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    Identification of Novel Steroidal Androgen Receptor Degrading Agents Inspired by Galeterone 3β-Imidazole Carbamate. Purushottamachar Puranik,Kwegyir-Afful Andrew K,Martin Marlena S,Ramamurthy Vidya P,Ramalingam Senthilmurugan,Njar Vincent C O ACS medicinal chemistry letters Degradation of all forms of androgen receptors (ARs) is emerging as an advantageous therapeutic paradigm for the effective treatment of prostate cancer. In continuation of our program to identify and develop improved efficacious novel small-molecule agents designed to disrupt AR signaling through enhanced AR degradation, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated novel C-3 modified analogues of our phase 3 clinical agent, galeterone (5). Concerns of potential in vivo stability of our recently discovered more efficacious galeterone 3β-imidazole carbamate (6) led to the design and synthesis of new steroidal compounds. Two of the 11 compounds, 3β-pyridyl ether (8) and 3β-imidazole (17) with antiproliferative GI50 values of 3.24 and 2.54 μM against CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cell, are 2.75- and 3.5-fold superior to 5. In addition, compounds 8 and 17 possess improved (∼4-fold) AR-V7 degrading activities. Importantly, these two compounds are expected to be metabolically stable, making them suitable for further development as new therapeutics against all forms of prostate cancer. 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00137
    Discovery and biological evaluation of darolutamide derivatives as inhibitors and down-regulators of wild-type AR and the mutants. Yu Jiang,Zhou Peiting,Hu Mingxing,Yang Liuqing,Yan Guoyi,Xu Ruixue,Deng Yufang,Li Xinghai,Chen Yuanwei European journal of medicinal chemistry Androgen receptor (AR) has been a target of prostate cancer (PC) for nearly six decades. Recently, downregulating or degrading AR and the mutants especially the splice variant 7 (AR-V7) lacking ligand binding domain (LBD) emerged as an advantageous therapeutic approach to overcome drug resistance. Here, the structural modification of darolutamide resulted in the discovery of dual-action AR inhibitors and down-regulators. Unlike other traditional AR antagonists targeting the AR-LBD, compounds 4k and 4b not only inhibit the activities of wt-AR and AR-F876L mutant but also downregulate the protein expression of full-length (AR-full) and AR variant 7 (AR-V7) at mRNA level. In cell proliferation assays, compounds 4k and 4b exhibited better antiproliferative activities than darolutamide and enzalutamide against AR-V7-positive 22Rv1 cells and VCaP cells. In addition, 4k demonstrated better antitumor activity than clinically used enzalutamide in castration-resistant VCaP xenograft model. Collectively, combining the activities of AR inhibition and downregulation, compound 4k is proposed as an advantageous lead compound to disrupt AR signaling and overcome resistance. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.111608
    Small molecule-induced degradation of the full length and V7 truncated variant forms of human androgen receptor. Dalal Kush,Morin Helene,Ban Fuqiang,Shepherd Ashley,Fernandez Michael,Tam Kevin J,Li Huifang,LeBlanc Eric,Lack Nathan,Prinz Helge,Rennie Paul S,Cherkasov Artem European journal of medicinal chemistry The androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-activated transcription factor that regulates the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and represents one of the most well-established drug targets. Currently clinically approved small molecule inhibitors of AR, such as enzalutamide, are built upon a common chemical scaffold that interacts with the AR by the same mechanism of action. These inhibitors eventually fail due to the emergence of drug-resistance in the form of AR mutations and expression of truncated AR splice variants (e.g. AR-V7) that are constitutively active, signalling the progression of the castration-resistant state of the disease. The urgent need therefore continues for novel classes of AR inhibitors that can overcome drug resistance, especially since AR signalling remains important even in late-stage advanced PCa. Previously, we identified a collection of 10-benzylidene-10H-anthracen-9-ones that effectively inhibit AR transcriptional activity, induce AR degradation and display some ability to block recruitment of hormones to the receptor. In the current work, we extended the analysis of the lead compounds, and used methods of both ligand- and structure-based drug design to develop a panel of novel 10-benzylidene-10H-anthracen-9-one derivatives capable of suppressing transcriptional activity and protein expression levels of both full length- and AR-V7 truncated forms of human androgen receptor. Importantly, the developed compounds efficiently inhibited the growth of AR-V7 dependent prostate cancer cell-lines which are completely resistant to all current anti-androgens. 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.08.059
    Lin28 induces resistance to anti-androgens via promotion of AR splice variant generation. Tummala Ramakumar,Nadiminty Nagalakshmi,Lou Wei,Evans Christopher P,Gao Allen C The Prostate BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen-dependent initially and progresses to a castration-resistant state after androgen deprivation therapy. Treatment options for castration-resistant PCa include the potent second-generation anti-androgen enzalutamide or CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone. Recent clinical observations point to the development of resistance to these therapies which may be mediated by constitutively active alternative splice variants of the androgen receptor (AR). METHODS:Sensitivity of LNCaP cells overexpressing Lin28 (LN-Lin28) to enzalutamide, abiraterone, or bicalutamide was compared to that of control LN-neo cells using cell growth assays, proliferation assays using MTT, anchorage-dependent clonogenic ability assays and soft agar assays. Ability of LN-Lin28 cells to maintain AR activation after treatment with enzalutamide, abiraterone, or bicalutamide was tested using immunofluorescence, Western blotting, ChIP assays, and qRT-PCR. Importance of Lin28 in enzalutamide resistance was assessed by the downregulation of Lin28 expression in C4-2B and 22Rv1 cells chronically treated with enzalutamide. Requirement for sustained AR signaling in LN-Lin28 cells was examined by the downregulation of either full length AR or AR-V7 using siRNA. RESULTS:We show that Lin28 promotes the development of resistance to currently used targeted therapeutics by enhancing the expression of AR splice variants such as AR-V7. PCa cells overexpressing Lin28 exhibit resistance to treatment with enzalutamide, abiraterone, or bicalutamide. Downregulation of Lin28 resensitizes enzalutamide-resistant PCa cells to enzalutamide treatment. We also show that the upregulation of splicing factors such as hnRNPA1 by Lin28 may mediate the enhanced generation of AR splice variants in Lin28-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that Lin28 plays a key role in the acquisition of resistance to AR-targeted therapies by PCa cells and establish the importance of Lin28 in PCa progression. 10.1002/pros.23134
    NF-κB and androgen receptor variant expression correlate with human BPH progression. Austin David C,Strand Douglas W,Love Harold L,Franco Omar E,Jang Alex,Grabowska Magdalena M,Miller Nicole L,Hameed Omar,Clark Peter E,Fowke Jay H,Matusik Robert J,Jin Ren J,Hayward Simon W The Prostate BACKGROUND:Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common, chronic progressive disease. Inflammation is associated with prostatic enlargement and resistance to 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) therapy. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway is linked to both inflammation and ligand-independent prostate cancer progression. METHODS:NF-κB activation and androgen receptor variant (AR-V) expression were quantified in transition zone tissue samples from patients with a wide range of AUASS from incidental BPH in patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer to advanced disease requiring surgical intervention. To further investigate these pathways, human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were transduced with constitutively active or kinase dead forms of IKK2 to regulate canonical NF-κB activity. The effects on AR full length (AR-FL) and androgen-independent AR-V expression as well as cellular growth and differentiation were assessed. RESULTS:Canonical NF-κB signaling was found to be upregulated in late versus early stage BPH, and to be strongly associated with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Elevated expression of AR-variant 7 (AR-V7), but not other AR variants, was found in advanced BPH samples. Expression of AR-V7 significantly correlated with the patient AUASS and TRUS volume. Forced activation of canonical NF-κB in human prostatic epithelial and stromal cells resulted in elevated expression of both AR-FL and AR-V7, with concomitant ligand-independent activation of AR reporters. Activation of NF-κB and over expression of AR-V7 in human prostatic epithelial cells maintained cell viability in the face of 5ARI treatment. CONCLUSION:Activation of NF-κB and AR-V7 in the prostate is associated with increased disease severity. AR-V7 expression is inducible in human prostate cells by forced activation of NF-κB resulting in resistance to 5ARI treatment, suggesting a potential mechanism by which patients may become resistant to 5ARI therapy. 10.1002/pros.23140
    Interplay between Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Androgen Receptor Splice Variants Mediates Castration Resistance. Zhan Yang,Zhang Guanyi,Wang Xiaojie,Qi Yanfeng,Bai Shanshan,Li Dongying,Ma Tianfang,Sartor Oliver,Flemington Erik K,Zhang Haitao,Lee Peng,Dong Yan Molecular cancer research : MCR Androgen receptor splice variants (AR-V) are implicated in resistance of prostate cancer to androgen-directed therapies. When expressed alone in cells, some AR-Vs (e.g., AR-V7) localize primarily to the nucleus, whereas others (e.g., AR-V1, AR-V4, and AR-V6) localize mainly to the cytoplasm. Significantly, the latter are often coexpressed with the nucleus-predominant AR-Vs and the full-length AR (AR-FL). An important question to be addressed is whether the cytoplasmic-localized AR-Vs play a role in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through interaction with the nucleus-predominant AR-Vs and AR-FL. Here, it is demonstrated that AR-V1, -V4, and -V6 can dimerize with both AR-V7 and AR-FL. Consequently, AR-V7 and androgen-bound AR-FL induced nuclear localization of AR-V1, -V4, and -V6, and these variants, in turn, mitigated the ability of the antiandrogen enzalutamide to inhibit androgen-induced AR-FL nuclear localization. Interestingly, the impact of nuclear localization of AR-V4 and -V6 on AR transactivation differs from that of AR-V1. Nuclear localization leads to an increased ability of AR-V4 and -V6 to transactivate both canonical AR targets and AR-V-specific targets and to confer castration-resistant cell growth. However, although AR-V1, which lacks inherent transcriptional activity, appears to activate AR-FL in an androgen-independent manner, it significantly antagonizes AR-V7 transactivation. Together, these data demonstrate that the complex interactions among different AR-Vs and AR-FL play a significant role in castration-resistant disease. IMPLICATIONS:This study suggests important consequences for clinical castration resistance due to simultaneous expression of AR-FL and AR-Vs in patient tumors and suggests that dissecting these interactions should help develop effective strategies to disrupt AR-V signaling. Mol Cancer Res; 15(1); 59-68. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0236
    CDK4/6 Therapeutic Intervention and Viable Alternative to Taxanes in CRPC. Stice James P,Wardell Suzanne E,Norris John D,Yllanes Alexander P,Alley Holly M,Haney Victoria O,White Hannah S,Safi Rachid,Winter Peter S,Cocce Kimberly J,Kishton Rigel J,Lawrence Scott A,Strum Jay C,McDonnell Donald P Molecular cancer research : MCR Resistance to second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonists and CYP17 inhibitors in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) develops rapidly through reactivation of the androgen signaling axis and has been attributed to AR overexpression, production of constitutively active AR splice variants, or the selection for AR mutants with altered ligand-binding specificity. It has been established that androgens induce cell-cycle progression, in part, through upregulation of cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression and subsequent activation of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6). Thus, the efficacy of the newly described CDK4/6 inhibitors (G1T28 and G1T38), docetaxel and enzalutamide, was evaluated as single agents in clinically relevant and models of hormone-sensitive and treatment-resistant prostate cancer. CDK4/6 inhibition (CDK4/6i) was as effective as docetaxel in animal models of treatment-resistant CRPC but exhibited significantly less toxicity. The effects were durable and importantly were observed in prostate cancer cells expressing wild-type AR, AR mutants, and those that have lost AR expression. CDK4/6i was also effective in prostate tumor models expressing the AR-V7 variant or the AR F876L mutation, both of which are associated with treatment resistance. Furthermore, CDK4/6i was effective in prostate cancer models where AR expression was lost. It is concluded that CDK4/6 inhibitors are a viable alternative to taxanes as therapeutic interventions in endocrine therapy-refractory CRPC. The preclinical efficacy of CDK4/6 monotherapy observed here suggests the need for near-term clinical studies of these agents in advanced prostate cancer. . 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-17-0028
    Histone lysine demethylase KDM4B regulates the alternative splicing of the androgen receptor in response to androgen deprivation. Duan Lingling,Chen Zhenhua,Lu Jun,Liang Yanping,Wang Ming,Roggero Carlos M,Zhang Qing-Jun,Gao Jason,Fang Yong,Cao Jiazheng,Lu Jian,Zhao Hongwei,Dang Andrew,Pong Rey-Chen,Hernandez Elizabeth,Chang Chun-Mien,Hoang David T,Ahn Jung-Mo,Xiao Guanghua,Wang Rui-Tao,Yu Kai-Jiang,Kapur Payal,Rizo Josep,Hsieh Jer-Tsong,Luo Junhang,Liu Zhi-Ping Nucleic acids research Alternative splicing is emerging as an oncogenic mechanism. In prostate cancer, generation of constitutively active forms of androgen receptor (AR) variants including AR-V7 plays an important role in progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). AR-V7 is generated by alternative splicing that results in inclusion of cryptic exon CE3 and translation of truncated AR protein that lacks the ligand binding domain. Whether AR-V7 can be a driver for CRPC remains controversial as the oncogenic mechanism of AR-V7 activation remains elusive. Here, we found that KDM4B promotes AR-V7 and identified a novel regulatory mechanism. KDM4B is phosphorylated by protein kinase A under conditions that promote castration-resistance, eliciting its binding to the splicing factor SF3B3. KDM4B binds RNA specifically near the 5'-CE3, upregulates the chromatin accessibility, and couples the spliceosome to the chromatin. Our data suggest that KDM4B can function as a signal responsive trans-acting splicing factor and scaffold that recruits and stabilizes the spliceosome near the alternative exon, thus promoting its inclusion. Genome-wide profiling of KDM4B-regulated genes also identified additional alternative splicing events implicated in tumorigenesis. Our study defines KDM4B-regulated alternative splicing as a pivotal mechanism for generating AR-V7 and a contributing factor for CRPC, providing insight for mechanistic targeting of CRPC. 10.1093/nar/gkz1004
    Dual androgen receptor (AR) and STAT3 inhibition by a compound targeting the AR amino-terminal domain. Hua Yaping,Azeem Waqas,Shen Yunheng,Zhang Shoude,Olsen Jan R,Øyan Anne M,Ke Xisong,Zhang Weidong,Kalland Karl-Henning Pharmacology research & perspectives Prostate cancer (PCa) often recurs as incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after the failure of androgen deprivation therapy. CRPC development relies on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. The IL6/STAT3 pathway is also a key driver of CRPC. The crosstalk between IL6/STAT3 and the AR pathways provides opportunities to explore next-generation agents to treat PCa. Through screening of around 600 natural compounds in our newly established prostate tumorigenesis model, potential STAT3 signaling inhibitors were found and additionally examined for effects on AR signaling. The small molecular compound 154 exhibited dual effects on IL6/STAT3 and AR pathways. We show here that compound 154 inhibits AR and STAT3 transcriptional activity, reduces the expression of phosphorylation of STAT3 (Y705) and downregulates the mRNA levels of AR target genes. Compound 154 also inhibits protein expression of AR and AR splice variants (ARv567es and AR-V7) without altering AR mRNA levels. Compound 154 binds to AR directly, but not to STAT3 and is identified as an antagonist of the AR amino-terminal domain (NTD) by disrupting protein-protein interactions between STAT3 and the AR NTD. Moreover, compound 154 does not reduce AR nuclear translocation. Compound 154 possesses the potential to become a leading compound in novel therapies against CRPC. 10.1002/prp2.437
    High throughput microscopy identifies bisphenol AP, a bisphenol A analog, as a novel AR down-regulator. Stossi Fabio,Dandekar Radhika D,Bolt Michael J,Newberg Justin Y,Mancini Maureen G,Kaushik Akash K,Putluri Vasanta,Sreekumar Arun,Mancini Michael A Oncotarget Prostate cancer remains a deadly disease especially when patients become resistant to drugs that target the Androgen Receptor (AR) ligand binding domain. At this stage, patients develop recurring castrate-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Interestingly, CRPC tumors maintain dependency on AR for growth; moreover, in CRPCs, constitutively active AR splice variants (e.g., AR-V7) begin to be expressed at higher levels. These splice variants lack the ligand binding domain and are rendered insensitive to current endocrine therapies. Thus, it is of paramount importance to understand what regulates the expression of AR and its splice variants to identify new therapeutic strategies in CRPCs. Here, we used high throughput microscopy and quantitative image analysis to evaluate effects of selected endocrine disruptors on AR levels in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Bisphenol AP (BPAP), which is used in chemical and medical industries, was identified as a down-regulator of both full length AR and the AR-V7 splice variant. We validated its activity by performing time-course, dose-response, Western blot and qPCR analyses. BPAP also reduced the percent of cells in S phase, which was accompanied by a ~60% loss in cell numbers and colony formation in anchorage-independent growth assays. Moreover, it affected mitochondria size and cell metabolism. In conclusion, our high content analysis-based screening platform was used to classify the effect of compounds on endogenous ARs, and identified BPAP as being capable of causing AR (both full-length and variants) down-regulation, cell cycle arrest and metabolic alterations in CRPC cell lines. 10.18632/oncotarget.7655
    The Y-located proto-oncogene TSPY exacerbates and its X-homologue TSPX inhibits transactivation functions of androgen receptor and its constitutively active variants. Li Yunmin,Zhang Dong Ji,Qiu Yun,Kido Tatsuo,Lau Yun-Fai Chris Human molecular genetics The gonadoblastoma gene, testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY), on the Y chromosome and its X-homologue, TSPX, are cell cycle regulators and function as a proto-oncogene and a tumor suppressor respectively in human oncogenesis. TSPY and TSPX competitively bind to the androgen receptor (AR) and AR variants, such as AR-V7, at their conserved SET/NAP domain, and exacerbate and repress the transactivation of the AR/AR-V7 target genes in ligand dependent and independent manners respectively. The inhibitory domain has been mapped to the carboxyl acidic domain of TSPX, truncation of which renders TSPX to be stimulatory while its transposition to the C-terminus of TSPY results in an inhibitory hybrid protein. TSPY and TSPX co-localize with the endogenous AR, in the presence of ligand, on the promoters and differentially regulate the expression of the endogenous AR target genes in the androgen-responsive LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Transcriptome analysis shows that TSPY and TSPX expressions differentially affect significant numbers of canonical pathways, upstream regulators and cellular functions. Significantly, among the common ones, TSPY activates and TSPX inhibits numerous growth-related and oncogenic canonical pathways and cellular functions in the respective cell populations. Hence, TSPY and TSPX exert opposing effects on the transactivation functions of AR and AR-Vs important for various physiological and disease processes sensitive to male sex hormone actions, thereby not only affecting the pathogenesis of male-specific prostate cancer but also likely contributing to sex differences in the health and diseases of man. 10.1093/hmg/ddx005
    Analytical Validation of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Detection in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Laboratory Setting. Lokhandwala Parvez M,Riel Stacy L,Haley Lisa,Lu Changxue,Chen Yan,Silberstein John,Zhu Yezi,Zheng Gang,Lin Ming-Tseh,Gocke Christopher D,Partin Alan W,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Luo Jun,Eshleman James R The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD Patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) often are treated with drugs that target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain. Constitutively active AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7) lacks the ligand-binding domain and, if detected in circulating tumor cells, may be associated with resistance to these agents. We validated an AR-V7 assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-certified laboratory. Circulating tumor cells were isolated, and mRNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of reference transcripts (beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), prostate-specific transcripts (prostate-specific membrane antigen, prostate-specific antigen, and AR-full length), and AR-V7 was performed. Specimens for validation included an AR-V7 expressing prostate cancer (LNCaP95), 38 peripheral blood controls, and 21 blood samples from CRPC patients. The assay detected as few as five LNCaP95 cells spiked into peripheral blood, showing high analytical sensitivity. Multiple inter-run and intrarun replicates of LNCaP95 cell line experiments yielded similar cycle threshold values for all genes, showing high analytical precision (AR-V7 cycle threshold CV of 0.67%). All 38 healthy control samples were negative for AR-V7, showing high diagnostic specificity (100%). The diagnostic accuracy was confirmed by concurrent testing of 21 CRPC samples in the research laboratory and the clinical diagnostic laboratory: concordance in AR-V7 status was achieved in all cases (positive in 4, negative in 17) (100% accuracy). This first validated clinical assay detects the AR-V7 with high analytical sensitivity, precision, specificity, and accuracy. 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2016.08.003
    CUDC-101, a Novel Inhibitor of Full-Length Androgen Receptor (flAR) and Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) Activity: Mechanism of Action and In Vivo Efficacy. Sun Huiying,Mediwala Sanjay N,Szafran Adam T,Mancini Michael A,Marcelli Marco Hormones & cancer Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent disease expected to cause the death of more than 27,000 Americans in 2015. There are only a few available treatments for CRPC, making the discovery of new drugs an urgent need. We report that CUDC-101 (an inhibitor od HER2/NEU, EGFR and HDAC) inhibits both the full length AR (flAR) and the AR variant AR-V7. This observation prompted experiments to discover which of the known activities of CUDC-101 is responsible for the inhibition of flAR/AR-V7 signaling. We used pharmacologic and genetic approaches, and found that the effect of CUDC-101 on flAR and AR-V7 was duplicated only by other HDAC inhibitors, or by silencing the HDAC isoforms HDAC5 and HDAC10. We observed that CUDC-101 treatment or AR-V7 silencing by RNAi equally reduced transcription of the AR-V7 target gene, PSA, without affecting viability of 22Rv1 cells. However, when cellular proliferation was used as an end point, CUDC-101 was more effective than AR-V7 silencing, raising the prospect that CUDC-101 has additional targets beside AR-V7. In support of this, we found that CUDC-101 increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, and decreased that of the oncogene HER2/NEU. To determine if CUDC-101 reduces growth in a xenograft model of prostate cancer, this drug was given for 14 days to castrated male SCID mice inoculated with 22Rv1 cells. Compared to vehicle, CUDC-101 reduced xenograft growth in a statistically significant way, and without macroscopic side effects. These studies demonstrate that CUDC-101 inhibits wtAR and AR-V7 activity and growth of 22Rv1 cells in vitro and in vivo. These effects result from the ability of CUDC-101 to target not only HDAC signaling, which was associated with decreased flAR and AR-V7 activity, but multiple additional oncogenic pathways. These observations raise the possibility that treatment of CRPC may be achieved by using similarly multi-targeted approaches. 10.1007/s12672-016-0257-2
    Prognostic Utility of a Whole-blood Androgen Receptor-based Gene Signature in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Kwan Edmond M,Fettke Heidi,Docanto Maria M,To Sarah Q,Bukczynska Patricia,Mant Andrew,Pook David,Ng Nicole,Graham Lisa-Jane K,Mangiola Stefano,Segelov Eva,Mahon Kate,Davis Ian D,Parente Phillip,Pezaro Carmel,Todenhöfer Tilman,Horvath Lisa G,Azad Arun A European urology focus BACKGROUND:The treatment paradigm for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has evolved significantly in recent years. Identifying predictive and/or prognostic biomarkers in the context of this rapidly expanding therapeutic armamentarium remains a pressing and unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVE:To develop a prognostic whole-blood gene signature for mCRPC patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:As part of an ongoing prospective, multicentre biomarker research study (Australian Prostate Biomarker Alliance), we enrolled 115 mCRPC patients commencing chemotherapy (n = 34) or androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors therapy (n = 81) and obtained pretreatment whole-blood samples in PAXgene RNA tubes. Gene expression was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Gene transcripts correlating with overall survival (OS) at p < 0.10 in univariate Cox regression models were incorporated into a multigene signature. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and multivariate analyses were used to assess association with clinical outcomes. Prognostic strength of the signature was estimated using a concordance probability estimate (CPE). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Based on univariate analysis for OS, the following genes were incorporated into a multigene signature: AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), and three androgen-regulated genes: GRHL2, HOXB13, and FOXA1. The number of positive transcripts clearly stratified survival outcomes (median OS: not reached vs 24.8 mo vs 16.2 mo for 0, 1, and ≥2 transcripts, respectively; p = 0.0052). Notably, this multigene signature retained prognostic significance on multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-4.0; p = 0.019). Moreover, CPE for this model was 0.78, indicating strong discriminative capacity. Limitations include short follow-up time. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate the prognostic utility of a novel whole-blood AR-based signature in mCRPC patients commencing contemporary systemic therapies. Our pragmatic assay requires minimal processing, can be performed in most hospital laboratories, and could represent a key prognostic tool for risk stratification in mCRPC. PATIENT SUMMARY:We found that expression of certain genes associated with the androgen receptor could help determine how long men with advanced prostate cancer survive after starting modern drug therapies. 10.1016/j.euf.2019.04.020
    Testosterone metabolites inhibit proliferation of castration- and therapy-resistant prostate cancer. Bremmer Felix,Jarry Hubertus,Unterkircher Valerie,Kaulfuss Silke,Burfeind Peter,Radzun Heinz-Joachim,Ströbel Philipp,Thelen Paul Oncotarget Novel treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) such as abiraterone acetate (AA) or enzalutamide effectively target the androgen pathway to arrest aberrant signalling and cell proliferation. Testosterone is able to inhibit tumour cell growth in CRPC. Estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ) binds the testosterone-metabolites 3β-androstanediol and 3α-androstanediol in parallel to the canonical estradiol. In the prostate it is widely accepted that ERβ regulates estrogen signalling, mediating anti-proliferative effects. We used the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, VCaP, and the non-neoplastic BPH-1. VCaP cells were treated with 1 nmol/L testosterone over 20 passages, yielding the cell line VCaPrev, sensitive to hormone therapies. In contrast, LNCaP cells were grown for more than 100 passages yielding a high passage therapy resistant cell line (LNCaP). VCaP and LNCaP cell lines were treated with 5 μmol/L AA for more than 20 passages, respectively, generating the AA-tolerant-subtypes VCaP and hiPLNCaP. Cell lines were treated with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), R1881, and the androgen-metabolites 3β-androstanediol and 3α-androstanediol. 3β-androstanediol or 3α-androstanediol significantly reduced proliferation in all cell lines except the BPH-1 and androgen receptor-negative PC-3 and markedly downregulated AR and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Whereas ERβ expression was increased in all cell lines except BPH-1 or PC-3. In summary, 3β-adiol or 3α-adiol, as well as DHT and R1881, significantly reduced tumour cell growth in CRPC cells. Thus, these compounds represent novel potential therapeutic approaches to overcome drug-resistance in CRPC, especially with regard to AR-V7 function in therapy resistance. Furthermore, these data confirm the tumour suppressor properties of ERβ in CRPC. 10.18632/oncotarget.24763
    Exploitation of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Transcription Factor Dependencies by the Novel BET Inhibitor ABBV-075. Faivre Emily J,Wilcox Denise,Lin Xiaoyu,Hessler Paul,Torrent Maricel,He Wei,Uziel Tamar,Albert Daniel H,McDaniel Keith,Kati Warren,Shen Yu Molecular cancer research : MCR Competitive inhibitors of acetyl-lysine binding to the bromodomains of the BET (bromodomain and extra terminal) family are being developed for the treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The function of BET family member BRD4 at enhancers/superenhancers has been shown to sustain signal-dependent or pathogenic gene expression programs. Here, the hypothesis was tested that the transcription factor drivers of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) clinical progression, including the androgen receptor (AR), are critically dependent on BRD4 and thus represent a sensitive solid tumor indication for the BET inhibitor ABBV-075. DHT-stimulated transcription of AR target genes was inhibited by ABBV-075 without significant effect on AR protein expression. Furthermore, ABBV-075 disrupted DHT-stimulated recruitment of BET family member BRD4 to gene-regulatory regions cooccupied by AR, including the well-established PSA and TMPRSS2 enhancers. Persistent BET inhibition disrupted the composition and function of AR-occupied enhancers as measured by a reduction in AR and H3K27Ac ChIP signal and inhibition of enhancer RNA transcription. ABBV-075 displayed potent antiproliferative activity in multiple models of resistance to second-generation antiandrogens and inhibited the activity of the AR splice variant AR-V7 and ligand-binding domain gain-of-function mutations, F877L and L702H. ABBV-075 was also a potent inhibitor of MYC and the TMPRSS2-ETS fusion protein, important parallel transcription factor drivers of CRPC. IMPLICATIONS:The ability of BET family inhibitor ABBV-075 to inhibit transcription activation downstream of the initiating events of transcription factors like AR and TMPRSS2:ETS fusion proteins provides a promising therapeutic option for CRPC patients who have developed resistance to second-generation antiandrogens. Mol Cancer Res; 15(1); 35-44. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0221
    An In-Depth Evaluation of the Validity and Logistics Surrounding the Testing of AR-V7 mRNA Expression in Circulating Tumor Cells. Sieuwerts Anieta M,Mostert Bianca,van der Vlugt-Daane Michelle,Kraan Jaco,Beaufort Corine M,Van Mai,Prager Wendy J C,De Laere Bram,Beije Nick,Hamberg Paul,Westgeest Hans M,Tascilar Metin,Dirix Luc Y,Onstenk Wendy,de Wit Ronald,Lolkema Martijn P,Mathijssen Ron H J,Martens John W M,Sleijfer Stefan The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD Recent reports have emphasized the clinical relevance of detecting AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Our aim was to set up a validated multicenter pipeline to measure AR-V7 by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) in RNA isolated from CellSearch-enriched CTCs to provide an AR-V7-positive or AR-V7-negative score in a clinically acceptable time range. CellSearch-enirched CTCs from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were characterized by RT-qPCR. After optimization, it was prospectively tested whether it was possible to report the AR-V7 status within 11 days (PRELUDE study). In the range of the RNA equivalent of 0.2 to 12 VCaP cells, the CV for AR-V7 was 9% (n = 37). The limit of detection was 0.3, and the limit of quantitation was 3 cells in the final RT-qPCR. No differences were observed between AR-V7 data generated by five technicians or in two different laboratories. For the 45 patients in PRELUDE, 13 patients were ineligible, 22 patients were AR-V7 negative, and 10 were AR-V7 positive. The median time to inform the physician of the test result was 7 days (range, 2 to 11 days). This assay can establish the AR-V7 status in CTCs from patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Furthermore, it was possible to provide an AR-V7 outcome within 11 days, indicating that it may be used to choose between an anti-androgen receptor or taxane-based cabazitaxel treatment. 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2018.01.008
    Inhibition of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer. Kaushik Akash K,Shojaie Ali,Panzitt Katrin,Sonavane Rajni,Venghatakrishnan Harene,Manikkam Mohan,Zaslavsky Alexander,Putluri Vasanta,Vasu Vihas T,Zhang Yiqing,Khan Ayesha S,Lloyd Stacy,Szafran Adam T,Dasgupta Subhamoy,Bader David A,Stossi Fabio,Li Hangwen,Samanta Susmita,Cao Xuhong,Tsouko Efrosini,Huang Shixia,Frigo Daniel E,Chan Lawrence,Edwards Dean P,Kaipparettu Benny A,Mitsiades Nicholas,Weigel Nancy L,Mancini Michael,McGuire Sean E,Mehra Rohit,Ittmann Michael M,Chinnaiyan Arul M,Putluri Nagireddy,Palapattu Ganesh S,Michailidis George,Sreekumar Arun Nature communications The precise molecular alterations driving castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are not clearly understood. Using a novel network-based integrative approach, here, we show distinct alterations in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) to be critical for CRPC. Expression of HBP enzyme glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1) is found to be significantly decreased in CRPC compared with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Genetic loss-of-function of GNPNAT1 in CRPC-like cells increases proliferation and aggressiveness, in vitro and in vivo. This is mediated by either activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR) or by specific protein 1 (SP1)-regulated expression of carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in cells containing AR-V7 variant. Strikingly, addition of the HBP metabolite UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to CRPC-like cells significantly decreases cell proliferation, both in-vitro and in animal studies, while also demonstrates additive efficacy when combined with enzalutamide in-vitro. These observations demonstrate the therapeutic value of targeting HBP in CRPC. 10.1038/ncomms11612
    ROR-γ drives androgen receptor expression and represents a therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Wang Junjian,Zou June X,Xue Xiaoqian,Cai Demin,Zhang Yan,Duan Zhijian,Xiang Qiuping,Yang Joy C,Louie Maggie C,Borowsky Alexander D,Gao Allen C,Evans Christopher P,Lam Kit S,Xu Jianzhen,Kung Hsing-Jien,Evans Ronald M,Xu Yong,Chen Hong-Wu Nature medicine The androgen receptor (AR) is overexpressed and hyperactivated in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the determinants of AR overexpression in CRPC are poorly defined. Here we show that retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γ (ROR-γ) is overexpressed and amplified in metastatic CRPC tumors, and that ROR-γ drives AR expression in the tumors. ROR-γ recruits nuclear receptor coactivator 1 and 3 (NCOA1 and NCOA3, also known as SRC-1 and SRC-3) to an AR-ROR response element (RORE) to stimulate AR gene transcription. ROR-γ antagonists suppress the expression of both AR and its variant AR-V7 in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines and tumors. ROR-γ antagonists also markedly diminish genome-wide AR binding, H3K27ac abundance and expression of the AR target gene network. Finally, ROR-γ antagonists suppressed tumor growth in multiple AR-expressing, but not AR-negative, xenograft PCa models, and they effectively sensitized CRPC tumors to enzalutamide, without overt toxicity, in mice. Taken together, these results establish ROR-γ as a key player in CRPC by acting upstream of AR and as a potential therapeutic target for advanced PCa. 10.1038/nm.4070
    Detecting predictive androgen receptor modifications in circulating prostate cancer cells. Steinestel Julie,Luedeke Manuel,Arndt Annette,Schnoeller Thomas J,Lennerz Jochen K,Wurm Carina,Maier Christiane,Cronauer Marcus V,Steinestel Konrad,Schrader Andres J Oncotarget Molecular modifications of the androgen receptor (AR) can cause resistance to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in prostate cancer patients. Since lack of representative tumor samples hinders therapy adjustments according to emerging AR-modifications, we evaluated simultaneous detection of the two most common AR modifications (AR-V7 splice variant and point mutations) in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We devised a single-tube assay to detect AR-V7 splice variants and point mutations in CTCs using immunomagnetic cell isolation, followed by quantitative real-time PCR and DNA pyrosequencing. We prospectively investigated 47 patients with PSA progression awaiting therapy switch. Comparison of response to newly administered therapy and CTC-AR-status allowed effect size estimation. Nineteen (51%) of 37 patients with detectable CTCs carried AR-modifications. Seventeen patients carried the AR-V7 splice variant, one harbored a p.T878A point mutation and one harbored both AR-V7 and a p.H875Y mutation. We estimated a positive predictive value for response and non-response to therapy by AR status in CTCs of ~94%. Based on a conservative calculation, we estimated the effect size for molecularly-informed therapy switches for prospective clinical trial planning to ~27%. In summary, the ability to determine key resistance-mediating AR modifications in CTCs has the potential to considerably improve prostate cancer treatment. 10.18632/oncotarget.3925
    NF-κB and androgen receptor variant 7 induce expression of SRD5A isoforms and confer 5ARI resistance. Austin David C,Strand Douglas W,Love Harold L,Franco Omar E,Grabowska Magdalena M,Miller Nicole L,Hameed Omar,Clark Peter E,Matusik Robert J,Jin Ren J,Hayward Simon W The Prostate BACKGROUND:Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors (5ARI). These drugs inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone resulting in apoptosis and prostate shrinkage. Most patients initially respond to 5ARIs; however, failure is common especially in inflamed prostates, and often results in surgery. This communication examines a link between activation of NF-κB and increased expression of SRD5A2 as a potential mechanism by which patients fail 5ARI therapy. METHODS:Tissue was collected from "Surgical" patients, treated specifically for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to advanced BPH; and, cancer free transition zone from "Incidental" patients treated for low grade, localized peripheral zone prostate cancer. Clinical, molecular and histopathological profiles were analyzed. Human prostatic stromal and epithelial cell lines were genetically modified to regulate NF-κB activity, androgen receptor (AR) full length (AR-FL), and AR variant 7 (AR-V7) expression. RESULTS:SRD5A2 is upregulated in advanced BPH. SRD5A2 was significantly associated with prostate volume determined by Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS), and with more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) determined by American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS). Synthesis of androgens was seen in cells in which NF-κB was activated. AR-FL and AR-V7 expression increased SRD5A2 expression while forced activation of NF-κB increased all three SRD5A isoforms. Knockdown of SRD5A2 in the epithelial cells resulted in significant reduction in proliferation, AR target gene expression, and response to testosterone (T). In tissue recombinants, canonical NF-κB activation in prostatic epithelium elevated all three SRD5A isoforms and resulted in in vivo growth under castrated conditions. CONCLUSION:Increased BPH severity in patients correlates with SRD5A2 expression. We demonstrate that NF-κB and AR-V7 upregulate SRD5A expression providing a mechanism to explain failure of 5ARI therapy in BPH patients. Prostate 76:1004-1018, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23195
    BET Bromodomain Inhibitors Enhance Efficacy and Disrupt Resistance to AR Antagonists in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Asangani Irfan A,Wilder-Romans Kari,Dommeti Vijaya L,Krishnamurthy Pranathi M,Apel Ingrid J,Escara-Wilke June,Plymate Stephen R,Navone Nora M,Wang Shaomeng,Feng Felix Y,Chinnaiyan Arul M Molecular cancer research : MCR UNLABELLED:Next-generation antiandrogen therapies, such as enzalutamide and abiraterone, have had a profound impact on the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, mCRPC patients invariably develop resistance to these agents. Here, a series of clonal cell lines were developed from enzalutamide-resistant prostate tumor xenografts to study the molecular mechanism of resistance and test their oncogenic potential under various treatment conditions. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling was maintained in these cell lines, which acquired potential resistance mechanisms, including expression of AR-variant 7 (AR-v7) and glucocorticoid receptor. BET bromodomain inhibitors were shown previously to attenuate AR signaling in mCRPC; here, we demonstrate the efficacy of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) inhibitors in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer models. AR antagonists, enzalutamide, and ARN509 exhibit enhanced prostate tumor growth inhibition when combined with BET inhibitors, JQ1 and OTX015, respectively. Taken together, these data provide a compelling preclinical rationale to combine BET inhibitors with AR antagonists to subvert resistance mechanisms. IMPLICATIONS:Therapeutic combinations of BET inhibitors and AR antagonists may enhance the clinical efficacy in the treatment of mCRPC. VISUAL OVERVIEW:http://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/molcanres/14/4/324/F1.large.jpg 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-15-0472
    Targeting Crosstalk between Nrf-2, NF-κB and Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer. Khurana Namrata,Sikka Suresh C Cancers Oxidative stress, inflammation and androgen receptor (AR) signaling play a pivotal role in the initiation, development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous papers in the literature have documented the interconnection between oxidative stress and inflammation; and how antioxidants can combat the inflammation. It has been shown in the literature that both oxidative stress and inflammation regulate AR, the key receptor involved in the transition of PCa to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In this review, we discuss about the importance of targeting Nrf-2-antioxidant signaling, NF-κB inflammatory response and AR signaling in PCa. Finally, we discuss about the crosstalk between these three critical pathways as well as how the anti-inflammatory antioxidant phytochemicals like sulforaphane (SFN) and curcumin (CUR), which can also target AR, can be ideal candidates in the chemoprevention of PCa. 10.3390/cancers10100352
    Expression pattern of androgen receptor and AR-V7 in androgen-deprivation therapy-naïve salivary duct carcinomas. Yang Richard K,Zhao Pei,Lu Changxue,Luo Jun,Hu Rong Human pathology Androgen-deprivation therapy has been used to treat salivary duct carcinoma (SDC). The androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) has been detected in castration-resistant prostate cancer and implicated in resistance to androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies. Given the potential role of AR/AR-V7 in SDC treatment, this study focuses on AR/AR-V7 expression in SDC specimens collected before androgen-deprivation therapy. RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect total AR and AR-V7 were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded SDC specimens from 23 patients. Full-length AR and AR-V7 transcripts were quantified in a subset of tumors by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Twenty SDCs were positive for total AR by ISH and IHC. Among AR-positive SDCs, 70% (14/20) were positive for AR-V7 messenger RNA by ISH, whereas 15% (3/20) were positive for AR-V7 protein by IHC. The 3 SDCs that expressed the highest levels of AR-V7 were all from female patients; one of them expressed a significant amount of AR-V7 and barely detectable full-length AR transcripts by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. IHC expression of Forkhead box protein A1, prostate-specific antigen, prostatic acid phosphatase, and NKX3.1 was observed in some SDCs regardless of patient sex. Five SDCs demonstrated strong human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression. We conclude that treatment-naïve SDCs may express AR-V7 at levels comparable to or even exceeding the levels detected in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our data support the feasibility to incorporate AR-V7 assessment via ISH and/or IHC in the ongoing clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic benefit of AR-targeted therapies in SDC patients. 10.1016/j.humpath.2018.09.009
    Role of Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer: A Review. Fujita Kazutoshi,Nonomura Norio The world journal of men's health Androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid receptor transcriptional factor for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone consisting of four main domains, the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, hinge region, and ligand-binding domain. AR plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen deprivation therapy can suppress hormone-naïve prostate cancer, but prostate cancer changes AR and adapts to survive under castration levels of androgen. These mechanisms include AR point mutations, AR overexpression, changes of androgen biosynthesis, constitutively active AR splice variants without ligand binding, and changes of androgen cofactors. Studies of AR in CRPC revealed that AR was still active in CRPC, and it remains as a potential target to treat CRPC. Enzalutamide is a second-generation antiandrogen effective in patients with CRPC before and after taxane-based chemotherapy. However, CRPC is still incurable and can develop drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of this resistance can enable new-generation therapies for CRPC. Several promising new AR-targeted therapies have been developed. Apalutamide is a new Food and Drug Administration-approved androgen agonist binding to the ligand-binding domain, and clinical trials of other new AR-targeted agents binding to the ligand-binding domain or N-terminal domain are underway. This review focuses on the functions of AR in prostate cancer and the development of CRPC and promising new agents against CRPC. 10.5534/wjmh.180040
    Inhibition of IGF-1R diminishes transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor and its constitutively active, C-terminally truncated counterparts Q640X and AR-V7. Zengerling Friedemann,Azoitei Anca,Herweg Alexander,Jentzmik Florian,Cronauer Marcus V World journal of urology PURPOSE:Failure of endocrine treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often associated with the emergence of C-terminally truncated androgen receptor variants that function as constitutively active transcription factors (i.e., AR∆LBD). The mechanisms involved in the regulation of AR∆LBD signaling are largely unknown. Since the IGF-1 pathway was repeatedly shown to affect AR function, we studied whether an inhibition of IGF-1R could also affect AR∆LBD signaling. METHODS:Regulation of androgen receptor (AR) and AR∆LBD signaling was analyzed by reporter gene assays, immunoblotting, ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS:Inhibition of IGF-1R with the small-molecule inhibitor NVP-AEW541 reduced the transcriptional activity of the AR and its truncated counterparts Q640X and AR-V7. As shown in Q640X, the inhibition of transcriptional activity was paralleled by a decreased receptor phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS:Inhibition of IGF-1R leads to a down-regulation of AR∆LBD signaling and provides a rationale for CRPC therapies targeting growth factor receptors. 10.1007/s00345-015-1674-5
    Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Drives the Growth of Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer without Being Involved in the Efficacy of Taxane Chemotherapy. Shimizu Yasuomi,Tamada Satoshi,Kato Minoru,Hirayama Yukiyoshi,Takeyama Yuji,Iguchi Taro,Sadar Marianne D,Nakatani Tatsuya Journal of clinical medicine Expression of androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has been identified as the mechanism associated with the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a potential link between AR-V7 expression and resistance to taxanes, such as docetaxel or cabazitaxel, has not been unequivocally demonstrated. To address this, we used LNCaP95-DR cells, which express AR-V7 and exhibit resistance to enzalutamide and docetaxel. Interestingly, LNCaP95-DR cells showed cross-resistance to cabazitaxel. Furthermore, these cells had increased levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their sensitivity to both docetaxel and cabazitaxel was restored through treatment with tariquidar, a P-gp antagonist. Results generated demonstrated that P-gp mediated cross-resistance between docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Although the LNCaP95-DR cells had increased expression of AR-V7 and its target genes (UBE2C, CDC20), the knockdown of AR-V7 did not restore sensitivity to docetaxel or cabazitaxel. However, despite resistance to docetaxel and carbazitaxel, EPI-002, an antagonist of the AR amino-terminal domain (NTD), had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of LNCaP95-DR cells, which was similar to that achieved with the parental LNCaP95 cells. On the other hand, enzalutamide had no effect on the proliferation of either cell line. In conclusion, our results suggested that EPI-002 may be an option for the treatment of AR-V7-driven CRPC, which is resistant to taxanes. 10.3390/jcm7110444
    Down-regulation of AR splice variants through XPO1 suppression contributes to the inhibition of prostate cancer progression. Aboukameel Amro,Muqbil Irfana,Baloglu Erkan,Senapedis William,Landesman Yosef,Argueta Christian,Kauffman Michael,Chang Hua,Kashyap Trinayan,Shacham Sharon,Neggers Jasper E,Daelemans Dirk,Heath Elisabeth I,Azmi Asfar S Oncotarget Emerging studies have shown that the expression of AR splice variants (ARv) lacking ligand-binding domain is associated with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and higher risk of tumor metastasis and recurrence. Nuclear export protein XPO1 regulates the nuclear localization of many proteins including tumor suppressor proteins. Increased XPO1 in prostate cancer is associated with a high Gleason score and bone metastasis. In this study, we found that high expression of AR splice variant 7 (AR-v7) was correlated with increased XPO1 expression. Silencing of XPO1 by RNAi or treatment with Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds selinexor and eltanexor (KPT-8602) down-regulated the expression of AR, AR-v7 and ARv567es at mRNA and protein levels. XPO1 silencing also inhibited the expression of AR and ARv regulators including FOXA1, Src, Vav3, MED1 and Sam68, leading to the suppression of ARv and AR target genes, UBE2C and PSA. By targeting XPO1/ARv signaling, SINE suppressed prostate cancer (PCa) growth and and potentiated the anti-cancer activity of anti-AR agents, enzalutamide and abiraterone. Therefore, XPO1 inhibition could be a novel promising agent used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics and AR-targeted therapy for the better treatment of PCa, especially CRPC. 10.18632/oncotarget.26239
    Potential Role for YB-1 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Resistance to Enzalutamide Through the Androgen Receptor V7. Shiota Masaki,Fujimoto Naohiro,Imada Kenjiro,Yokomizo Akira,Itsumi Momoe,Takeuchi Ario,Kuruma Hidetoshi,Inokuchi Junichi,Tatsugami Katsunori,Uchiumi Takeshi,Oda Yoshinao,Naito Seiji Journal of the National Cancer Institute BACKGROUND:Although androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer initially exerts excellent anticancer effects, most prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy eventually recurs as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although aberrant kinase activation has been proposed as a mechanism of castration resistance, comprehensive kinase profiles in CRPC remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the kinome in CRPC as well as the role of key molecules. METHODS:We utilized a kinome array in androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant CxR cells. The effect of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) on androgen receptor (AR) expression was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The association between polymorphisms in the YB-1 gene determined by genotyping and YB-1 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer tissues, as well as outcome in metastatic prostate cancer, were investigated by the Cochran-Armitage test and the Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:One hundred fifty-six of 180 kinase phosphorylation sites, including ERK and RSK, were activated in CRPC cells, leading to increased phosphorylation of YB-1, which is a key molecule in the progression to CRPC. YB-1 signaling regulated AR V7 expression, and YB-1 inhibition augmented the anticancer effect of enzalutamide. Moreover, polymorphism (rs12030724) in the YB-1 gene affected YB-1 expression in 93 prostate cancer tissues (YB-1 positive rate; 14.3% in TT, 40.0% in AT, and 52.9% in AA, P = .04) and associated with probability of progression in 104 metastatic prostate cancer case patients (AT/TT vs AA, hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.32 to 0.77, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS:YB-1 appears to be a promising target to inhibit the development of castration resistance, even at the AR variant-expressing stage. Polymorphism in the YB-1 gene may be a promising predictive biomarker in hormonal therapy. 10.1093/jnci/djw005
    Galeterone and The Next Generation Galeterone Analogs, VNPP414 and VNPP433-3β Exert Potent Therapeutic Effects in Castration-/Drug-Resistant Prostate Cancer Preclinical Models In Vitro and In Vivo. Kwegyir-Afful Andrew K,Ramalingam Senthilmurugan,Ramamurthy Vidya P,Purushottamachar Puranik,Murigi Francis N,Vasaitis Tadas S,Huang Weiliang,Kane Maureen A,Zhang Yuji,Ambulos Nicholas,Tiwari Sudhir,Srivastava Pratima,Nnane Ivo P,Hussain Arif,Qiu Yun,Weber David J,Njar Vincent C O Cancers These studies compared the efficacies of our clinical agent galeterone (Gal) and the FDA-approved prostate cancer drug, enzalutamide (ENZ) with two lead next generation galeterone analogs (NGGAs), VNPP414 and VNPP433-3β, using prostate cancer (PC) in vitro and in vivo models. Antitumor activities of orally administered agents were also assessed in CWR22Rv1 tumor-bearing mice. We demonstrated that Gal and NGGAs degraded AR/AR-V7 and Mnk1/2; blocked cell cycle progression and proliferation of human PC cells; induced apoptosis; inhibited cell migration, invasion, and putative stem cell markers; and reversed the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, Gal/NGGAs (alone or in combination) also inhibited the growth of ENZ-, docetaxel-, and mitoxantrone-resistant human PC cell lines. The NGGAs exhibited improved pharmacokinetic profiles over Gal in mice. Importantly, in vivo testing showed that VNPP433-3β (at 7.53-fold lower equimolar dose than Gal) markedly suppressed (84% vs. Gal, 47%; < 0.01) the growth of castration-resistant PC (CRPC) CWR22Rv1 xenograft tumors, with no apparent host toxicity. ENZ was ineffective in this CRPC xenograft model. In summary, our findings show that targeting AR/AR-V7 and Mnk1/2 for degradation represents an effective therapeutic strategy for PC/CRPC treatment and supports further development of VNPP433-3β towards clinical investigation. 10.3390/cancers11111637
    PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors in advanced prostate cancer. Isaacsson Velho Pedro,Antonarakis Emmanuel S Expert review of clinical pharmacology INTRODUCTION:Pharmacological inhibition of immune checkpoint receptors or their ligands represents a transformative breakthrough in the management of multiple cancers. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors have yet to be FDA-approved for the management of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), the commonest non-cutaneous malignancy in men. Areas covered: We review our current understanding of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cancer, the use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapeutics in PCa, and potential subgroups of PCa patients who may derive the greatest benefit from these agents (such as men with tumors that have expression of PD-L1 and/or high mutational load). We also review the prior and current clinical trials evaluating the blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 in PCa, highlighting some of the key ongoing studies of greatest relevance to the field. Expert commentary: Clinical trials investigating PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors should be encouraged in patients with PCa. While it is unlikely that immune checkpoint monotherapies will produce long-lasting responses in a substantial proportion of patients, there is early evidence of activity in some patient subsets. These subgroups may include those with high PD-L1 expression, those with hypermutated or microsatellite-unstable tumors, and those enriched for germline and/or somatic DNA-repair gene mutations (e.g. intraductal/ductal histology, primary Gleason pattern 5, and perhaps AR-V7-positive tumors). 10.1080/17512433.2018.1464388
    Detection of androgen receptor (AR) and AR-V7 in small cell prostate carcinoma: Diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Zhao Pei,Zhu Yezi,Cheng Liang,Luo Jun Asian journal of urology Objective:Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) is a rare and highly malignant subtype of prostate cancer. SCPC frequently lacks androgen receptor (AR) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression, and often responds poorly to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). AR splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a truncated AR protein implicated in resistance to AR-targeting therapies. AR-V7 expression in castration-resistant prostate cancers has been evaluated extensively, and blood-based detection of AR-V7 has been associated with lack of response to abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, whether AR-V7 is expressed in SCPC is not known. Methods:Using validated antibodies, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay for the full-length AR (AR-FL) and (AR-V7) on post-ADT surgical SCPC specimens. Results:Seventy-five percent (9/12) of the specimens showed positive staining for the AR-FL with various intensities. Thirty-three percent (4/12) of the specimens showed positive staining for AR-V7. Among the specimens with positive AR-V7 staining, two samples displayed very weak staining, one sample showed weak-to-moderate staining, and one sample showed strong staining. All positive specimens displayed a heterogeneous pattern of AR-FL/AR-V7 staining. All specimens positive for AR-V7 were also positive for AR-FL. Conclusion:The study findings support the existence of measurable AR-FL and AR-V7 proteins in SCPC specimens. The results also have implications in detection of AR-V7 in specimens obtained through systemic sampling approaches such as circulating tumor cells. A positive AR-V7 finding by blood-based tests is not impossible in patients with SCPC who often demonstrate low PSA values. 10.1016/j.ajur.2018.09.003
    Targeting Androgen Receptor Activation Function-1 with EPI to Overcome Resistance Mechanisms in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Yang Yu Chi,Banuelos Carmen Adriana,Mawji Nasrin R,Wang Jun,Kato Minoru,Haile Simon,McEwan Iain J,Plymate Stephen,Sadar Marianne D Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Persistent androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity is clinically evident in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Therefore, AR remains as a viable therapeutic target for CRPC. All current hormonal therapies target the C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD) of AR. By using EPI to target AR activation function-1 (AF-1), in the N-terminal domain that is essential for AR transactivation, we evaluate the ability of EPI to overcome several clinically relevant AR-related mechanisms of resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:To study the effect of EPI on AR transcriptional activity against overexpressed coactivators, such as SRC1-3 and p300, luciferase reporter assays were performed using LNCaP cells. AR-negative COS-1 cells were employed for reporter assays to examine whether the length of polyglutamine tract affects inhibition by EPI. The effect of EPI on constitutively active AR splice variants was studied in LNCaP95 cells, which express AR-V7 variant. To evaluate the effect of EPI on the proliferation of LNCaP95 cells, we performed in vitro BrdUrd incorporation assay and in vivo studies using xenografts in mice. RESULTS:EPI effectively overcame several molecular alterations underlying aberrant AR activity, including overexpressed coactivators, AR gain-of-function mutations, and constitutively active AR-V7. EPI inhibited AR transcriptional activity regardless of the length of polyglutamine tract. Importantly, EPI significantly inhibited the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of LNCaP95 prostate cancer cells, which are androgen independent and enzalutamide resistant. CONCLUSIONS:These findings support EPI as a promising therapeutic agent to treat CRPC, particularly against tumors driven by constitutively active AR splice variants that are resistant to LBD-targeting drugs. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4466-77. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Sharp et al., p. 4280. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2901
    Restoration of FKBP51 protein promotes the progression of castration resistant prostate cancer. Yu Jianpeng,Sun Libin,Hao Tangxi,Zhang Boya,Chen Xuanrong,Li Hanlin,Zhang Zheng,Zhu Shimiao,Quan Changyi,Niu Yuanjie,Shang Zhiqun Annals of translational medicine Background:As deregulation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling target genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of prostate cancer (PCa), AR signaling is the primary therapeutic target for PCa. Although patients initially responses to first-line androgen deprivation therapies (ADTs), most of them with advanced PCa progress to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Recent studies have suggested the molecular mechanisms by which AR elicit the robust up-regulation of the gene. We suggest that restored expression of gene, modulated by androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) which replaces full length androgen receptor (AR-FL) in androgen ablation status, promotes CRPC progression through activating NF-κB signaling. Methods:Immunohistochemistry assays were used to detect the expression of AR-V7, FKBP51 and NF-κB signaling correlated proteins in CRPC tissues. An androgen ablation resistant PCa cell line model established by Long-term culturing in androgen depleted medium, named androgen-independent LNCaP (LNCaP-AI) cells, were used to dynamically monitor FKBP51 expression during the process of androgen dependent PCa cells transforming into androgen-independent cells, as well as its association with NF-κB signal pathway. LNCaP-AI cell line was determined to express AR-V7 protein continuously. Luciferase reporter assays and DNA pull down were used to determine the association between AR-V7 and FKBP51. Results:Our results suggested that CRPC patients with AR-V7 high expression tend to have higher expression of FKBP51 and enhanced NF-κB signaling compared with AR-V7 negative patients. Knockdown of AR-V7 or FKBP51 in LNCaP-AI cells attenuated the level of p-NF-κB (Ser536) and androgen-resistant cells growth. Luciferase reporter assays and DNA pull down results indicated that FKBP51 was transcriptionally promoted by AR-V7 in absence of androgen, which enhanced NF-κB signaling. Conclusions:Because of upregulation of AR-V7 in androgen-independent PCa cells, increasing of FKBP51 induced NF-κB signaling, leading to progression of CRPC. 10.21037/atm.2019.11.127
    Combination of carmustine and selenite effectively inhibits tumor growth by targeting androgen receptor, androgen receptor-variants, and Akt in preclinical models: New hope for patients with castration resistant prostate cancer. Thamilselvan Vijayalakshmi,Menon Mani,Thamilselvan Sivagnanam International journal of cancer Despite established androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, AR/AR-variants signaling remain a major obstacle for the successful treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition, CRPC cells adapt to survive via AR-independent pathways to escape next generation therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for drugs that can target these signaling pathways in CRPC. In this study, we sought to determine whether carmustine and selenite in combination could induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of CRPC in-vitro and in-vivo. CRPC (22Rv1, VCaP, and PC-3) cell lines in culture and xenograft mouse were used. Combination of carmustine and selenite treatment significantly increased reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and growth inhibition in CRPC cells with down regulation of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Mcl-1) and proliferative proteins (c-Myc and cyclin-D1). This effect was associated with complete reduction of AR/AR-variants, AR-V7, PSA and significant induction of p27Kip1. Combination treatment substantially abolished phospho-Akt, phospho-GSK-3β, and anchorage-independent growth in AR-positive and AR-negative cells. Consistent with in-vitro results, combination treatment effectively induced apoptosis and completely inhibited xenograft tumor growth and markedly reduced AR/AR-variants, AR-V7, PSA, and Bcl-2 in xenograft tumors without causing genotoxicity in host mice. Individual agent treatment showed only partial effect. The combination treatment showed a significant synergistic effect. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the combination of carmustine and selenite treatment completely suppressed CRPC tumor growth by reducing AR/AR-variants and Akt signaling. Our findings suggest that the combination of carmustine and selenite could constitute a promising next-generation therapy for successful treatment of patients with CRPC. 10.1002/ijc.30189
    Improved Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Detection Using a Highly Sensitive Assay to Predict Resistance to Abiraterone or Enzalutamide in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients. Maillet Denis,Allioli Nathalie,Peron Julien,Plesa Adriana,Decaussin-Petrucci Myriam,Tartas Sophie,Ruffion Alain,Crouzet Sébatien,Rimokh Ruth,Gillet Pierre-Germain,Freyer Gilles,Vlaeminck-Guillem Virginie European urology oncology BACKGROUND:In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) expression is associated with a low response to androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitors such as abiraterone or enzalutamide. OBJECTIVE:To perform a highly sensitive assay for detecting AR-V7 (hsAR-V7) in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and evaluate its ability to predict response to ARS inhibitors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:From 41 mCRPC patients, CTCs were prospectively enriched using AdnaTest platform and analyzed for AR-V7 with and without the highly sensitive assay. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:The first objective of the study was to compare AR-V7 detection rates with and without the highly sensitive assay. Next, we investigated how AR-V7 (detected without the highly sensitive assay) and hsAR-V7 status influenced prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and long-term clinical outcomes (PSA progression-free survival [PFS] and radiological PFS) after ARS-inhibitor treatment. Finally, discriminatory abilities of the assays were assessed by C-index to compare their impact on long-term clinical outcomes. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:AR-V7 detection rates increased from 22% to 56% when the highly sensitive assay was used. The discriminatory abilities of hsAR-V7 for PSA PFS (C-index, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-0.88) and radiological PFS (0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.85) were higher than those of AR-V7 detected without the highly sensitive assay (0.60, 0.51-0.72, and 0.56, 0.44-0.67, respectively). After ARS-inhibitor treatment, PSA response was lower in hsAR-V7 (53%) than in hsAR-V7 (93%) patients (p = 0.016). AR-V7 patients had shorter median PSA PFS (3.0 vs 10.6 mo, p = 0.032) and nonsignificantly shorter median radiological PFS (6.0 vs 14.8 mo, p = 0.24) compared with AR-V7 patients. The hsAR-V7 status was associated with shorter median PSA PFS (3.0 mo vs not reached, p = 0.0001) and radiological PFS (median, 6.0 mo vs not reached, p = 0.0026). CONCLUSIONS:The hsAR-V7 assay achieved the highest AR-V7 detection rates among those reported in mCRPC. Discriminatory abilities for long-term clinical outcomes were better with hsAR-V7 assay. PATIENT SUMMARY:We prospectively analyzed circulating tumor cells from men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer for androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) status using a highly sensitive assay. It yielded higher AR-V7 detection rates and predicted resistance to androgen receptor signaling inhibitors with better discriminatory abilities for long-term clinical outcomes. 10.1016/j.euo.2019.08.010
    Non-invasive actionable biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer. Luo Jun Asian journal of urology In the current clinical setting, many disease management options are available for men diagnosed with prostate cancer. For metastatic prostate cancer, first-line therapies almost always involve agents designed to inhibit androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs) that arise following first-line androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) may continue to respond to additional lines of AR-targeting therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide), chemotherapies (docetaxel and cabazitaxel), bone-targeting Radium-223 therapy, and immunotherapy sipuleucel-T. The rapidly expanding therapies for CRPC is expected to transform this lethal disease into one that can be managed for prolonged period of time. In the past 3 years, a number of promising biomarkers that may help to guide treatment decisions have been proposed and evaluated, including androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), a truncated AR lacking the ligand-binding domain (LBD) and mediate constitutively-active AR signaling. Putative treatment selection markers such as AR-V7 may further improve survival benefit of existing therapies and help to accelerate development of new agents for metastatic prostate cancer. In the metastatic setting, it is important to consider compatibility between the putative biomarker with non-invasive sampling. In this review, biomarkers relevant to the setting of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed with respect to a number of key attributes critical for clinical development of non-invasive, actionable markers. It is envisioned that biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer will continue to be discovered, developed, and refined to meet the unmet needs in both standard-of-care and clinical trial settings. 10.1016/j.ajur.2016.09.003
    Intra versus Inter Cross-resistance Determines Treatment Sequence between Taxane and AR-Targeting Therapies in Advanced Prostate Cancer. Lombard Alan P,Liu Liangren,Cucchiara Vito,Liu Chengfei,Armstrong Cameron M,Zhao Ruining,Yang Joy C,Lou Wei,Evans Christopher P,Gao Allen C Molecular cancer therapeutics Current treatments for castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) largely fall into two classes: androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies such as the next-generation antiandrogen therapies (NGAT), enzalutamide and abiraterone, and taxanes such as docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Despite improvements in outcomes, patients still succumb to the disease due to the development of resistance. Further complicating the situation is lack of a well-defined treatment sequence and potential for cross-resistance between therapies. We have developed several models representing CRPC with acquired therapeutic resistance. Here, we utilized these models to assess putative cross-resistance between treatments. We find that resistance to enzalutamide induces resistance to abiraterone and vice versa, but resistance to neither alters sensitivity to taxanes. Acquired resistance to docetaxel induces cross-resistance to cabazitaxel but not to enzalutamide or abiraterone. Correlating responses with known mechanisms of resistance indicates that AR variants are associated with resistance to NGATs, whereas the membrane efflux protein ABCB1 is associated with taxane resistance. Mechanistic studies show that AR variant-7 (AR-v7) is involved in NGAT resistance but not resistance to taxanes. Our findings suggest the existence of intra cross-resistance within a drug class (i.e., within NGATs or within taxanes), whereas inter cross-resistance between drug classes does not develop. Furthermore, our data suggest that resistance mechanisms differ between drug classes. These results may have clinical implications by showing that treatments of one class can be sequenced with those of another, but caution should be taken when sequencing similar classed drugs. In addition, the development and use of biomarkers indicating resistance will improve patient stratification for treatment. . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-1269
    Comparative Analysis of AR Variant AR-V567es mRNA Detection Systems Reveals Eminent Variability and Questions the Role as a Clinical Biomarker in Prostate Cancer. Bernemann Christof,Humberg Verena,Thielen Barbara,Steinestel Julie,Chen Xin,Duensing Stefan,Schrader Andres J,Boegemann Martin Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Androgen receptor splice variants are known to facilitate resistance of prostate cancer cells toward antihormonal therapies. However, detection of the most prominent variant, AR-V7, on its own, is not sufficiently accurate for prediction of response. Thus, simultaneous detection of other variants might improve prediction. AR-V567es has been shown to be expressed in late stages of prostate cancer. Yet, there have been discrepant results regarding incidence of AR-V567es. We therefore aimed to perform a comprehensive comparison of different detection approaches for AR-V567es mRNA. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We compared a custom-made, probe-based PCR assay with 6 published AR-V567es detection PCR assays in distinct samples, that is, cancer cell lines, LuCaP xenografts, primary and metastatic tumor samples, and circulating tumor cells (CTC). RESULTS:Using distinct approaches, we concordantly detected expression of AR-V567es in only three of 45 samples (LuCaP xenografts 86.2 and 136s2 as well as one CTC sample). We observed varying results in all other samples. Specificity analysis displayed nonspecific binding of 5 previously published PCR assays to AR full-length mRNA in the absence of AR-V567es. CONCLUSIONS:Validation of biomarker detection approaches is one of the most critical steps before transfer into clinical application. By performing comparative analysis of different detection approaches, we revealed eminent variability among previously described systems. Furthermore, we demonstrate an overestimation of AR-V567es in prostate cancer, presumably due to nonspecific detection of AR-FL mRNA. Therefore, any correlation between AR-V567es expression and clinical responses is highly doubtful and does not reflect the biological nature of the disease. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-4276
    Targeting a Single Alternative Polyadenylation Site Coordinately Blocks Expression of Androgen Receptor mRNA Splice Variants in Prostate Cancer. Van Etten Jamie L,Nyquist Michael,Li Yingming,Yang Rendong,Ho Yeung,Johnson Rachel,Ondigi Olivia,Voytas Daniel F,Henzler Christine,Dehm Scott M Cancer research Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of male cancer deaths due to disease progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants including AR-V7 function as constitutively active transcription factors in CRPC cells, thereby promoting resistance to AR-targeted therapies. To date, there are no AR variant-specific treatments for CRPC. Here we report that the splicing of AR variants AR-V7 as well as AR-V1 and AR-V9 is regulated coordinately by a single polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3. Blocking this signal with morpholino technology or silencing of the polyadenylation factor CPSF1 caused a splice switch that inhibited expression of AR variants and blocked androgen-independent growth of CRPC cells. Our findings support the development of new therapies targeting the polyadenylation signal in AR intron 3 as a strategy to prevent expression of a broad array of AR variants in CRPC. . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-17-0320
    In Situ Detection and Quantification of AR-V7, AR-FL, PSA, and Point Mutations in Circulating Tumor Cells. El-Heliebi Amin,Hille Claudia,Laxman Navya,Svedlund Jessica,Haudum Christoph,Ercan Erkan,Kroneis Thomas,Chen Shukun,Smolle Maria,Rossmann Christopher,Krzywkowski Tomasz,Ahlford Annika,Darai Evangelia,von Amsberg Gunhild,Alsdorf Winfried,König Frank,Löhr Matthias,de Kruijff Inge,Riethdorf Sabine,Gorges Tobias M,Pantel Klaus,Bauernhofer Thomas,Nilsson Mats,Sedlmayr Peter Clinical chemistry BACKGROUND:Liquid biopsies can be used in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) to detect androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), a splicing product of the androgen receptor. Patients with AR-V7-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have greater benefit of taxane chemotherapy compared with novel hormonal therapies, indicating a treatment-selection biomarker. Likewise, in those with pancreatic cancer (PaCa), mutations act as prognostic biomarkers. Thus, there is an urgent need for technology investigating the expression and mutation status of CTCs. Here, we report an approach that adds AR-V7 or KRAS status to CTC enumeration, compatible with multiple CTC-isolation platforms. METHODS:We studied 3 independent CTC-isolation devices (CellCollector, Parsortix, CellSearch) for the evaluation of AR-V7 or KRAS status of CTCs with in situ padlock probe technology. Padlock probes allow highly specific detection and visualization of transcripts on a cellular level. We applied padlock probes for detecting AR-V7, androgen receptor full length (AR-FL), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in CRPC and wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) transcripts in PaCa in CTCs from 46 patients. RESULTS:In situ analysis showed that 71% (22 of 31) of CRPC patients had detectable AR-V7 expression ranging from low to high expression [1-76 rolling circle products (RCPs)/CTC]. In PaCa patients, 40% (6 of 15) had mut expressing CTCs with 1 to 8 RCPs/CTC. In situ padlock probe analysis revealed CTCs with no detectable cytokeratin expression but positivity for AR-V7 or mut transcripts. CONCLUSIONS:Padlock probe technology enables quantification of AR-V7, AR-FL, PSA, and mut/wt transcripts in CTCs. The technology is easily applicable in routine laboratories and compatible with multiple CTC-isolation devices. 10.1373/clinchem.2017.281295
    Triptolide Inhibits the AR Signaling Pathway to Suppress the Proliferation of Enzalutamide Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells. Han Yangyang,Huang Weiwei,Liu Jiakuan,Liu Dandan,Cui Yangyan,Huang Ruimin,Yan Jun,Lei Ming Theranostics Enzalutamide is a second-generation androgen receptor (AR) antagonist for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Unfortunately, AR dysfunction means that resistance to enzalutamide will eventually develop. Thus, novel agents are urgently needed to treat this devastating disease. Triptolide (TPL), a key active compound extracted from the Chinese herb Thunder God Vine ( Hook F.), possesses anti-cancer activity in human prostate cancer cells. However, the effects of TPL against CRPC cells and the underlying mechanism of any such effect are unknown. In this study, we found that TPL at low dose inhibits the transactivation activity of both full-length and truncated AR without changing their protein levels. Interestingly, TPL inhibits phosphorylation of AR and its CRPC-associated variant AR-V7 at Ser515 through XPB/CDK7. As a result, TPL suppresses the binding of AR to promoter regions in AR target genes along with reduced TFIIH and RNA Pol II recruitment. Moreover, TPL at low dose reduces the viability of prostate cancer cells expressing AR or AR-Vs. Low-dose TPL also shows a synergistic effect with enzalutamide to inhibit CRPC cell survival , and enhances the anti-cancer effect of enzalutamide on CRPC xenografts with minimal side effects. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TPL targets the transactivation activity of both full-length and truncated ARs. Our results also suggest that TPL is a potential drug for CRPC, and can be used in combination with enzalutamide to treat CRPC. 10.7150/thno.17852
    The potential of AR-V7 as a therapeutic target. Uo Takuma,Plymate Stephen R,Sprenger Cynthia C Expert opinion on therapeutic targets INTRODUCTION:The androgen receptor variant AR-V7 is gaining attention as a potential predictive marker for as well as one of the resistance mechanisms to the most current anti-androgen receptor (AR) therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Accordingly, development of next-generation drugs that directly or indirectly target AR-V7 signaling is urgently needed. Areas covered: We review proposed mechanisms of drug resistance in relation to AR-V7 status, the mechanisms of generation of AR-V7, and its transcriptome, cistrome, and interactome. Pharmacological agents that interfere with these processes are being developed to counteract pan AR and AR-V7-specific signaling. Also, we address the current status of the preclinical and clinical studies targeting AR-V7 signaling. Expert opinion: AR-V7 is considered a true therapeutic target, however, it remains to be determined if AR-V7 is a principal driver or merely a bystander requiring heterodimerization with co-expressed full-length AR or other variants to drive CRPC progression. While untangling AR-V7 biology, multiple strategies are being developed to counteract drug resistance, including selective blockade of AR-V7 signaling as well as inhibition of pan-AR signaling. Ideally anti-AR therapies will be combined with agents preventing activation and enrichment of AR negative tumor cells that are otherwise depressed by AR activity axis. 10.1080/14728222.2018.1439016
    Critical role of androgen receptor level in prostate cancer cell resistance to new generation antiandrogen enzalutamide. Hoefer Julia,Akbor Mohammady,Handle Florian,Ofer Philipp,Puhr Martin,Parson Walther,Culig Zoran,Klocker Helmut,Heidegger Isabel Oncotarget Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor approved for therapy of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. However, clinical application revealed that 30 to 40% of patients acquire resistance after a short period of treatment. Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying such resistances are not completely understood, partly due to a lack of model systems. In the present study we established three different cellular models of enzalutamide resistance including a cell line with wild type AR (LAPC4), DuCaP cells which overexpress wild-type AR, as well as a cell which has been adapted to long term androgen ablation (LNCaP Abl) and harbors the AR T878A mutation. After 10 months of cultivation, sustained growth in the presence of enzalutamide was achieved. When compared to controls, resistant cells exhibit significantly decreased sensitivity to enzalutamide as measured with 3[H]thymidine incorporation and WST assay. Moreover, these cell models exhibit partly re-activated AR signaling despite presence of enzalutamide. In addition, we show that enzalutamide resistant cells are insensitive to bicalutamide but retain considerable sensitivity to abiraterone. Mechanistically, enzalutamide resistance was accompanied by increased AR and AR-V7 mRNA and protein expression as well as AR gene amplification, while no additional AR mutations have been identified. 10.18632/oncotarget.10926
    Castration-resistant prostate cancer: Androgen receptor inactivation induces telomere DNA damage, and damage response inhibition leads to cell death. Reddy Vidyavathi,Iskander Asm,Hwang Clara,Divine George,Menon Mani,Barrack Evelyn R,Reddy G Prem-Veer,Kim Sahn-Ho PloS one Telomere stability is important for cell viability, as cells with telomere DNA damage that is not repaired do not survive. We reported previously that androgen receptor (AR) antagonist induces telomere DNA damage in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cells; this triggers a DNA damage response (DDR) at telomeres that includes activation of ATM, and blocking ATM activation prevents telomere DNA repair and leads to cell death. Remarkably, AR antagonist induces telomere DNA damage and triggers ATM activation at telomeres also in 22Rv1 castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells that are not growth inhibited by AR antagonist. Treatment with AR antagonist enzalutamide (ENZ) or ATM inhibitor (ATMi) by itself had no effect on growth in vitro or in vivo, but combined treatment with ENZ plus ATMi significantly inhibited cell survival in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. By inducing telomere DNA damage and activating a telomere DDR, an opportunity to inhibit DNA repair and promote cell death was created, even in CRPC cells. 22Rv1 cells express both full-length AR and AR splice variant AR-V7, but full-length AR was found to be the predominant form of AR associated with telomeres and required for telomere stability. Although 22Rv1 growth of untreated 22Rv1 cells appears to be driven by AR-V7, it is, ironically, expression of full-length AR that makes them sensitive to growth inhibition by combined treatment with ENZ plus ATMi. Notably, this combined treatment approach to induce telomere DNA damage and inhibit the DDR was effective in inducing cell death also in other CRPC cell lines (LNCaP/AR and C4-2B). Thus, the use of ENZ in combination with a DDR inhibitor, such as ATMi, may be effective in prolonging disease-free survival of patients with AR-positive metastatic CRPC, even those that co-express AR splice variant. 10.1371/journal.pone.0211090
    Performance comparison of two androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection methods. Bernemann Christof,Steinestel Julie,Humberg Verena,Bögemann Martin,Schrader Andres Jan,Lennerz Jochen K BJU international OBJECTIVES:To compare the performance of two established androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) mRNA detection systems, as paradoxical responses to next-generation androgen-deprivation therapy in AR-V7 mRNA-positive circulating tumour cells (CTC) of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) could be related to false-positive classification using detection systems with different sensitivities. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We compared the performance of two established mRNA-based AR-V7 detection technologies using either SYBR Green or TaqMan chemistries. We assessed in vitro performance using eight genitourinary cancer cell lines and serial dilutions in three AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cell lines, as well as in 32 blood samples from patients with CRPC. RESULTS:Both assays performed identically in the cell lines and serial dilutions showed identical diagnostic thresholds. Performance comparison in 32 clinical patient samples showed perfect concordance between the assays. In particular, both assays determined AR-V7 mRNA-positive CTCs in three patients with unexpected responses to next-generation anti-androgen therapy. Thus, technical differences between the assays can be excluded as the underlying reason for the unexpected responses to next-generation anti-androgen therapy in a subset of AR-V7 patients. CONCLUSIONS:Irrespective of the method used, patients with AR-V7 mRNA-positive CRPC should not be systematically precluded from an otherwise safe treatment option. 10.1111/bju.14146
    Activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer progression. Qiao Jingbo,Grabowska Magdalena M,Forestier-Roman Ingrid S,Mirosevich Janni,Case Thomas C,Chung Dai H,Cates Justin M M,Matusik Robert J,Manning H Charles,Jin Renjie Oncotarget Numerous studies indicate that androgen receptor splice variants (ARVs) play a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), including the resistance to the new generation of inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) action. Previously, we demonstrated that activation of NF-κB signaling increases ARVs expression in prostate cancer (PC) cells, thereby promoting progression to CRPC. However, it is unclear how NF-κB signaling is activated in CRPC. In this study, we report that long-term treatment with anti-androgens increases a neuroendocrine (NE) hormone - gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and its receptor (GRP-R) expression in PC cells. In addition, activation of GRP/GRP-R signaling increases ARVs expression through activating NF-κB signaling. This results in an androgen-dependent tumor progressing to a castrate resistant tumor. The knock-down of AR-V7 restores sensitivity to antiandrogens of PC cells over-expressing the GRP/GRP-R signaling pathway. These findings strongly indicate that the axis of Androgen-Deprivation Therapy (ADT) induces GRP/GRP-R activity, activation NF-κB and increased levels of AR-V7 expression resulting in progression to CRPC. Both prostate adenocarcinoma and small cell NE prostate cancer express GRP-R. Since the GRP-R is clinically targetable by analogue-based approach, this provides a novel therapeutic approach to treat advanced CRPC. 10.18632/oncotarget.11326
    CTC-mRNA (AR-V7) Analysis from Blood Samples-Impact of Blood Collection Tube and Storage Time. Luk Alison W S,Ma Yafeng,Ding Pei N,Young Francis P,Chua Wei,Balakrishnar Bavanthi,Dransfield Daniel T,Souza Paul de,Becker Therese M International journal of molecular sciences Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are an emerging resource for monitoring cancer biomarkers. New technologies for CTC isolation and biomarker detection are increasingly sensitive, however, the ideal blood storage conditions to preserve CTC-specific mRNA biomarkers remains undetermined. Here we tested the preservation of tumour cells and CTC-mRNA over time in common anticoagulant ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) and acid citrate dextrose solution B (Citrate) blood tubes compared to preservative-containing blood tubes. Blood samples spiked with prostate cancer cells were processed after 0, 24, 30, and 48 h storage at room temperature. The tumour cell isolation efficiency and the mRNA levels of the prostate cancer biomarkers androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) and total AR, as well as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) were measured. Spiked cells were recovered across all storage tube types and times. Surprisingly, tumour mRNA biomarkers were readily detectable after 48 h storage in EDTA and Citrate tubes, but not in preservative-containing tubes. Notably, AR-V7 expression was detected in prostate cancer patient blood samples after 48 h storage in EDTA tubes at room temperature. This important finding presents opportunities for measuring AR-V7 expression from clinical trial patient samples processed within 48 h-a much more feasible timeframe compared to previous recommendations. 10.3390/ijms18051047
    Do Patients With AR-V7-Positive Prostate Cancer Benefit from Novel Hormonal Therapies? It All Depends on Definitions. Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Scher Howard I European urology 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.038
    The way towards understanding possible multiple functions of AR V7 in prostate cancer. Culig Zoran BJU international 10.1111/bju.14406
    Mechanisms of resistance to systemic therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Galletti Giuseppe,Leach Benjamin I,Lam Linda,Tagawa Scott T Cancer treatment reviews Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) now have an unprecedented number of approved treatment options, including chemotherapies (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (enzalutamide, abiraterone), a radioisotope (radium-223) and a cancer vaccine (sipuleucel-T). However, the optimal treatment sequencing pathway is unknown, and this problem is exacerbated by the issues of primary and acquired resistance. This review focuses on mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies and taxane-based chemotherapy. Patients treated with abiraterone, enzalutamide, docetaxel or cabazitaxel may present with primary resistance, or eventually acquire resistance when on treatment. Multiple resistance mechanisms to AR-targeted agents have been proposed, including: intratumoral androgen production, amplification, mutation, or expression of AR splice variants, increased steroidogenesis, upregulation of signals downstream of the AR, and development of androgen-independent tumor cells. Known mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapy are distinct, and include: tubulin alterations, increased expression of multidrug resistance genes, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion genes, kinesins, cytokines, and components of other signaling pathways, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Utilizing this information, biomarkers of resistance/response have the potential to direct treatment decisions. Expression of the AR splice variant AR-V7 may predict resistance to AR-targeted agents, but available biomarker assays are yet to be prospectively validated in the clinic. Ongoing prospective trials are evaluating the sequential use of different drugs, or combination regimens, and the results of these studies, combined with a deeper understanding of mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to treatment, have the potential to drive future treatment decisions in mCRPC. 10.1016/j.ctrv.2017.04.008
    The RNA helicase DDX39B and its paralog DDX39A regulate androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7 generation. Nakata Daisuke,Nakao Shoichi,Nakayama Kazuhide,Araki Shinsuke,Nakayama Yusuke,Aparicio Samuel,Hara Takahito,Nakanishi Atsushi Biochemical and biophysical research communications Mounting evidence suggests that constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, typified by AR-V7, are associated with poor prognosis and resistance to androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer patients. However, mechanisms governing the generation of AR splice variants are not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the dynamics of AR splice variant generation using the JDCaP prostate cancer model that expresses AR splice variants under androgen depletion. Microarray analysis of JDCaP xenografts before and after expression of AR splice variants suggested that dysregulation of RNA processing pathways is likely involved in AR splice variant generation. To explore factors contributing to generation of AR-V7 mRNA, we conducted a focused RNA interference screen in AR-V7-positive JDCaP-hr cells using an shRNA library targeting spliceosome-related genes. This screen identified DDX39B as a regulator of AR-V7 mRNA expression. Simultaneous knockdown of DDX39B and its paralog DDX39A drastically and selectively downregulated AR-V7 mRNA expression in multiple AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cell lines. DDX39B was upregulated in relapsed JDCaP xenografts expressing AR splice variants, suggesting its role in expression of AR splice variants. Taken together, our findings offer insight into the mechanisms of AR splice variant generation and identify DDX39 as a potential drug target for the treatment of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.12.153
    Computer-Aided Discovery of Small Molecules Targeting the RNA Splicing Activity of hnRNP A1 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Carabet Lavinia A,Leblanc Eric,Lallous Nada,Morin Helene,Ghaidi Fariba,Lee Joseph,Rennie Paul S,Cherkasov Artem Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a versatile RNA-binding protein playing a critical role in alternative pre-mRNA splicing regulation in cancer. Emerging data have implicated hnRNP A1 as a central player in a splicing regulatory circuit involving its direct transcriptional control by c-Myc oncoprotein and the production of the constitutively active ligand-independent alternative splice variant of androgen receptor, AR-V7, which promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). As there is an urgent need for effective CRPC drugs, targeting hnRNP A1 could, therefore, serve a dual purpose of preventing AR-V7 generation as well as reducing c-Myc transcriptional output. Herein, we report compound VPC-80051 as the first small molecule inhibitor of hnRNP A1 splicing activity discovered to date by using a computer-aided drug discovery approach. The inhibitor was developed to target the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of hnRNP A1. Further experimental evaluation demonstrated that VPC-80051 interacts directly with hnRNP A1 RBD and reduces AR-V7 messenger levels in 22Rv1 CRPC cell line. This study lays the groundwork for future structure-based development of more potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of hnRNP A1⁻RNA interactions aimed at altering the production of cancer-specific alternative splice isoforms. 10.3390/molecules24040763
    Developing new targeting strategy for androgen receptor variants in castration resistant prostate cancer. Wang Bin,Lo U-Ging,Wu Kaijie,Kapur Payal,Liu Xiangyang,Huang Jun,Chen Wei,Hernandez Elizabeth,Santoyo John,Ma Shi-Hong,Pong Rey-Chen,He Dalin,Cheng Yi-Qiang,Hsieh Jer-Tsong International journal of cancer The presence of androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) variants becomes a significant hallmark of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) relapsed from hormonal therapy and is associated with poor survival of CRPC patients because of lacking a ligand-binding domain. Currently, it still lacks an effective agent to target AR-V7 or AR-Vs in general. Here, we showed that a novel class of agents (thailanstatins, TSTs and spliceostatin A analogs) can significantly suppress the expression of AR-V7 mRNA and protein but in a less extent on the full-length AR expression. Mechanistically, TST-D is able to inhibit AR-V7 gene splicing by interfering the interaction between U2AF65 and SAP155 and preventing them from binding to polypyrimidine tract located between the branch point and the 3' splice site. In vivo, TST-D exhibits a potent tumor inhibitory effect on human CRPC xenografts leading to cell apoptosis. The machinery associated with AR gene splicing in CRPC is a potential target for drugs. Based on their potency in the suppression of AR-V7 responsible for the growth/survival of CRPC, TSTs representing a new class of anti-AR-V agents warrant further development into clinical application. 10.1002/ijc.30893
    Discordant and heterogeneous clinically relevant genomic alterations in circulating tumor cells vs plasma DNA from men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Gupta Santosh,Hovelson Daniel H,Kemeny Gabor,Halabi Susan,Foo Wen-Chi,Anand Monika,Somarelli Jason A,Tomlins Scott A,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Luo Jun,Dittamore Ryan V,George Daniel J,Rothwell Colin,Nanus David M,Armstrong Andrew J,Gregory Simon G Genes, chromosomes & cancer Circulating tumor cell (CTC) and cell-free (cf) DNA-based genomic alterations are increasingly being used for clinical decision-making in oncology. However, the concordance and discordance between paired CTC and cfDNA genomic profiles remain largely unknown. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on CTCs and cfDNA, and low-pass whole genome sequencing (lpWGS) on cfDNA to characterize genomic alterations (CNA) and tumor content in two independent prospective studies of 93 men with mCRPC treated with enzalutamide/abiraterone, or radium-223. Comprehensive analysis of 69 patient CTCs and 72 cfDNA samples from 93 men with mCRPC, including 64 paired samples, identified common concordant gains in FOXA1, AR, and MYC, and losses in BRCA1, PTEN, and RB1 between CTCs and cfDNA. Concordant PTEN loss and discordant BRCA2 gain were associated with significantly worse outcomes in Epic AR-V7 negative men with mCRPC treated with abiraterone/enzalutamide. We identified and externally validated CTC-specific genomic alternations that were discordant in paired cfDNA, even in samples with high tumor content. These CTC/cfDNA-discordant regions included key genomic regulators of lineage plasticity, osteomimicry, and cellular differentiation, including MYCN gain in CTCs (31%) that was rarely detected in cfDNA. CTC MYCN gain was associated with poor clinical outcomes in AR-V7 negative men and small cell transformation. In conclusion, we demonstrated concordance of multiple genomic alterations across CTC and cfDNA platforms; however, some genomic alterations displayed substantial discordance between CTC DNA and cfDNA despite the use of identical copy number analysis methods, suggesting tumor heterogeneity and divergent evolution associated with poor clinical outcomes. 10.1002/gcc.22824
    Targeting the KIF4A/AR Axis to Reverse Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Cao Qi,Song Zhengshuai,Ruan Hailong,Wang Cheng,Yang Xiong,Bao Lin,Wang Keshan,Cheng Gong,Xu TianBo,Xiao Wen,Xiong Zhiyong,Liu Di,Yang Ming,Zhou Diwei,Yang Hongmei,Chen Ke,Zhang Xiaoping Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Emerging evidence indicates that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often driven by constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) or its V7 splice variant (AR-V7) and commonly becomes resistant to endocrine therapy. The aim of this work is to evaluate the function of a kinesin protein, KIF4A, in regulating AR/AR-V7 in prostate cancer endocrine therapy resistance. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We examined KIF4A expression in clinical prostate cancer specimens by IHC. Regulated pathways were investigated by qRT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. A series of functional analyses were conducted in cell lines and xenograft models. RESULTS:Examination of the KIF4A protein and mRNA levels in patients with prostate cancer showed that increased expression of KIF4A was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) levels. Patients with lower tumor KIF4A expression had improved overall survival and disease-free survival. Mechanistically, KIF4A and AR form an auto-regulatory positive feedback loop in prostate cancer: KIF4A binds AR and AR-V7 and prevents CHIP-mediated AR and AR-V7 degradation; AR binds the promoter region of KIF4A and activates its transcription. KIF4A promotes castration-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell growth through AR- and AR-V7-dependent signaling. Furthermore, KIF4A expression is upregulated in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells, and KIF4A knockdown effectively reverses enzalutamide resistance and enhances the sensitivity of CRPC cells to endocrine therapy. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that KIF4A plays an important role in the progression of CRPC and serves as a crucial determinant of the resistance of CRPC to endocrine therapy. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0396
    Arginine vasopressin receptor 1a is a therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Zhao Ning,Peacock Stephanie O,Lo Chen Hao,Heidman Laine M,Rice Meghan A,Fahrenholtz Cale D,Greene Ann M,Magani Fiorella,Copello Valeria A,Martinez Maria Julia,Zhang Yushan,Daaka Yehia,Lynch Conor C,Burnstein Kerry L Science translational medicine Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) recurs after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and is incurable. Reactivation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the low androgen environment of ADT drives CRPC. This AR activity occurs through a variety of mechanisms, including up-regulation of AR coactivators such as VAV3 and expression of constitutively active AR variants such as the clinically relevant AR-V7. AR-V7 lacks a ligand-binding domain and is linked to poor prognosis. We previously showed that VAV3 enhances AR-V7 activity to drive CRPC progression. Gene expression profiling after depletion of either VAV3 or AR-V7 in CRPC cells revealed arginine vasopressin receptor 1a () as the most commonly down-regulated gene, indicating that this G protein-coupled receptor may be critical for CRPC. Analysis of publicly available human PC datasets showed that has a higher copy number and increased amounts of mRNA in advanced PC. Depletion of AVPR1A in CRPC cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and reduced cyclin A. In contrast, androgen-dependent PC, AR-negative PC, or nontumorigenic prostate epithelial cells, which have undetectable mRNA, were minimally affected by AVPR1A depletion. Ectopic expression of AVPR1A in androgen-dependent PC cells conferred castration resistance in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, treatment of CRPC cells with the AVPR1A ligand, arginine vasopressin (AVP), activated ERK and CREB, known promoters of PC progression. A clinically safe and selective AVPR1A antagonist, relcovaptan, prevented CRPC emergence and decreased CRPC orthotopic and bone metastatic growth in mouse models. Based on these preclinical findings, repurposing AVPR1A antagonists is a promising therapeutic approach for CRPC. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaw4636
    Re: Diverse AR-V7 Cistromes in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer are Governed by HoxB13. Atala Anthony The Journal of urology 10.1097/01.ju.0000550210.76901.34
    Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) and drug efficacy in castration-resistant prostate cancer: Biomarker for treatment selection exclusion or inclusion? Leibrand Crystal R,Price Douglas K,Figg William D Cancer biology & therapy Currently there are no molecular biomarkers used to help guide treatment selection for those patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. A recent study published in JAMA Oncology (Antonarakis et al.) presents evidence supporting the potential use of androgen receptor splice variant 7 as a biomarker for optimal treatment selection in this population. 10.1080/15384047.2016.1156274
    Downregulation of Accelerates Progression to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Russo Joshua W,Gao Ce,Bhasin Swati S,Voznesensky Olga S,Calagua Carla,Arai Seiji,Nelson Peter S,Montgomery Bruce,Mostaghel Elahe A,Corey Eva,Taplin Mary-Ellen,Ye Huihui,Bhasin Manoj,Balk Steven P Cancer research The standard treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), is designed to suppress androgen receptor (AR) activity. However, men invariably progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and AR reactivation contributes to progression in most cases. To identify mechanisms that may drive CRPC, we examined a VCaP prostate cancer xenograft model as tumors progressed from initial androgen sensitivity prior to castration to castration resistance and then on to relapse after combined therapy with further AR-targeted drugs (abiraterone plus enzalutamide). AR activity persisted in castration-resistant and abiraterone/enzalutamide-resistant xenografts and was associated with increased expression of the AR gene and the AR-V7 splice variant. We then assessed expression of individual AR-regulated genes to identify those that persisted, thereby contributing to tumor growth, versus those that decreased and may therefore exhibit tumor suppressor activities. The most significantly decreased AR target gene was dipeptidyl peptidase 4 , which encodes a membrane-anchored protein that cleaves dipeptides from multiple growth factors, resulting in their increased degradation. DPP4 mRNA and protein were also decreased in clinical CRPC cases, and inhibition of DPP4 with sitagliptin enhanced the growth of prostate cancer xenografts following castration. Significantly, DPP4 inhibitors are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes as they increase insulin secretion. Together, these results implicate DPP4 as an AR-regulated tumor suppressor gene whose loss enhances growth factor activity and suggest that treatment with DPP4 inhibitors may accelerate emergence of resistance to ADT. These findings identify DPP4 as an AR-stimulated tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated during progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer, warning that treatment with DPP4 inhibitors, commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, may accelerate prostate cancer progression following androgen deprivation therapy. . 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0687
    Clinical Significance of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 mRNA Detection in Circulating Tumor Cells of Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated With First- and Second-Line Abiraterone and Enzalutamide. Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Lu Changxue,Luber Brandon,Wang Hao,Chen Yan,Zhu Yezi,Silberstein John L,Taylor Maritza N,Maughan Benjamin L,Denmeade Samuel R,Pienta Kenneth J,Paller Channing J,Carducci Michael A,Eisenberger Mario A,Luo Jun Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose We reported previously that the detection of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) mRNA in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) correlated with poor outcomes from the use of abiraterone and enzalutamide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Here, we expanded our cohort size to better characterize the prognostic significance of AR-V7 in this setting. Methods We prospectively enrolled 202 patients with CRPC starting abiraterone or enzalutamide and investigated the prognostic value of CTC detection (+ v -) and AR-V7 detection (+ v -) using a CTC-based AR-V7 mRNA assay. We examined ≥ 50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses, PSA progression-free survival, clinical and radiologic progression-free survival, and overall survival. We constructed multivariable models adjusting for PSA, Gleason sum, number of prior hormone therapies, prior abiraterone or enzalutamide use, prior taxane use, presence of visceral metastases, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score. We also separately examined the first-line and second-line novel hormonal therapy (NHT) settings. Results Median follow-up times were 15.0, 21.7, and 14.6 months for CTC-, CTC+/AR-V7- and CTC+/AR-V7+ patients, respectively. CTC+/AR-V7+ patients were more likely to have Gleason scores ≥ 8 ( P = .05), metastatic disease at diagnosis ( P = .01), higher PSA ( P < .01), prior abiraterone or enzalutamide use ( P = .03), prior taxane use ( P = .02), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 1 ( P = .01). Outcomes for the overall cohort (and separately for the first-line and second-line NHT cohorts) were best for CTC- patients, intermediate for CTC+/AR-V7- patients, and worse for CTC+/AR-V7+ patients. These correlations remained significant in multivariable models. Conclusion This expanded analysis further characterizes the importance of CTC-based AR-V7 mRNA detection in predicting outcomes in patients with CRPC receiving first- and second-line NHT and, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to suggest that this assay be interpreted using three separate prognostic categories: CTC-, CTC+/AR-V7-, and CTC+/AR-V7+. 10.1200/JCO.2016.70.1961
    Novel AR-V7 detection in whole blood samples in patients with prostate cancer: not as simple as it seems. Bernemann Christof,Steinestel Julie,Boegemann Martin,Schrader Andres J World journal of urology 10.1007/s00345-017-2024-6
    Re: Diverse AR-V7 Cistromes in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer are Governed by HoxB13. Atala Anthony The Journal of urology 10.1097/01.JU.0000553716.75971.4e
    Niclosamide enhances abiraterone treatment via inhibition of androgen receptor variants in castration resistant prostate cancer. Liu Chengfei,Armstrong Cameron,Zhu Yezi,Lou Wei,Gao Allen C Oncotarget Considerable evidence from both clinical and experimental studies suggests that androgen receptor variants, particularly androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7), are critical in the induction of resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone. In this study, we investigated the role of AR-V7 in the cross-resistance of enzalutamide and abiraterone and examined if inhibition of AR-V7 can improve abiraterone treatment response. We found that enzalutamide-resistant cells are cross-resistant to abiraterone, and that AR-V7 confers resistance to abiraterone. Knock down of AR-V7 by siRNA in abiraterone resistant CWR22Rv1 and C4-2B MDVR cells restored their sensitivity to abiraterone, indicating that AR-V7 is involved in abiraterone resistance. Abiraterone resistant prostate cancer cells generated by chronic treatment with abiraterone showed enhanced AR-V7 protein expression. Niclosamide, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug that has been previously identified as a potent inhibitor of AR-V7, re-sensitizes resistant cells to abiraterone treatment in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this preclinical study suggests that overexpression of AR-V7 contributes to resistance to abiraterone, and supports the development of combination of abiraterone with niclosamide as a potential treatment for advanced castration resistant prostate cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.8493
    ACK1/TNK2 Regulates Histone H4 Tyr88-phosphorylation and AR Gene Expression in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Mahajan Kiran,Malla Pavani,Lawrence Harshani R,Chen Zhihua,Kumar-Sinha Chandan,Malik Rohit,Shukla Sudhanshu,Kim Jongphil,Coppola Domenico,Lawrence Nicholas J,Mahajan Nupam P Cancer cell The androgen receptor (AR) is critical for the progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant (CRPC) state. AR antagonists are ineffective due to their inability to repress the expression of AR or its splice variant, AR-V7. Here, we report that the tyrosine kinase ACK1 (TNK2) phosphorylates histone H4 at tyrosine 88 upstream of the AR transcription start site. The WDR5/MLL2 complex reads the H4-Y88-phosphorylation marks and deposits the transcriptionally activating H3K4-trimethyl marks promoting AR transcription. Reversal of the pY88-H4 epigenetic marks by the ACK1 inhibitor (R)-9bMS-sensitized naive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells and reduced AR and AR-V7 levels to mitigate CRPC tumor growth. Thus, a feedforward ACK1/pY88-H4/WDR5/MLL2/AR epigenetic circuit drives CRPC and is necessary for maintenance of the malignant state. 10.1016/j.ccell.2017.05.003
    Assessment of the Validity of Nuclear-Localized Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 in Circulating Tumor Cells as a Predictive Biomarker for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Scher Howard I,Graf Ryon P,Schreiber Nicole A,Jayaram Anuradha,Winquist Eric,McLaughlin Brigit,Lu David,Fleisher Martin,Orr Sarah,Lowes Lori,Anderson Amanda,Wang Yipeng,Dittamore Ryan,Allan Alison L,Attard Gerhardt,Heller Glenn JAMA oncology Importance:A blood test to determine whether to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with an androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitor or taxane is an unmet medical need. Objective:To determine whether a validated assay for the nuclear-localized androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) protein in circulating tumor cells can determine differential overall survival among patients with mCRPC treated with taxanes vs ARS inhibitors. Design, Setting, and Participants:This blinded correlative study conducted from December 31, 2012, to September 1, 2016, included 142 patients with histologically confirmed mCRPC and who were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Royal Marsden, or the London Health Sciences Centre. Blood samples were obtained prior to administration of ARS inhibitors or taxanes as a second-line or greater systemic therapy for progressing mCRPC. Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival after treatment with an ARS inhibitor or taxane in relation to pretherapy AR-V7 status. Results:Among the 142 patients in the study (mean [SD] age, 69.5 [9.6] years), 70 were designated as high risk by conventional prognostic factors. In this high-risk group, patients positive for AR-V7 who were treated with taxanes had superior overall survival relative to those treated with ARS inhibitors (median overall survival, 14.3 vs 7.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.28-1.39; P = .25). Patients negative for AR-V7 who were treated with ARS inhibitors had superior overall survival relative to those treated with taxanes (median overall survival, 19.8 vs 12.8 months; hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81; P = .05). Conclusions and Relevance:This study suggests that nuclear-localized AR-V7 protein in circulating tumor cells can identify patients who may live longer with taxane chemotherapy vs ARS inhibitor treatment. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1621
    Prospective Multicenter Validation of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 and Hormone Therapy Resistance in High-Risk Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: The PROPHECY Study. Armstrong Andrew J,Halabi Susan,Luo Jun,Nanus David M,Giannakakou Paraskevi,Szmulewitz Russell Z,Danila Daniel C,Healy Patrick,Anand Monika,Rothwell Colin J,Rasmussen Julia,Thornburg Blair,Berry William R,Wilder Rhonda S,Lu Changxue,Chen Yan,Silberstein John L,Kemeny Gabor,Galletti Giuseppe,Somarelli Jason A,Gupta Santosh,Gregory Simon G,Scher Howard I,Dittamore Ryan,Tagawa Scott T,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,George Daniel J Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology PURPOSE:Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) results in a truncated receptor, which leads to ligand-independent constitutive activation that is not inhibited by anti-androgen therapies, including abiraterone or enzalutamide. Given that previous reports suggested that circulating tumor cell (CTC) AR-V7 detection is a poor prognostic indicator for the clinical efficacy of secondary hormone therapies, we conducted a prospective multicenter validation study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:PROPHECY ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269982) is a multicenter, prospective-blinded study of men with high-risk mCRPC starting abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide treatment. The primary objective was to validate the prognostic significance of baseline CTC AR-V7 on the basis of radiographic or clinical progression free-survival (PFS) by using the Johns Hopkins University modified-AdnaTest CTC AR-V7 mRNA assay and the Epic Sciences CTC nuclear-specific AR-V7 protein assay. Overall survival (OS) and prostate-specific antigen responses were secondary end points. RESULTS:We enrolled 118 men with mCRPC who were starting abiraterone or enzalutamide treatment. AR-V7 detection by both the Johns Hopkins and Epic AR-V7 assays was independently associated with shorter PFS (hazard ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3; = .032] and 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1 to 5.1; = .020], respectively) and OS (hazard ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 2.1 to 8.5] and 3.5 [95% CI, 1.6 to 8.1], respectively) after adjusting for CTC number and clinical prognostic factors. Men with AR-V7-positive mCRPC had fewer confirmed prostate-specific antigen responses (0% to 11%) or soft tissue responses (0% to 6%). The observed percentage agreement between the two AR-V7 assays was 82%. CONCLUSION:Detection of AR-V7 in CTCs by two blood-based assays is independently associated with shorter PFS and OS with abiraterone or enzalutamide, and such men with mCRPC should be offered alternative treatments. 10.1200/JCO.18.01731
    Androgen receptor variant-driven prostate cancer: clinical implications and therapeutic targeting. Antonarakis E S,Armstrong A J,Dehm S M,Luo J Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases While there are myriad mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to conventional and next-generation hormonal therapies in prostate cancer, the potential role of androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) has recently gained momentum. AR-Vs are abnormally truncated isoforms of the androgen receptor (AR) protein that lack the COOH-terminal domain but retain the NH2-terminal domain and DNA-binding domain and are thus constitutively active even in the absence of ligands. Although multiple preclinical studies have previously implicated AR-Vs in the development of castration resistance as well as resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide, recent technological advances have made it possible to reliably detect and quantify AR-Vs from human clinical tumor specimens including blood samples. Initial clinical studies have now shown that certain AR-Vs, in particular AR-V7, may be associated with resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide but not taxane chemotherapies when detected in circulating tumor cells. Efforts are now underway to clinically validate AR-V7 as a relevant treatment-selection biomarker in the context of other key genomic aberrations in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Additional efforts are underway to therapeutically target both AR and AR-Vs either directly or indirectly. Whether AR-Vs represent drivers of castration-resistant prostate cancer, or whether they are simply passenger events associated with aggressive disease or clonal heterogeneity, will ultimately be answered only through these types of clinical trials. 10.1038/pcan.2016.17
    Androgen receptor variation affects prostate cancer progression and drug resistance. McCrea Edel,Sissung Tristan M,Price Douglas K,Chau Cindy H,Figg William D Pharmacological research Significant therapeutic progress has been made in treating prostate cancer in recent years. Drugs such as enzalutamide, abiraterone, and cabazitaxel have expanded the treatment armamentarium, although it is not completely clear which of these drugs are the most-effective option for individual patients. Moreover, such advances have been tempered by the development of therapeutic resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature pertaining to the biochemical effects of AR variants and their consequences on prostate cancer therapies at both the molecular level and in clinical treatment. We address how these AR splice variants and mutations affect tumor progression and therapeutic resistance and discuss potential novel therapeutic strategies under development. It is hoped that these therapies can be administered with increasing precision as tumor genotyping methods become more sophisticated, thereby lending clinicians a better understanding of the underlying biology of prostate tumors in individual patients. 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.10.001
    Identification of miR-30b-3p and miR-30d-5p as direct regulators of androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer by complementary functional microRNA library screening. Kumar Binod,Khaleghzadegan Salar,Mears Brian,Hatano Koji,Kudrolli Tarana A,Chowdhury Wasim H,Yeater David B,Ewing Charles M,Luo Jun,Isaacs William B,Marchionni Luigi,Lupold Shawn E Oncotarget The Androgen Receptor (AR) plays a key role in prostate biology and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castration resistance. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in aberrant AR signaling have not been fully characterized. Here we screened a library of 810 miRNA mimics to identify miRNAs that alter AR activity in complementary functional assays including protein lysate microarray (LMA) quantification of AR and PSA protein levels, AR transcriptional reporter activity, and AR-positive PCa cell viability. Candidate AR-regulating miRNAs were verified through AR transcriptional reporter and cell viability assays. MiRNA binding sites were found within the AR 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and within the AR and AR-V7 coding regions. MiRNA activity was characterized by western blotting, 3'-UTR reporter assay, and AR-GFP and AR-V7-GFP reporter assays. Results uncovered miR-30 family members as direct AR inhibitors. Inhibition of endogenous miR-30b-3p and miR-30d-5p enhanced AR expression and androgen-independent cell growth. Droplet digital RT-PCR quantification of miR-30c-5p and miR-30d-5p revealed significantly reduced levels in metastatic castration resistant PCa (CRPC), when compared to healthy prostate tissues. MiR-30d-5p levels were inversely correlated with AR activity, as measured by PSA mRNA, in metastatic CRPC. Collectively, these studies provide a comprehensive evaluation of AR-regulating miRNAs in PCa. 10.18632/oncotarget.12241
    AR splice variants in circulating tumor cells of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer: relation with outcome to cabazitaxel. Sieuwerts Anieta M,Onstenk Wendy,Kraan Jaco,Beaufort Corine M,Van Mai,De Laere Bram,Dirix Luc Y,Hamberg Paul,Beeker Aart,Meulenbeld Hielke J,Creemers Geert-Jan,van Weerden Wytske M,Jenster Guido W,Nieuweboer Annemieke J M,Mathijssen Ron H J,de Wit Ronald,Martens John W M,Sleijfer Stefan Molecular oncology The androgen receptor splice variant (AR-V) 7 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a predictor for resistance to anti-AR-targeted treatment, but not to taxane-based chemotherapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In this study, we investigated whether the presence of two constitutively active variants (AR-V3, AR-V7) and two other conditionally activated variants (AR-V1, AR-V9) vs full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) measured in CTCs from patients with mCRPC were associated with outcome to therapy with the taxane cabazitaxel. Blood was collected at baseline and after two cycles of cabazitaxel from 118 mCRPC patients starting cabazitaxel in a prospective phase II trial. CellSearch-enriched CTCs were enumerated and in parallel characterized for the presence of the AR-Vs by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Correlations with CTC and prostate-specific antigen response to cabazitaxel as well as associations with overall survival (OS) were investigated. All AR-Vs were frequently present and co-expressed at frequencies of 31-48% at baseline and at 19-40% after two cycles of cabazitaxel. No specific directions of change in the measured variants were detected between the start of treatment and after two cycles of cabazitaxel. No associations between the presence of AR-V3 and AR-V7 and outcome to cabazitaxel were observed. While a reduction in CTCs to < 5 CTCs during treatment (CTC5-response) was less often observed in patients with AR-V9-positive CTCs at baseline (P = 0.004), the CTC5-adjusted detection of AR-V1 after two cycles of cabazitaxel was an independent prognostic factor for OS [HR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.1, P = 0.03)]. These novel findings are expected to contribute to more personalized treatment approaches in mCRPC patients. 10.1002/1878-0261.12529
    Dissecting Prognostic From Predictive Utility: Circulating AR-V7 Biomarker Testing for Advanced Prostate Cancer. Sharp Adam,Porta Nuria,Lambros Maryou B K,Welti Jonathan C,Paschalis Alec,Raj Ganesh V,Plymate Stephen P,de Bono Johann S Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 10.1200/JCO.19.01104
    The Detection of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 in Plasma-derived Exosomal RNA Strongly Predicts Resistance to Hormonal Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients. Del Re Marzia,Biasco Elisa,Crucitta Stefania,Derosa Lisa,Rofi Eleonora,Orlandini Cinzia,Miccoli Mario,Galli Luca,Falcone Alfredo,Jenster Guido W,van Schaik Ron H,Danesi Romano European urology BACKGROUND:The androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with resistance to hormonal therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Due to limitations of the methods available for AR-V7 analysis, the identification of a reliable detection method may facilitate the use of this biomarker in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE:To confirm AR-V7 as a predictor of resistance to hormonal therapy and develop a new approach to assess AR-V7 by highly sensitive digital droplet polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) in plasma-derived exosomal RNA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Plasma samples were collected from 36 CRPC patients before they began second-line hormonal treatment. Exosomes were isolated and RNA extracted for analysis of AR-V7 by ddPCR. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:The absolute target gene concentration as copies per milliliter (copies/ml) was determined by ddPCR. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:A total of 26 patients received abiraterone and 10 enzalutamide; 39% of patients were found to be AR-V7 positive (AR-V7). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in AR-V7 negative (AR-V7) versus AR-V7 patients (20 vs 3 mo; p<0.001). Overall survival was significantly shorter in AR-V7 participants at baseline compared with AR-V7 participants (8 mo vs not reached; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that plasma-derived exosomal RNA is a reliable source of AR-V7 that can be detected sensitively by ddPCR assay. We also showed that resistance to hormonal therapy may be predicted by AR-V7, making it a clinically relevant biomarker. PATIENT SUMMARY:We report a first study on a method for androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection in RNA extracted from cancer cell vesicles released in blood. Results confirmed the role of AR-V7 as a predictive biomarker of resistance to hormonal therapy. Our assay showed that vesicles are a reliable source of AR-V7 RNA and that the method is fast, highly sensitive, and affordable. 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.08.012
    Targeting AR Variant-Coactivator Interactions to Exploit Prostate Cancer Vulnerabilities. Magani Fiorella,Peacock Stephanie O,Rice Meghan A,Martinez Maria J,Greene Ann M,Magani Pablo S,Lyles Rolando,Weitz Jonathan R,Burnstein Kerry L Molecular cancer research : MCR Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progresses rapidly and is incurable. Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) represent a well-established mechanism of therapeutic resistance and disease progression. These variants lack the AR ligand-binding domain and, as such, are not inhibited by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is the standard systemic approach for advanced prostate cancer. Signaling by AR-Vs, including the clinically relevant AR-V7, is augmented by Vav3, an established AR coactivator in CRPC. Using mutational and biochemical studies, we demonstrated that the Vav3 Diffuse B-cell lymphoma homology (DH) domain interacted with the N-terminal region of AR-V7 (and full length AR). Expression of the Vav3 DH domain disrupted Vav3 interaction with and enhancement of AR-V7 activity. The Vav3 DH domain also disrupted AR-V7 interaction with other AR coactivators: Src1 and Vav2, which are overexpressed in PC. This Vav3 domain was used in proof-of-concept studies to evaluate the effects of disrupting the interaction between AR-V7 and its coactivators on CRPC cells. This disruption decreased CRPC cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, caused increased apoptosis, decreased migration, and resulted in the acquisition of morphological changes associated with a less aggressive phenotype. While disrupting the interaction between FL-AR and its coactivators decreased N-C terminal interaction, disrupting the interaction of AR-V7 with its coactivators decreased AR-V7 nuclear levels. This study demonstrates the potential therapeutic utility of inhibiting constitutively active AR-V signaling by disrupting coactivator binding. Such an approach is significant, as AR-Vs are emerging as important drivers of CRPC that are particularly recalcitrant to current therapies. . 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-17-0280
    Spliceosome component SF3B1 as novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Jiménez-Vacas Juan M,Herrero-Aguayo Vicente,Gómez-Gómez Enrique,León-González Antonio J,Sáez-Martínez Prudencio,Alors-Pérez Emilia,Fuentes-Fayos Antonio C,Martínez-López Ana,Sánchez-Sánchez Rafael,González-Serrano Teresa,López-Ruiz Daniel J,Requena-Tapia María J,Castaño Justo P,Gahete Manuel D,Luque Raúl M Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers types among men. Development and progression of PCa is associated with aberrant expression of oncogenic splicing-variants (eg, AR-v7), suggesting that dysregulation of the splicing process might represent a potential actionable target for PCa. Expression levels (mRNA and protein) of SF3B1, one of the main components of the splicing machinery, were analyzed in different cohorts of PCa patients (clinically localized [n = 84], highly aggressive PCa [n = 42], and TCGA dataset [n = 497]). Functional and mechanistic assays were performed in response to pladienolide-B in nontumor and tumor-derived prostate cells. Our results revealed that SF3B1 was overexpressed in PCa tissues and its levels were associated with clinically relevant PCa-aggressive features (eg, metastasis/AR-v7 expression). Moreover, inhibition of SF3B1 activity by pladienolide-B reduced functional parameters of aggressiveness (proliferation/migration/tumorspheres-formation/apoptosis) in PCa cell lines, irrespective of AR-v7 expression, and reduced viability of primary PCa cells. Antitumor actions of pladienolide-B involved: (1) inhibition of PI3K/AKT and JNK signaling pathways, (2) modulation of tumor markers and splicing variants (AR-v7/In1-ghrelin), and (3) regulation of key components of mRNA homeostasis-associated machineries (spliceosome/SURF/EJC). Altogether, our results demonstrated that SF3B1 is overexpressed and associated with malignant features in PCa, and its inhibition reduces PCa aggressiveness, suggesting that SF3B1 could represent a novel prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in PCa. 10.1016/j.trsl.2019.07.001
    Comparison of the effect of the antiandrogen apalutamide (ARN-509) versus bicalutamide on the androgen receptor pathway in prostate cancer cell lines. Koukourakis Michael I,Kakouratos Christos,Kalamida Dimitra,Mitrakas Achilleas,Pouliliou Stamatia,Xanthopoulou Erasmia,Papadopoulou Evdokia,Fasoulaki Virginia,Giatromanolaki Alexandra Anti-cancer drugs Apalutamide (ARN-509) is an antiandrogen that binds selectively to androgen receptors (AR) and does not show antagonist-to-agonist switch like bicalutamide. We compared the activity of ARN versus bicalutamide on prostate cancer cell lines. The 22Rv1, PC3, and DU145 cell lines were used to study the effect of ARN and bicalutamide on the expression cytoplasmic/nuclear kinetics of AR, AR-V7 variant, phosphorylated AR, as well as the levels of the AR downstream proteins prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2, under exposure to testosterone and/or hypoxia. The effects on autophagic flux (LC3A, p62, TFEB, LAMP2a, cathepsin D) and cell metabolism-related enzymes (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/2α, BNIP3, carbonic anhydrase 9, LDHA, PDH, PDH-kinase) were also studied. The 22Rv1 cell line responded to testosterone by increasing the nuclear entry of AR, AR-V7, and phosphorylated AR and by increasing the levels of prostate-specific antigen and TMPRSS2. This effect was strongly abrogated by ARN and to a clearly lower extent by bicalutamide at 10 μmol/l, both in normoxia and in hypoxia. ARN had a stronger antiproliferative effect than bicalutamide, which was prominent in the 22Rv1 hormone-responsive cell line, and completely repressed cell proliferation at a concentration of 100 μmol/l. No effect of testosterone or of antiandrogens on autophagy flux, hypoxia-related proteins, or metabolism enzyme levels was noted. The PC3 and DU145 cell lines showed poor expression of the proteins and were not responsive to testosterone. On the basis of in-vitro studies, evidence has been reported that ARN is more potent than bicalutamide in blocking the AR pathway in normoxia and in hypoxia. This reflects a more robust, dose-dependent, repressive effect on cell proliferation. 10.1097/CAD.0000000000000592
    Niclosamide and Bicalutamide Combination Treatment Overcomes Enzalutamide- and Bicalutamide-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Liu Chengfei,Armstrong Cameron M,Lou Wei,Lombard Alan P,Cucchiara Vito,Gu Xinwei,Yang Joy C,Nadiminty Nagalakshmi,Pan Chong-Xian,Evans Christopher P,Gao Allen C Molecular cancer therapeutics Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) and its splice variants is linked to advanced prostate cancer and drives resistance to antiandrogens. The roles of AR and AR variants in the development of resistance to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and bicalutamide treatment, however, are still incompletely understood. To determine whether AR variants play a role in bicalutamide resistance, we developed bicalutamide-resistant LNCaP cells (LNCaP-BicR) and found that these resistant cells express significantly increased levels of AR variants, particularly AR-V7, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Exogenous expression of AR-V7 in bicalutamide-sensitive LNCaP cells confers resistance to bicalutamide treatment. Knockdown of AR-V7 in bicalutamide- and enzalutamide-resistant CWR22Rv1, enzalutamide-resistant C4-2B (C4-2B MDVR), and LNCaP-BicR cells reversed bicalutamide resistance. Niclosamide, a potent inhibitor of AR variants, significantly enhanced bicalutamide treatment. Niclosamide and bicalutamide combination treatment not only suppressed AR and AR variants expression and inhibited their recruitment to the PSA promoter, but also significantly induced apoptosis in bicalutamide- and enzalutamide-resistant CWR22Rv1 and C4-2B MDVR cells. In addition, combination of niclosamide with bicalutamide inhibited the growth of enzalutamide-resistant tumors. In summary, our results demonstrate that AR variants, particularly AR-V7, drive bicalutamide resistance and that targeting AR-V7 with niclosamide can resensitize bicalutamide-resistant cells to bicalutamide treatment. Furthermore, combination of niclosamide with bicalutamide inhibits enzalutamide resistant tumor growth, suggesting that the combination of niclosamide and bicalutamide could be a potential cost-effective strategy to treat advanced prostate cancer in patients, including those who fail to respond to enzalutamide therapy. . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-16-0912
    Marine compound rhizochalinin shows high in vitro and in vivo efficacy in castration resistant prostate cancer. Dyshlovoy Sergey A,Otte Katharina,Alsdorf Winfried H,Hauschild Jessica,Lange Tobias,Venz Simone,Bauer Christiane K,Bähring Robert,Amann Kerstin,Mandanchi Ramin,Schumacher Udo,Schröder-Schwarz Jennifer,Makarieva Tatyana N,Guzii Alla G,Tabakmakher Kseniya M,Fedorov Sergey N,Shubina Larisa K,Kasheverov Igor E,Ehmke Heimo,Steuber Thomas,Stonik Valentin A,Bokemeyer Carsten,Honecker Friedemann,von Amsberg Gunhild Oncotarget Development of drug resistance is an inevitable phenomenon in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells requiring novel therapeutic approaches. In this study, efficacy and toxicity of Rhizochalinin (Rhiz) - a novel sphingolipid-like marine compound - was evaluated in prostate cancer models, resistant to currently approved standard therapies. In vitro activity and mechanism of action of Rhiz were examined in the human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU145, LNCaP, 22Rv1, and VCaP. Rhiz significantly reduced cell viability at low micromolar concentrations showing most pronounced effects in enzalutamide and abiraterone resistant AR-V7 positive cells. Caspase-dependent apoptosis, inhibition of pro-survival autophagy, downregulation of AR-V7, PSA and IGF-1 expression as well as inhibition of voltage-gated potassium channels were identified as mechanisms of action. Remarkably, Rhiz re-sensitized AR-V7 positive cells to enzalutamide and increased efficacy of taxanes.In vivo activity and toxicity were evaluated in PC-3 and 22Rv1 NOD SCID mouse xenograft models using i.p. administration. Rhiz significantly reduced growth of PC-3 and 22Rv1 tumor xenografts by 27.0% (p = 0.0156) and 46.8% (p = 0.047) compared with controls with an increased fraction of tumor cells showing apoptosis secondary to Rhiz exposure. In line with the in vitro data, Rhiz was most active in AR-V7 positive xenografts in vivo. In animals, no severe side effects were observed.In conclusion, Rhiz is a promising novel marine-derived compound characterized by a unique combination of anticancer properties. Its further clinical development is of high impact for patients suffering from drug resistant prostate cancer especially those harboring AR-V7 mediated resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone. 10.18632/oncotarget.11941
    Clinical Utility of CLIA-Grade AR-V7 Testing in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Markowski Mark C,Silberstein John L,Eshleman James R,Eisenberger Mario A,Luo Jun,Antonarakis Emmanuel S JCO precision oncology Purpose:A splice variant of the androgen receptor, AR-V7, confers resistance to AR-targeted therapies (ATTs) but not taxane chemotherapies in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Since August 2015, a clinical-grade assay to detect AR-V7 messenger RNA expression in circulating tumors cells (CTCs) has been available to providers through a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory at Johns Hopkins University. Methods:We contacted ordering providers of the first 150 consecutive tests by using a questionnaire-based survey to determine how the results of AR-V7 testing were used to influence clinical practice. Results:In all, 142 (95%) of 150 questionnaires were completed by 38 providers from 29 sites across the United States and Canada. AR-V7 test results were reported either as CTC- (28%), CTC+/AR-V7- (30%), or CTC+/AR-V7+ (42%). Prevalence of AR-V7 detection increased with prior exposure to ATTs (abiraterone and enzalutamide naïve, 22%; after abiraterone or enzalutamide, 35%; after abiraterone and enzalutamide, 43%). Overall, management was affected by AR-V7 testing in 53% of the patients and even more often with CTC+/AR-V7+ results. AR-V7+ patients were commonly switched from ATT to taxane chemotherapy (43%) or were offered a clinical trial (43%); management remained unchanged in only 14% of these patients. Overall, patients who had a change in management on the basis of AR-V7 testing were significantly more likely to achieve a physician-reported 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen response on next-line therapy than those who did not change treatment (54% 31%; = .015). Conclusion:Providers used AR-V7 testing to influence clinical decision making more often than not. Physicians reported thatmenwithAR-V7+results had the most treatment changes, and such men were preferentially managed with taxane therapy or offered a clinical trial, which may have improved outcomes. 10.1200/PO.17.00127
    Second-Generation HSP90 Inhibitor Onalespib Blocks mRNA Splicing of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 in Prostate Cancer Cells. Ferraldeschi Roberta,Welti Jonathan,Powers Marissa V,Yuan Wei,Smyth Tomoko,Seed George,Riisnaes Ruth,Hedayat Somaieh,Wang Hannah,Crespo Mateus,Nava Rodrigues Daniel,Figueiredo Ines,Miranda Susana,Carreira Suzanne,Lyons John F,Sharp Swee,Plymate Stephen R,Attard Gerhardt,Wallis Nicola,Workman Paul,de Bono Johann S Cancer research Resistance to available hormone therapies in prostate cancer has been associated with alternative splicing of androgen receptor (AR) and specifically, the expression of truncated and constitutively active AR variant 7 (AR-V7). The transcriptional activity of steroid receptors, including AR, is dependent on interactions with the HSP90 chaperone machinery, but it is unclear whether HSP90 modulates the activity or expression of AR variants. Here, we investigated the effects of HSP90 inhibition on AR-V7 in prostate cancer cell lines endogenously expressing this variant. We demonstrate that AR-V7 and full-length AR (AR-FL) were depleted upon inhibition of HSP90. However, the mechanisms underlying AR-V7 depletion differed from those for AR-FL. Whereas HSP90 inhibition destabilized AR-FL and induced its proteasomal degradation, AR-V7 protein exhibited higher stability than AR-FL and did not require HSP90 chaperone activity. Instead, HSP90 inhibition resulted in the reduction of AR-V7 mRNA levels but did not affect total AR transcript levels, indicating that HSP90 inhibition disrupted AR-V7 splicing. Bioinformatic analyses of transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing data confirmed that the second-generation HSP90 inhibitor onalespib altered the splicing of at least 557 genes in prostate cancer cells, including AR. These findings indicate that the effects of HSP90 inhibition on mRNA splicing may prove beneficial in prostate cancers expressing AR-V7, supporting further clinical investigation of HSP90 inhibitors in malignancies no longer responsive to androgen deprivation. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2731-42. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-2186
    Snail promotes resistance to enzalutamide through regulation of androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Ware Kathryn E,Somarelli Jason A,Schaeffer Daneen,Li Jing,Zhang Tian,Park Sally,Patierno Steven R,Freedman Jennifer,Foo Wen-Chi,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Armstrong Andrew J Oncotarget Treatment with androgen-targeted therapies can induce upregulation of epithelial plasticity pathways. Epithelial plasticity is known to be important for metastatic dissemination and therapeutic resistance. The goal of this study is to elucidate the functional consequence of induced epithelial plasticity on AR regulation during disease progression to identify factors important for treatment-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer. We pinpoint the epithelial plasticity transcription factor, Snail, at the nexus of enzalutamide resistance and prostate cancer metastasis both in preclinical models of prostate cancer and in patients. In patients, Snail expression is associated with Gleason 9-10 high-risk disease and is strongly overexpressed in metastases as compared to localized prostate cancer. Snail expression is also elevated in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells compared to enzalutamide-sensitive cells, and downregulation of Snail re-sensitizes enzalutamide-resistant cells to enzalutamide. While activation of Snail increases migration and invasion, it is also capable of promoting enzalutamide resistance in enzalutamide-sensitive cells. This Snail-mediated enzalutamide resistance is a consequence of increased full-length AR and AR-V7 expression and nuclear localization. Downregulation of either full-length AR or AR-V7 re-sensitizes cells to enzalutamide in the presence of Snail, thus connecting Snail-induced enzalutamide resistance directly to AR biology. Finally, we demonstrate that Snail is capable of mediating-resistance through AR even in the absence of AR-V7. These findings imply that increased Snail expression during progression to metastatic disease may prime cells for resistance to AR-targeted therapies by promoting AR activity in prostate cancer. 10.18632/oncotarget.10476
    Circulating Tumor Cell-Based Molecular Classifier for Predicting Resistance to Abiraterone and Enzalutamide in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Chung Jae-Seung,Wang Yugang,Henderson James,Singhal Udit,Qiao Yuanyuan,Zaslavsky Alexander B,Hovelson Daniel H,Spratt Daniel E,Reichert Zachery,Palapattu Ganesh S,Taichman Russell S,Tomlins Scott A,Morgan Todd M Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) While circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based detection of AR-V7 has been demonstrated to predict patient response to second-generation androgen receptor therapies, the rarity of AR-V7 expression in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) suggests that other drivers of resistance exist. We sought to use a multiplex gene expression platform to interrogate CTCs and identify potential markers of resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. 37 patients with mCRPC initiating treatment with enzalutamide (n = 16) or abiraterone (n = 21) were prospectively enrolled for CTC collection and gene expression analysis using a panel of 89 prostate cancer-related genes. Gene expression from CTCs was correlated with PSA response and radioclinical progression-free survival (PFS) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Twenty patients (54%) had detectable CTCs. At a median follow-up of 11.3 months, increased expression of the following genes was significantly associated with shorter PSA PFS and radioclinical PFS: AR, AR-V7, PSA, PSCA, TSPAN8, NKX3.1, and WNT5B. Additionally, high SPINK1 expression was associated with increased PFS. A predictive model including all eight genes gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84 for PSA PFS and 0.86 for radioclinical PFS. In comparison, the AR-V7 only model resulted in AUC values of 0.65 and 0.64.These data demonstrate that clinically relevant information regarding gene expression can be obtained from whole blood using a CTC-based approach. Multigene classifiers in this setting may allow for the development of noninvasive predictive biomarkers to guide clinical management. 10.1016/j.neo.2019.06.002
    Suppression of prostate tumor cell survival by antisense oligonucleotide-mediated inhibition of AR-V7 mRNA synthesis. Luna Velez Maria V,Verhaegh Gerald W,Smit Frank,Sedelaar J P Michiel,Schalken Jack A Oncogene One of the mechanisms by which advanced prostate cancer develops resistance to androgen deprivation therapy is the elevated expression of C-terminally truncated androgen receptor (AR) variants. These variants, such as AR-V7, originate from aberrant splicing of the AR pre-mRNA and the inclusion of a cryptic exon containing a premature stop codon in the mRNA. The resulting loss of the ligand-binding domain allows AR-V7 to act as a constitutively active transcription factor. Here, we designed two antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) directed against cryptic splicing signals within the AR pre-mRNA. These two AONs, AON-ISE and AON-ESE, demonstrated high efficiency in silencing AR-V7 splicing without affecting full-length AR expression. The subsequent downregulation of AR-V7-target gene UBE2C was accompanied by inhibition of androgen-independent cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)-derived cell line models 22Rv1, DuCaP, and VCaP. Our results show that splicing-directed AONs can efficiently prevent expression of AR-V7, providing an attractive new therapeutic option for the treatment of CRPC. 10.1038/s41388-019-0696-7
    Comprehensive Profiling of the Androgen Receptor in Liquid Biopsies from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Reveals Novel Intra-AR Structural Variation and Splice Variant Expression Patterns. De Laere Bram,van Dam Pieter-Jan,Whitington Tom,Mayrhofer Markus,Diaz Emanuela Henao,Van den Eynden Gert,Vandebroek Jean,Del-Favero Jurgen,Van Laere Steven,Dirix Luc,Grönberg Henrik,Lindberg Johan European urology BACKGROUND:Expression of the androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with poor response to second-line endocrine therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, a large fraction of nonresponding patients are AR-V7-negative. OBJECTIVE:To investigate if a comprehensive liquid biopsy-based AR profile may improve patient stratification in the context of second-line endocrine therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Peripheral blood was collected from patients with CRPC (n=30) before initiation of a new line of systemic therapy. We performed profiling of circulating tumour DNA via low-pass whole-genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of the entire AR gene, including introns. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed on enriched circulating tumour cell fractions to assess the expression levels of seven AR splice variants (ARVs). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Somatic AR variations, including copy-number alterations, structural variations, and point mutations, were combined with ARV expression patterns and correlated to clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Collectively, any AR perturbation, including ARV, was detected in 25/30 patients. Surprisingly, intra-AR structural variation was present in 15/30 patients, of whom 14 expressed ARVs. The majority of ARV-positive patients expressed multiple ARVs, with AR-V3 the most abundantly expressed. The presence of any ARV was associated with progression-free survival after second-line endocrine treatment (hazard ratio 4.53, 95% confidence interval 1.424-14.41; p=0.0105). Six out of 17 poor responders were AR-V7-negative, but four carried other AR perturbations. CONCLUSIONS:Comprehensive AR profiling, which is feasible using liquid biopsies, is necessary to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resistance to endocrine treatment. PATIENT SUMMARY:Alterations in the androgen receptor are associated with endocrine treatment outcomes. This study demonstrates that it is possible to identify different types of alterations via simple blood draws. Follow-up studies are needed to determine the effect of such alterations on hormonal therapy. 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.01.011
    Practical Polling for Prostate Cancer: AR-V7-based Treatment Selection. Lamb Alastair D,Lawrence Mitchell G,Sandhu Shahneen European urology 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.12.028
    Upregulated circZMIZ1 promotes the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and is a valuable marker in plasma. Jiang H,Lv D J,Song X L,Wang C,Yu Y Z,Zhao S C Neoplasma Increasing evidences have proved that circular RNAs (circRNAs), identified as a specific kind of non-coding RNAs, play a potential critical role in tumorigenesis including prostate cancer. However, the function of circRNAs in human prostate cancer remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of circZMIZ1 was higher in plasma of human prostate cancer than the paired benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients' plasma. Moreover, in cultured prostate cancer cells, knockdown of circZMIZ1 inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest at G1. Mechanistically, we also showed that circZMIZ1 could increase the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), which may be partly contributed to the occurrence and development of prostate cancer. In conclusion, these results revealed that circZMIZ1 might serve as a novel biomarker and a treatment target for prostate cancer treatment. 10.4149/neo_2019_190213N116
    SF3B2-Mediated RNA Splicing Drives Human Prostate Cancer Progression. Kawamura Norihiko,Nimura Keisuke,Saga Kotaro,Ishibashi Airi,Kitamura Koji,Nagano Hiromichi,Yoshikawa Yusuke,Ishida Kyoso,Nonomura Norio,Arisawa Mitsuhiro,Luo Jun,Kaneda Yasufumi Cancer research Androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) is a constitutively active AR variant implicated in castration-resistant prostate cancers. Here, we show that the RNA splicing factor SF3B2, identified by and CRISPR/Cas9 analyses, is a critical determinant of expression and is correlated with aggressive cancer phenotypes. Transcriptome and PAR-CLIP analyses revealed that SF3B2 controls the splicing of target genes, including AR, to drive aggressive phenotypes. SF3B2-mediated aggressive phenotypes were reversed by AR-V7 knockout. Pladienolide B, an inhibitor of a splicing modulator of the SF3b complex, suppressed the growth of tumors addicted to high SF3B2 expression. These findings support the idea that alteration of the splicing pattern by high SF3B2 expression is one mechanism underlying prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. This study also provides evidence supporting SF3B2 as a candidate therapeutic target for treating patients with cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: RNA splicing factor SF3B2 is essential for the generation of an androgen receptor (AR) variant that renders prostate cancer cells resistant to AR-targeting therapy. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/79/20/5204/F1.large.jpg. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3965
    Androgen Receptor Splice Variant, AR-V7, as a Biomarker of Resistance to Androgen Axis-Targeted Therapies in Advanced Prostate Cancer. Zhang Tian,Karsh Lawrence I,Nissenblatt Michael J,Canfield Steven E Clinical genitourinary cancer Many therapeutic options are now available for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), including next-generation androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies (AATTs), immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radioisotope therapies. No clear consensus has been reached for the optimal sequencing of treatments for patients with mCRPC, and few well-validated molecular markers exist to guide the treatment decisions for individual patients. The androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), a splice variant of the androgen receptor mRNA resulting in the truncation of the ligand-binding domain, has emerged as a biomarker for resistance to AATT. AR-V7 expression in circulating tumor cells has been associated with poor outcomes in patients treated with second- and third-line AATTs. Clinically validated assays are now commercially available for the AR-V7 biomarker. In the present review of the current literature, we have summarized the biology of resistance to AATT, with a focus on the AR-V7; and the clinical studies that have validated AR-V7 expression as a strong independent predictor of a lack of clinical benefit from AATTs. Existing evidence has indicated that patients with AR-V7-positive mCRPC will have better outcomes if treated with taxane chemotherapy regimens rather than additional AATTs. 10.1016/j.clgc.2019.09.015
    ZFX Mediates Non-canonical Oncogenic Functions of the Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 in Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cai Ling,Tsai Yi-Hsuan,Wang Ping,Wang Jun,Li Dongxu,Fan Huitao,Zhao Yilin,Bareja Rohan,Lu Rui,Wilson Elizabeth M,Sboner Andrea,Whang Young E,Zheng Deyou,Parker Joel S,Earp H Shelton,Wang Gang Greg Molecular cell Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is crucial for prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. We show that, independent of ligand, AR-V7 binds both androgen-responsive elements (AREs) and non-canonical sites distinct from full-length AR (AR-FL) targets. Consequently, AR-V7 not only recapitulates AR-FL's partial functions but also regulates an additional gene expression program uniquely via binding to gene promoters rather than ARE enhancers. AR-V7 binding and AR-V7-mediated activation at these unique targets do not require FOXA1 but rely on ZFX and BRD4. Knockdown of ZFX or select unique targets of AR-V7/ZFX, or BRD4 inhibition, suppresses growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. We also define an AR-V7 direct target gene signature that correlates with AR-V7 expression in primary tumors, differentiates metastatic prostate cancer from normal, and predicts poor prognosis. Thus, AR-V7 has both ARE/FOXA1 canonical and ZFX-directed non-canonical regulatory functions in the evolution of anti-androgen therapeutic resistance, providing information to guide effective therapeutic strategies. 10.1016/j.molcel.2018.08.029
    Growth Inhibition by Testosterone in an Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-Driven Prostate Cancer Model. Nakata Daisuke,Nakayama Kazuhide,Masaki Tsuneo,Tanaka Akira,Kusaka Masami,Watanabe Tatsuya The Prostate BACKGROUND:Castration resistance creates a significant problem in the treatment of prostate cancer. Constitutively active splice variants of androgen receptor (AR) have emerged as drivers for resistance to androgen deprivation therapy, including the next-generation androgen-AR axis inhibitors abiraterone and enzalutamide. In this study, we describe the characteristics of a novel castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) model, designated JDCaP-hr (hormone refractory). METHODS:JDCaP-hr was established from an androgen-dependent JDCaP xenograft model after surgical castration. The expression of AR and its splice variants in JDCaP-hr was evaluated by immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The effects of AR antagonists and testosterone on JDCaP-hr were evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The roles of full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 in JDCaP-hr cell growth were evaluated using RNA interference. RESULTS:JDCaP-hr acquired a C-terminally truncated AR protein during progression from the parental JDCaP. The expression of AR-FL and AR-V7 mRNA was upregulated by 10-fold in JDCaP-hr compared with that in JDCaP, indicating that the JDCaP and JDCaP-hr models simulate castration resistance with some clinical features, such as overexpression of AR and its splice variants. The AR antagonist bicalutamide did not affect JDCaP-hr xenograft growth, and importantly, testosterone induced tumor regression. In vitro analysis demonstrated that androgen-independent prostate-specific antigen secretion and cell proliferation of JDCaP-hr were predominantly mediated by AR-V7. JDCaP-hr cell growth displayed a bell-shaped dependence on testosterone, and it was suppressed by physiological concentrations of testosterone. Testosterone induced rapid downregulation of both AR-FL and AR-V7 expression at physiological concentrations and suppressed expression of the AR target gene KLK3. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings support the clinical value of testosterone therapy, including bipolar androgen therapy, in the treatment of AR-overexpressed CRPC driven by AR splice variants that are not clinically actionable at present. Prostate 76:1536-1545, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23238
    A novel capillary nano-immunoassay for assessing androgen receptor splice variant 7 in plasma. Correlation with CD133 antigen expression in circulating tumor cells. A pilot study in prostate cancer patients. García J L,Lozano R,Misiewicz-Krzeminska I,Fernández-Mateos J,Krzeminski P,Alfonso S,Marcos R A,García R,Gómez-Veiga F,Virseda Á,Herrero M,Olmos D,Cruz-Hernández J J Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico PURPOSE:Androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has been related with both a higher risk of prostate cancer (PC) progression and differential responsiveness to hormonal agents versus chemotherapy. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a novel capillary nano-immunoassay in assessing AR-V7 in plasma from PC patients. METHODS:Patients with either localized or advanced PC were included in the study. Assessment of AR-V7 in plasma was performed through a capillary nano-immunoassay platform. Correlation with clinical data, stem cell biomarkers (such as CD133+), AR amplification and PTEN status was identified. RESULTS:The study included 72 PC patients. AR-V7 signal was detected in 21 (29%) patients: 17 (81%) had a Gleason score ≥7, 15 (71%) castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), 18 (86%) metastatic disease and PSA (median) high than AR-V7 negative (p < 0.05). CD133 was expressed in 69 (96%) patients. The median CD133+ expression in circulating tumor cells CTCs was higher among the 21 AR-V7 positive cases versus AR-V7 negative (7 vs. 3). Androgen Receptor and PTEN fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on CD133+ captured cells were performed: 37 cases showed ≥four CD133+ CTCs, of which 81% showed an increased AR copy number. This percentage was similar in both AR-V7-positive and AR-V7-negative patients. A total of 68% of the cases showed deletion of PTEN: 70% were ARV-7 positive vs. 67%, which were AR-V7 negative. CONCLUSIONS:Assessing the presence of AR-V7 in plasma from PC patients is feasible by a novel capillary nano-immunoassay. AR-V7 was observed in 29% of the tumors and is more frequent in aggressive tumors. 10.1007/s12094-017-1675-5
    Novel galeterone analogs act independently of AR and AR-V7 for the activation of the unfolded protein response and induction of apoptosis in the CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cell model. McCarty David J,Huang Weiliang,Kane Maureen A,Purushottamachar Puranik,Gediya Lalji K,Njar Vincent C O Oncotarget The androgen receptor (AR) has long been the primary target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PC). Despite continuous efforts to block AR activity through ligand depletion, AR antagonism, AR depletion and combinations thereof, advanced PC tumors remain resilient. Herein, we evaluate two galeterone analogs, VNPT-178 and VNLG-74A, in PC cell models of diverse androgen and AR dependence attempting to delineate their mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility. Employing basic biochemical techniques, we determined that both analogs have improved antiproliferative and anti-AR activities compared to FDA-approved abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, induction of apoptosis in these models is independent of the AR and its truncated variant, AR-V7, and instead likely results from sustained endoplasmic reticulum stress and deregulated calcium homeostasis. Using in silico molecular docking, we predict VNPT-178 and VNLG-74A bind the ATPase domain of BiP/Grp78 and Hsp70-1A with greater affinity than the AR. Disruption of 70 kDa heat shock protein function may be the underlying mechanism of action for these galeterone analogs. Therefore, despite simultaneously antagonizing AR activity, AR and/or AR-V7 expression alone may inadequately predict a patient's response to treatment with VNPT-178 or VNLG-74A. Future studies evaluating the context-specific limitations of these compounds may provide clarity for their clinical application. 10.18632/oncotarget.19762
    Splicing Factors Have an Essential Role in Prostate Cancer Progression and Androgen Receptor Signaling. Takayama Ken-Ichi Biomolecules Although inhibition of the androgen⁻androgen receptor (AR) axis effectively represses the growth of prostate cancer, most of all cases eventually become castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). Enhancement of the expression of AR and its variants along with the downstream signals is important for disease progression. AR-V7, a constitutive active form of AR, is generated as a result of RNA splicing. RNA splicing creates multiple transcript variants from one pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) by removing introns/exons to allow mRNA translation. The molecular mechanisms leading to marked increases of AR and generation of AR-V7 have been unclear. However, recent papers highlighted the roles of RNA splicing factors which promote AR expression and production of variants. Notably, a broad range of splicing components were aberrantly regulated in CRPC tissues. Interestingly, expression of various spliceosome genes is enhanced by RNA-binding protein splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich (PSF/SFPQ), leading to changes in the expression of AR transcript variants. Moreover, inhibition of several splicing factors repressed tumor growth in vivo. Altered expression of splicing factors is correlated to biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients. Thus, these findings suggest that splicing factors would be a potential therapeutic target. This review focuses on the emerging roles of splicing factors in prostate cancer progression and AR signaling. 10.3390/biom9040131
    HoxB13 mediates AR-V7 activity in prostate cancer. Navarro Héctor I,Goldstein Andrew S Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 10.1073/pnas.1808196115
    Preclinical Study using Malat1 Small Interfering RNA or Androgen Receptor Splicing Variant 7 Degradation Enhancer ASC-J9 to Suppress Enzalutamide-resistant Prostate Cancer Progression. Wang Ronghao,Sun Yin,Li Lei,Niu Yuanjie,Lin Wanying,Lin Changyi,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Luo Jun,Yeh Shuyuan,Chang Chawnshang European urology BACKGROUND:While androgen-deprivation-therapy with the recently developed antiandrogen enzalutamide (Enz) shows promising therapeutic benefits in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa), many patients develop resistance to Enz, which may involve the induction of the androgen receptor (AR) splicing variant 7 (AR-v7). OBJECTIVE:Our aim is to identify the mechanisms responsible for AR-v7 production and to develop novel preclinical approaches to suppress the Enz-resistant (EnzR) PCa. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We established EnzR-PCa cell lines and examined the long noncoding RNA Malat1 (Malat1) function in conferring Enz resistance. We also examined the in vivo effects of Malat1 short interfering RNA and the AR-v7 degradation enhancer, ASC-J9. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Enz resistance and expression of Malat1 and AR-v7. All statistical comparisons were analyzed with a t-test or one way analysis of variance followed by t-test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:We demonstrated that Malat1 is indispensable for Enz-induced AR-v7 production in VCaP and EnzR-C4-2 cells. We observed increased AR-v7 and Malat1 expression in our established EnzR-PCa cell lines and in some PCa patients who received Enz treatment. Targeting the Malat1/AR-v7 axis resulted in altering the PCa resistance to androgen deprivation therapy with Enz. The limitation of this study includes the small sample size from the same human patients before and after receiving Enz treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Targeting the Malat1/AR-v7 axis via Malat1-short interfering RNA or AR-v7 degradation enhancer ASC-J9 in EnzR-PCa cell lines and mouse models suppressed EnzR-PCa progression. PATIENT SUMMARY:Androgen deprivation therapy-enzalutamide treatment may not be the best choice for prostate cancer patients who have higher expression of the Malat1/androgen receptor splicing variant 7 axis, and new therapies using Malat1-short interfering RNA or ASC-J9 may be developed in the future to better suppress enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.04.005
    Inhibition of de novo lipogenesis targets androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Zadra Giorgia,Ribeiro Caroline F,Chetta Paolo,Ho Yeung,Cacciatore Stefano,Gao Xueliang,Syamala Sudeepa,Bango Clyde,Photopoulos Cornelia,Huang Ying,Tyekucheva Svitlana,Bastos Debora C,Tchaicha Jeremy,Lawney Brian,Uo Takuma,D'Anello Laura,Csibi Alfredo,Kalekar Radha,Larimer Benjamin,Ellis Leigh,Butler Lisa M,Morrissey Colm,McGovern Karen,Palombella Vito J,Kutok Jeffery L,Mahmood Umar,Bosari Silvano,Adams Julian,Peluso Stephane,Dehm Scott M,Plymate Stephen R,Loda Massimo Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is dysregulation of lipid metabolism via overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) develops resistance to inhibitors of androgen receptor (AR) signaling through a variety of mechanisms, including the emergence of the constitutively active AR variant V7 (AR-V7). Here, we developed an FASN inhibitor (IPI-9119) and demonstrated that selective FASN inhibition antagonizes CRPC growth through metabolic reprogramming and results in reduced protein expression and transcriptional activity of both full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7. Activation of the reticulum endoplasmic stress response resulting in reduced protein synthesis was involved in IPI-9119-mediated inhibition of the AR pathway. In vivo, IPI-9119 reduced growth of AR-V7-driven CRPC xenografts and human mCRPC-derived organoids and enhanced the efficacy of enzalutamide in CRPC cells. In human mCRPC, both FASN and AR-FL were detected in 87% of metastases. AR-V7 was found in 39% of bone metastases and consistently coexpressed with FASN. In patients treated with enzalutamide and/or abiraterone FASN/AR-V7 double-positive metastases were found in 77% of cases. These findings provide a compelling rationale for the use of FASN inhibitors in mCRPCs, including those overexpressing AR-V7. 10.1073/pnas.1808834116
    Analytical Validation and Clinical Qualification of a New Immunohistochemical Assay for Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 Protein Expression in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Welti Jonathan,Rodrigues Daniel Nava,Sharp Adam,Sun Shihua,Lorente David,Riisnaes Ruth,Figueiredo Ines,Zafeiriou Zafeiris,Rescigno Pasquale,de Bono Johann S,Plymate Stephen R European urology BACKGROUND:The androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) has been implicated in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. OBJECTIVE:To develop a validated assay for detection of AR-V7 protein in tumour tissue and determine its expression and clinical significance as patients progress from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) to CRPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Following monoclonal antibody generation and validation, we retrospectively identified patients who had HSPC and CRPC tissue available for AR-V7 immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Nuclear AR-V7 expression was determined using IHC H score (HS) data. The change in nuclear AR-V7 expression from HSPC to CRPC and the association between nuclear AR-V7 expression and overall survival (OS) was determined. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Nuclear AR-V7 expression was significantly lower in HSPC (median HS 50, interquartile range [IQR] 17.5-90) compared to CRPC (HS 135, IQR 80-157.5; p<0.0001), and in biopsy tissue taken before (HS 80, IQR 30-136.3) compared to after (HS 140, IQR 105-167.5; p=0.007) abiraterone or enzalutamide treatment. Lower nuclear AR-V7 expression at CRPC biopsy was associated with longer OS (hazard ratio 1.012, 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.020; p=0.003). While this monoclonal antibody primarily binds to AR-V7 in PC biopsy tissue, it may also bind to other proteins. CONCLUSIONS:We provide the first evidence that nuclear AR-V7 expression increases with emerging CRPC and is prognostic for OS, unlike antibody staining for the AR N-terminal domain. These data indicate that AR-V7 is important in CRPC disease biology; agents targeting AR splice variants are needed to test this hypothesis and further improve patient outcome from CRPC. PATIENT SUMMARY:In this study we found that levels of the protein AR-V7 were higher in patients with advanced prostate cancer. A higher level of AR-V7 identifies a group of patients who respond less well to certain prostate cancer treatments and live for a shorter period of time. 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.03.049
    Transcript Levels of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2C in Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Lee Chan Ho,Ku Ja Yoon,Ha Jung Min,Bae Sun Sik,Lee Jeong Zoo,Kim Choung-Soo,Ha Hong Koo The Prostate PURPOSE:This study is designed to identify the androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) status, clinical significance of AR-V7 in hormone sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). Then, we evaluated AR-V7 and changes of its target gene, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) which is an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in serial tumor biopsies from patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. METHODS:We used RT-PCR and Q-PCR assay to evaluate AR-V7, androgen receptor full length (AR-FL), and UBE2C in tumor biopsies from patients with HSPC and CRPC. We examined associations between mRNA expression of AR-V7 and clinicopathologic factors. Furthermore, to identify other potential genes involved in the development of CRPC, RNA sequencing was conducted, using paired prostate cancer (PCa) tissues obtained immediately prior to treatment and at the time of therapeutic resistance. RESULTS:A total of 13 HSPC patients and three CRPC patients were enrolled. Neither a high Gleason score (score of 8 and 9) nor a high risk of PCa (a high risk of locally advanced PCa according to NCCN guidelines) was correlated with mRNA expression of AR-V7 in HSPC (P = 0.153 and P = 0.215). The mRNA expression of AR-FL, but not AR-V7, was significantly associated with the mRNA expression of UBE2C level in HSPC (P = 0.007). However, increased expression of AR-V7, not AR-FL, paralleled increased expression of UBE2C in the CRPC specimens (P = 0.03). AR-V7 expression status before ADT was likely related to shorter CRPC development in patients treating ADT. The result of the RNA-sequencing analysis using serial samples from the same patient before and after castration demonstrated an increased level of the PI3K regulatory subunit 1 (P = 0.018). CONCLUSION:Our study revealed the role of UBE2C as a marker of the androgen signaling pathway in PCa. Differential gene expression analysis using serial samples from the same patient before and after castration revealed potential genes and pathways involved in development of CRPC. Further studies are needed to determine whether these genes and pathways are potential therapeutic target for CRPC. Prostate 77:60-71, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23248
    Expression of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 or 9 in Whole Blood Does Not Predict Response to Androgen-Axis-targeting Agents in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. To Sarah Q,Kwan Edmond M,Fettke Heidi C,Mant Andrew,Docanto Maria M,Martelotto Luciano,Bukczynska Patricia,Ng Nicole,Graham Lisa-Jane K,Parente Phillip,Pezaro Carmel,Mahon Kate,Horvath Lisa,Todenhöfer Tilman,Azad Arun A European urology In 2014, a landmark study was published demonstrating that the expression of androgen receptor splice variant (AR-V) 7 was a negative predictive biomarker for response to abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. However, these results were not supported by the recently reported ARMOR3-SV phase III clinical trial, which employed an identical circulating tumour cell assay to assess AR-V7 expression. Therefore, the predictive utility of AR-V7 expression in mCRPC remains uncertain, as does any potential association between other AR-Vs and treatment response. To further investigate, we designed a highly sensitive and specific whole blood assay for detecting AR-V7 and AR-V9. We then examined for a correlation between baseline AR-V7/V9 status and treatment outcome in 37 mCRPC patients commencing abiraterone or enzalutamide. Of the patients, 24% (9/37) were AR-V-positive. Notably, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rates did not significantly differ between AR-V-positive (6/9) and AR-V-negative (18/28) patients (66% vs 64%, p=0.9). Likewise, median PSA progression-free survival was not significantly different between AR-V-positive and AR-V-negative patients (9.2 mo vs not reached; p=0.9). These data, which support the findings of the pivotal ARMOR3-SV clinical trial, suggest that baseline AR-V expression does not predict outcomes in mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone or enzalutamide. PATIENT SUMMARY:Detection of androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) in circulating tumour cells of advanced prostate cancer patients has been linked to resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. We designed a blood test to detect AR-Vs that can be performed more routinely than tests involving circulating tumour cells and found that patients with AR-Vs still benefit from these effective treatments. 10.1016/j.eururo.2018.01.007
    Validation of histone deacetylase 3 as a therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer. McLeod Abigail B,Stice James P,Wardell Suzanne E,Alley Holly M,Chang Ching-Yi,McDonnell Donald P The Prostate BACKGROUND:Whereas the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis remains a therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the emergence of AR mutations and splice variants as mechanisms underlying resistance to contemporary inhibitors of this pathway highlights the need for new therapeutic approaches to target this disease. Of significance in this regard is the considerable preclinical data, indicating that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors may have utility in the treatment of CRPC. However, the results of clinical studies using HDAC inhibitors (directed against HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) in CRPC are equivocal, a result that some have attributed to their ability to induce an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and neuroendocrine differentiation. We posited that it might be possible to uncouple the beneficial effects of HDAC inhibitors on AR signaling from their undesired activities by targeting specific HDACs as opposed to using the pan-inhibitor strategy that has been employed to date. METHODS:The relative abilities of pan- and selective-Class I HDAC inhibitors to attenuate AR-mediated target gene expression and proliferation were assessed in several prostate cancer cell lines. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown approaches were used to confirm the importance of of HDAC 1, 2, and 3 expression in these processes. Further, the ability of each HDAC inhibitor to induce the expression of EMT markers (RNA and protein) and EMT-like phenotype(s) (migration) were also assessed. The anti-tumor efficacy of a HDAC3-selective inhibitor, RGFP966, was compared to the pan-HDAC inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) in the 22Rv1 xenograft model. RESULTS:Using genetic and pharmacological approaches we demonstrated that a useful inhibition of AR transcriptional activity, absent the induction of EMT, could be achieved by specifically inhibiting HDAC3. Significantly, we also determined that HDAC3 inhibitors blocked the activity of the constitutively active AR V7-splice variant and inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors expressing this protein. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies provide strong rationale for the near-term development of specific HDAC3 inhibitors for the treatment of CRPC. 10.1002/pros.23467
    Inhibition of androgen receptor transactivation function by adenovirus type 12 E1A undermines prostate cancer cell survival. Li Dawei,Tian Guimei,Wang Jia,Zhao Lisa Y,Co Olivia,Underill Zoe C,Mymryk Joe S,Claessens Frank,Dehm Scott M,Daaka Yehia,Liao Daiqing The Prostate BACKGROUND:Mutations or truncation of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of androgen receptor (AR) underlie treatment resistance for prostate cancer (PCa). Thus, targeting the AR N-terminal domain (NTD) could overcome such resistance. METHODS:Luciferase reporter assays after transient transfection of various DNA constructs were used to assess effects of E1A proteins on AR-mediated transcription. Immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation were applied to assess intracellular protein localization. Immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assays were used to detect protein-protein interactions. qRT-PCR was employed to determine RNA levels. Western blotting was used to detect protein expression in cells. Effects of adenoviruses on prostate cancer cell survival were evaluated with CellTiter-Glo assays. RESULTS:Adenovirus 12 E1A (E1A12) binds specifically to the AR. Interestingly, the full-length E1A12 (266 aa) preferentially binds to full-length AR, while the small E1A12 variant (235 aa) interacts more strongly with AR-V7. E1A12 promotes AR nuclear translocation, likely through mediating intramolecular AR NTD-LBD interactions. In the nucleus, AR and E1A12 co-expression in AR-null PCa cells results in E1A12 redistribution from nuclear foci containing CBX4 (also known as Pc2), suggesting a preferential AR-E1A12 interaction over other E1A12 interactors. E1A12 represses AR-mediated transcription in reporter gene assays and endogenous AR target genes such as ATAD2 and MYC in AR-expressing PCa cells. AR-expressing PCa cells are more sensitive to death induced by a recombinant adenovirus expressing E1A12 (Ad-E1A12) than AR-deficient PCa cells, which could be attributed to the increased viral replication promoted by androgen stimulation. Targeting the AR by E1A12 promotes apoptosis in PCa cells that express the full-length AR or C-terminally truncated AR variants. Importantly, inhibition of mTOR signaling that blocks the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins markedly augments Ad-E1A12-induced apoptosis of AR-expressing cells. Mechanistically, Ad-E1A12 infection triggers apoptotic response while activating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling axis; thus, mTOR inhibition enhances apoptosis in AR-expressing PCa cells infected by Ad-E1A12. CONCLUSION:Ad12 E1A inhibits AR-mediated transcription and suppresses PCa cell survival, suggesting that targeting the AR by E1A12 might have therapeutic potential for treating advanced PCa with heightened AR signaling. 10.1002/pros.23689
    Therapeutic Potential of Leelamine, a Novel Inhibitor of Androgen Receptor and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Singh Krishna B,Ji Xinhua,Singh Shivendra V Molecular cancer therapeutics Clinical management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) resulting from androgen deprivation therapy remains challenging. CRPC is driven by aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) through mechanisms ranging from its amplification, mutation, post-translational modification, and expression of splice variants (e.g., AR-V7). Herein, we present experimental evidence for therapeutic vulnerability of CRPC to a novel phytochemical, leelamine (LLM), derived from pine tree bark. Exposure of human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (an androgen-responsive cell line with mutant AR), C4-2B (an androgen-insensitive variant of LNCaP), and 22Rv1 (a CRPC cell line with expression of AR-Vs), and a murine prostate cancer cell line Myc-CaP to plasma achievable concentrations of LLM resulted in ligand-dependent (LNCaP) and ligand-independent (22Rv1) growth inhibition that was accompanied by downregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of full-length AR as well as its splice variants, including AR-V7. LLM treatment resulted in apoptosis induction in the absence and presence of R1881. modeling followed by luciferase reporter assay revealed a critical role for noncovalent interaction of LLM with Y739 in AR activity inhibition. Substitution of the amine group with an isothiocyanate functional moiety abolished AR and cell viability inhibition by LLM. Administration of LLM resulted in 22Rv1 xenograft growth suppression that was statistically insignificant but was associated with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression, mitotic activity, expression of full-length AR and AR-V7 proteins, and secretion of PSA. This study identifies a novel chemical scaffold for the treatment of CRPC. . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-0117
    Hsp-27 and NF-κB pathway is associated with AR/AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer cells. Kiliccioglu Ilker,Konac Ece,Dikmen Asiye Ugras,Sozen Sinan,Bilen Cenk Y Gene In the present study, NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 and/or Hsp-27 inhibitor KRIBB-3 agents were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms mediating androgen receptor expression on prostate cancer cell lines. The decrease observed in androgen receptor and p65 expressions, particularly at 48 h, in parallel with the decrease in the phosphorylation of the p-IKK α/β and p-Hsp-27 proteins in the LNCaP cells, indicated that androgen receptor inactivation occurred after the inhibition of the NF-κB and Hsp-27. In 22Rv1 cells, androgen receptor variant-7 was also observed to be decreased in the combined dose of 48 h. The association of this decrease with the decrease in androgen receptor and p65 expressions is a supportive result for the role of NF-κB signaling in the formation of androgen receptor variant. In androgen receptor variant-7 siRNA treatment in 22Rv1 cell lines, decrease of expression of androgen receptor variant-7 as well as decrease of expression of androgen receptor and p65 were observed. The decrease statistically significant in androgen receptor and p65 expressions was even greater when siRNA treatment was followed with low dose and time (6 h) combined treatment after transfection. We also showed that increased Noxa and decreased Bcl-2 protein level, indicated that apoptotic induction after this combination. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-κB and Hsp-27 is also important, along with therapies for androgen receptor variant-7 inhibition. 10.1016/j.gene.2019.02.055
    High-Content Screening Identifies Src Family Kinases as Potential Regulators of AR-V7 Expression and Androgen-Independent Cell Growth. Szafran Adam T,Stephan Cliff,Bolt Michael,Mancini Maureen G,Marcelli Marco,Mancini Michael A The Prostate BACKGROUND:AR-V7 is an androgen receptor (AR) splice variant that lacks the ligand-binding domain and is isolated from prostate cancer cell lines. Increased expression of AR-V7 is associated with the transition from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to more advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Due to the loss of the ligand-binding domain, AR-V7 is not responsive to traditional AR-targeted therapies, and the mechanisms that regulate AR-V7 are still incompletely understood. Therefore, we aimed to explore existing classes of small molecules that may regulate AR-V7 expression and intracellular localization and their potential therapeutic role in CRPC. METHODS:We used AR high-content analysis (AR-HCA) to characterize the effects of a focused library of well-characterized clinical compounds on AR-V7 expression at the single-cell level in PC3 prostate cancer cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-AR-V7 (GFP-AR-V7:PC3). In parallel, an orthogonal AR-HCA screen of a small interfering (si)RNA library targeting 635 protein kinases was performed in GFP-AR-V7:PC3. The effect of the Src-Abl inhibitor PD 180970 was further characterized using cell-proliferation assays, quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis in multiple hormone-sensitive and CRPC cell lines. RESULTS:Compounds that tended to target Akt, Abl, and Src family kinases (SFKs) decreased overall AR-V7 expression, nuclear translocation, absolute nuclear level, and/or altered nuclear distribution. We identified 20 protein kinases that, when knocked down, either decreased nuclear GFP-AR-V7 levels or altered AR-V7 nuclear distribution, a set that included the SFKs Src and Fyn. The Src-Abl dual kinase inhibitor PD180970 decreased expression of AR-V7 by greater than 46% and decreased ligand-independent transcription of AR target genes in the 22RV1 human prostate carcinoma cell line. Further, PD180970 inhibited androgen-independent cell proliferation in endogenous-AR-V7-expressing prostate cancer cell lines and also overcame bicalutamide resistance observed in the 22RV1 cell line. CONCLUSIONS:SFKs, especially Src and Fyn, may be important upstream regulators of AR-V7 expression and represent promising targets in a subset of CRPCs expressing high levels of AR-V7. Prostate 77:82-93, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23251
    Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC), Androgen Receptor Full Length (AR-FL) and Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 (AR-V7) in a Prospective Cohort of Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients. Cattrini Carlo,Rubagotti Alessandra,Zinoli Linda,Cerbone Luigi,Zanardi Elisa,Capaia Matteo,Barboro Paola,Boccardo Francesco Cancers BACKGROUND:Circulating tumor cells (CTC), androgen receptor full-length (AR-FL), and androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) are prognostic in patients (pts) with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). AR-V7 seems to predict resistance to androgen-receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi). METHODS:We assessed the association of CTC, AR-FL, and AR-V7 with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and overall survival (OS). We used a modified AdnaTest CTC-based AR-FL and AR-V7 mRNA assay. Chi-square test, Fisher Exact test, Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards models were used as appropriate. RESULTS:We enrolled 39 mCRPC pts, of those 24 started a first-line treatment for mCRPC (1L subgroup) and 15 had received at least two lines for mCRPC (>2L subgroup). CTC, AR-FL, and AR-V7 were enriched in >2L compared to 1L subgroup. Detection of these biomarkers was associated with a lower percentage of biochemical responses. Only 1/7 AR-V7+ pts had a PSA response and received cabazitaxel. Median OS was 4.7 months (95% CI 0.6-8.9) in AR-V7+ pts and not reached in AR-V7- pts. AR-V7 was the only variable with prognostic significance in the Cox model. CONCLUSION:AR-V7, CTC, and AR-FL are associated with advanced mCRPC and AR-V7+ predicts for shorter OS. 10.3390/cancers11091365
    Quercetin Targets hnRNPA1 to Overcome Enzalutamide Resistance in Prostate Cancer Cells. Tummala Ramakumar,Lou Wei,Gao Allen C,Nadiminty Nagalakshmi Molecular cancer therapeutics Prostate cancer remains dependent on androgen receptor signaling even after castration. Aberrant androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer is mediated by mechanisms such as alterations in the androgen receptor and activation of interacting signaling pathways. Clinical evidence confirms that resistance to the next-generation antiandrogen, enzalutamide, may be mediated to a large extent by alternative splicing of the androgen receptor to generate constitutively active splice variants such as AR-V7. The splice variants AR-V7 and AR have been implicated in the resistance to not only enzalutamide, but also to abiraterone and other conventional therapeutics such as taxanes. Numerous studies, including ours, suggest that splicing factors such as hnRNPA1 promote the generation of AR-V7, thus contributing to enzalutamide resistance in prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we discovered that quercetin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound, reduces the expression of hnRNPA1, and consequently, that of AR-V7. The suppression of AR-V7 by quercetin resensitizes enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells to treatment with enzalutamide. Our results indicate that quercetin downregulates hnRNPA1 expression, downregulates the expression of AR-V7, antagonizes androgen receptor signaling, and resensitizes enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells to enzalutamide treatment in mouse xenografts. These findings demonstrate that suppressing the alternative splicing of the androgen receptor may have important implications in overcoming the resistance to next-generation antiandrogen therapy. . 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0030
    Heat shock protein 70 inhibitors suppress androgen receptor expression in LNCaP95 prostate cancer cells. Kita Kazuaki,Shiota Masayuki,Tanaka Masako,Otsuka Asuka,Matsumoto Masaki,Kato Minoru,Tamada Satoshi,Iwao Hiroshi,Miura Katsuyuki,Nakatani Tatsuya,Tomita Shuhei Cancer science Androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer; however, the prostate cancer gradually becomes resistant to androgen deprivation therapy, which is termed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), one of the causes of CRPC, is correlated with resistance to a new-generation AR antagonist (enzalutamide) and poor prognosis. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) inhibitor is known to decrease the levels of full-length AR (AR-FL), but little is known about its effects against CRPC cells expressing AR-V7. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Hsp70 inhibitors quercetin and VER155008 in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP95 that expresses AR-V7, and explored the mechanism by which Hsp70 regulates AR-FL and AR-V7 expression. Quercetin and VER155008 decreased cell proliferation, increased the proportion of apoptotic cells, and decreased the protein levels of AR-FL and AR-V7. Furthermore, VER155008 decreased AR-FL and AR-V7 mRNA levels. Immunoprecipitation with Hsp70 antibody and mass spectrometry identified Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) as one of the molecules regulating AR-FL and AR-V7 at the transcription level through interaction with Hsp70. VER155008 decreased the phosphorylation of YB-1 and its localization in the nucleus, indicating that the involvement of Hsp70 in AR regulation might be mediated through the activation and nuclear translocation of YB-1. Collectively, these results suggest that Hsp70 inhibitors have potential anti-tumor activity against CRPC by decreasing AR-FL and AR-V7 expression through YB-1 suppression. 10.1111/cas.13318
    Proteostasis by STUB1/HSP70 complex controls sensitivity to androgen receptor targeted therapy in advanced prostate cancer. Liu Chengfei,Lou Wei,Yang Joy C,Liu Liangren,Armstrong Cameron M,Lombard Alan P,Zhao Ruining,Noel Onika D V,Tepper Clifford G,Chen Hong-Wu,Dall'Era Marc,Evans Christopher P,Gao Allen C Nature communications Protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a potential mechanism that contributes to cancer cell survival and drug resistance. Constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) variants confer anti-androgen resistance in advanced prostate cancer. However, the role of proteostasis involved in next generation anti-androgen resistance and the mechanisms of AR variant regulation are poorly defined. Here we show that the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is suppressed in enzalutamide/abiraterone resistant prostate cancer. AR/AR-V7 proteostasis requires the interaction of E3 ubiquitin ligase STUB1 and HSP70 complex. STUB1 disassociates AR/AR-V7 from HSP70, leading to AR/AR-V7 ubiquitination and degradation. Inhibition of HSP70 significantly inhibits prostate tumor growth and improves enzalutamide/abiraterone treatments through AR/AR-V7 suppression. Clinically, HSP70 expression is upregulated and correlated with AR/AR-V7 levels in high Gleason score prostate tumors. Our results reveal a novel mechanism of anti-androgen resistance via UPS alteration which could be targeted through inhibition of HSP70 to reduce AR-V7 expression and overcome resistance to AR-targeted therapies. 10.1038/s41467-018-07178-x
    Refining the Assessment and Implications of AR-V7 in Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer. Crumbaker Megan,Savdie Richard,Joshua Anthony M European urology 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.11.005
    Current status of androgen receptor-splice variant 7 inhibitor niclosamide in castrate-resistant prostate-cancer. Sobhani Navid,Generali Daniele,D'Angelo Alberto,Aieta Michele,Roviello Giandomenico Investigational new drugs Castrate-Resistant Prostate-Cancer (CRPC) is one of the most common malignancies occurring in men. Unfortunately, even if several recently approved agents clinically improved the outcome of CRPC patients, none of these is curative especially for a splice version of the Androgen Receptor (AR) AR-V7, which is a variant of the receptor constitutively activated and does not require the presence of androgens for the activation AR down-stream pathways. Since high AR-V7 expression is one of the most common features of CRPC, targeting this receptor variant is considered as one of the most promising strategies for treating this disease. Therefore anti-AR-V7 molecules could lead to a potential shift in paradigm in the treatment of CRPC. Niclosamide, an already FDA-approved anti-helminthic drug, was identified as a potent AR-V7 inhibitor in prostate cancer cells. Due to the recent positive preclinical results, niclosamide may be an interesting and novel type of targeted treatments for CRPC. This mini-review outlines the most recent pre- and clinical- data on the current status of niclosamide in the treatment of ARV7-positive CRPC patients. 10.1007/s10637-018-0653-2
    Detection of AR-V7 mRNA in whole blood may not predict the effectiveness of novel endocrine drugs for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Takeuchi Takumi,Okuno Yumiko,Hattori-Kato Mami,Zaitsu Masayoshi,Mikami Koji Research and reports in urology A splice variant of androgen receptor (AR), AR-V7, lacks in androgen-binding portion and leads to aggressive cancer characteristics. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent nested PCRs for the amplification of AR-V7 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcripts were done for whole blood of patients with prostate cancer and male controls. With primary reverse transcription PCRs, AR-V7 and PSA were detected in 4.5% and 4.7% of prostate cancer, respectively. With nested PCRs, AR-V7 messenger RNA (mRNA) was positive in 43.8% of castration-sensitive prostate cancer and 48.1% of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), while PSA mRNA was positive in 6.3% of castration-sensitive prostate cancer and 18.5% of CRPC. Whole-blood samples of controls showed AR-V7 mRNA expression by nested PCR. Based on multivariate analysis, expression of AR-V7 mRNA in whole blood was not significantly correlated with clinical parameters and PSA mRNA in blood, while univariate analysis showed a correlation between AR-V7 mRNA and metastasis at initial diagnosis. Detection of AR-V7 mRNA did not predict the reduction of serum PSA in patients with CRPC following abiraterone and enzalutamide administration. In conclusion, AR-V7 mRNA expression in normal hematopoietic cells may have annihilated the manifestation of aggressiveness of prostate cancer and the prediction of the effectiveness of abiraterone and enzalutamide by the assessment of AR-V7 mRNA in blood. 10.2147/RRU.S98877
    Riluzole induces AR degradation via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Wadosky Kristine M,Shourideh Mojgan,Goodrich David W,Koochekpour Shahriar The Prostate BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer (PCa) is diagnosed at the highest rate of all non-cutaneous male cancers in the United States. The androgen-dependent (AD) transcription factor, androgen receptor (AR), drives PCa-but inhibiting AR or androgen biosynthesis induces remission for only a short time. At which point, patients acquire more aggressive castration-resistant (CR) disease with re-activated AR-dependent signaling. To combat treatment resistance, down-regulating AR protein expression has been considered as a potential treatment strategy for CR-PCa. METHODS:AD- and CR-PCa cell lines were treated with the well-tolerated FDA-approved oral medicine, riluzole. Expression of full-length or wild-type AR (AR-FL) and constitutively active AR-splice variant 7 (AR-V7) was assessed by immunoblotting. AR-FL/AR-V7 activity was measured using qRT-PCR of AR-target genes. Cytoplasmic [Ca ] levels were measured using a fluorescent Ca indicator microplate assay. Markers of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway and autophagy were assessed by immunoblotting. Direct interaction between AR and selective autophagy receptor p62 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS:We demonstrate that riluzole downregulates AR-FL, mutant ARs, and AR-V7 proteins expression by protein degradation through ERS pathway and selective autophagy. Riluzole also significantly inhibited AR transcription activity by decreasing its target genes expression (PSA, TMPRSS2, and KLK2). CONCLUSIONS:We provide key mechanistic insights by which riluzole exerts its anti-tumorigenic effects and induces AR protein degradation via ERS pathways. Our findings support the potential utility of riluzole for treatment of PCa. 10.1002/pros.23719
    Ipilimumab plus nivolumab and DNA-repair defects in AR-V7-expressing metastatic prostate cancer. Boudadi Karim,Suzman Daniel L,Anagnostou Valsamo,Fu Wei,Luber Brandon,Wang Hao,Niknafs Noushin,White James R,Silberstein John L,Sullivan Rana,Dowling Donna,Harb Rana,Nirschl Thomas R,Veeneman Brendan A,Tomlins Scott A,Wang Yipeng,Jendrisak Adam,Graf Ryon P,Dittamore Ryan,Carducci Michael A,Eisenberger Mario A,Haffner Michael C,Meeker Alan K,Eshleman James R,Luo Jun,Velculescu Victor E,Drake Charles G,Antonarakis Emmanuel S Oncotarget AR-V7-expressing metastatic prostate cancer is an aggressive phenotype with poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Preliminary evidence suggests that AR-V7-positive tumors may be enriched for DNA-repair defects, perhaps rendering them more sensitive to immune-checkpoint blockade. We enrolled 15 metastatic prostate cancer patients with AR-V7-expressing circulating tumor cells into a prospective phase-2 trial. Patients received nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses, then maintenance nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Targeted next-generation sequencing was performed to determine DNA-repair deficiency (DRD) status. Outcomes included PSA response rates, objective response rates (ORR), PSA progression-free survival (PSA-PFS), clinical/radiographic PFS and OS. Median age of participants was 65, median PSA was 115 ng/mL, 67% had visceral metastases, and 60% had ≥4 prior systemic therapies. Six of 15 men (40%) had DRD mutations (three in , two in , one in ; none had microsatellite instability). Overall, the PSA response rate was 2/15 (13%), ORR was 2/8 (25%) in those with measurable disease, median PSA-PFS was 3.0 (95%CI 2.1-NR) months, PFS was 3.7 (95%CI 2.8-7.5) months, and OS was 8.2 (95%CI 5.5-10.4) months. Outcomes appeared generally better in DRD+ vs. DRD- tumors with respect to PSA responses (33% vs. 0%; =0.14, nonsignificant), ORR (40% vs. 0%; =0.46, nonsignificant), PSA-PFS (HR 0.19; <0.01, significant), PFS (HR 0.31; =0.01, significant), and OS (HR 0.41; =0.11, nonsignificant). There were no new safety concerns. Ipilimumab plus nivolumab demonstrated encouraging efficacy in AR-V7-positive prostate cancers with DRD mutations, but not in the overall study population. 10.18632/oncotarget.25564
    Clinical Utility of the Nuclear-localized AR-V7 Biomarker in Circulating Tumor Cells in Improving Physician Treatment Choice in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Graf Ryon P,Hullings Melanie,Barnett Ethan S,Carbone Emily,Dittamore Ryan,Scher Howard I European urology BACKGROUND:Proof of the clinical utility of a biomarker is when its use informs a management decision and improves patient outcomes relative to when it is not used. OBJECTIVE:To model the clinical benefit of the nuclear-localized androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) test for men with progressing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) at the second line of therapy or greater to inform the choice of an androgen receptor signaling inhibitor (ARSI) or a taxane. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The study population was a cross-sectional cohort of 193 unique patients with progressing mCRPC from whom 255 samples were drawn at the time of the second line or later treatment decision who then received an ARSI or taxane, with up to 3 yr of additional follow-up Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified from blood samples and tested for AR-V7. Physicians were blinded to AR-V7 status and the testing laboratory was blinded to outcomes. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES:We measured physician propensity for choosing an ARSI or taxane based on patient prognosis. We also measured overall survival (OS) adjusted for physician propensity by drug class; OS data were analyzed both without and with knowledge of nuclear-localized AR-V7 status. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Treating physicians had a propensity for choosing a taxane over an ARSI for patients with more advanced disease or who received an ARSI as the immediate prior therapy. After adjusting for physician propensity, discernible OS differences were not observed between taxane- and ARSI-treated patients (median 15.6 vs 14.4 mo; p =0.11). Patients with detectable nuclear-localized AR-V7 in CTCs had superior survival with taxanes over ARSIs (median 9.8 vs 5.7 mo; p = 0.041). AR-V7-negative patients had superior survival on ARSIs over taxanes (p = 0.033) but overlapping curves limit the interpretation. Mutivariable models showed a robust interaction between AR-V7 status and drug, and a lower risk of death on taxanes for AR-V7-positive men. CONCLUSIONS:Use of the nuclear-localized AR-V7 CTC test to inform treatment choice can improve patient outcomes relative to decisions based solely on standard-of-care measures. PATIENT SUMMARY:Men with metastatic prostate cancer who test positive for AR-V7 protein in circulating tumor cells are likely to live longer if taxane chemotherapy is used. 10.1016/j.eururo.2019.08.020
    AR-v7 liquid biopsy for treatment stratification in prostate cancer: how close are we? Fletcher Claire Current opinion in urology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Recent clinical introduction of the novel antiandrogen, Enzalutamide (Enza), CYP17 inhibitor, Abiraterone (Abi), and the second-generation chemotherapeutic, Cabazitaxel, has increased survival of patients with advanced, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, de novo and acquired resistance rates are high. A liquid biopsy that can rapidly, sensitively and robustly identify which patients will respond to treatment in a minimally invasive manner is urgently required to permit switch to a potentially more efficacious drug regimen, thus increasing survival whilst avoiding debilitating side effects associated with unnecessary treatment. This review will highlight recent developments in detection of AR-v7 in circulating mRNA/whole blood and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) as a liquid biopsy for patient-stratification in mCRPC. RECENT FINDINGS:Continued androgen receptor (AR) activity in mCRPC has been linked to the expression of a number of truncated but constitutively active AR isoforms. One such variant, AR-v7, can drive drug resistance in preclinical models and is correlated with disease progression whilst showing dynamic response to AR-targeting treatments when assessed in blood. It has thus been proposed as an Abi/Enza treatment-response biomarker. SUMMARY:AR-v7 liquid biopsy has the potential to transform clinical management of mCRPC and increase patient survival. This review will explore recent efforts to validate AR-v7 as a robust, clinically informative biomarker. I will also address potential limitations of detection and quantification that could frustrate its adoption into routine clinical practise. 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000416
    [AR-V7 Androgen Receptor Variant as a Predictor of Response to Androgen-receptor Targeting Agents Used to Treat Castration-refractory Metastatic Prostate Cancer]. Büchler Tomáš,Bobek Vladimír,Kološtová Katarína Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti BACKGROUND:Several systemic treatment options are currently available for patients with metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer (mCRPC), including the androgen-receptor targeting agents (ARTA) enzalutamide and abiraterone, the taxanes docetaxel and cabazitaxel, and the radioisotope drug 223-radium dichloride. In some patients with mCRCP, alternative splicing of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA occurs, resulting in the formation of a truncated AR lacking the androgen-binding domain. These receptors activate downstream signalling pathways even without the ligand. Recent studies show that the presence of the AR-V7 (ARV - AR variants) splicing variant is associated with resistance to ARTA. Bec>ause the presence of AR-V7 does not affect the efficacy of other systemic therapies used in mCRCPs, particularly taxanes, AR-V7 is a candidate predictive biomarker for the individualisation of mCRCP treatment. Two types of assays based on mRNA or abnormal protein detection are used to detect AR-V7 in circulating tumour cells. AIM:To describe the current status of AR-V7 testing in mCRPC and possible applications of this method for predicting outcomes of ARTA therapy. CONCLUSION:The percentage of CTC AR-V7+ in ARTA-naive men is relatively low at baseline, but in patients pretreated with ARTA, the prevalence of AR-V7 increases to 19-34%. Given the relatively high expected prevalence, AR-V7 testing may be economically feasible in this population. The proportion of AR-V7+ patients responding to ARTA retreatment appears to be very low, at only 4.8%. AR-V7 testing could thus be useful if an ARTA switch is considered in a patient progressing onto an ARTA drug. Both protein-based tests and mRNA-based tests are currently undergoing clinical validation in prospective studies, with results expected within a year.Key words: prostate cancer - abiraterone - enzalutamide - alternative splicing - drug resistanceSubmitted: 30. 8. 2017Accepted: 5. 11. 2017 doc. MUDr. Tomáš Büchler, Ph.D. received honorary lectures and publications from Astellas and Janssen and a travel grant from Janssen. Supported by Ministry of Health, Czech Republic - conceptual development of research organization Thomayer Hospital - TN 0064190. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. 10.14735/amko20189
    Branched Chain RNA In Situ Hybridization for Androgen Receptor Splice Variant AR-V7 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. Saylor Philip J,Lee Richard J,Arora Kshitij S,Deshpande Vikram,Hu Rong,Olivier Kara,Meneely Erika,Rivera Miguel N,Ting David T,Wu Chin-Lee,Miyamoto David T Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:The androgen receptor (AR) mRNA splice variant AR-V7 has emerged as a predictive biomarker for response to AR-targeted therapies. There are currently no commercially available assays to detect AR splice variants. The branched chain RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) platform enables the highly sensitive detection of RNA transcripts in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We designed a branched chain RNA ISH probe to target the unique cryptic exon CE3 of AR-V7 using multiple tiling probes. This automated ISH assay was applied to tumor tissue from two distinct clinical cohorts that we hypothesized would differ in AR-V7 status. RESULTS:We detected AR-V7 in all tumor samples from men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with tissue obtained after disease progression despite at least one subsequent line of hormonal therapy (abiraterone, enzalutamide, or bicalutamide; n = 12). We detected AR-V7 in just one tumor from men who had undergone prostatectomy for localized adenocarcinoma (n = 30; Gleason 4 + 5 = 9 in the AR-V7-positive sample). Given the apparent distinction between the above groups by AR-V7 signal, we analyzed pretreatment AR-V7 status as a predictive and prognostic biomarker in men with treatment-naïve metastatic disease. Patients with metastases but without detectable AR-V7 RNA at baseline had significantly longer overall survival (log-rank P = 0.044) and a trend toward superior progression-free survival (log-rank P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS:Within an institutional cohort, the RNA ISH assay identified AR-V7 within FFPE tissue and may have prognostic value in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. These preliminary findings warrant further study in larger cohorts. Clin Cancer Res; 23(2); 363-9. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0237
    mRNA expressions of androgen receptor and its variants in matched hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Park Hyung Kyu,Lim So Dug,Kwon Ghee Young Scandinavian journal of urology Androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs), especially androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7), are considered as important factors in developing castration-resistance of prostate cancer and also as candidate predictive factors. Our aim was to evaluate changes in the mRNA expression of full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-Vs in the primary prostate cancers from the same patients before and after ADT. We compared morphologic differences and evaluated AR-FL, AR-V7, AR-V4, ARv567es, AR-V3 and AR8 mRNA expression in matched samples of primary hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) from 19 patients. mRNA expression of AR-FL, AR-V7, ARv567es and AR-V3 was present in hormone sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and was significantly increased in CRPC in 81.2% (13/16). There were strong positive correlations between AR-FL and AR-V7 ( = 0.93,  < .001), ARv567es ( = 0.72,  < .001) and AR-V3 ( = 0.81,  < .001) mRNA expression. AR-V7/AR-FL ratio was more significantly (>30%) increased after ADT in 25% (4/16) of the patients, who showed significantly ( < .001) worse overall survival. Neuroendocrine differentiation was seen in one patient (5.3%) and the Gleason score was increased in 10 (52.6%) patients. We demonstrated that the expression of AR-V7 is present at low levels in HSPC and is increased in CRPC and the increase is an active process possibly related to aggressive clinical course. 10.1080/21681805.2019.1697359
    Aurora A regulates expression of AR-V7 in models of castrate resistant prostate cancer. Jones Dominic,Noble Martin,Wedge Steve R,Robson Craig N,Gaughan Luke Scientific reports Androgen receptor variants (AR-Vs) provide a mechanism of therapy evasion in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), yet mechanisms of regulation remain largely unknown. Here we investigate the role of Aurora A kinase on AR-Vs in models of CRPC and show depletion of Aurora A reduces AR-V target gene expression. Importantly, knockdown of Aurora A reconfigures splicing of AR pre-mRNA to discriminately down-regulate synthesis of AR-V transcripts, including AR-V7, without effecting full-length AR mRNA; and as a consequence, AR-V-driven proliferation and survival of CRPC cells is markedly reduced. Critically, these effects are reproduced by Aurora A inhibition. We show that Aurora A levels increase in advanced disease and AURKA is an AR-V target gene demonstrating a positive feedback mechanism of androgenic signalling in CRPC. In all, our data suggests that Aurora A plays a pivotal role in regulation of AR-V7 expression and represents a new therapeutic target in CRPC. 10.1038/srep40957
    Targeting prostate cancer cells with enzalutamide-HDAC inhibitor hybrid drug 2-75. Hu Wen-Yang,Xu Liping,Chen Bailing,Ou Siyu,Muzzarelli Kendall M,Hu Dan-Ping,Li Ye,Yang Zhe,Vander Griend Donald J,Prins Gail S,Qin Zhihui The Prostate BACKGROUND:The progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) still relies on the function of androgen receptor (AR), achieved by evolving mechanisms to reactivate AR signaling under hormonal therapy. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) disrupt cytoplasmic AR chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) via HDAC6 inhibition, leading to AR degradation and growth suppression of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. However, current HDACis are not effective in clinical trials treating CRPC. METHODS:We designed hybrid molecules containing partial chemical scaffolds of AR antagonist enzalutamide (Enz) and HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) as new anti-PCa agents. We previously demonstrated that Enz-HDACi hybrid drug 2-75 targets both AR and Hsp90, which inhibits the growth of Enz-resistant C4-2 cells. In the current study, we further investigate the molecular and cellular actions of 2-75 and test its anti-PCa effects in vivo. RESULTS:Compared with Enz, 2-75 had greater AR antagonistic effects by decreasing the stability, transcriptional activity, and nuclear translocation of intracellular AR. In addition to inhibition of full-length AR (FL AR), 2-75 downregulated the AR-V7 variant in multiple PCa cell lines. Mechanistic studies indicated that the AR affinity of 2-75 retains the drug in the cytoplasm of AR + PCa cells and further directs 2-75 to the AR-associated protein complex, which permits localized effects on AR-associated Hsp90. Further, unlike pan-HDACi SAHA, the cytoplasm-retaining property allows 2-75 to significantly inhibit cytoplasmic HDAC6 with limited impact on nuclear HDACs. These selective cytoplasmic actions of 2-75 overcome the unfavorable resistance and toxicity properties associated with classical AR antagonists, HDACis, and Hsp90 inhibitors. Finally, 2-75 showed greater antitumor activities than Enz in vivo on SQ xenografts derived from LNCaP cells. CONCLUSIONS:Novel therapeutic strategy using newly designed 2-75 and related AR antagonist-HDACi hybrid drugs has great potential for effective treatment of CRPC. 10.1002/pros.23832
    GnRH Antagonists Have Direct Inhibitory Effects On Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Via Intracrine Androgen and AR-V7 Expression. Cucchiara Vito,Yang Joy C,Liu Chengfei,Adomat Hans H,Tomlinson Guns Emma S,Gleave Martin E,Gao Allen C,Evans Christopher P Molecular cancer therapeutics Hormone therapy is currently the mainstay in the management of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Degarelix (Firmagon), a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist differs from luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists by avoiding "testosterone flare" and lower follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. The direct effect of degarelix and leuprolide on human prostate cancer cells was evaluated. In LNCaP, C4-2BMDVR, and CWR22Rv1 cells, degarelix significantly reduced cell viability compared with the controls ( ≤ 0.01). Leuprolide was stimulatory in the same cell lines. In C4-2B MDVR cells, degarelix alone or combined with abiraterone or enzalutamide reduced the AR-V7 protein expression compared with the control group. SCID mice bearing VCaP xenograft tumors were divided into 4 groups and treated with surgical castration, degarelix, leuprolide, or buffer alone for 4 weeks. Leuprolide slightly suppressed tumor growth compared with the vehicle control group ( > 0.05). Tumors in degarelix-treated mice were 67% of those in the leuprolide-treatment group but 170% larger than in surgically castrated ones. Measurements of intratumoral steroids in serum, tumor samples, or treated cell pellets by LC/MS confirmed that degarelix better decreased the levels of testosterone and steroidogenesis pathway intermediates, comparable to surgical castration, whereas leuprolide had no inhibitory effect. Collectively, our results suggested a selective mechanism of action of degarelix against androgen steroidogenesis and AR-variants. This study provides additional molecular insights regarding the mechanism of degarelix compared with GnRH agonist therapy, which may have clinical implications. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-1337
    Androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) in sequencing therapeutic agents for castratrion resistant prostate cancer: A critical review. Sciarra Alessandro,Gentilucci Alessandro,Silvestri Ida,Salciccia Stefano,Cattarino Susanna,Scarpa Susanna,Gatto Antonio,Frantellizzi Viviana,Von Heland Magnus,Ricciuti Gian Piero,Del Giudice Francesco,Maggi Martina Medicine BACKGROUND:androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) has been suggested as potential marker for treatment selection in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The aim of the present review is to critically analyze: frequency of the AR-V7 expression in mCRPC cases-impact of AR-V7 expression on abiraterone, enzalutamide, and taxane therapy. METHODS:we searched in the Medline and Cochrane Library database from the literature of the past 10 years. We critically evaluated the level of evidence according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines. RESULTS:12 clinical trials were selected. The determination of AR-V7 in peripheral blood using circulating tumor cells mRNA seems to be the preferred method. At baseline, the mean percentage of cases with AR-V7 positivity was 18.3% (range 17.8%-28.8%). All data on mCRPC submitted to enzalutamide or abiraterone reported a significantly (P <.05) lower clinical progression-free survival (CPFS) and overall survival (OS) in AR-V7+ than AR-V7- cases (CPFS hazard ratio [HR]: 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9; OS HR: 3.0; 95% CI 1.4-6.3). In mCRPC cases submitted to chemotherapies data are not homogeneous and some studies showed no association between CPFS or OS and AR-V7 status (OS HR 1.6; 95% CI 0.6-4.4; P = .40). CONCLUSIONS:the suggestion is that taxane therapy is more efficacious than abiraterone or enzalutamide for men with AR-V7+ CRPC. On the contrary, clinical outcomes did not seem to differ significantly on the basis of the type of therapy used among AR-V7- cases. 10.1097/MD.0000000000015608
    Analytic Validation of RNA In Situ Hybridization (RISH) for AR and AR-V7 Expression in Human Prostate Cancer. Guedes Liana B,Morais Carlos L,Almutairi Fawaz,Haffner Michael C,Zheng Qizhi,Isaacs John T,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Lu Changxue,Tsai Harrison,Luo Jun,De Marzo Angelo M,Lotan Tamara L Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:RNA expression of androgen receptor splice variants may be a biomarker of resistance to novel androgen deprivation therapies in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We analytically validated an RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) assay for total AR and AR-V7 for use in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We used prostate cell lines and xenografts to validate chromogenic RISH to detect RNA containing AR exon 1 (AR-E1, surrogate for total AR RNA species) and cryptic exon 3 (AR-CE3, surrogate for AR-V7 expression). RISH signals were quantified in FFPE primary tumors and CRPC specimens, comparing to known AR and AR-V7 status by IHC and RT-PCR. RESULTS:The quantified RISH results correlated significantly with total AR and AR-V7 levels by RT-PCR in cell lines, xenografts, and autopsy metastases. Both AR-E1 and AR-CE3 RISH signals were localized in nuclear punctae in addition to the expected cytoplasmic speckles. Compared with admixed benign glands, AR-E1 expression was significantly higher in primary tumor cells with a median fold increase of 3.0 and 1.4 in two independent cohorts (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.04, respectively). While AR-CE3 expression was detectable in primary prostatic tumors, levels were substantially higher in a subset of CRPC metastases and cell lines, and were correlated with AR-E1 expression. CONCLUSIONS:RISH for AR-E1 and AR-CE3 is an analytically valid method to examine total AR and AR-V7 RNA levels in FFPE tissues. Future clinical validation studies are required to determine whether AR RISH is a prognostic or predictive biomarker in specific clinical contexts. Clin Cancer Res; 22(18); 4651-63. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0205
    Dysregulation of miR-212 Promotes Castration Resistance through hnRNPH1-Mediated Regulation of AR and AR-V7: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer. Yang Yijun,Jia Dingwu,Kim Hogyoung,Abd Elmageed Zakaria Y,Datta Amrita,Davis Rodney,Srivastav Sudesh,Moroz Krzysztof,Crawford Byron E,Moparty Krishnarao,Thomas Raju,Hudson Robert S,Ambs Stefan,Abdel-Mageed Asim B Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:The causes of disproportionate incidence and mortality of prostate cancer among African Americans (AA) remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanistic role and assess clinical utility of the splicing factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNP H1) in prostate cancer progression among AA men. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We employed an unbiased functional genomics approach coupled with suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and custom cDNA microarrays to identify differentially expressed genes in microdissected tumors procured from age- and tumor grade-matched AA and Caucasian American (CA) men. Validation analysis was performed in independent cohorts and tissue microarrays. The underlying mechanisms of hnRNPH1 regulation and its impact on androgen receptor (AR) expression and tumor progression were explored. RESULTS:Aberrant coexpression of AR and hnRNPH1 and downregulation of miR-212 were detected in prostate tumors and correlate with disease progression in AA men compared with CA men. Ectopic expression of miR-212 mimics downregulated hnRNPH1 transcripts, which in turn reduced expression of AR and its splice variant AR-V7 (or AR3) in prostate cancer cells. hnRNPH1 physically interacts with AR and steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) and primes activation of androgen-regulated genes in a ligand-dependent and independent manner. siRNA silencing of hnRNPH1 sensitized prostate cancer cells to bicalutamide and inhibited prostate tumorigenesis in vivo CONCLUSIONS:Our findings define novel roles for hnRNPH1 as a putative oncogene, splicing factor, and an auxiliary AR coregulator. Targeted disruption of the hnRNPH1-AR axis may have therapeutic implications to improve clinical outcomes in patients with advanced prostate cancer, especially among AA men. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1606
    Expression pattern of androgen receptors, AR-V7 and AR-567es, in circulating tumor cells and paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. Strati Areti,Zavridou Martha,Bournakis Evangelos,Mastoraki Sophia,Lianidou Evi The Analyst Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is a highly promising liquid biopsy predictive biomarker showing primary or acquired resistance to novel androgen receptor signaling inhibitors in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We present for the first time the expression pattern of AR-FL, AR-V7, and AR-567es at a quantitative level in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles in mCRPC. We first developed and analytically validated a novel multiplex RT-qPCR assay for AR full length (AR-FL), AR-V7, AR-567es and AR-total. We then quantified the expression levels of AR-splice variants, CK-19 (epithelial marker) and B2M (reference gene) in EpCAM+ CTCs, and paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles isolated from peripheral blood (20 mL) of 62 mCRPC patients and 10 healthy donors. CTCs were enumerated using the FDA-cleared CellSearch® system. In CTCs AR-FL was detected in 64/69 (92.3%), AR-V7 in 34/69 (49.3%), AR-567es in 16/69 (23.2%) and AR-total in 62/69 (89.9%). In 52 out of 69 samples, paired plasma-derived extracellular vesicles were analyzed. AR-FL was detected in 40/52 (76.9%), AR-V7 in 4/52 (7.7%), AR-567 in 2/52 (3.8%) and AR total in 39/52 (75.0%). In all cases AR splice variants were expressed in higher levels in CTCs than in paired extracellular vesicles, while AR-V7 was detected in higher percentages than in AR-567es. Using CellSearch®, CTCs were detected in 52/69 (75.4%) mCRPC patient samples; 27/52 (51.9%) of these samples were CTC+/AR-V7+ and 14/52 (26.9%) were CTC+/AR-567es+, while 7/17 (41.2%) were CTC-/AR-V7+ and 2/17 (11.8%) were CTC-/AR-567es+. Our results reveal for the first time a remarkable heterogeneity in the expression levels of AR-FL, AR-V7 and AR-567es in EpCAM+ CTCs and paired extracellular vesicles between individual mCRPC patients. The clinical significance of this finding will be further investigated in a large patient cohort with respect to therapy response. 10.1039/c9an00999j
    Androgen-receptor splice variant-7-positive prostate cancer: a novel molecular subtype with markedly worse androgen-deprivation therapy outcomes in newly diagnosed patients. Li Heng,Wang Zhize,Xiao Wei,Yan Libin,Guan Wei,Hu Zhiquan,Wu Lily,Huang Qihong,Wang Ji,Xu Hua,Zhang Xu,Ye Zhangqun Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Androgen-deprivation therapy has been the standard treatment for metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer, but the majority of patients will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer within 2-3 years. Unlike the case in breast cancer, no clinically validated biomarker has been used to predict the outcomes of androgen-deprivation therapy. To evaluate androgen-receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) detection in newly diagnosed advanced prostate cancer and describe the distinctive prognosis of this novel molecular subtype, this study retrospectively enrolled 168 newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients from 2003 to 2015 who received androgen-deprivation therapy. AR-V7 immunohistochemical staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody, and AR-V7 expression was determined using Immune-Reactive Score data. The association between nuclear AR-V7 expression and prognosis was determined. Multiple cause-specific Cox regression and stratified cumulative incidences were used to analyze the prognosis risk. Among the 168 patients, 32 (19%) were AR-V7-positive. Compared with the AR-V7-negative patients, the AR-V7-positive patients had significantly lower prostate-specific antigen response rates (P<0.001) to androgen-deprivation therapy and a much shorter time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (P<0.0001). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the AR-V7-positive group showed markedly lower castration-resistant prostate cancer progression-free survival (P<0.0001) and much lower cancer-specific (P<0.0001) and overall survival (P<0.0001) both in all enrolled patients and in patients with metastases. AR-V7 positivity was a significant predictor of castration-resistant prostate cancer progression in multiple Cox regression (hazard ratio: 4.826; 95% CI: 2.960-7.869; P<0.001). AR-V7 immunohistochemical detection in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients who are planning to receive androgen-deprivation therapy, especially those with metastases, is necessary and valuable for prognostic assessment. AR-V7-positive prostate cancer should be considered a novel prostate cancer subtype that should be distinguished upon initial biopsy. The main limitation of this study is its observational nature. 10.1038/modpathol.2017.74
    Androgen receptor splice variant-7 expression emerges with castration resistance in prostate cancer. Sharp Adam,Coleman Ilsa,Yuan Wei,Sprenger Cynthia,Dolling David,Rodrigues Daniel Nava,Russo Joshua W,Figueiredo Ines,Bertan Claudia,Seed George,Riisnaes Ruth,Uo Takuma,Neeb Antje,Welti Jonathan,Morrissey Colm,Carreira Suzanne,Luo Jun,Nelson Peter S,Balk Steven P,True Lawrence D,de Bono Johann S,Plymate Stephen R The Journal of clinical investigation BACKGROUND:Liquid biopsies have demonstrated that the constitutively active androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) associates with reduced response and overall survival from endocrine therapies in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, these studies provide little information pertaining to AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer (PC) tissue. METHODS:Following generation and validation of a potentially novel AR-V7 antibody for IHC, AR-V7 protein expression was determined for 358 primary prostate samples and 293 metastatic biopsies. Associations with disease progression, full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) expression, response to therapy, and gene expression were determined. RESULTS:We demonstrated that AR-V7 protein is rarely expressed (<1%) in primary PC but is frequently detected (75% of cases) following androgen deprivation therapy, with further significant (P = 0.020) increase in expression following abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide therapy. In CRPC, AR-V7 expression is predominantly (94% of cases) nuclear and correlates with AR-FL expression (P ≤ 0.001) and AR copy number (P = 0.026). However, dissociation of expression was observed, suggesting that mRNA splicing remains crucial for AR-V7 generation. AR-V7 expression was heterogeneous between different metastases from a patient, although AR-V7 expression was similar within a metastasis. Moreover, AR-V7 expression correlated with a unique 59-gene signature in CRPC, including HOXB13, a critical coregulator of AR-V7 function. Finally, AR-V7-negative disease associated with better prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses (100% vs. 54%, P = 0.03) and overall survival (74.3 vs. 25.2 months, hazard ratio 0.23 [0.07-0.79], P = 0.02) from endocrine therapies (pre-chemotherapy). CONCLUSION:This study provides impetus to develop therapies that abrogate AR-V7 signaling to improve our understanding of AR-V7 biology and to confirm the clinical significance of AR-V7. FUNDING:Work at the University of Washington and in the Plymate and Nelson laboratories is supported by the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program (W81XWH-14-2-0183, W81XWH-12-PCRP-TIA, W81XWH-15-1-0430, and W81XWH-13-2-0070), the Pacific Northwest Prostate Cancer SPORE (P50CA97186), the Institute for Prostate Cancer Research, the Veterans Affairs Research Program, the NIH/National Cancer Institute (P01CA163227), and the Prostate Cancer Foundation. Work in the de Bono laboratory was supported by funding from the Movember Foundation/Prostate Cancer UK (CEO13-2-002), the US Department of Defense (W81XWH-13-2-0093), the Prostate Cancer Foundation (20131017 and 20131017-1), Stand Up To Cancer (SU2C-AACR-DT0712), Cancer Research UK (CRM108X-A25144), and the UK Department of Health through an Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre grant (ECMC-CRM064X). 10.1172/JCI122819
    Development of AR-V7 as a putative treatment selection marker for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Luo Jun Asian journal of andrology Prostate cancer cells demonstrate a remarkable "addiction" to androgen receptor (AR) signaling in all stages of disease progression. As such, suppression of AR signaling remains the therapeutic goal in systemic treatment of prostate cancer. A number of molecular alterations arise in patients treated with AR-directed therapies. These molecular alterations may indicate the emergence of treatment resistance and may be targeted for the development of novel agents for prostate cancer. The presence of functional androgen receptor splice variants may represent a potential explanation for resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide, newer AR-directed agents developed to treat metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the last 8 years, many androgen receptor splice variants have been identified and characterized. Among these, androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) has been investigated extensively. In AR-V7, the entire COOH-terminal ligand-binding domain of the canonical AR is truncated and replaced with a variant-specific peptide of 16 amino acids. Functionally, AR-V7 is capable of mediating constitutive nuclear localization and androgen receptor signaling in the absence of androgens, or in the presence of enzalutamide. In this review, we will focus on clinical translational studies involving detection/measurement of AR-V7. Methods have been developed to detect AR-V7 in clinical mCRPC specimens. AR-V7 can be reliably measured in both tissue and circulating tumor cells derived from mCRPC patients, making it possible to conduct both cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical correlative studies. Current evidence derived from studies focusing on detection of AR-V7 in mCRPC support its potential clinical utility as a treatment selection marker. 10.4103/1008-682X.178490
    Calpain and AR-V7: Two potential therapeutic targets to overcome acquired docetaxel resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Liu Lei,Lou Ning,Li Xiang,Xu Guanghua,Ruan Hailong,Xiao Wen,Qiu Bin,Bao Lin,Yuan Changfei,Huang Xinmian,Wang Keshan,Cao Qi,Chen Ke,Yang Hongmei,Zhang Xiaoping Oncology reports Docetaxel-based chemotherapy has been widely used as the first-line treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, the mechanisms of docetaxel-resistance remain unclear. In the present study with the establishment of 2 in vitro models of docetaxel-resistant CRPC cell sublines, we firstly reported that activation of calpain may play a promotional role in the resistance of docetaxel in prostate cancer, meanwhile using the calpain inhibitor combined with docetaxel improved the efficiency of docetaxel in docetaxel-resistant cell sublines. Moreover, we also found that the expression of androgen-independent constitutively and transcriptionally active androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) remained high in the docetaxel-resistant CRPC cell subline Rv1-DR, and that it may be involved in acquired docetaxel-resistance of CRPC. However, a novel importin-β inhibitor (importazole) was only capable of slightly decreasing the transcriptional activity of the AR signaling pathway via blocking nuclear import of AR-FL and various non-specific AR-Vs, instead of AR-V7. These findings suggest that calpain and AR-V7 may serve as important biomarkers in the treatment of CRPC, and targeting calpain and AR-V7 may provide a new approach in overcoming docetaxel-resistance. 10.3892/or.2017.5623
    Association of AR-V7 and Prostate-Specific Antigen RNA Levels in Blood with Efficacy of Abiraterone Acetate and Enzalutamide Treatment in Men with Prostate Cancer. Qu Fangfang,Xie Wanling,Nakabayashi Mari,Zhang Haitao,Jeong Seong Ho,Wang Xiaodong,Komura Kazumasa,Sweeney Christopher J,Sartor Oliver,Lee Gwo-Shu Mary,Kantoff Philip W Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:We evaluated the association of PSA and androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) transcript levels in patients' blood with time to treatment failure (TTF) and overall survival (OS) with abiraterone acetate and/or enzalutamide treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:RNA levels of AR-V7 and PSA in peripheral blood collected before treatment were quantified using droplet digital-PCR in retrospective cohorts treated with abiraterone acetate (N = 81) or enzalutamide (N = 51) for CRPC. Multivariable Cox regression adjusted for known prognostic factors was used for analyses. RESULTS:PSA transcripts were detected in 57% of abiraterone acetate-treated patients and in 63% of enzalutamide-treated patients. PSA-positive patients had a shorter TTF than PSA-negative patients [adjusted HR = 2.27 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.10) and 2.60 (95% CI, 1.19-5.69); P = 0.006 and 0.017 in abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide cohorts, respectively]. Patients with a higher-AR-V7 transcript level had a shorter TTF with abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide in univariate analysis (median 8.0 months vs. 15.6 months, P = 0.046 in abiraterone acetate-cohort and 3.6 months vs. 5.6 months; P = 0.050 in enzalutamide cohort). In multivariable models, the association with TTF remained significant in the enzalutamide cohort (adjusted HR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.01-4.05; P = 0.048), but statistically insignificant in the abiraterone acetate cohort. In both cohorts, we observed potential prognostic value of both PSA and AR-V7 RNA expression on OS; patients with detectable PSA transcripts and high AR-V7 predicted the poorest OS. CONCLUSIONS:PSA and AR-V7 transcripts in blood potentially serve as biomarkers predicting TTF and OS with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide treatment. If validated prospectively, their detection could be facilitated without isolation of circulating tumor cells. Clin Cancer Res; 23(3); 726-34. ©2016 AACR. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-1070
    DBC1 promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer by positively regulating DNA binding and stability of AR-V7. Moon Sue Jin,Jeong Byong Chang,Kim Hwa Jin,Lim Joung Eun,Kwon Ghee Young,Kim Jeong Hoon Oncogene Constitutively active AR-V7, one of the major androgen receptor (AR) splice variants lacking the ligand-binding domain, plays a key role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and anti-androgen resistance. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of AR-V7-driven transcription is limited. Here we report DBC1 as a key regulator of AR-V7 transcriptional activity and stability in CRPC cells. DBC1 functions as a coactivator for AR-V7 and is required for the expression of AR-V7 target genes including CDH2, a mesenchymal marker linked to CRPC progression. DBC1 is required for recruitment of AR-V7 to its target enhancers and for long-range chromatin looping between the CDH2 enhancer and promoter. Mechanistically, DBC1 enhances DNA-binding activity of AR-V7 by direct interaction and inhibits CHIP E3 ligase-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of AR-V7 by competing with CHIP for AR-V7 binding, thereby stabilizing and activating AR-V7. Importantly, DBC1 depletion suppresses the tumorigenic and metastatic properties of CRPC cells. Our results firmly establish DBC1 as a critical AR-V7 coactivator that plays a key role in the regulation of DNA binding and stability of AR-V7 and has an important physiological role in CRPC progression. 10.1038/s41388-017-0047-5
    Multimodal actions of the phytochemical sulforaphane suppress both AR and AR-V7 in 22Rv1 cells: Advocating a potent pharmaceutical combination against castration-resistant prostate cancer. Khurana Namrata,Kim Hogyoung,Chandra Partha K,Talwar Sudha,Sharma Pankaj,Abdel-Mageed Asim B,Sikka Suresh C,Mondal Debasis Oncology reports Prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) are susceptible to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, outgrowth of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) can occur due to the expression of constitutively active (ligand-independent) AR splice variants, particularly AR-V7. We previously demonstrated that sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate phytochemical, can decrease AR-FL levels in the PCa cell lines, LNCaP and C4-2B. Here, we examined the efficacy of SFN in targeting both AR-FL and AR-V7 in the CRPC cell line, CWR22Rv1 (22Rv1). MTT cell viability, wound-heal assay, and colony forming unit (CFU) measurements revealed that 22Rv1 cells are resistant to the anti-androgen, enzalutamide (ENZ). However, co-exposure to SFN sensitized these cells to the potent anticancer effects of ENZ (P<0.05). Immunoblot analyses showed that SFN (5-20 µM) rapidly decreases both AR-FL and AR-V7 levels, and immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) depicted decreased AR in both cytoplasm and nucleus with SFN treatment. SFN increased both ubiquitination and proteasomal activity in 22Rv1 cells. Studies using a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide) or a proteasomal inhibitor (MG132) indicated that SFN increases both ubiquitin-mediated aggregation and subsequent proteasomal-degradation of AR proteins. Previous studies reported that SFN inhibits the chaperone activity of heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and induces the nuclear factor erythroid-2-like 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor. Therefore, we investigated whether the Hsp90 inhibitor, ganetespib (G) or the Nrf2 activator, bardoxolone methyl (BM) can similarly suppress AR levels in 22Rv1 cells. Low doses of G and BM, alone or in combination, decreased both AR-FL and AR-V7 levels, and combined exposure to G+BM sensitized 22Rv1 cells to ENZ. Therefore, adjunct treatment with the phytochemical SFN or a safe pharmaceutical combination of G+BM may be effective against CRPC cells, especially those expressing AR-V7. 10.3892/or.2017.5932
    Droplet Digital PCR Based Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) Detection from Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Biopsies. Ma Yafeng,Luk Alison,Young Francis P,Lynch David,Chua Wei,Balakrishnar Bavanthi,de Souza Paul,Becker Therese M International journal of molecular sciences Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) was recently identified as a valuable predictive biomarker in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we report a new, sensitive and accurate screen for AR-V7 mRNA expression directly from circulating tumor cells (CTCs): We combined EpCAM-based immunomagnetic CTC isolation using the IsoFlux microfluidic platform with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to analyze total AR and AR-V7 expression from prostate cancer patients CTCs. We demonstrate that AR-V7 is reliably detectable in enriched CTC samples with as little as five CTCs, even considering tumor heterogeneity, and confirm detection of AR-V7 in CTC samples from advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients with AR-V7 detection limited to castrate resistant disease status in our sample set. Sensitive molecular analyses of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or circulating tumor nucleic acids present exciting strategies to detect biomarkers, such as AR-V7 from non-invasive blood samples, so-called blood biopsies. 10.3390/ijms17081264
    Differential expression of androgen receptor variants in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer xenografts, castration-resistant sublines, and patient specimens according to the treatment sequence. Honda Mariko,Kimura Takahiro,Kamata Yuko,Tashiro Kojiro,Kimura Shoji,Koike Yusuke,Sato Shun,Yorozu Takashi,Furusato Bungo,Takahashi Hiroyuki,Kiyota Hiroshi,Egawa Shin The Prostate BACKGROUND:Androgen receptor variants (AR-vs), especially AR-v7 and AR-v 5, 6, and 7 exon-skipped (AR-v567es), are reportedly key players in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We previously established a mouse xenograft model (JDCaP) from a metastatic skin lesion from a Japanese patient with CRPC and that was revealed to exhibit androgen sensitivity. In the present study, we established multiple castration-resistant xenograft models from JDCaP mice to investigate the biological features of CRPC. METHODS:Tissue from JDCaP mice was transplanted into male and female nude mice, and after serial passaging, castration-resistant sublines (JDCaP-CR2M and JDCaP-CR4M in male mice, JDCaP-CR2F and JDCaP-CR4F in female mice) were established. We investigated anti-androgen and testosterone sensitivity and the messenger RNA expression pattern of full-length AR and AR-vs. In addition, we compared AR protein levels of patient specimens among primary, local-recurrent, and two skin-metastatic tumors. RESULTS:All JDCaP-CR sublines showed continuous growth following the administration of bicalutamide, although the effects of testosterone varied among sublines. Parental JDCaP and JDCaP-CR2M, JDCaP-CR4M, and JDCaP-CR4F sublines expressed AR-v7, whereas JDCaP-CR2F exhibited elevated AR-v567es expression resulting from genomic deletion, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Moreover, we confirmed AR-v7 expression in the tumor of the original patient after androgen-deprivation therapy. CONCLUSIONS:Each JDCaP-CR subline showed different AR-v-expression patterns, with JDCaP-CR2F expressing AR-v567es due to genomic deletion. Our results indicated that AR-vs emerged after androgen-deprivation therapy and appeared essential for acquisition of castration resistance. 10.1002/pros.23816
    High levels of the AR-V7 Splice Variant and Co-Amplification of the Golgi Protein Coding YIPF6 in AR Amplified Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases. Djusberg Erik,Jernberg Emma,Thysell Elin,Golovleva Irina,Lundberg Pia,Crnalic Sead,Widmark Anders,Bergh Anders,Brattsand Maria,Wikström Pernilla The Prostate BACKGROUND:The relation between androgen receptor (AR) gene amplification and other mechanisms behind castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), such as expression of constitutively active AR variants and steroid-converting enzymes has been poorly examined. Specific aim was to examine AR amplification in PC bone metastases and to explore molecular and functional consequences of this, with the long-term goal of identifying novel molecular targets for treatment. METHODS:Gene amplification was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cryo-sections of clinical PC bone metastases (n = 40) and by PCR-based copy number variation analysis. Whole genome mRNA expression was analyzed using H12 Illumina Beadchip arrays and specific transcript levels were quantified by qRT-PCR. Protein localization was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The YIPF6 mRNA expression was transiently knocked down and stably overexpressed in the 22Rv1 cell line as representative for CRPC, and effects on cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion were determined in vitro. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) were isolated from cell cultures using size-exclusion chromatography and enumerated by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Protein content was identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Blood coagulation was measured as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Functional enrichment analysis was performed using the MetaCore software. RESULTS:AR amplification was detected in 16 (53%) of the bone metastases examined from CRPC patients (n = 30), and in none from the untreated patients (n = 10). Metastases with AR amplification showed high AR and AR-V7 mRNA levels, increased nuclear AR immunostaining, and co-amplification of genes such as YIPF6 in the AR proximity at Xq12. The YIPF6 protein was localized to the Golgi apparatus. YIPF6 overexpression in 22Rv1 cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation and colony formation, and in enhanced EV secretion. EVs from YIPF6 overproducing 22Rv1 cells were enriched for proteins involved in blood coagulation and, accordingly, decreased the APTT in a dose-dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS:AR amplified CRPC bone metastases show high AR-V7 expression that probably gives resistance to AR-targeting drugs. Co-amplification of the Golgi protein coding YIPF6 gene with the AR may enhance the secretion of pro-coagulative EVs from cancer cells and thereby stimulate tumor progression and increase the coagulopathy risk in CRPC patients. Prostate 77: 625-638, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 10.1002/pros.23307
    The retinamide VNLG-152 inhibits f-AR/AR-V7 and MNK-eIF4E signaling pathways to suppress EMT and castration-resistant prostate cancer xenograft growth. Ramamurthy Vidya P,Ramalingam Senthilmurugan,Gediya Lalji K,Njar Vincent C O The FEBS journal VNLG-152 is a novel retinamide (NR) shown to suppress growth and progression of genetically diverse prostate cancer cells via inhibition of androgen receptor signaling and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) translational machinery. Herein, we report therapeutic effects of VNLG-152 on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) growth and metastatic phenotype in a CRPC tumor xenograft model. Administration of VNLG-152 significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the growth of aggressive CWR22Rv1 tumors by 63.4% and 76.3% at 10 and 20 mg·kg bw, respectively (P < 0.0001), vs. vehicle with no host toxicity. Strikingly, the expression of full-length androgen receptor (f-AR)/androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1/2), phosphorylated eIF4E and their associated target proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2, were strongly decreased in VNLG-152-treated tumors signifying inhibition of f-AR/AR-V7 and MNK-eIF4E signaling in VNLG-152-treated CWR22Rv1 tumors as observed in vitro. VNLG-152 also suppressed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in CWR22Rv1 tumors as evidenced by repression of N-cadherin, β-catenin, claudin, Slug, Snail, Twist, vimentin and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) with upsurge in E-cadherin. These results highlight the promising use of VNLG-152 in CRPC therapy and justify its further development towards clinical trials. 10.1111/febs.14383
    Androgen Receptor Variant AR-V9 Is Coexpressed with AR-V7 in Prostate Cancer Metastases and Predicts Abiraterone Resistance. Kohli Manish,Ho Yeung,Hillman David W,Van Etten Jamie L,Henzler Christine,Yang Rendong,Sperger Jamie M,Li Yingming,Tseng Elizabeth,Hon Ting,Clark Tyson,Tan Winston,Carlson Rachel E,Wang Liguo,Sicotte Hugues,Thai Ho,Jimenez Rafael,Huang Haojie,Vedell Peter T,Eckloff Bruce W,Quevedo Jorge F,Pitot Henry C,Costello Brian A,Jen Jin,Wieben Eric D,Silverstein Kevin A T,Lang Joshua M,Wang Liewei,Dehm Scott M Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Androgen receptor (AR) variant AR-V7 is a ligand-independent transcription factor that promotes prostate cancer resistance to AR-targeted therapies. Accordingly, efforts are under way to develop strategies for monitoring and inhibiting AR-V7 in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The purpose of this study was to understand whether other AR variants may be coexpressed with AR-V7 and promote resistance to AR-targeted therapies. We utilized complementary short- and long-read sequencing of intact AR mRNA isoforms to characterize AR expression in CRPC models. Coexpression of AR-V7 and AR-V9 mRNA in CRPC metastases and circulating tumor cells was assessed by RNA-seq and RT-PCR, respectively. Expression of AR-V9 protein in CRPC models was evaluated with polyclonal antisera. Multivariate analysis was performed to test whether AR variant mRNA expression in metastatic tissues was associated with a 12-week progression-free survival endpoint in a prospective clinical trial of 78 CRPC-stage patients initiating therapy with the androgen synthesis inhibitor, abiraterone acetate. AR-V9 was frequently coexpressed with AR-V7. Both AR variant species were found to share a common 3' terminal cryptic exon, which rendered AR-V9 susceptible to experimental manipulations that were previously thought to target AR-V7 uniquely. AR-V9 promoted ligand-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. High AR-V9 mRNA expression in CRPC metastases was predictive of primary resistance to abiraterone acetate (HR = 4.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-12.2; = 0.02). AR-V9 may be an important component of therapeutic resistance in CRPC. . 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0017
    AR-V7 expression in circulating tumor cells as a potential prognostic marker in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Josefsson Andreas,Damber Jan-Erik,Welén Karin Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 10.1080/0284186X.2019.1637540
    Diverse AR-V7 cistromes in castration-resistant prostate cancer are governed by HoxB13. Chen Zhong,Wu Dayong,Thomas-Ahner Jennifer M,Lu Changxue,Zhao Pei,Zhang Qingfu,Geraghty Connor,Yan Pearlly S,Hankey William,Sunkel Benjamin,Cheng Xiaolong,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Wang Qi-En,Liu Zhihua,Huang Tim H-M,Jin Victor X,Clinton Steven K,Luo Jun,Huang Jiaoti,Wang Qianben Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America The constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) plays an important role in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although biomarker studies established the role of AR-V7 in resistance to AR-targeting therapies, how AR-V7 mediates genomic functions in CRPC remains largely unknown. Using a ChIP-exo approach, we show AR-V7 binds to distinct genomic regions and recognizes a full-length androgen-responsive element in CRPC cells and patient tissues. Remarkably, we find dramatic differences in AR-V7 cistromes across diverse CRPC cells and patient tissues, regulating different target gene sets involved in CRPC progression. Surprisingly, we discover that HoxB13 is universally required for and colocalizes with AR-V7 binding to open chromatin across CRPC genomes. HoxB13 pioneers AR-V7 binding through direct physical interaction, and collaborates with AR-V7 to up-regulate target oncogenes. Transcriptional coregulation by HoxB13 and AR-V7 was further supported by their coexpression in tumors and circulating tumor cells from CRPC patients. Importantly, HoxB13 silencing significantly decreases CRPC growth through inhibition of AR-V7 oncogenic function. These results identify HoxB13 as a pivotal upstream regulator of AR-V7-driven transcriptomes that are often cell context-dependent in CRPC, suggesting that HoxB13 may serve as a therapeutic target for AR-V7-driven prostate tumors. 10.1073/pnas.1718811115
    Androgen receptor isoforms expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia and primary prostate cancer. Hillebrand Ana Caroline,Pizzolato Lolita Schneider,Neto Brasil Silva,Branchini Gisele,Brum Ilma Simoni PloS one The role of molecular changes in the androgen receptor (AR) as AR variants (AR-Vs) is not clear in the pathophysiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and hormone-naïve PCa. The aim of the current work was to identify the presence of AR isoforms in benign tissue and primary PCa, and to evaluate the possible association with tumor aggressiveness and biochemical recurrence in primary PCa. The mRNA levels of full length AR (AR-FL) and AR-Vs (AR-V1, AR-V4 and AR-V7) were measured using RT-qPCR. The protein expression of AR-FL (AR-CTD and AR-NTD) and AR-V7 were evaluated by the H-Score in immunohistochemistry (IHC). All investigated mRNA targets were expressed both in BPH and PCa. AR-FL mRNA levels were similar in both groups. AR-V4 mRNA expression showed higher levels in BPH, and AR-V1 and AR-V7 mRNA expression were higher in PCa. The AR-V7 protein showed a similar H-Score in both groups, while AR-CTD and AR-NTD were higher in nuclei of epithelial cells from BPH. These results support the assumption that these constitutively active isoforms of AR are involved in the pathophysiology of primary PCa and BPH. The role of AR-Vs and their possible modulation by steroid tissue levels in distinct types of prostate tumors needs to be elucidated to help guide the best clinical management of these diseases. 10.1371/journal.pone.0200613
    Androgen receptor nuclear localization correlates with AR-V7 mRNA expression in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from metastatic castration resistance prostate cancer patients. Worroll Daniel,Galletti Giuseppe,Gjyrezi Ada,Nanus David M,Tagawa Scott T,Giannakakou Paraskevi Physical biology Androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives prostate cancer (PC) progression and remains active upon transition to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Active AR signaling is achieved through the nuclear accumulation of AR following ligand binding and through expression of ligand-independent, constitutively active AR splice variants, such as AR-V7, which is the most commonly expressed variant in metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) patients. Most currently approved PC therapies aim to abrogate AR signaling and activity by inhibiting this ligand-mediated nuclear translocation. In a prospective multi-institutional clinical study, we recently showed that taxane based chemotherapy is also capable of impairing AR nuclear localization (ARNL) in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from CRPC patients, whereas taxane induced decreases in ARNL were associated with response. Thus, quantitative assessment of ARNL in CTCs can be used to monitor therapeutic response in patients and help guide clinical decisions. Here, we describe the development and implementation of quantitative high throughput (QHT) image analysis algorithms to aid in CTC identification and quantitative assessment of percent ARNL (%ARNL). We applied this algorithm to fifteen CRPC patients at the start of taxane chemotherapy, quantified %ARNL in CTCs, and correlated with expression of AR-V7 mRNA (from CTCs enriched via negative, CD45 depletion of peripheral blood) and with biochemical (prostate specific antigen; PSA) response to taxane chemotherapy. We found that CTCs from AR-V7 positive patients had higher baseline %ARNL compared to CTCs from AR-V7 negative patients, consistent with the constitutive nuclear localization of AR-V7. In addition, lower %ARNL in CTCs at baseline was associated with biochemical response to taxane chemotherapy. High inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity was also observed. As ARNL is required for active AR signaling, the QHT algorithms described herein can provide prognostic and/or predictive value in future clinical studies. 10.1088/1478-3975/ab073a
    Urine-based liquid biopsy: non-invasive and sensitive AR-V7 detection in urinary EVs from patients with prostate cancer. Woo Hyun-Kyung,Park Juhee,Ku Ja Yoon,Lee Chan Ho,Sunkara Vijaya,Ha Hong Koo,Cho Yoon-Kyoung Lab on a chip Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to anti-androgen therapy. Despite its clinical importance, the lack of efficient methods for AR-V7 analysis remains a challenge for broader use of this biomarker in routine clinical practice. Herein, we suggest a practical and non-invasive liquid biopsy method for analysis of AR-V7 in the RNA of urine-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) without the need for blood withdrawal. Urine-derived EVs were isolated by a lab-on-a-disc integrated with six independent nanofiltration units (Exo-Hexa) allowing simultaneous processing of six individual samples. Rapid enrichment of EVs (<30 min) from each 4 mL urine sample was followed by mRNA extraction, and AR-V7 and androgen receptor full-length (AR-FL) mRNA levels in the urinary EVs were quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) as absolute concentrations (copies per mL). Higher AR-V7 and lower AR-FL expressions were detected in urine-derived EVs from 14 patients with CRPC than in those from 22 patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Additionally, we found that AR-V7 transcript levels and the AR-V7/AR-FL ratio in urinary EVs were higher in patients with advanced prostate cancer. This study is the first to report that RNA of urine-derived EVs is a reliable source for AR-V7 expression analysis. The proposed method for quantifying AR-V7 in urinary EVs prepared by a lab-on-a-disc is therefore a simple and promising approach to liquid biopsy with great potential for therapeutic impact on prostate cancer. 10.1039/c8lc01185k
    Expression of AR-V7 and ARv in Circulating Tumor Cells Correlates with Outcomes to Taxane Therapy in Men with Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treated in TAXYNERGY. Tagawa Scott T,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Gjyrezi Ada,Galletti Giuseppe,Kim Seaho,Worroll Daniel,Stewart John,Zaher Atef,Szatrowski Ted P,Ballman Karla V,Kita Katsuhiro,Tasaki Shinsuke,Bai Yang,Portella Luigi,Kirby Brian J,Saad Fred,Eisenberger Mario A,Nanus David M,Giannakakou Paraskevi Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:Biomarkers aiding treatment optimization in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) are scarce. The presence or absence of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, AR-V7 and AR, in mCRPC patient circulating tumor cells (CTC) may be associated with taxane treatment outcomes. A novel digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) assay assessed AR-splice variant expression in CTCs from patients receiving docetaxel or cabazitaxel in TAXYNERGY (NCT01718353). Patient outcomes were examined according to AR-splice variant expression, including prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS:Of the 54 evaluable patients, 36 (67%) were AR-V7, 42 (78%) were AR, 29 (54%) were double positive, and 5 (9%) were double negative. PSA response rates at any time were numerically higher for AR-V7 versus AR-V7 (78% vs. 58%; = 0.23) and for AR versus AR (92% vs. 57%; = 0.04) patients. When AR-V mRNA status was correlated with change in nuclear AR from cycle 1 day 1 to day 8 ( = 24), AR-V7 patients ( = 16) had a 0.4% decrease versus a 12.9% and 26.7% decrease in AR-V7/AR ( = 3) and AR-V7/AR ( = 5) patients, respectively, suggesting a dominant role for AR-V7 over AR. Median PFS was 12.02 versus 8.48 months for AR-V7 versus AR-V7 (HR = 0.38; = 0.01), and 12.71 versus 7.29 months for AR versus AR (HR = 0.37; = 0.02). For AR-V7, AR-V7/AR, and AR-V7/AR patients, median PFS was 8.48, 11.17, and 16.62 months, respectively ( = 0.0013 for trend). CONCLUSIONS:Although detection of both CTC-specific AR-V7 and AR by ddPCR influenced taxane outcomes, AR-V7 primarily mediated the prognostic impact. The absence of both variants was associated with the best response and PFS with taxane treatment.See related commentary by Dehm et al., p. 1696. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0320
    Effect of Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) inhibitors on androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Gaur Shikha,Gross Mitchell E,Liao Chun-Peng,Qian Bin,Shih Jean C The Prostate BACKGROUND:Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is best known for its role in neuro-transmitter regulation. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are used to treat atypical depression. MAOA is highly expressed in high grade prostate cancer and modulates tumorigenesis and progression in prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the potential role of MAOA inhibitors (MAOAIs) in relation to the androgen receptor (AR) pathway and resistance to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer. METHODS:We examined MAOA expression and the effect of MAOI treatment in relation to AR-targeted treatments using the LNCaP, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cell lines. MAOA, AR-full length (AR-FL), AR splice variant 7 (AR-V7), and PSA expression was evaluated in the presence of MAOAIs (clorgyline, phenelzine), androgenic ligand (R1881), and antiandrogen (enzalutamide) treatments. An enzalutamide resistance cell line was generated to test the effect of MAOAI treatment in this model. RESULTS:We observed that MAOAIs, particularly clorgyline and phenelzine, were effective at decreasing MAOA activity in human prostate cancer cells. MAOAIs significantly decreased growth of LNCaP, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 cells and produced additive growth inhibitory effects when combined with enzalutamide. Clorgyline decreased expression of AR-FL and AR-V7 in 22Rv1 cells and was effective at decreasing growth of an enzalutamide-resistant C4-2B cell line with increased AR-V7 expression. CONCLUSIONS:MAOAIs decrease growth and proliferation of androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Clorgyline, in particular, decreases expression of AR-FL and AR-V7 expression and decreases growth of an enzalutamide-resistant cell line. These findings provide preclinical validation of MAOA inhibitors either alone or in combination with antiandrogens for therapeutic intent in patients with advanced forms of prostate cancer. 10.1002/pros.23774
    Nuclear-specific AR-V7 Protein Localization is Necessary to Guide Treatment Selection in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Scher Howard I,Graf Ryon P,Schreiber Nicole A,McLaughlin Brigit,Lu David,Louw Jessica,Danila Daniel C,Dugan Lyndsey,Johnson Ann,Heller Glenn,Fleisher Martin,Dittamore Ryan European urology BACKGROUND:Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) expressing AR-V7 protein localized to the nucleus (nuclear-specific) identify metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients with improved overall survival (OS) on taxane therapy relative to the androgen receptor signaling inhibitors (ARSi) abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and apalutamide. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate if expanding the positivity criteria to include both nuclear and cytoplasmic AR-V7 localization ("nuclear-agnostic") identifies more patients who would benefit from a taxane over an ARSi. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The study used a cross-sectional cohort. Between December 2012 and March 2015, 193 pretherapy blood samples, 191 of which were evaluable, were collected and processed from 161 unique mCRPC patients before starting a new line of systemic therapy for disease progression at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The association between two AR-V7 scoring criteria, post-therapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change (PTPC) and OS following ARSi or taxane treatment, was explored. One criterion required nuclear-specific AR-V7 localization, and the other required an AR-V7 signal but was agnostic to protein localization in CTCs. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSES:Correlation of AR-V7 status to PTPC and OS was investigated. Relationships with survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analyses. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:A total of 34 (18%) samples were AR-V7-positive using nuclear-specific criteria, and 56 (29%) were AR-V7-positive using nuclear-agnostic criteria. Following ARSi treatment, none of the 16 nuclear-specific AR-V7-positive samples and six of the 32 (19%) nuclear-agnostic AR-V7-positive samples had ≥50% PTPC at 12 weeks. The strongest baseline factor influencing OS was the interaction between the presence of nuclear-specific AR-V7-positive CTCs and treatment with a taxane (hazard ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.078-0.79; p=0.019). This interaction was not significant when nuclear-agnostic criteria were used. CONCLUSIONS:To reliably inform treatment selection using an AR-V7 protein biomarker in CTCs, nuclear-specific localization is required. PATIENT SUMMARY:We analyzed outcomes for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer on androgen receptor signaling inhibitors and standard chemotherapy. Patients with circulating tumor cells that had AR-V7 protein in the cellular nuclei were very likely to survive longer on taxane-based chemotherapy, and tests unable to distinguish where the protein is located in the cell are not as predictive of benefit. 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.11.024
    CX4945 suppresses the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells by reducing AR-V7 expression. Deng Chuangzhong,Chen Jieping,Guo Shengjie,Wang Yanjun,Zhou Qianghua,Li Zaishang,Yang Xingping,Yu Xingsu,Zhang Zhenfeng,Zhou Fangjian,Han Hui,Yao Kai World journal of urology PURPOSE:The aberrant expression of casein kinase 2 (CK2) has been reported to be involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of prostate cancer. The inhibition of CK2 activity represses androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells by attenuating the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. In this study, we examined the effect of CK2 inhibition in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells, in which AR variants (ARVs) play a predominant role. METHODS:A newly synthetic CK2 selective inhibitor CX4945 was utilized to study the effect of CK2 inhibition in CRPC cells by CCK8 assay and colony formation assay. Protein and mRNA levels of full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 were determined by qPCR and western blot, respectively. The nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 was assessed to reflect the activity of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS:CX4945 reduced the proliferation of CRPC cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. AR-V7 rather than AR-FL was downregulated by CX4945 in both the mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, CX4945 could restore the sensitivity of CRPC cells to bicalutamide. The analysis of possible mechanisms demonstrated that the inhibition of CK2 diminished the phosphorylation of p65 at ser529 and thus attenuated the activity of the NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION:The inhibition of CK2 by CX4945 can repress the viability of CRPC cells and restore their sensitivity to anti-androgen therapy by suppressing AR-V7. This finding presents a potential option for the treatment of prostate cancer, especially CRPC. 10.1007/s00345-016-1996-y
    Associations between AR-V7 status in circulating tumour cells, circulating tumour cell count and survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Belderbos Bodine P S,Sieuwerts Anieta M,Hoop Esther Oomen-de,Mostert Bianca,Kraan Jaco,Hamberg Paul,Van Mai N,Beaufort Corine M,Onstenk Wendy,van Soest Robert J,Martens John,Sleijfer Stefan,de Wit Ronald,Mathijssen Ron H J,Lolkema Martijn P European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) BACKGROUND:The interpretation of the presence of AR-V7 in circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains to be elucidated. AR-V7 may hold promise as a predictive biomarker, but there may be prognostic impact of AR-V7 positivity as well. To investigate the clinical value of AR-V7, we determined whether AR-V7 detection in CTCs in patients with mCRPC is associated with CTC counts and survival. METHODS:Between December 2011 and January 2019, three prospective clinical trials collected clinical data of patients with mCRPC, who progressed after docetaxel and/or enzalutamide or abiraterone. Baseline (and follow-up) blood samples were withdrawn determining CTC count and AR-V7 expression. The majority of patients started cabazitaxel as the next line of treatment after AR-V7 characterisation. RESULTS:A total of 127 samples were evaluable for the analysis of CTC count versus AR-V7 status. Although an association was observed between AR-V7 and CTC count in all patients with mCRPC (p = 0.017), no such association was found in the prognostic unfavourable subgroup of patients with ≥5 CTCs. After adjusting for clinical prognostic factors, AR-V7 expression in CTCs was not associated with overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.81-2.15, p = 0.25). CONCLUSION:We found that AR-V7 expression in CTCs had no additional prognostic value in patients with mCRPC, mostly treated with cabazitaxel. In patients with mCRPC with a predefined worse prognosis of a higher CTC count (≥5), a predictive biomarker is an important unmet medical need. Prospective trials should investigate whether AR-V7 detection in CTCs may guide treatment selection for these adverse prognosis patients. 10.1016/j.ejca.2019.08.005
    Novel Junction-specific and Quantifiable In Situ Detection of AR-V7 and its Clinical Correlates in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Zhu Yezi,Sharp Adam,Anderson Courtney M,Silberstein John L,Taylor Maritza,Lu Changxue,Zhao Pei,De Marzo Angelo M,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Wang Mindy,Wu Xingyong,Luo Yuling,Su Nan,Nava Rodrigues Daniel,Figueiredo Ines,Welti Jonathan,Park Emily,Ma Xiao-Jun,Coleman Ilsa,Morrissey Colm,Plymate Stephen R,Nelson Peter S,de Bono Johann S,Luo Jun European urology BACKGROUND:Androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has been implicated in resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide treatment in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Tissue- or cell-based in situ detection of AR-V7, however, has been limited by lack of specificity. OBJECTIVE:To address current limitations in precision measurement of AR-V7 by developing a novel junction-specific AR-V7 RNA in situ hybridization (RISH) assay compatible with automated quantification. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:We designed a RISH method to visualize single splice junctions in cells and tissue. Using the validated assay for junction-specific detection of the full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7, we generated quantitative data, blinded to clinical data, for 63 prostate tumor biopsies. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:We evaluated clinical correlates of AR-FL/AR-V7 measurements, including association with prostate-specific antigen progression-free survival (PSA-PFS) and clinical and radiographic progression-free survival (PFS), in a subset of patients starting treatment with abiraterone or enzalutamide following biopsy. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Quantitative AR-FL/AR-V7 data were generated from 56 of the 63 (88.9%) biopsy specimens examined, of which 44 were mCRPC biopsies. Positive AR-V7 signals were detected in 34.1% (15/44) mCRPC specimens, all of which also co-expressed AR-FL. The median AR-V7/AR-FL ratio was 11.9% (range 2.7-30.3%). Positive detection of AR-V7 was correlated with indicators of high disease burden at baseline. Among the 25 CRPC biopsies collected before treatment with abiraterone or enzalutamide, positive AR-V7 detection, but not higher AR-FL, was significantly associated with shorter PSA-PFS (hazard ratio 2.789, 95% confidence interval 1.12-6.95; p=0.0081). CONCLUSIONS:We report for the first time a RISH method for highly specific and quantifiable detection of splice junctions, allowing further characterization of AR-V7 and its clinical significance. PATIENT SUMMARY:Higher AR-V7 levels detected and quantified using a novel method were associated with poorer response to abiraterone or enzalutamide in prostate cancer. 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.08.009
    Standardization of CTC AR-V7 PCR assay and evaluation of its role in castration resistant prostate cancer progression. Tommasi Stefania,Pilato Brunella,Carella Claudia,Lasorella Antonia,Danza Katia,Vallini Ivan,De Summa Simona,Naglieri Emanuele The Prostate BACKGROUND:Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) represents the most aggressive status of this neoplastic disease, also characterized by the absence of biomarkers predictive of clinical outcome. New drugs as abiraterone or enzalutamide, affecting androgen receptor pathway at different levels, inhibit the proliferative advantage of prostate cancer cells with important long term benefits. Despite the advantages of this second-generation androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), resistance mechanisms, primitive or acquired, often develop. The existence of androgen receptor (AR) splice variants (AR-Vs), in particular AR-V7 expression detected in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), represents an example of acquired resistance, as evidenced in preclinical and clinical studies. Recent studies also have suggested the role of AR-V7 as a prognostic biomarker in mCRPC. In this field, hot topics are the methodology used to isolate CTC and the assay for AR-V7 measurement. Our study aims to develop a standardized operating procedure (SOP) to evaluate AR-V7 in CRPC. METHOD:The application of a realized cell based Reference Sample as Standardized Quality Control tool for CTC-AR-V7 assay has been shown. Then the development, the performance evaluation and contextualization in a clinical setting of this standardized operating procedure (SOP) have been reported to evaluate the prognostic biomarker AR-V7 in metastatic prostate cancer. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The standardized procedure has high sensitivity and specificity and enables the detection and quantification of the spliced variant with respect to the full length AR (AR-FL) mRNA in CTC DNA purified from the blood of patients with CRPC. This procedure has been further validated in a consecutive series of patients with mCRPC, confirming its role as prognostic biomarker. 10.1002/pros.23710
    A Whole Blood Assay for AR-V7 and AR in Patients with Prostate Cancer. Liu Xichun,Ledet Elisa,Li Dongying,Dotiwala Ary,Steinberger Allie,Feibus Allison,Li Jianzhuo,Qi Yanfeng,Silberstein Jonathan,Lee Benjamin,Dong Yan,Sartor Oliver,Zhang Haitao The Journal of urology PURPOSE:Most prostate cancer mortality can be attributed to metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer, an advanced stage that remains incurable despite recent advances. The AR (androgen receptor) signaling axis remains active in castration resistant prostate cancer. Recent studies suggest that expression of the AR-V (AR splice variant) AR-V7 may underlie resistance to abiraterone and enzalutamide. However, controversy exists over the optimal assay. Our objective was to develop a fast and sensitive assay for AR-Vs in patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two approaches were assessed in this study. The first approach was based on depletion of leukocytes and the second one used RNA purified directly from whole blood preserved in PAXgene® tubes. Transcript expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Through a side-by-side comparison we found that the whole blood approach was suitable to detect AR-Vs. The specificity of the assay was corroborated in a cancer-free cohort. Using the PAXgene assay samples from a cohort of 46 patients with castration resistant prostate cancer were analyzed. Overall, AR-V7 and AR were detected in 67.53% and 29.87% of samples, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a strong association of AR-V positivity with a history of second line hormonal therapies. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate that PAXgene preserved whole blood can be used to obtain clinically relevant information regarding the expression of 2 AR-Vs. These data on a castration resistant prostate cancer cohort support a role for AR-Vs in resistance to therapies targeting the AR ligand-binding domain. 10.1016/j.juro.2016.06.095
    Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants AR-V3, AR-V7 and AR-V9 are co-expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases. Kallio Heini M L,Hieta Reija,Latonen Leena,Brofeldt Anniina,Annala Matti,Kivinummi Kati,Tammela Teuvo L,Nykter Matti,Isaacs William B,Lilja Hans G,Bova G Steven,Visakorpi Tapio British journal of cancer BACKGROUND:A significant subset of prostate cancer (PC) patients with a castration-resistant form of the disease (CRPC) show primary resistance to androgen receptor (AR)-targeting drugs developed against CRPC. As one explanation could be the expression of constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs), our current objectives were to study AR-Vs and other AR aberrations to better understand the emergence of CRPC. METHODS:We analysed specimens from different stages of prostate cancer by next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:AR mutations and copy number variations were detected only in CRPC specimens. Genomic structural rearrangements of AR were observed in 5/30 metastatic CRPC patients, but they were not associated with expression of previously known AR-Vs. The predominant AR-Vs detected were AR-V3, AR-V7 and AR-V9, with the expression levels being significantly higher in CRPC cases compared to prostatectomy samples. Out of 25 CRPC metastases that expressed any AR variant, 17 cases harboured expression of all three of these AR-Vs. AR-V7 protein expression was highly heterogeneous and higher in CRPC compared to hormone-naïve tumours. CONCLUSIONS:AR-V3, AR-V7 and AR-V9 are co-expressed in CRPC metastases highlighting the fact that inhibiting AR function via regions common to all AR-Vs is likely to provide additional benefit to patients with CRPC. 10.1038/s41416-018-0172-0
    Detection of AR-V7 in Liquid Biopsies of Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: A Comparison of AR-V7 Analysis in Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Tumor RNA and Exosomes. Nimir Mohammed,Ma Yafeng,Jeffreys Sarah A,Opperman Thomas,Young Francis,Khan Tanzila,Ding Pei,Chua Wei,Balakrishnar Bavanthi,Cooper Adam,De Souza Paul,Becker Therese M Cells Detection of androgen receptor (AR) variant 7 (AR-V7) is emerging as a clinically important biomarker in castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Detection is possible from tumor tissue, which is often inaccessible in the advanced disease setting. With recent progress in detecting AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor RNA (ctRNA) and exosomes from prostate cancer patients, liquid biopsies have emerged as an alternative to tumor biopsy. Therefore, it is important to clarify whether these approaches differ in sensitivity in order to achieve the best possible biomarker characterization for the patient. In this study, blood samples from 44 prostate cancer patients were processed for CTCs and ctRNA with subsequent AR-V7 testing, while exosomal RNA was isolated from 16 samples and tested. Detection of AR and AR-V7 was performed using a highly sensitive droplet digital PCR-based assay. AR and AR-V7 RNA were detectable in CTCs, ctRNA and exosome samples. AR-V7 detection from CTCs showed higher sensitivity and has proven specificity compared to detection from ctRNA and exosomes. Considering that CTCs are almost always present in the advanced prostate cancer setting, CTC samples should be considered the liquid biopsy of choice for the detection of this clinically important biomarker. 10.3390/cells8070688
    AKR1C3 Promotes AR-V7 Protein Stabilization and Confers Resistance to AR-Targeted Therapies in Advanced Prostate Cancer. Liu Chengfei,Yang Joy C,Armstrong Cameron M,Lou Wei,Liu Liangren,Qiu Xiaomin,Zou Binhao,Lombard Alan P,D'Abronzo Leandro S,Evans Christopher P,Gao Allen C Molecular cancer therapeutics The mechanisms resulting in resistance to next-generation antiandrogens in castration-resistant prostate cancer are incompletely understood. Numerous studies have determined that constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) signaling or full-length AR bypass mechanisms may contribute to the resistance. Previous studies established that AKR1C3 and AR-V7 play important roles in enzalutamide and abiraterone resistance. In the present study, we found that AKR1C3 increases AR-V7 expression in resistant prostate cancer cells through enhancing protein stability via activation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. AKR1C3 reprograms AR signaling in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells. In addition, bioinformatical analysis of indomethacin-treated resistant cells revealed that indomethacin significantly activates the unfolded protein response, p53, and apoptosis pathways, and suppresses cell-cycle, Myc, and AR/ARV7 pathways. Targeting AKR1C3 with indomethacin significantly decreases AR/AR-V7 protein expression and through activation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. Our results suggest that the AKR1C3/AR-V7 complex collaboratively confers resistance to AR-targeted therapies in advanced prostate cancer. 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-1322
    Expression of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 (AR-V7) in Circulated Tumor Cells and Correlation with Drug Resistance of Prostate Cancer Cells. Wang Shuaibin,Yang Sen,Nan Cunjin,Wang Yijun,He Youhua,Mu Haiqi Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is a common type of malignant tumor invading the male reproductive-urinary system, which has increasing incidence worldwide. Androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) participates in regulating prostate cancer cell proliferation and gene expression. This study aimed to investigate the expression of AR-V7 in circulated tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with prostate cancer and to assess its correlation with drug sensitivity against enzalutamide or abiraterone. MATERIAL AND METHODS Blood samples of prostate cancer patients were collected for separating CTCs, in which mRNA expression level of full-length AR and AR-V7 was measured to analyze their correlation with enzalutamide or abiraterone resistance. Progression-free survival (PFS) of patients with different AR-V7 expression levels was compared. AR-V7 was overexpressed in transfected prostate cancer cells, and its effects on proliferation were analyzed by clonal formation assay. RESULTS qRT-PCR showed AR-V7 overexpression in a total of 13 patients; 76.92% of these patients developed drug resistance, the distal metastasis of which was significantly higher than that in the group with AR-V7 downregulation, with lower PFS (p<0.01). In cultured prostate cancer cells, AR-V7 upregulation resulted in a significantly higher clonal formation rate than in the control group with enzalutamide-containing medium (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In prostate cancer cells, AR-V7 expression is correlated with drug resistance, as AR-V7 upregulation leads to enhanced proliferation potency of cancer cells, indicating unfavorable prognosis of patients. 10.12659/MSM.909669
    Histone demethylase JMJD1A promotes alternative splicing of AR variant 7 (AR-V7) in prostate cancer cells. Fan Lingling,Zhang Fengbo,Xu Songhui,Cui Xiaolu,Hussain Arif,Fazli Ladan,Gleave Martin,Dong Xuesen,Qi Jianfei Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Formation of the androgen receptor splicing variant 7 (AR-V7) is one of the major mechanisms by which resistance of prostate cancer to androgen deprivation therapy occurs. The histone demethylase JMJD1A (Jumonji domain containing 1A) functions as a key coactivator for AR by epigenetic regulation of H3K9 methylation marks. Here, we describe a role for JMJD1A in AR-V7 expression. While JMJD1A knockdown had no effect on full-length AR (AR-FL), it reduced AR-V7 levels in prostate cancer cells. Reexpression of AR-V7 in the JMJD1A-knockdown cells elevated expression of select AR targets and partially rescued prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. The AR-V7 protein level correlated positively with JMJD1A in a subset of human prostate cancer specimens. Mechanistically, we found that JMJD1A promoted alternative splicing of AR-V7 through heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (HNRNPF), a splicing factor known to regulate exon inclusion. Knockdown of JMJD1A or HNRNPF inhibited splicing of AR-V7, but not AR-FL, in a minigene reporter assay. JMJD1A was found to interact with and promote the recruitment of HNRNPF to a cryptic exon 3b on AR pre-mRNA for the generation of AR-V7. Taken together, the role of JMJD1A in AR-FL coactivation and AR-V7 alternative splicing highlights JMJD1A as a potentially promising target for prostate cancer therapy. 10.1073/pnas.1802415115
    ONC201 Targets AR and AR-V7 Signaling, Reduces PSA, and Synergizes with Everolimus in Prostate Cancer. Lev Avital,Lulla Amriti R,Ross Brian C,Ralff Marie D,Makhov Petr B,Dicker David T,El-Deiry Wafik S Molecular cancer research : MCR Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a key role in prostate cancer progression, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a mainstay clinical treatment regimen for patients with advanced disease. Unfortunately, most prostate cancers eventually become androgen-independent and resistant to ADT with patients progressing to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Constitutively activated AR variants (AR-V) have emerged as mediators of resistance to AR-targeted therapy and the progression of mCRPC, and they represent an important therapeutic target. Out of at least 15 AR-Vs described thus far, AR-V7 is the most abundant, and its expression correlates with ADT resistance. ONC201/TIC10 is the founding member of the imipridone class of small molecules and has shown anticancer activity in a broad range of tumor types. ONC201 is currently being tested in phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors, including mCRPC, and hematologic malignancies. There has been promising activity observed in patients in early clinical testing. This study demonstrates preclinical single-agent efficacy of ONC201 using and models of prostate cancer. ONC201 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in both castration-resistant and -sensitive prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that ONC201 downregulates the expression of key drivers of prostate cancer such as AR-V7 and downstream target genes including the clinically used biomarker PSA (KLK3). Finally, the data also provide a preclinical rationale for combination of ONC201 with approved therapeutics for prostate cancer such as enzalutamide, everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), or docetaxel. The preclinical efficacy of ONC201 as a single agent or in combination, in hormone-sensitive or castration-resistant prostate cancer, suggests the potential for immediate clinical translation. . 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-17-0614
    Overexpression of nuclear AR-V7 protein in primary prostate cancer is an independent negative prognostic marker in men with high-risk disease receiving adjuvant therapy. Chen Xin,Bernemann Christof,Tolkach Yuri,Heller Martina,Nientiedt Cathleen,Falkenstein Michael,Herpel Esther,Jenzer Maximilian,Grüllich Carsten,Jäger Dirk,Sültmann Holger,Duensing Anette,Perner Sven,Cronauer Marcus V,Stephan Carsten,Debus Jürgen,Schrader Andres Jan,Kristiansen Glen,Hohenfellner Markus,Duensing Stefan Urologic oncology BACKGROUND:Overexpression of the androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) has recently been reported to be associated with resistance to antihormonal therapy. Herein, we address the question whether tumor cells with AR-V7 expression can be detected at the time of radical prostatectomy, that is, before long-term hormonal manipulation and castration resistance, and what the potential prognostic impact on the biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival may be. METHODS:An anti-AR-V7 antibody was first validated in a training set of prostate cancer specimens by a comparison of AR-V7 protein to AR-V7 mRNA expression. We then analyzed nuclear AR-V7 protein expression in the primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 163 predominantly high-risk patients (cohort I) as well as the primary tumors from patients of a second, consecutive patient cohort (n = 238, cohort II) not selected for any clinicopathological features. Staining results were correlated to patient characteristics and BCR-free patient survival. RESULTS:High nuclear AR-V7 protein expression was detected in approximately 30%-40% of patients in cohort I and II at the time of radical prostatectomy. High baseline expression of nuclear AR-V7 protein was associated with an unfavorable BCR-free survival in the high-risk patient cohort I but not in the unselected consecutive cohort II. Remarkably, AR-V7 was an independent negative prognostic factor in high-risk prostate cancer patients of cohort I who were selected to receive adjuvant treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Prostate cancer cells with high nuclear AR-V7 protein expression can be detected in a substantial proportion of tumors at the time of radical prostatectomy. The presence of AR-V7-positive tumor cells is associated with an unfavorable prognosis for BCR-free survival in a high-risk patient cohort including a subgroup of patients selected to receive adjuvant therapy, in which AR-V7 was an independent negative prognosticator. Overexpression of nuclear AR-V7 protein hence identifies a subset of tumors with remarkably aggressive growth characteristics among clinically and histologically high-risk patients at the time of radical prostatectomy. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2017.11.001
    Melatonin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 (AR-V7)-Induced Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Activation and NF-κB Activator-Induced AR-V7 Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells: Potential Implications for the Use of Melatonin in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Therapy. Liu Vincent Wing Sun,Yau Wing Lung,Tam Chun Wai,Yao Kwok-Ming,Shiu Stephen Yuen Wing International journal of molecular sciences A major current challenge in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, which can be initially controlled by medical or surgical castration, is the development of effective, safe, and affordable therapies against progression of the disease to the stage of castration resistance. Here, we showed that in LNCaP and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells transiently overexpressing androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was activated and could result in up-regulated interleukin () gene expression, indicating a positive interaction between AR-V7 expression and activated NF-κB/IL-6 signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) pathogenesis. Importantly, both AR-V7-induced NF-κB activation and gene transcription in LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells could be inhibited by melatonin. Furthermore, stimulation of mRNA expression in LNCaP cells by betulinic acid, a pharmacological NF-κB activator, was reduced by melatonin treatment. Our data support the presence of bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 expression and NF-κB activation in CRPC pathogenesis. Of note, melatonin, by inhibiting NF-κB activation via the previously-reported MT₁ receptor-mediated antiproliferative pathway, can disrupt these bi-directional positive interactions between AR-V7 and NF-κB and thereby delay the development of castration resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Apparently, this therapeutic potential of melatonin in advanced prostate cancer/CRPC management is worth translation in the clinic via combined androgen depletion and melatonin repletion. 10.3390/ijms18061130
    The BET-inhibitor PFI-1 diminishes AR/AR-V7 signaling in prostate cancer cells. Hupe Marie C,Hoda M Raschid,Zengerling Friedemann,Perner Sven,Merseburger Axel S,Cronauer Marcus V World journal of urology OBJECTIVE:The bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins provides a scaffolding platform for the recruitment and tethering of transcription factors to acetylated chromatin, thereby modulating gene expression. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the BET-inhibitor PFI-1 to diminish AR/AR-V7 signaling and proliferation in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. METHODS:Prostate-specific antigen and androgen receptor (AR) protein were quantified by means of two commercial ELISAs. Transactivation of the AR, AR-V7 and Q641X was determined by reporter gene assays. Cell proliferation was measured using a colorimetric MTT-assay. RESULTS:PFI-1 dose-dependently inhibited transactivation of full-length AR (non- mutated, i.e., wild-type or point-mutated/promiscuous forms) without affecting their cellular protein levels. Moreover, PFI-1 was active against C-terminally truncated constitutively active ARs like AR-V7 and Q641X. Prostate cancer cells exhibiting a transcriptionally active AR-signaling complex (LNCaP, 22Rv1) were more susceptible to the growth-inhibitory effects than the AR-negative PC-3 cells. CONCLUSION:The quinazolinone PFI-1 is a highly efficient inhibitor of AR-signaling-competent prostate cancer cells in vitro. PFI-1 could serve as a lead compound for the development of new therapeutics able to block AR/AR-V7 signaling in advanced prostate cancer. 10.1007/s00345-018-2382-8
    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors suppress the AR-V7-mediated transcription and selectively inhibit cell growth in AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells. Nakata Daisuke,Koyama Ryokichi,Nakayama Kazuhide,Kitazawa Satoshi,Watanabe Tatsuya,Hara Takahito The Prostate BACKGROUND:Recent evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, including AR-V7, play a pivotal role in resistance to androgen blockade in prostate cancer treatment. The development of new therapeutic agents that can suppress the transcriptional activities of AR splice variants has been anticipated as the next generation treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. METHODS:High-throughput screening of AR-V7 signaling inhibitors was performed using an AR-V7 reporter system. The effects of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, LY-2090314, on endogenous AR-V7 signaling were evaluated in an AR-V7-positive cell line, JDCaP-hr, by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling was assessed using RNA interference. The effect of LY-2090314 on cell growth in various prostate cancer cell lines was also evaluated. RESULTS:We identified GSK3 inhibitors as transcriptional suppressors of AR-V7 using a high-throughput screen with an AR-V7 reporter system. LY-2090314 suppressed the reporter activity and endogenous AR-V7 activity in JDCaP-hr cells. Because silencing of β-catenin partly rescued the suppression, it was evident that the suppression was mediated, at least partially, via the activation of β-catenin signaling. AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling reciprocally regulate each other in JDCaP-hr cells, and therefore, GSK3 inhibition can repress AR-V7 transcriptional activity by accumulating intracellular β-catenin. Notably, LY-2090314 selectively inhibited the growth of AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrate the potential of GSK3 inhibitors in treating advanced prostate cancer driven by AR splice variants. In vivo evaluation of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer models will help illustrate the overall significance of GSK3 inhibitors in treating prostate cancer. 10.1002/pros.23351
    CTC-derived AR-V7 detection as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in advanced prostate cancer. Bastos Diogo A,Antonarakis Emmanuel S Expert review of molecular diagnostics INTRODUCTION:Prostate cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, with remarkably different prognosis across all stages. Increased circulating tumor cell (CTC) count (≥ 5) using the CellSearch assay has been identified as one of the markers that can be used to predict survival, with added value beyond currently available prognostic factors. Recently, androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) detection has been associated with worse outcomes for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with novel androgen receptor-signaling (ARS) inhibitors such as abiraterone and enzalutamide but not taxane chemotherapies. Areas covered: In this manuscript, the authors review the available biomarkers in CRPC and discuss emerging data on the value of CTC-derived AR-V7 status to assess prognosis and its potential role to guide treatment selection for patients with advanced prostate cancer. Expert commentary: Current evidence supports AR-V7 status as a prognostic biomarker and also as a potential predictive biomarker for patients with mCRPC. The authors expect that the incorporation of AR-V7 status and other biomarkers (e.g. AR mutations) in the sequential assessment of patients with advanced prostate cancer will lead to a more rational use of available and future therapies, with significant improvements in outcomes for our patients. 10.1080/14737159.2018.1427068