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    Biomechanics of Immediate Postextraction Implant Osseointegration. Yuan X,Pei X,Zhao Y,Li Z,Chen C H,Tulu U S,Liu B,Van Brunt L A,Brunski J B,Helms J A Journal of dental research The aim of this study was to gain insights into the biology and mechanics of immediate postextraction implant osseointegration. To mimic clinical practice, murine first molar extraction was followed by osteotomy site preparation, specifically in the palatal root socket. The osteotomy was positioned such that it removed periodontal ligament (PDL) only on the palatal aspect of the socket, leaving the buccal aspect undisturbed. This strategy created 2 distinct peri-implant environments: on the palatal aspect, the implant was in direct contact with bone, while on the buccal aspect, a PDL-filled gap existed between the implant and bone. Finite element modeling showed high strains on the palatal aspect, where bone was compressed by the implant. Osteocyte death and bone resorption predominated on the palatal aspect, leading to the loss of peri-implant bone. On the buccal aspect, where finite element modeling revealed low strains, there was minimal osteocyte death and robust peri-implant bone formation. Initially, the buccal aspect was filled with PDL remnants, which we found directly provided Wnt-responsive cells that were responsible for new bone formation and osseointegration. On the palatal aspect, which was devoid of PDL and Wnt-responsive cells, adding exogenous liposomal WNT3A created an osteogenic environment for rapid peri-implant bone formation. Thus, we conclude that low strain and high Wnt signaling favor osseointegration of immediate postextraction implants. The PDL harbors Wnt-responsive cells that are inherently osteogenic, and if the PDL tissue is healthy, it is reasonable to preserve this tissue during immediate implant placement. 10.1177/0022034518765757
    Effects of Condensation on Peri-implant Bone Density and Remodeling. Wang L,Wu Y,Perez K C,Hyman S,Brunski J B,Tulu U,Bao C,Salmon B,Helms J A Journal of dental research Bone condensation is thought to densify interfacial bone and thus improve implant primary stability, but scant data substantiate either claim. We developed a murine oral implant model to test these hypotheses. Osteotomies were created in healed maxillary extraction sites 1) by drilling or 2) by drilling followed by stepwise condensation with tapered osteotomes. Condensation increased interfacial bone density, as measured by a significant change in bone volume/total volume and trabecular spacing, but it simultaneously damaged the bone. On postimplant day 1, the condensed bone interface exhibited microfractures and osteoclast activity. Finite element modeling, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemical analyses at multiple time points throughout the osseointegration period demonstrated that condensation caused very high interfacial strains, marginal bone resorption, and no improvement in implant stability. Collectively, these multiscale analyses demonstrate that condensation does not positively contribute to implant stability. 10.1177/0022034516683932
    A Comparative Assessment of Implant Site Viability in Humans and Rats. Chen C-H,Pei X,Tulu U S,Aghvami M,Chen C-T,Gaudillière D,Arioka M,Maghazeh Moghim M,Bahat O,Kolinski M,Crosby T R,Felderhoff A,Brunski J B,Helms J A Journal of dental research Our long-term objective is to devise methods to improve osteotomy site preparation and, in doing so, facilitate implant osseointegration. As a first step in this process, we developed a standardized oral osteotomy model in ovariectomized rats. There were 2 unique features to this model: first, the rats exhibited an osteopenic phenotype, reminiscent of the bone health that has been reported for the average dental implant patient population. Second, osteotomies were produced in healed tooth extraction sites and therefore represented the placement of most implants in patients. Commercially available drills were then used to produce osteotomies in a patient cohort and in the rat model. Molecular, cellular, and histologic analyses demonstrated a close alignment between the responses of human and rodent alveolar bone to osteotomy site preparation. Most notably in both patients and rats, all drilling tools created a zone of dead and dying osteocytes around the osteotomy. In rat tissues, which could be collected at multiple time points after osteotomy, the fate of the dead alveolar bone was followed. Over the course of a week, osteoclast activity was responsible for resorbing the necrotic bone, which in turn stimulated the deposition of a new bone matrix by osteoblasts. Collectively, these analyses support the use of an ovariectomy surgery rat model to gain insights into the response of human bone to osteotomy site preparation. The data also suggest that reducing the zone of osteocyte death will improve osteotomy site viability, leading to faster new bone formation around implants. 10.1177/0022034517742631