (InCHIANTI) study in Tuscany, Italy. The overall proportion of adults with ADL disability was 11.9%. Mean (standard deviation) klotho concentrations were 689 (238) pg/mL. From the lowest to the highest tertile of plasma klotho, 16.1%, 9.7%, and 5.6% of participants, respectively, had ADL disability (p=0.0004). Plasma klotho, per 1 standard deviation increase, was associated with ADL disability (odds ratio=0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.93, p=0.02) in a multivariate logistic regression model adjusting for age, education, cognition, physical activity, physical performance, total cholesterol, alcohol and tobacco use, and chronic diseases. Low plasma klotho concentrations were independently associated with ADL disability among older community-dwelling men and women. 10.1089/rej.2011.1268
    Klotho protects against mouse renal fibrosis by inhibiting Wnt signaling. Satoh Minoru,Nagasu Hajime,Morita Yoshitaka,Yamaguchi Terry P,Kanwar Yashpal S,Kashihara Naoki American journal of physiology. Renal physiology Augmented Wnt signaling has been implicated in many fibrotic diseases including obstructive nephropathy. Soluble form Klotho has been reported to function as a secreted Wnt antagonist. In this study, we tested whether Klotho protein could reduce renal fibrosis by inhibition of Wnt signaling. Transgenic mice that overexpressed Klotho, wild-type mice, and Klotho hetero mutant mice underwent unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). In some Klotho hetero mutant mice, Klotho-encoding plasmid was transferred into the skeletal muscle by electroporation. UUO induced activation of Wnt signaling in wild-type but less in Klotho transgenic mice. Enhanced tubulointerstitial fibrosis in wild-type mice was also attenuated in Klotho transgenic mice. In contrast, Wnt signaling and concomitant tubulointerstitial fibrosis were further augmented in Klotho hetero mutant mice after UUO compared with wild-type mice. In Klotho-encoding plasmid-transfected Klotho hetero mutant mice, however, Wnt signaling was markedly reduced accompanied by a decrease in extracellular matrix deposition after UUO. In vitro studies showed that stimulation of Wnt3a induced prolonged cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, with a resultant increase in production of fibrogenic cytokines. Cotreatment with Klotho bypassed the G(2)/M arrest and reduced fibrogenic cytokine production. In conclusion, Klotho is a critical negative regulator of Wnt signaling and a suppressor of renal fibrosis in the obstructed kidney model. 10.1152/ajprenal.00460.2012
    Decline in muscle strength and running endurance in klotho deficient C57BL/6 mice. Phelps Michael,Pettan-Brewer Christina,Ladiges Warren,Yablonka-Reuveni Zipora Biogerontology Alpha klotho (known as klotho) is a multifunctional protein that may be linked to age-associated decline in tissue homeostasis. The original klotho hypomorphic (klotho (hm) ) mouse, produced on a mixed C57BL/6 and C3H background, is short lived and exhibits extensive aging-like deterioration of several body systems. Differently, klotho (hm) mice on a pure C57BL/6 background do not appear sickly nor die young, which has permitted us to gain insight into the effect of klotho deficiency in adult life. First, analyzing klotho transcript levels in the kidney, the main site of klotho production, we demonstrated a 71-fold decline in klotho (hm) females compared to wildtype females versus only a 4-fold decline in mutant males. We then examined the effect of klotho deficiency on muscle-related attributes in adult mice, focusing on 7-11 month old females. Body weight and forelimb grip strength were significantly reduced in klotho (hm) mice compared to wildtype and klotho overexpressing mice. The female mice were also subjected to voluntary wheel running for a period of 6 days. Running endurance was markedly reduced in klotho (hm) mice, which exhibited a sporadic running pattern that may be characteristic of repeated bouts of exhaustions. When actually running, klotho (hm) females ran at the same speed as wildtype and klotho overexpressing mice, but spent about 65 % less time running compared to the other two groups. Our novel results suggest an important link between klotho deficiency and muscle performance. This study provides a foundation for further research on klotho involvement as a potential inhibitor of age-associated muscle deterioration. 10.1007/s10522-013-9447-2
    Ectopic expression of Klotho in fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-producing tumors that cause tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO). Kinoshita Yuka,Takashi Yuichi,Ito Nobuaki,Ikegawa Shiro,Mano Hiroyuki,Ushiku Tetsuo,Fukayama Masashi,Nangaku Masaomi,Fukumoto Seiji Bone reports Tumor-induced rickets/osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused by tumors that ectopically express fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). FGF23 is a bone-derived hormone that regulates serum phosphate concentrations. Patients with TIO develop hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia due to FGF23 excess and suffer from symptoms such as leg deformities, bone pain, skeletal muscle myopathy, and multiple fractures/pseudofractures. Usually, successful surgical removal of the causative tumors normalizes serum FGF23 and phosphate concentrations in patients with TIO. Most FGF23-producing tumors associated with TIO are histologically called phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT). The precise mechanism by which these tumors ectopically overproduce FGF23 outside of bone is yet to be clarified. Therefore, we performed an RNA sequencing analysis of a PMTMCT that was found in the left parotid gland of a patient with TIO. Among the upregulated genes, we focused on , the protein product of which is a single pass transmembrane protein that works along with an FGF receptor 1c as a receptor complex for FGF23. Subsequent histological analysis confirmed the ectopic expression of Klotho in other PMTMCTs. From these results, we assume that the ectopic expression of Klotho in PTMMCTs enables a positive feedback loop in FGF23 production the activation of FGF receptor 1c and exacerbates disease manifestations in TIO. 10.1016/j.bonr.2018.100192
    Klotho gene silencing promotes pathology in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Wehling-Henricks Michelle,Li Zhenzhi,Lindsey Catherine,Wang Ying,Welc Steven S,Ramos Julian N,Khanlou Négar,Kuro-O Makoto,Tidball James G Human molecular genetics Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal muscle disease involving progressive loss of muscle regenerative capacity and increased fibrosis. We tested whether epigenetic silencing of the klotho gene occurs in the mdx mouse model of DMD and whether klotho silencing is an important feature of the disease. Our findings show that klotho undergoes muscle-specific silencing at the acute onset of mdx pathology. Klotho experiences increased methylation of CpG sites in its promoter region, which is associated with gene silencing, and increases in a repressive histone mark, H3K9me2. Expression of a klotho transgene in mdx mice restored their longevity, reduced muscle wasting, improved function and greatly increased the pool of muscle-resident stem cells required for regeneration. Reductions of fibrosis in late, progressive stages of the mdx pathology achieved by transgene expression were paralleled by reduced expression of Wnt target genes (axin-2), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) and collagens types 1 and 3, indicating that Klotho inhibition of the profibrotic Wnt/TGFβ axis underlies its anti-fibrotic effect in aging, dystrophic muscle. Thus, epigenetic silencing of klotho during muscular dystrophy contributes substantially to lost regenerative capacity and increased fibrosis of dystrophic muscle during late progressive stages of the disease. 10.1093/hmg/ddw111
    Macrophages escape Klotho gene silencing in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and promote muscle growth and increase satellite cell numbers through a Klotho-mediated pathway. Wehling-Henricks Michelle,Welc Steven S,Samengo Guiseppina,Rinaldi Chiara,Lindsey Catherine,Wang Ying,Lee Jeongyoon,Kuro-O Makoto,Tidball James G Human molecular genetics Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle wasting disease in which inflammation influences the severity of pathology. We found that the onset of muscle inflammation in the mdx mouse model of DMD coincides with large increases in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interferon gamma (IFNγ)] and dramatic reductions of the pro-myogenic protein Klotho in muscle cells and large increases of Klotho in pro-regenerative, CD206+ macrophages. Furthermore, TNFα and IFNγ treatments reduced Klotho in muscle cells and increased Klotho in macrophages. Because CD206+/Klotho+ macrophages were concentrated at sites of muscle regeneration, we tested whether macrophage-derived Klotho promotes myogenesis. Klotho transgenic macrophages had a pro-proliferative influence on muscle cells that was ablated by neutralizing antibodies to Klotho and conditioned media from Klotho mutant macrophages did not increase muscle cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, transplantation of bone marrow cells from Klotho transgenic mice into mdx recipients increased numbers of myogenic cells and increased the size of muscle fibers. Klotho also acted directly on macrophages, stimulating their secretion of TNFα. Because TNFα is a muscle mitogen, we tested whether the pro-proliferative effects of Klotho on muscle cells were mediated by TNFα and found that increased proliferation caused by Klotho was reduced by anti-TNFα. Collectively, these data show that pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to silencing of Klotho in dystrophic muscle, but increase Klotho expression by macrophages. Our findings also show that macrophage-derived Klotho can promote muscle regeneration by expanding populations of muscle stem cells and increasing muscle fiber growth in dystrophic muscle. 10.1093/hmg/ddx380
    Age-related declines in α-Klotho drive progenitor cell mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired muscle regeneration. Sahu A,Mamiya H,Shinde S N,Cheikhi A,Winter L L,Vo N V,Stolz D,Roginskaya V,Tang W Y,St Croix C,Sanders L H,Franti M,Van Houten B,Rando T A,Barchowsky A,Ambrosio F Nature communications While young muscle is capable of restoring the original architecture of damaged myofibers, aged muscle displays a markedly reduced regeneration. We show that expression of the "anti-aging" protein, α-Klotho, is up-regulated within young injured muscle as a result of transient Klotho promoter demethylation. However, epigenetic control of the Klotho promoter is lost with aging. Genetic inhibition of α-Klotho in vivo disrupted muscle progenitor cell (MPC) lineage progression and impaired myofiber regeneration, revealing a critical role for α-Klotho in the regenerative cascade. Genetic silencing of Klotho in young MPCs drove mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and decreased cellular bioenergetics. Conversely, supplementation with α-Klotho restored mtDNA integrity and bioenergetics of aged MPCs to youthful levels in vitro and enhanced functional regeneration of aged muscle in vivo in a temporally-dependent manner. These studies identify a role for α-Klotho in the regulation of MPC mitochondrial function and implicate α-Klotho declines as a driver of impaired muscle regeneration with age. 10.1038/s41467-018-07253-3
    Modulation of Klotho expression in injured muscle perturbs Wnt signalling and influences the rate of muscle growth. Welc Steven S,Wehling-Henricks Michelle,Kuro-O Makoto,Thomas Kyle A,Tidball James G Experimental physiology NEW FINDINGS:What is the central question of this study? Does modulating the expression of Klotho affect myogenesis following acute injury of healthy, non-senescent muscle? What is the main finding and its importance? Klotho can accelerate muscle growth following acute injury of healthy, adult mice, which supports the possibility that increased delivery of Klotho could have therapeutic value for improving repair of damaged muscle. ABSTRACT:Skeletal muscle injuries activate a complex programme of myogenesis that can restore normal muscle structure. We tested whether modulating the expression of klotho influenced the response of mouse muscles to acute injury. Our findings show that klotho expression in muscle declines at 3 days post-injury. That reduction in klotho expression coincided with elevated expression of targets of Wnt signalling (Ccnd1; Myc) and increased MyoD muscle cell numbers, reflecting the onset of myogenic cell differentiation. klotho expression subsequently increased at 7 days post-injury with elevated expression occurring primarily in inflammatory lesions, which was accompanied by reduced expression of Wnt target genes (Ccnd1: 91%; Myc: 96%). Introduction of a klotho transgene maintained high levels of klotho expression over the course of muscle repair and attenuated the increases in Ccnd1 and Myc expression that occurred at 3 days post-injury. Correspondingly, transgene expression reduced Wnt signalling in Pax7 cells, reflected by reductions in Pax7 cells expressing active β-catenin, and reduced the numbers of MyoD cells at 3 days post-injury. At 21 days post-injury, muscles in klotho transgenic mice showed increased Pax7 and decreased myogenin cell densities and large increases in myofibre size. Likewise, treating myogenic cells in vitro with Klotho reduced Myod expression but did not affect Pax7 expression. Muscle inflammation was only slightly modulated by increased klotho expression, initially reducing the expression of M2-biased macrophage markers Cd163 and Cd206 at 3 days post-injury and later increasing the expression of pan-macrophage marker F480 and Cd68 at 21 days post-injury. Collectively, our study shows that Klotho modulates myogenesis and that increased expression accelerates muscle growth after injury. 10.1113/EP088142
    α-Klotho Expression in Mouse Tissues Following Acute Exhaustive Exercise. Rao Zhijian,Zheng Lifang,Huang Hu,Feng Yu,Shi Rengfei Frontiers in physiology α-Klotho, a multifunctional protein, has been demonstrated to protect tissues from injury via anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects. The expression of α-klotho is regulated by several physiological and pathological factors, including acute inflammatory stress, oxidative stress, hypertension, and chronic renal failure. Exhaustive exercise has been reported to result in tissue damage, which is induced by inflammation, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism disturbance. However, little is known about the effects of exhaustive exercise on the expression of α-klotho in various tissues. To determine the effects, the treadmill exhaustion test in mice was performed and the mice were sacrificed at different time points following exhaustive exercise. Our results confirmed that the full-length (130 kDa) and shorter-form (65 kDa) α-klotho were primarily expressed in the kidneys. Moreover, we found that, except for the kidneys and brain, other tissues primarily expressed the shorter-form α-klotho, including liver, which was in contrast to previous reports. Furthermore, the shorter-form α-klotho was decreased immediately following the acute exhaustive exercise and was then restored to the pre-exercise level or even higher levels in the next few days. Our results indicate that α-klotho may play a key role in the body exhaustion and recovery following exhaustive exercise. 10.3389/fphys.2019.01498
    Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho. Avin Keith G,Coen Paul M,Huang Wan,Stolz Donna B,Sowa Gwendolyn A,Dubé John J,Goodpaster Bret H,O'Doherty Robert M,Ambrosio Fabrisia Frontiers in physiology Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating Klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests Klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating Klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating Klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting that this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on Klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both Klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and Klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise. 10.3389/fphys.2014.00189
    Klotho expression is a prerequisite for proper muscle stem cell function and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Ahrens Hellen E,Huettemeister Judith,Schmidt Manuel,Kaether Christoph,von Maltzahn Julia Skeletal muscle BACKGROUND:Klotho is a well-known anti-aging hormone, which serves as a suppressor of aging through a variety of mechanisms. Aging of skeletal muscle is concomitant with a decrease in muscle stem cell function resulting in impaired regeneration. METHODS:Here we investigate the functional role of the anti-aging hormone Klotho for muscle stem cell function after cardiotoxin-induced injury of skeletal muscle using a klotho hypomorphic mouse line, which is characterized by a premature aging phenotype. Furthermore, we perform floating single myofiber cultures with their adjacent muscle stem cells to investigate the interplay between canonical Wnt signaling and Klotho function. RESULTS:We demonstrate that muscle stem cell numbers are significantly decreased in klotho hypomorphic mice. Furthermore, we show that muscle stem cell function is also severely impaired upon loss of klotho expression, in culture and during regeneration in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrate that addition of recombinant Klotho protein inhibits aberrant excessive Wnt signaling in aged muscle stem cells thereby restoring their functionality. CONCLUSIONS:The anti-aging hormone Klotho counteracts aberrant canonical Wnt signaling in muscle stem cells and might be one of the naturally occurring inhibitors of canonical Wnt signaling in skeletal muscle. 10.1186/s13395-018-0166-x