AMP-activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in Endothelium Mitigates Pulmonary Hypertension.
Zhang Jiao,Dong Jianjie,Martin Marcy,He Ming,Gongol Brendan,Marin Traci L,Chen Lili,Shi Xinxing,Yin Yanjun,Shang Fenqing,Wu Yan,Huang Hsi-Yuan,Zhang Jin,Zhang Yu,Kang Jian,Moya Esteban A,Huang Hsien-Da,Powell Frank L,Chen Zhen,Thistlethwaite Patricia A,Yuan Zu-Yi,Shyy John Y-J
American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
RATIONALE:Endothelial dysfunction plays an integral role in pulmonary hypertension (PH). AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) are crucial in endothelial homeostasis. The mechanism by which AMPK regulates ACE2 in the pulmonary endothelium and its protective role in PH remain elusive. OBJECTIVES:We investigated the role of AMPK phosphorylation of ACE2 Ser680 in ACE2 stability and deciphered the functional consequences of this post-translational modification of ACE2 in endothelial homeostasis and PH. METHODS:Bioinformatics prediction, kinase assay, and antibody against phospho-ACE2 Ser680 (p-ACE2 S680) were used to investigate AMPK phosphorylation of ACE2 Ser680 in endothelial cells. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genomic editing, we created gain-of-function ACE2 S680D knock-in and loss-of-function ACE2 knockout (ACE2) mouse lines to address the involvement of p-ACE2 S680 and ACE2 in PH. The AMPK-p-ACE2 S680 axis was also validated in lung tissue from humans with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Phosphorylation of ACE2 by AMPK enhanced the stability of ACE2, which increased Ang (angiotensin) 1-7 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO bioavailability. ACE2 S680D knock-in mice were resistant to PH as compared with wild-type littermates. In contrast, ACE2-knockout mice exacerbated PH, a similar phenotype found in mice with endothelial cell-specific deletion of AMPKα2. Consistently, the concentrations of phosphorylated AMPK, p-ACE2 S680, and ACE2 were decreased in human lungs with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS:Impaired phosphorylation of ACE2 Ser680 by AMPK in pulmonary endothelium leads to a labile ACE2 and hence is associated with the pathogenesis of PH. Thus, AMPK regulation of the vasoprotective ACE2 is a potential target for PH treatment.
AMPK and FoxO1 regulate catalase expression in hypoxic pulmonary arterial smooth muscle.
Awad Hanan,Nolette Nora,Hinton Martha,Dakshinamurti Shyamala
BACKGROUND:Hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) including H(2)O(2) play major roles in triggering and progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling in persistent pulmonary hypertension. Catalase (CAT), the major endogenous enzyme scavenging H(2)O(2), is regulated in a tissue- and context-specific manner. OBJECTIVE:To investigate mechanisms by which hypoxia and H(2)O(2) regulate catalase expression, and the role of AMPK-FoxO pathway, in neonatal porcine pulmonary artery smooth muscle (PASMC). DESIGN/METHODS:PASMC were grown in hypoxia (10% O(2)) or normoxia (21% O(2)) for 72 hr. We measured catalase activity and lipid peroxidation; CAT, FoxO1, and FoxO3a expression by qPCR; protein contents of CAT, FoxOs, p-AMPK, p-AKT, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 in whole lysates, and FoxOs in nuclear extracts, by immunoblot; and FoxO-1 nuclear localization by immunocytochemistry, quantified by laser scanning cytometry. RESULTS:Hypoxia upregulated CAT transcription, content and activity, by increasing CAT transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a mRNA, and promoting nuclear translocation of FoxO1. However, lipid peroxidation increased in hypoxic PASMC. Among candidate FoxO regulatory kinases, hypoxia activated AMPK, and decreased p-Akt and ERK1/2. AMPK activation increased FoxO1 (total and nuclear) and CAT, while AMPK inhibition inhibited FoxO1 and CAT, but not FoxO3a. Exogenous H(2)O(2) decreased p-AMPK and increased p-AKT in hypoxic PASMC. This decreased active FoxO1, and reduced mRNA and protein content of CAT. Hypoxic induction of CAT, AKT inhibition (LY294002), or addition of PEG-catalase partly ameliorated the H(2)O(2) -mediated loss of nuclear FoxO1. CONCLUSIONS:Hypoxia induces catalase expression, though this adaptation is insufficient to protect PASMC from hypoxia-induced lipid peroxidation. This occurs via hypoxic activation of AMPK, which promotes nuclear FoxO1 and thus catalase expression. Exogenous ROS may downregulate cellular antioxidant defenses; H(2)O(2) activates survival factor Akt, decreasing nuclear FoxO1 and thus catalase.