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    In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway. Finegan Donal P,Scheel Mario,Robinson James B,Tjaden Bernhard,Hunt Ian,Mason Thomas J,Millichamp Jason,Di Michiel Marco,Offer Gregory J,Hinds Gareth,Brett Dan J L,Shearing Paul R Nature communications Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. 10.1038/ncomms7924